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System principles of implementation the effective social and environmental monitoring in Ukraine

© Wydawnictwo UR 2016
ISSN 2080-9069
ISSN 2450-9221 online
„Edukacja – Technika – Informatyka” nr 1/15/2016
DOI: 10.15584/eti.2016.1.20
System principles of implementation the effective social and environmental monitoring in Ukraine
1 Candidate of agricultural sciences (ecology), Assistant professor of Department of General
Ecology and Safety ActivitiesNational University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine,
2 Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Ecology of Agrosphere and
Ecological Control, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine
3 National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine
4 National Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Ukraine
The analysis of the basic principles of environmental monitoring and executive functions authorities
of environmental monitoring system was made. The method of improvement the ecological
environment monitoring by means of social and environmental monitoring was proposed.
Key words: environmental monitoring, system principles of environmental monitoring, performers
of environmental monitoring, social and environmental monitoring, ecological safety.
According to the Regulation “On the state system of environmental monitoring”, Monitoring
System is an open information system priorities operation of which is the protection of vital
important ecological interests of man and society; preservation of natural ecosystems; prevent crisis
changes in the ecological state of the environment and prevention of emergency environmental
Law of Ukraine “On Environmental Protection” (p. 20, 22) provides the creation in Ukraine of state
environmental monitoring system (SEMS) to conduct observations of the state of the environment,
the level of pollution, the collection, processing, transmission, storage and analysis of information
about the environmental situation, forecasting its changes and development of scientifically based
recommendations for decision-making on the prevention of negative changes of the environment
and observance of requirements of ecological safety.
Implementation of these functions entrusted to the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of
Ukraine and other central executive authorities, which are 148 subjects of state environmental
monitoring system, as well as enterprises, institutions and organizations whose activity causes or
may cause environment conditions worsening.
The basic principles of SEMS operations are specified in the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers
of Ukraine of 30.03.1998 391 “On Approval of the Regulation on the State Environment
Monitoring System”, namely:
coordination of regulatory legal and organizational and methodological implementation,
interoperability of technical, information and software implementation of its parts;
systematic character of observations on the environment and technogenic objects that influence it;
timely obtaining, complexity of processing and use of ecological information that comes and
stored in the monitoring system;
objectivity of primary, analytical and forecasting ecological information and efficiency of its
delate to the public authorities, local governments, public organizations, media, population of
Ukraine, interested international organizations and the international community [Resolution of the
CMU № 391 1998: 2–3].
The main part
Currently, in the state system of Ukraine environmental monitoring functions and tasks of
observations and information provision are performed 8 subjects the State Environment Monitoring
System: the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Emergencies, the Ministry of Health, the
Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policy, the State Housing and Municipal Services
Committee, the State Water Management Committee, the State Forestry Committee, the State Land
Each of the SEMS subjects monitors of the environmental objects that are specified by the
Regulation on the State Environment Monitoring System and the procedures and regulations of the
state monitoring of individual components of the environment.
Each subsystem at the level of individual subjects of the monitoring system has its structural and
organizational, methodological and technical framework, and distributed by territorial principle:
national level, covering the monitoring priorities and objectives throughout the country;
regional level, covering the monitoring priorities and objectives across a region; and
local level, covering the monitoring priorities and objectives within certain areas with high
anthropogenic load.
The determining organizational and regulatory factor of improving the ecological monitoring is
human society of a given territory, its intelligence and 149 work. Due to the fact that the structural
components of socio-ecologicaleconomic system (SEES) are the social, economic and ecological
blocks in our studies, we used techniques of related fields of knowledge. In SEES functionally
intertwined and interact all kinds of biological, ecological, geological, demographic, social,
economic, technological, cultural, political and other processes. To implement reasonable
management of and socio-ecological-economic processes will not succeed if do not analyzed them,
don’t studied their direct or indirect actions, don’t systemized, don’t generalized and don’t reducing
them in a particular functional models. Leading in the functioning of SEES is the economic block
that reflects the nature and volume of material and energy exchange between society and Nature,
between socio-economic bloc and its natural environment. Important indicators in this area are the
number and types of industrial enterprises, their production capacity, volume and assortment of
manufactured products, the level of maintenance of the population of local raw materials, the
volume of imports from other SEES, types and amount of industrial waste that affect the state of the
environment and human health the presence of treatment facilities, energy saving technologies, etc.
[Нагорнюк, Собчик 2014: 20–21].
In order to effectively assess the functional state of the control SEES and regulatory measures are
needed as data on population size, composition, movement of the population, the level of education,
organization, employment in various fields, the level of spiritual development and ecological
culture, civic activity, awareness of the problems of internal socio -ekologo-economic development
and its functional dependence on the state of affairs in local (town), district, provincial, regional and
state SEES. No less important are indicators of population health status, its relationship with the
natural and production factors of agricultural activity, the level of anthropogenic pollution
(degradation) of soil, surface water and groundwater, atmosphere and food products, the level of
mental overload in agricultural production and in public life, the level of health care, wellness and
recreational ensure.
Therefore, the main methodological approaches to the organization of social and environmental
monitoring provided: social and natural, ecosystem integrity; systematically synergistic
interaction; system integration; competence of civil servants, farmers; ecologization of full
life cycle of agricultural products, agricultural technologies; optimization of land use; the State
Regulation; natural (biotic) self-regulation; market self-regulation; public authorities, self-
organization; 150 mechanisms for joint action, cooperation, partnership; innovative mechanisms
of ecologization agricultural production, nature conservation, the nature reproduction;
mechanisms of European integration and international cooperation. Guiding principles of general
environmental monitoring should be supplemented, namely by: principles development of
spirituality, moral principles, principles to overcome consumer philosophy of life and introducing
new environmental paradigm; principles of social and environmental justice; principles of
adequacy goals and tasks of balanced development (BD) accordance BD to Euro standards,
competency BD management systems; the adequacy of the principles, goals and tasks education
for balanced development (EBD); integrity, balance and preservation of the environment;
balance of potential development of socio-ecological-economic system of different levels;
enhance the efficiency of the scientific potential, scientific ecologicaly safe justifications and
evaluations; subsidiarity, territorial socio-ecological-economic balance; prevent negative effects
on the environment, quality of life and human health; the transition to environmentally safe and
energy efficient technologies.
Therefore the aim of the socio-economic and ecological monitoring should be scientific and
methodical, software and information, analytical and technological maintenance innovative
methodologies of modern fundamental systemic studies and security settings and quality of socio-
economic and ecological states, situations, processes, factors, territorial complexes and monitoring
objects (at different levels of organization and functioning by types of nature use, kinds of social
activity and other in evolutionary retrospect now and future) to create an operational mobile
information and methodological basis of diagnosis, assessment, modeling and forecasting the state
and development viability, sustainability, life safety, sustainable three-unity of socio-economic and
ecological potential of civilization.
The task of eco monitoring studies is to establish priorities the development of socio-economic and
ecological systems, assessment of natural resource potential and trends in socio-economic
development of monitoring objects, diagnostics of priority socio-economic and ecological effects,
their dynamics, intensity, orientation; formation of databases socio-economic and ecological
monitoring by parameters and indicators of social, economic and environmental studies; 151
development of measures, mechanisms and technologies forming the sustainability of social
activities, modeling and forecasting of objects of socio-economic and environmental monitoring,
diagnostics socio-economic and environmental efficiency of the administrative and territorial
management, development plans and programs for development of industries and economic sectors,
predicting changes and prospects for the formation of ecological safety and security of society and
nature, structural and systematic analysis of the quality of environmental components for
standardized methods and standards of socio-economic and environmental management; providing
justification sustainability geopolitical decisions.
Despite the fact that by its Resolution of 5.12.2007 1376, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
approved the State Special-Purpose Program of Environmental Monitoring aims to combine the
efforts of all the subjects of the monitoring system to exclude duplication and enabling advanced
features of monitoring, creation of the unified monitoring network based on optimization of its
elements and observation programs and improvement of technical, methodological, metrological
and scientific operation of the single monitoring network, in Ukraine still are no mechanisms for its
implementation. To ensure the integration of information resources, the subjects of the environment
monitoring system Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine provides for the
establishment and operation of a single subsystem of automated collection, processing, analysis and
storage of data and information derived from monitoring which is now extremely necessary for
Ukraine’s integration of information resources subjects of environmental monitoring system and
ecological safety of Ukrainian and neighboring countries.
Нагорнюк О.М., Собчик В.Т. та ін. (2014), Методика соціально-екологічного моніторингу та
формування екологічної культури сільського населення (на прикладі Східного Поділля)
[Монографія]. Херсон: Гринь Д.С. 180 с.
Постанова КМУ від 30.03.1998 р. N 391 «Про затвердження Положення про державну
систему моніторингу довкілля», //
(01.2016). 152 © Wyd
In the modern socio-ecological and economic life of Ukraine, rural areas occupy a special place; they are an integral part of the agricultural sphere, because they are home to more than a third of the population of our country. These areas are characterized by an exceptional contribution to the formation of food security. Increasing the country’s export potential makes the development of rural areas one of the main priorities of Ukraine’s state policy, which aims to raise living standards of the rural population, increase the efficiency of the agro-industrial complex, improve the environment and improve the quality of life of peasants. However, prior to land reform, monitoring of agricultural land on former collective and state farms was conducted at the state level, and residential areas where the population grew for their own needs were never surveyed. And according to the population itself, no standards for the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers have ever been observed. Many years of research conducted at the Institute of Agroecology and Nature Management of NAAS found that in the residential area of rural settlements drinking water is contaminated with nitrates, vegetable products — nitrates and heavy metals, which indicates the need for monitoring in the residential area. Modern ecological assessment of rural settlements remains relevant, unrealized and requires regular research, socio-ecological monitoring and scientific substantiation of their ecologically balanced development. Intensification of agricultural production, reduction of forests and forest belts, intensive plowing of lands, intensification of water and wind erosion processes, drainage of swamps, migration and reduction of the number of experienced rural population have led to degradation of Ukraine’s agrosphere. The analysis of modern strategies of development of rural territorial communities has shown that in none of them the ecological nature protection aspect is taken into account (at best, socio-economic one, and usually — just economic development). This indicates that community leaders are not properly trained to perform their current community development functions, taking into account environmental security and policies. The still low ecological culture and consciousness of the rural population of Ukraine inhibits the civilized development of rural areas and with it the quality of life of the population in these areas.
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