Article

Supported employment in The Netherlands for people with an intellectual disability, a psychiatric disability and a chronic disease

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The Dutch government and private agencies are striving to assist people with disabilities with employment. Job placement agencies in The Netherlands use various methods including a Supported Employment (SE) approach to achieve this result. This article examines similarites and differences in tasks performed and the amount of time spent on a task implementing SE across the following disability groups: people with an intellectual disability, a psychiatric disability and a chronic disease. Results revealed the greatest amount of time was expended on Job coaching activities for each group and that substantial time was expended on assessment and job seeking activities for persons with psychiatric or chronic disabilities.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... SE has been defined as "competitive employment a in an integrated setting with on-going support services for individuals with the most severe disabilities" 2:548 . The SE concept is based on the assumption that when the right type and intensity of support is provided, persons with the most severe disability can (and should be) integrated into competitive employment 3 . Essential steps taken as part of SE comprise assessment, job finding, job analysis, job matching and job coaching 3 . ...
... The SE concept is based on the assumption that when the right type and intensity of support is provided, persons with the most severe disability can (and should be) integrated into competitive employment 3 . Essential steps taken as part of SE comprise assessment, job finding, job analysis, job matching and job coaching 3 . SE affords employment opportunities for persons with disability who meet the requirements of the job and are paid accordingly. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This article reports on the findings of a descriptive qualitative study in which supported employment (SE), as a potential strategy to facilitate the employment of persons with disability in the open labour market in South Africa, was explored. A brief description of SE and its success in other countries will be provided before the challenges faced in South Africa that might prevent its successful implementation will be discussed. Methodology: A focus group interview was utilised to explore the suitability and possible modifications needed for SE in the South African context. Questions were asked to explore barriers to successful implementation and adaptations required to make it a workable strategy with which to facilitate employment of persons with disability. Findings: Four themes emerged; 'the envisaged nature of SE in South Africa', 'key role-players necessary for the service to be successful', 'barriers to successful establishment of SE services' and 'the disability grant mechanism in South Africa'. Recommendations are made for successful implementation of SE service in South Africa.
... Although international comparative studies on attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities are scarce [24], the few studies there are seem to indicate that having a disability is more stigmatized in developing countries than in western countries [25,26]. Although some stigma is still attached to people with an (intellectual) disability in the Netherlands, practices such as inclusive education, Supported Employment, through which people with a disability are supported to find paid employment, and housing programs for social integration are common to normalize disabilities and integrate children and adults with disabilities into society [27][28][29]. Additionally, Dutch television presents programs on people with various kinds of disabilities and developmental delays, in which these are explained and, to a certain extent, normalized. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Parents of children with developmental disabilities who have a non-western migration background often experience unique challenges in foreign health care systems. This study aimed to describe these experiences to better understand these challenges and thereby improve health care provision. Method: Twelve parents were interviewed using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Our data was analysed, and themes were identified using open, selective, and axial coding. Results: Multiple parents in our study had a different perception of what constitutes a "handicap", may regard it as something that is very severe and highly stigmatized and will be less aware of the complex system of care professionals that aim to support them in the care for their child. Additionally, communication with care professionals may be complicated because of language differences and expectations about the division of roles and responsibilities between parents and professionals. This may result in lower involvement in health care. Conclusion: As a result of cultural differences in the meaning, information and interaction about disabilities, non-western migrant parents will have a harder time coping with the diagnosis of their child's disability and will experience more challenges with their involvement in health care.1Implications for RehabilitationTo be aware that non-western parents who are told their child has a disability are likely to experience more shame, fear of stigma and may have other definitions of disability than western parents.To pay specific attention to explain as much as possible about the causes, meaning and medical as well as societal future expectations for children with a disability to parents with another cultural background.To explore which knowledge parents have about their child's disability and the Dutch health care system, so that information and support can be personalized.To make sure there are translators present who can not only translate in the correct language but who can also explain commonly used terms for disabilities and other medical concepts, diagnostic procedures, and other specificities of the health care system of the host country to migrant parents.To psycho-educate parents with a migrant background that they are expected to be actively involved in the professional care for their child with a disability without this having negative consequences for the care of their child.
... Generally, the activation approach of public rehabilitation enforces job-search efforts by offering unemployed individuals with disabilities job-search assistance (see Hanif, Peters, McDougall, & Lindsay, 2017), but also through impending sanctions in the form of reduced benefits or the temporary withdrawal thereof. Experts assess the personal preferences and the capacities of individuals with disabilities to determine suitable jobs and consider the necessity of training (see Hoekstra, Sanders, Van den Heuvel, Post, & Groothoff, 2004). During the period studied, persons with (early-age) labour disabilities had the right to support in work, including reintegration, training and an on-trial period for placement with an employer, provided by either the Employee Insurance Agency (Uitvoeringsinstituut Werknemersverzekeringen [UWV] in Dutch) or the local municipality. ...
Article
Full-text available
As in many other countries, individuals with disabilities in the Netherlands have difficulties in establishing sustainable careers. In the Netherlands, Royal Philips offers a work-experience program with the possibility to follow vocational education. Based on national register data, a control group was constructed that includes individuals with a disability with a similar labour market history as participants of the company-based program before entry but who were involved in public rehabilitation. This study compared the labour market outcomes up to ten years later (i.e., the level of employment and employment on a competitive salary) of individuals with a disability that participated in the program (N = 552) with those of a matched control group engaged in public rehabilitation. The long-term impact of participation in the programme on the level of employment appears to be firmer for individuals with a physical disability (N = 283) than for those with a cognitive disability (N = 269). Contrariwise, a more substantial effect was found on employment on a competitive salary for individuals with a cognitive disability than for those with a physical disability. Following vocational education, while gaining work experience, explains the long-term impact found for former participants of this company-based program partially.
... It is often described as a sequential process with the following main elements: (i) assessment of the individual's competencies and preferences; (ii) finding employers with potential jobs; (iii) analysis of the job functions; (iv) matching individuals to available jobs; (v) job coaching. 73 Comparative research reveals significant differences between EU states in how supported employment functions in practice. 74 The job coaching stage is especially important for people with ID. ...
Article
Full-text available
People with intellectual disabilities occupy a peripheral position in the labour market. They have low rates of participation in employment and this often takes the form of sheltered employment in settings segregated from persons without disabilities. Although their working lives have received limited attention in legal scholarship, this article argues that law can play a positive role in fostering greater inclusion. Taking into account the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, this article analyses EU legislation and case law in order to identify how these apply to those working in sheltered employment and how they may assist in tackling barriers to participating in the open labour market. While EU labour law already contains measures that have the potential to improve the position of people with intellectual disabilities, the article identifies scope for enhancing the effectiveness of these instruments.
... Similarly, Raskin (1994) has argued for the need to utilise a model of affirmative action to promote greater hiring of disabled people. Some research has suggested the significance of supported employment opportunities in the form of job coaching (see, for example, Hoekstra et al. 2004), while others have criticised the limitations of supportive employment because there is a lack of emphasis placed on workplace accommodation (Inge 2006). Other research suggests that job training programmes need to incorporate elements of social capital development in the form of creating social networks for those experiencing employment difficulties (Potts 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Public policies stress greater inclusion of disabled people in the labour market and suggest ways to implement accommodative measures to these ends. Often missing from this literature is the experiences of disabled people in labour markets. This article reports results from a qualitative study conducted in 2005 and 2006 consisting of one‐to‐one and focus group interviews with 56 disabled individuals participating in employment training programmes in Calgary and Regina, Canada. Findings suggest the presence of workplace and employer discrimination and labelling as primary factors impeding respondents’ success in securing and maintaining employment in the labour market. The 56 respondents provide strong evidence that perceptions of disability have a greater impact on their inability to maintain and secure employment than does the lack of accommodative practices and measures in the workplace.
... En el caso de personas con enfermedad mental, este modelo presenta una serie de peculiaridades referidas a la presencia de una situación psicopatológica estable en el momento de iniciarse la inserción laboral, control sobre síntomas asociados a la enfermedad mental, proporción de un apoyo extenso en la comunidad y a largo plazo, y coordinación en red de los diferentes recursos sanitarios, psicosociales y laborales implicados en el proceso de rehabilitación de la persona (Bellver, 2002; Verdugo y Jordán . Según Hoekstra et al. (2004), la cantidad de tiempo total invertido en el proceso de inserción laboral de una persona con enfermedad mental difiere del empleado con una persona con discapacidad intelectual. Mientras que en discapacidad intelectual se dedica más tiempo al apoyo proporcionado dentro del puesto de trabajo, en enfermedad mental los apoyos sobresalen en la fase previa y posterior a la inserción. ...
Article
Esteban, B. y Jordán de Urríes, F. B. (2006). Empleo con apoyo para personas con discapacidad intelectual y para personas con enfermedad mental. Comparación metodológica en dos proyectos piloto. Siglo Cero, 37(2), pp.63-78. Resumen El presente artículo aborda la comparación de la metodología de Empleo con Apoyo (ECA) aplicada a dos colectivos de Personas con Discapacidad: Discapacidad Intelectual (D.I.) y Enfermedad Mental (E.M.). La primera parte describe la aplicación de la metodología por cada Proyecto y el análisis de las diferencias y semejanzas obtenidas entre ambos proyectos. Para finalizar se mencionan una serie de sugerencias sobre la implementación de un programa de ECA específico para personas con enfermedad mental. Summary The present article analyzes the comparison of supported employment (S.E.) methodology applied to two different groups: people with Intellectual Disabilities (I.D.) and people with Mental Health Problems (M.H.P.). First section describes supported employment methodology for each project and analyzes the differences and similarities in both projects. Finally a proposal is made to improve the development of S.E. for people with mental health problems. Palabras clave Empleo con apoyo, Discapacidad intelectual y Enfermedad mental.
... The Netherlands Supported Employment program includes all of the basic supported employment model principles but different people function as job finders and job coaches. It has also added a buddy system on the jobsite, i.e., a co-worker who acts as a support person and helps the client adjust to the work setting (Hoekstra, Sanders, van den Heuvel, Post, & Groothoff, 2004). The Choose-Get-Keep (CGK) psychiatric rehabilitation approach from Boston offers support in competitive work settings but only after extensive prevocational career exploration (Rogers, Anthony, Lyass, & Penk, 2006;Waghorn & Lloyd, 2005). ...
Article
Background: Vocational services offered to people with severe mental illness represent a cornerstone for their social integration. Differences in terminology and the adaptations or modifications in vocational services make it difficult for stakeholders to have a clear understanding of the goals and content of the vocational services offered to people with severe mental illness. Aims: To facilitate comparisons of vocational services worldwide; this paper describes the most common types of vocational services identified in the literature. Conclusion: An empirical investigation of the effectiveness of specific vocational services components is warranted in order to determine which types or combinations of services work best for which individuals with severe mental illness.
... Furthermore, the Outreach and work accommodation scale is of interest since work accommodation is essential for helping people maintain competitive employment [16,39]. These work accommodations can be implemented inside or outside the workplace, for example, accessing transportation with the help of a co-worker [16] or enlisting a co-worker as a mentor (buddy-system) to ensure the work activity of the person with a mental illness [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals' vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment specialists' competencies. Aim The main objectives of this study were to develop a questionnaire measuring the behaviors, attitudes and knowledge of employment specialists working in SE programs and to link specific competencies to vocational outcomes. Methods: A total of 153 employment specialists working in Canadian and Dutch supported employment programs completed the Behaviors, Attitudes, and Knowledge in Employment Specialists (BAKES) questionnaire and provided information about their clients' vocational outcomes. Results: Exploratory Factor Analyses results found 90 items over 12 subscales (e.g., Relationships with employers and supervisors). Regression analyses indicated that the two most useful subscales for predicting vocational success were: (1) Relationships with employers and supervisors, and (2) support and client-centered approach. Conclusion: Employment specialists require specific competencies to help people with severe mental illness obtain and maintain competitive employment. Validating the BAKES will better define the broad range of competencies expected for this position, and this tool may facilitate training of employment specialists.
... Generally, public rehabilitation enforces job-search efforts in combination with job-search assistance (see Hanif et al., 2017), but also through impending sanctions in the form of reduced benefits or the temporary withdrawal thereof. Experts assess the personal preferences and the capacities of people with disabilities to determine suitable jobs and consider the necessity of training (Hoekstra et al., 2004). During the period studied, persons with (early-age) labor disabilities had the right to receive support in finding paid work, including reintegration, training and an ontrial period for placement with an employer, provided by either the Employee Insurance Agency or the municipality. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
In the Netherlands, many groups are sidelined regarding their labor market opportunities, i.e., youth, low-educated individuals, ethnic minorities, and partially disabled individuals, particularly in times of economic downturn. Due to increased labor market dualization, access to better jobs is reserved only for those who have mastered professional skills. The public support rapidly brings the unemployed back to work but is criticized for its negligible and sometimes even adverse long-term impacts for vulnerable workers. Explanations point to the limited supportive and skills-upgrading services in this general approach along with the unemployed' unrepaired deficit in the desired skills, making these groups continuously prone to nonstandard employment and unemployment. More inclusive efforts might support these vulnerable workers to secure jobs more adequately, which appears to be more topical than ever, e.g., the COVID-19 crisis on unemployment. The Philips Employment Scheme (Philips Werkgelegenheidsplan [WGP] in Dutch) offers vulnerable unemployed workers one-to-two years of work experience with (in)formal training to move participants into jobs externally. Participants are employed, seen from the outside, in regular employment. In contrast, people on public support might remain long-term unemployed and have increased risks of nonstandard employment. The literature teaches us that such programs pay off in the long run only but have little impact on short notice. However, the WGP already proved to be effective on short notice, making it an interesting case for study. This dissertation observed the extent to which this company-based work-experience program better supports low-educated and inadequately-skilled workers to return to the labor market and to build up high levels of employment security in sustainable jobs with proper wage matches over their future careers than public activation programs based on workfare principles that lack these human capital and work-experience investments? Earlier studies on ALMPs limited their observation periods to one-to-five years later. In contrast, the Statistic Netherlands' register data used for this dissertation made it possible to study the long-term impact of the WGP up to ten years later. The long-term effect of the WGP is determined by comparing the labor market outcomes of its former participants (1999-2014) with a comprehensive matched control group, sharing a large number of pre-treatment covariates as participants before the intervention, but public activation entitlement instead. Findings show that WGP participants have 8% more employment security for over ten years than control units. Still, the different studies conducted in this dissertation show substantial variation in the impact of WGP participation among these studied groups. More investment opportunities would improve vulnerable unemployed' chances to regain sustainable employment, as the WGP does with its more tailored approach. Other large companies might start similar tailor-made initiatives to improve the career opportunities of the disadvantaged, particularly in industries and regions that forecast declines in qualified personnel. This dissertation provides an argument for encouraging other employers to take up their responsibilities as well, and to invest in work experience and training for all their employees, but also urges the Dutch government to increase the budget on formal training for the unemployed. Closer collaboration between public authorities and the business sector might forward vulnerable workers' careers, notably from a long-term perspective.
... De invulling die gegeven wordt aan iedere fase en de onderlinge verhouding van de fasen, kunnen wel verschillen naargelang het om een persoon met een mentale handicap, een psychische handicap, of een persoon uit een andere kansengroep gaat (E. J. Hoekstra et al., 2004). ...
... And third, peers need to be instructed on their tasks, the purpose of their support and the key sequence of the model's phases. In general terms, YSEP as a peer support model is closely aligned with the supported employment model as it was developed in the United States in the 1980s (Gray et al., 2000;Hoesktra et al., 2004;McInally, 2008;Rimmerman et al., 1996). While there is a wide variation in the United Kingdom in the implementation of the supported employment model (Ridley and Hunter, 2006), the main phases can be described as job profiling, job development, job placement and withdrawal. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article reports the evaluation of a small-scale-supported employment project in a local authority in England. The study examined whether or not the peer support model could be used to deliver supported employment to a group of young people with intellectual disabilities. We utilised a mixed-method approach involving activity data, family interviews and a postal survey with participating employers. Five families took part in the study. Our findings show that families viewed the project positively, although it was insufficiently embedded in the wider transition planning. The study indicates that the peer support model may represent a useful addition to the conventional supported employment efforts for this population. However, more research is needed to demonstrate the benefits of peer support over and above the benefits of conventional supported employment for young people in post-school transition. In particular, producing a better evidence base on the exact impact of peer support on service users' experiences is recommended.
Article
Full-text available
Centrale vragen van het onderzoek Wajong en bedrijfsleven: 1. Welke factoren spelen een rol bij de besluitvorming van werkgevers over het in dienst nemen van Wajongers? 2. Welke factoren spelen een rol voor het in dienst blijven van Wajongers? 3. Welke verschillen doen zich daarbij voor tussen de grootteklassen van bedrijven, in het bijzonder MKB en GB? 4. In hoeverre kunnen er aan het MKB handvatten worden ontleend om het aantal Wajongers in het GB te stimuleren? Of heeft het GB een eigen aanpak, en zo ja welke?
Article
Employment rates after spinal cord injury (SCI) vary widely because of discrepancies in studies' definition of employment and time of measurement. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive summary of the literature on employment rates, predictors of employment, and the benefits and barriers involved. A search using the terms spinal cord injury and employment in the databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE. The search included a review of published manuscripts from 1978 through 2008. A total of 579 articles were found and reviewed to determine the presence of reported employment rates. Of these, 60 articles were found to include a report of employment rates for individuals with SCI. Results indicated that, in studies that examined paid employment, the average rate of any employment after SCI was approximately 35%. Characteristics associated with employment after SCI include demographic variables, injury-related factors, employment history, psychosocial issues, and disability benefit status. It is recommended that researchers studying employment after SCI use common outcome measures such as competitive employment rates, duration of employment, and job tenure. Empirical evidence is lacking in regard to the most effective methods of vocational rehabilitation among this population. Evidence-based supported employment practices seem to be the most applicable model for assisting persons with SCI in restoring meaningful employment. Controlled studies are needed to test this assumption.
Chapter
In the last ten years important theoretical and applicative changes have taken place in the disability field that also have significant consequences for school-career guidance. Therefore, before dealing with the issue of career guidance for persons with disabilities it is appropriate to recall the new disability conceptualisations, formulated between the 1990s and the beginning of this century following the advice of research and social and health care workers and the recommendations of the World Health Organization (Soresi, 2006), in which our reflections on the issues of choice and career development will be anchored. Traditionally, “disability” was considered a disease, negative trait, or deficit that a person possesses (Fabian & Liesener, 2005). Recently, an ecological-behavioural view of disability has emerged that treats a disability as an interaction between individuals and the environments in which they live (Nota, Rondal, & Soresi, 2002; Wehmeyer & Patton, 2000). Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) itself have proposed a new classification system to guide in the management and planning of social and health care services (International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health – ICF, WHO, 2001; Definition, Classification, and System of Support Manual, Luckasson, Borthwick-Duffy, Buntinx, Coulter, Craig, Reeve et al., 2002).
Article
Dit paper biedt een inzicht in de werkzaamheid van subsidies en kredieten op de bevordering van de arbeidsmarktperspectieven van mensen met een afstand tot de arbeidsmarkt, zoals arbeidsongeschikten, jongeren zonder startkwalificatie, alleenstaande moeders en langdurig werklozen. Aan de hand van een aantal evaluatiestudies op het terrein van de re-integratie wordt onderzocht hoe wordt geëvalueerd en welke resultaten deze studies opleveren. De resultaten maken - voor zover ze de toets der kritiek al kunnen doorstaan - vaak niet duidelijk waarom en hoe een maatregel werkt. De conclusie luidt dan al gauw dat we nog te weinig weten. Toch zijn er ook succesvolle projecten. Betoogd wordt dat een andere, meer realistische manier van evalueren een beter geschikt antwoord kan geven op de vraag naar de werkzame bestanddelen in projecten.
Article
Current discussions regarding the relationship between welfare governance systems and employment promotion in disability policy appeal to a rejuvenated neo-liberal and paternalistic understanding of welfare governance. At the core of this rationality is the argument that people with disabilities not only have rights, but also duties, in relation to the State. In the Australia welfare system, policy tools are deployed to produce a form of self-discipline, whereby the State emphasises personal responsibility via assessment tools, ‘mutual obligation’ policy, and motivational strategies. Drawing on a two-year semi-longitudinal study with 80 people with a disability accessing welfare benefits, we examine how welfare governance subject recipients to strategies to produce productive citizens who are able to contribute to the national goal of maintaining competitiveness in the global economy. Participants’ interviews reveal the intended and unintended effects of this activation policy, including some acceptance of the logic of welfare-to-work and counter-hegemonic resistance to de-valued social identities.
Article
The article will endeavour to situate discrimination against disabled people in the world of work as a human rights issue. An argument will be made for occupational therapists to give more attention to recent developments in the literature, policies and legislation in order to develop services that will best promote the participation of people with disability in work. Recommendations for service models will be made, each based on a case study that was developed using an interpretive biography research design.
Book
Work and the Welfare State places street-level organizations at the analytic center of welfare-state politics, policy, and management. This volume, edited by Brodkin and Marston, offers a critical examination of efforts to change the welfare state to a workfare state by looking at on-the-ground issues in six countries: the US, UK, Australia, Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands. An international group of scholars contribute organizational studies that shed new light on old debates about policies of workfare and activation. Peeling back the political rhetoric and technical policy jargon, these studies investigate what really goes on in the name of workfare and activation policies and what that means for the poor, unemployed, and marginalized populations subject to these policies. By adopting a street-level approach to welfare state research, Work and the Welfare State reveals the critical, yet largely hidden, role of governance and management reforms in the evolution of the global workfare project. It shows how these reforms have altered organizational arrangements and practices to emphasize workfare's harsher regulatory features and undermine its potentially enabling ones. As a major contribution to expanding the conceptualization of how organizations matter to policy and political transformation, this book will be of special interest to all public management and public policy scholars and students. - See more at: http://press.georgetown.edu/book/georgetown/work-and-welfare-state#
Article
The burden of mental illness on individuals, families, and communities has created profound challenges for our society. In recent years treatments and services for the mentally ill have moved almost exclusively to community settings, yet no comprehensive and progressive policies have emerged to counter stigmatizing and facilitate integration. Applied Research and Evaluation in Community Mental Health Services brings together a range of professionals in mental health services - nurses, economists, policy analysts, psychiatrists, psychologists, sociologists, and lawyers - to provide concise overviews of the difficulties and successes of the mental health community. Contributors deal with issues such as housing, employment support, violence prevention, program oversight, and emergency and collaborative care, providing useful prescriptions for better treatment of mental illness.
Article
Supported employment (SE) is an evidence-based practice that helps people with severe mental disorders obtain competitive employment. The implementation of SE programs in different social contexts has led to adaptations of the SE components, therefore impacting the fidelity/quality of these services. The objective of this study was to assess the implementation of SE services in three Canadian provinces by assessing the fidelity and describing components of SE services using the Quality of Supported Employment Implementation Scale. About 23 SE programs participated in this study. Cluster analyses revealed six profiles of SE programs that varied from high to low level of fidelity with a stronger focus on a particular component, and reflected the reality of service delivery settings. Future investigations are warranted to evaluate relationships between the levels of implementation of SE components and work outcomes while considering individual characteristics of people registered in SE programs.
Article
Presents current thinking regarding the training required to provide effective supported employment services for persons with psychiatric disability. Content information was obtained by reviewing existing literature on supported work as well as relevant literature in the field of psychiatric rehabilitation. Personal contacts were also made with experts in mental health and rehabilitation. Directions are suggested for training, with emphasis on skill development and application both in pre- and inservice modalities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Notes that historically, vocational rehabilitation for persons with psychiatric disabilities has been ignored and their employment prospects regarded as poor. The supported work (SW) model, developed for clients with mental retardation, is similar to the "transitional employment" (TE) model adopted by many psychiatric rehabilitation programs. This paper compares the 2 models, summarizes vocational research for clients with psychiatric disabilities, and discusses features of the SW model that might be adapted to correct some of the drawbacks of the TE model. A program that recently experimented with a modified TE placement in a factory is described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)