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Arora Tejpal & Parle Amrita / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(3), May - Jun 2016
Review Article
Arora Tejpal * and Parle Amrita
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, New Delhi, India
Received on: 02/03/16 Revised on: 10/05/16 Accepted on: 22/05/16
*Corresponding author
DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.073113
Jackfruit, botanically known as Artocarpus heterophyllus, grows in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. The Jackfruit can be used
raw as vegetable and ripe as fruit. The Jackfruit is an extremely versatile and sweet tasting fruit that possesses high nutritional value. From the time
immemorial, the whole jackfruit tree is used as a traditional medicine. Artocarpus heterophyllus has multifaceted medicinal properties. The medicinal
properties of Jackfruit include anti-asthmatic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, hypoglycemic, antimalarial, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-
arthritic, anti-helmintic, anti-inflammatory, ant carcinogenic, anti platelet, antiviral, anti tubercular, anti atherosclerotic activities. It has also shown
wound healing effect and causes decrease in the sexual arousal, libido, performance and vigor in men. The present paper reviews the Introduction,
Geographical distribution, history, cultivation, uses, strange facts, side effects, synonyms, varieties, nutritional value, botanical description,
taxonomical classification, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities along with the current trends in research on jackfruit.
Keywords: Artocarpus heterophyllus, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity.
A Moraceae family member- Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam,
well known as Jackfruit, is an age old plant. Jackfruit is the
largest tree-borne fruit in the world which can weigh from a
mere 3 kilograms to 36 Kilograms. A full mature jackfruit can
have a length of 36 inches and width that extends to 20 inches.
Major two types of varieties soft flesh and firm flesh are found.
Some jackfruit varieties can reach up to 100 feet in height and
there are some dwarf varieties like black gold that restrict up to
only 10- 20 feet height. Jackfruits have a distinctive, sweet and
fruity aroma.
The word "jackfruit" comes from Portuguese jaca, which is
derived from the Malayalam language term, Chakka. Traditional
medicines are plant derived medicines. According to WHO,
more than 80% of developing countrys population depends on
plant based medicines for their health care needs. From the time
immemorial, the whole jackfruit tree is used as a traditional
medicine. Artocarpus is used in medicine and also as source of
food, influencing agriculture industry. It contains secondary
metabolites, which have biological activity, kindling scientific
interest. In addition, the wood of Jackfruit is used in making
musical instruments, furniture and even in house construction1.
Geographical Distribution
It is widely cultivated in tropical, subtropical and temperate
regions of the world.
World scenario: It is cultivated in Bangladesh, Malaysia,
Burma, Srilanka, Indonesia, in parts of USA (Florida and
California), Brazil, Pacific islands, Palau, Yap, and Samoa.
Indian scenario: It is widely cultivated in southwestern parts of
India such as Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and
It is believed that jackfruit has originated in the rain forests of
the Western Ghats of India. Garcia de Orta- a physician &
naturalist, in his book Coloquious dos simples e drogasda
India written in 1563 gives reference of Jack Fruit.
Laterbotanist Ralph Randles Stewart suggested that it was
named after a Scottish Botanist who worked for East India
Company in Bengal, Sumatra & Malaysia. In 1782, few plants
from one of the French ship were taken to Jamaica. In the1800
century it was a common fruit in Florida. It was introduced into
northern Brazil in the mid of 19th century and became very
popular there. Today, the trees are widely growing in
Bangladesh, Malaysia, Burma, Indonesia, in the Caribbean
islands, in the evergreen forest zone of West Africa, in northern
Australia, in parts of USA, Brazil, Puerto Rico, Pacific islands,
Yap, Samoa, and other islands3.
Climate: Jackfruit grows in a wide range of tropical to
subtropical environments. Hot and humid regions of Asia are
suitable for the growth of Jackfruit tree. Although jackfruit is
essentially a tree of the tropical lowlands, it is adapted to a wider
range of conditions. It cannot tolerate higher altitudes and cold.
Jackfruit tree does not tolerate frost and drought.
Altitude: Jackfruit tree grows well in low land forests up to the
height 250 m (820 feet) but decreases in abundance at height of
about 1000 m above sea level. It thrives best in moist tropical
environments below 1000 m (3300 feet).
Soil: The jackfruit can be grown on a variety of soils as long as
they are well-drained, but does best in deep alluvial soils of
open texture. The tree can grow in light and medium textured
soils (sands, sandy loams, loams, and sandy clay loams). The
tree tolerates moderately acid to neutral soils (pH 5.07.5).
Arora Tejpal & Parle Amrita / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(3), May - Jun 2016
Seeding: The most common method of propagation of jackfruit
is by sowing seeds, which is easy and cost effective and suitable
method for cultivation. The seeds may be selected from a well
ripened, well grown jackfruit. Soaking of seed in water for 24
hours improves germination.100% results after soaking in 10%
solution of gibberellic acid. Generally, 4-5 seeds are planted in
situ so that the tap root can grow undisturbed. Seeds are sown 2-
3 cm deep in pits filled with cow dung. Germination starts
within 10 days and 100% seeds germinate within 35-40 days.
The seedlings can also be raised in pots or poly bags. After one
or two years, the seedlings are planted in the field.
Grafting: It is a most reliable method of propagation. Jackfruit
seedling may serve as rootstocks. It takes 6-12 months to get the
root stock ready for grafting. Grafted trees will bear fruits in 2-3
years after planting. Jackfruit grafting is now becoming a viable
method of propagation. Today, grafted cultivators are common
in India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand and increasingly in
South Florida. The grafting method is suggested as a traditional
method for propagating the jackfruit as it maintains good
characters. It is easy and cheap, produces disease free plants,
trees start fruiting quickly. It needs less plant materials and
treatments than the other methods.
Rainfall: Mean annual rainfall of about 10002400 mm (4094
in) is ideal for the growth of Jackfruit tree.
Irrigation: The effective method for irrigation of jackfruit
plants is drip irrigation.
Harvesting: Fruits mature 3 to 8 months from flowering. If the
fruit is within the reach, it can be cut with a sickle or twisted. In
tall trees, a sack is placed on the fruit with a rope tied on the
peduncle. After cutting, the fruit is gradually lowered to the
ground. It is laid on its peduncle against railing for some time to
allow the latex to flow and coagulate.
Storage: The jackfruit should be stored at 85-90% relative
humidity and at 11-130C. At this temperature, jackfruit can stay
fresh for the longest duration. A ripe jackfruit can stay fresh for
3 to 10 days. It is best to store jackfruit at the temp of at 8 -
General Health Benefits
· The bulbs of jackfruit contain simple sugars (Fructose and
sucrose) in quantity of 19.8g per 100gof edible jackfruit
bulbs and provide 95 calories. Thus when eaten, it
replenishes energy and revitalizes the body instantly.
· Jackfruit is rich in dietary fiber, which makes it good bulk
· Jackfruit contains Vitamin A which is useful for maintaining
integrity of mucosa and skin.
· Jackfruit helps to fight wrinkles. Its consumption helps in
getting a glowing complexion and flawless skin.
· Jackfruit seeds are very beneficial in hair growth.
· Jackfruit seeds promote healthy blood circulation, and
provide healthy digestion.
· 100 g of jackfruit contains 0.60mg of iron, thus it prevents
and cures anemia.
Medicinal Uses
Traditionally jackfruit is used in treatment of ulcers, prevention
of night blindness and bone loss. It possesses antibacterial, anti-
inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antipyretic property. It
is immunity booster and acts as a remedy for snake bites. Seeds
have diuretic and laxative effects.
Pharmacological activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus are
summarized in Table 8.
Culinary Uses
Jackfruit is commonly used as a cuisine all over the world.
In B angladesh, unripe fruit is used in curry. The seed is often
dried and preserved to be later used in curry.
In Thailand and Vietnam, jackfruit is used as canned sugary
In Indonesia, The ripe fruit is usually sold separately and
consumed on its own or sliced and mixed with shaved ice as a
sweet dessert.
In Philippines, the unripe fruit is usually cooked in coconut
milk and is eaten as a viand together with rice. The ripe fruit is
used as an ingredient in local desserts.
In Vietnam, jackfruit is used to make a sweet dessert soup
called as jackfruit chè.
In Nepal, The unripe fruit is used to prepare savory curry.
In Srilanka, Jackfruit is used to make wine and Pickles.
In Africa, Seeds of jackfruit are grounded into a flour type meal
and used mainly for bread and other baking purposes.
In Australia, Jackfruit is used to make patties, casserole and
In Malaysia, Jackfruit is often added to rice dishes and salads,
mixed with shrimp, or used in drinks like lassi.
In Florida, Jackfruit is used in ice creams, Jams, Jelly, and to
make sweet curry and fruit salad.
In India
In West Bengal, The fruits are either eaten alone or as a side to
rice, roti, chira, or muri. Sometimes, the juice is extracted and
either drunk straight or as a side with muri. The extract is
sometimes condensed and eaten as candies. Seeds are used to
make spicy side-dishes with rice or roti.
In Kerala, a sweet preparation called chakkavarattiyathu
(jackfruit jam) is made by pieces of jackfruit. Jackfruit is deep
fried to make chips.
In Karnataka, The pulp of the jackfruit is ground and made into
a paste, then spread over a mat and allowed to dry in the sun to
create a natural chewy candy. Jackfruit is also used to make
jackfruit burfi.
In Maharashtra, Jackfruit seeds are used to make Daleecha
Sambaaraa and raw jackfruit is used in phanasaachi bhaji and
the fruits are either eaten alone or used to prepare phanaspoli.
In Goa, Jackfruit is used to make curry and the ripe jackfruit is
widely used in cake (Phansache dhonas).
In Tamil Nadu, raw jackfruit is used to make
CHAKKAKKARI-Brahmin special; Seeds are used to make
seed pakoda.
In North India, jackfruit is used as a vegetable to make stir-
fries and curries.
Miscellaneous Uses
· Jackfruit trees are used in landscaping of gardens.
· The leaves are excellent adsorbents and are reported to
remove dye from the aqueous solutions.
· The leaves as well as non-pulp parts of the jackfruit are of
use as feed for livestock.
· Chips of heartwood are used as a dying agent.
· Wood is used to make furniture, brush backs and musical
instruments like veena, mridangam, thimila, and kanjira.
· The wood of jackfruit with good grains is a useful and a
durable timbre.
· The heated latex is employed as household cement for
mending chinaware and earthenware, and to caulk boats and
holes in buckets.
Arora Tejpal & Parle Amrita / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(3), May - Jun 2016
· The latex can also be mixed with vinegar to heal abscesses,
snakebites and glandular swellings.
· The leaf decoction and latex are effective in the treatment of
· The bark, due to its fibrous nature, is occasionally used in
cordage or cloth.
Strange Facts
· The jackfruit is the largest of all tree-borne fruits.
· Jackfruit is also known to grow from the underground roots
in some rare cases. In such situations, the fruit cracks the
ground over it and emerges outside.
· In a single year, the jackfruit tree can produce as many as
two hundred fifty fruits.
· In South India, the jackfruit is a popular food ranking after
mango and banana.
· Jackfruit is a national fruit of Bangladesh1.
Side effects, contraindications and precautions
· It causes some allergic reactions to the people suffering
from birch pollen allergies.
· Jackfruit may alter the tolerance levels of glucose in
diabetes patients.
· The men trying to have a baby should avoid jackfruit as it
may inhibit sexual arousal, libido, performance, and vigor in
· People undergoing therapy for immuno-suppression should
avoid eating the seeds of this fruit because these seeds are
· Over consumption of jackfruit can upset the stomach, due to
its high fiber content6.
Future prospects of jackfruit
Jackfruit is grown mainly on homestead farms and produces
multiple products for food, feed, and industry as well as
contributing towards soil management for sustainable
environments. In recent decades, a number of scientific and
economic interests have emerged to promote and commercialize
jackfruit products. The primary reason for this is that the crop is
already well-suited to the household and farming systems of
small farmers vulnerable to food shortages and nutritional
deficiencies. Nowadays jackfruit is widely used in medicine.
There is a need to develop strategic plans based on the results of
research and cooperation between neighboring countries or
regions, for genetic conservation of the jackfruit gene pool.
Further research in exploring the medicinal properties is
essential to promote its use to alleviate the ailment.
Table 1: International synonyms of Artocarpus heteroiphyllus8
Fakihat Al Jaka
Middle East, North Africa
Jackfruit, Nangka
Netherlands, south Africa
England, USA, New Zealand
Jacquier, Jaquier
Jackbaumfrucht, Jackfrucht
καρποί [karpoí]
Greece, Cyprus
Árbol de jack, Panapén, Yaca
Table 2: Indian synonyms of Artocarpus hete rophyllus2
North India
Andhra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
Table 3: Availability of Artocarpus heterophyllus fruits in different countries2
Month of the year
Major Varieties found
Black gold, Golden nugget, cheena, cochin, kappa, nahen, Mutton
Topa, Hazari, Chala, Goal, Khaja
January-March, August-October
Jaca-dura, Jaca-Mole
Khujja, ghila, hazari, gulabi, varika, champa, handia, Safeda
Nagakasalak, Tabouey, Kandel
April-August, September-December
J-31, J30, Nagakabilulang, Na29, Na31
J-01, J-02, TVC, Torres
Sri lanka
Vela, varaka, peniwaraka, kuruwaraka
January-May, October-Dece mber
Dang Rashmi, Golden pillow
USA (Florida)
May-August, September-October
Fair childfirst, Sweet Fairchild, Black gold, Golden nugget, Dang
Rashmi, J-31, J-30, Tabouey
Arora Tejpal & Parle Amrita / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(3), May - Jun 2016
Table 4: Nutritional value of Artocarpus heterophyllus1
Value per 100 grams
Dietary Fiber
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Table 5: Botanical Description of Artocarp us heterophyllus1
Fruit type
Edible part
Shape of fruit
Fruits per tree
Table 6: Taxonomical classification of Artocarpus heterophyllus1
Super division
A. heterophyllus
Table 7: Phytoconstituents of Artocarpus heterophyllus8
Plant Part
Carbohydrates- Starch, sugar, Dietary fiber
Fruit, Seed
Minerals- Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Iron
Seed, Fruit
Fatty Acids- Capric, Myristic, Lauric, Palmitic, Oleic, Stearic
Organic Acids- Malic acid, Citric acid
Carotenoids- 2-carotene, 1-carotene, 1-zeacarotene, 2-zeacarotene, Dicarboxylic Carotenoids
Seed, Fruit
Flavonoids- Artocarpine, Artocarpetin, Artonins A, Morin, Dihydromorin, Artocarpanone, Artocarpesin
Lectin- Jacalin
Volatiles- Isopentylisovalerate, Butyl isovalerate, Butyl Acetate
Seed, Fruit
Stem, Leaf
Vitamins- Vitamin A, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Vitamin E
Arora Tejpal & Parle Amrita / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(3), May - Jun 2016
Table 8: Pharmacological Activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus
Pharmacological Activities
Plant Parts
1 Anti-infective
Leaf, Seed
Alcoholic extract
8, 9, 10
Alcoholic extract
11, 12, 13
Bark of stem and root, leaves, fruit
Alcoholic extract
Isoprenyl Flavones
9, 14, 15
2 Anti-cancer
Alcoholic extract
Isoprenoid Flavonoids
16, 17, 18, 19
3 Inflammatory diseases
Ethyl acetate extract
18, 20, 21, 22
Wound Healing
Alcoholic extract
23, 24, 39
4 Anti-Diabetic
Aqueous extract
Prenyl Flavonoids
26, 25, 27
5 Miscellaneous
Fruit, Seed
Alcoholic and aqueous extract
Prenyl Flavonoids
28, 29, 30, 31
Bark of Root and stem
Aerial part extract
Prenylated Flavones
32, 33
Bark of Root and stem
Artocarpusintegrifolia extract
Prenylated Flavones
34, 35
Alcoholic extract
Root, Seed
Alcoholic extract
Root, Stem
Dichloromethane extract
Prenylated Flavones
36, 37
Fruit, Root
Ethyl acetate extract
Leaf, Fruit
Ethyl acetate extract
22, 38
Table 9: Top five producers of Jackfruit3
Production 1000 (tonnes)
Artocarpus heterophyllus is an excellent plant due to its
multifaceted medicinal properties likeantiasthmatic activity,
antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, hypoglycemic,
antimalarial, antidiarrhoeal, antiarthritic, antihelmintic, anti-
inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiplatelets, antiviral,
antitubercular, antiatheroscloresis and show wound healing
effect and decrease in the sexual activity. In addition Artocarpus
heterophyllus also has food value with numerous culinary uses.
The wood of the tree is also used for making musical
instruments and furniture. So we can conclude that jackfruit is a
health boon to the mankind.
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Cite this article as:
Arora Tejpal and Parle Amrita. Jackfruit: A health boon. Int. J.
Res. Ayurveda Pharm. May - Jun 2016;7(3):59-64
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... The moisture content of beef sausages incorporated with unripe jackfruit were higher than control beef sausage might be due to high moisture content of unripe jackfruit (Table 1) which ranged from 76.20 to 85.0% [15]. A previous study was also reported that meat patties with jackfruit contain higher moisture than without addition of jackfruit [11]. ...
... Evaluation of carbohydrate content found that the lowest (9.94%) carbohydrate content was shown in control beef sausage as expected since beef meat considered did not contain carbohydrate and the content in the beef sausage was mainly contributed by potato starch. Carbohydrate content of unripe jackfruit was between 9.4 and 23.5% [15][16]. The fibre content of beef sausages ranged between 3.32 and 4.54%. ...
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Underutilization of jackfruit and demand for healthier meat product with nutritional benefits and similar taste to meat had led to this study which to evaluate the proximate composition, and consumer preference of beef sausage with different ratio of unripe jackfruit. Five formulations of beef sausage were prepared with different amount of beef to unripe jackfruit were: Control (65:0), A (48.75:16.26), B (32.5:32.5), C (16.25:48.75), and D (0:65). Results found that carbohydrate contents of beef sausage with unripe jackfruit were higher (P>0.05) than in control sausage but were lower (P>0.05) in protein, fat, and fibre content. However, results found that all sausages with unripe jackfruit were found significantly higher (P<0.05) in moisture content, and ash compared to control beef sausage. As expected, hedonic test found that consumers preferred (P<0.05) control beef sausage compared to other formulations. Beef sausage incorporated with 25% unripe jackfruit (formulation A) was the most preferred by consumers in texture, taste, and overall acceptance among all sausages with unripe jackfruit. These findings obtained that formulation of beef sausage incorporated with unripe jackfruit could be accepted by consumers.
... Nele, foi possível perceber que a origem da denominação foi completamente independente entre povos, de modo que não viabiliza a ideia Neste contexto, o que se sabe com exatidão, é que a jaca surgiu florestas ao sul da Ásia, de lá foi levada para África e assim se espalhou pelo mundo. Nas Américas, sua entrada deu-se no século XVII, pela Jamaica, já no Brasil sua migração foi realizada no século seguinte, trazidas pelos portugueses (Haq, 2006;Oliveira, 2009;Prakash et al., 2009;Tejpal & Amrita, 2016). ...
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A jaca é considerada a maior fruta comestível consumida no mundo. É nativa da Índia, foi introduzida no Brasil pelos portugueses no período colonial e se adaptou facilmente ao clima tropical. Dentre as variedades mais produzidas estão a jaca-dura, a jaca-mole e a jaca-manteiga. Quanto aos frutos, são compostos por infrutescências do tipo sincarpo, no qual cada um recobre uma semente. Sendo eles ricos em carboidratos, minerais (cálcio, fósforo, iodo, cobre e ferro) e vitaminas A, C e do complexo B. Essa fruta pode ser consumida nos mais diferentes modos, como in natura, cozida, doces, geleias, sucos, entre outros. Por serem climatéricos, são dotados de uma alta perecibilidade. Sendo a industrialização uma alternativa para o melhor aproveitamento e agregação de renda. Partindo do pressuposto, este trabalho tem como objetivo realizar revisão bibliográfica sobre as potencialidades existentes na jaca para uso no setor alimentício, afins de serem uma alternativa para a redução do acumulo de resíduos gerados.
... Jackfruit, also known as Artocarpus heterophyllus, is a tropical climacteric fruit of the Moraceae family native to India's Western Ghats and widely distributed in Asia, including the Philippines. Various studies have been conducted using A. heterophyllus' tree bark, fruit, leaves, peels, or even seeds [1]. The medicinal properties of A. heterophyllus are diverse [2], and this fruit contains a high concentration of phytochemicals that have antioxidant properties. ...
... 1.2023.a3 Evaluation of maize-soy blend flour enriched with refractance window dried jackfruit powder 43 Nomenclature MSB Maize-soy blend RW Refractance Window and hypoglycaemic properties (Arora & Parle, 2016;Biworo et al., 2015;Ranasinghe et al., 2019). However, the fruit is highly perishable and considerable amounts, primarily obtained in the glut season, go to waste due to low market access and inappropriate post-harvest handling (Swami et al., 2016). ...
Porridge is a staple food in many developing countries and is usually used as a weaning or breakfast food. The increased preference for convenient and healthy meals has increased the desire for nutrientenriched instant flours. Jackfruit is an underutilised fruit that is rich in vitamin C and other bioactive components. This study aimed to evaluate dried jackfruit powder as an ingredient for porridge flour. Formulations were made by substituting varying levels (0, 10, 20 and 30, 40 and 50%) of an extruded maize-soy blend (MSB) constituting 70% maize and 30% soy with refractance window dried jackfruit powder. The composite flours were used to make porridges which were analysed for their sensory acceptability by a 60-member semi-trained panel. The viscosity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, solubility index and bulk density of the flours were also assessed. Porridge acceptability, flour proximate composition, ascorbic acid and carotenoid content for the most preferred experimental formulation were compared to commercial maize-based instant flour and plain maize-soy instant flour. The most acceptable porridge was made from the 50% MSB and 50% jackfruit flour blend. The 50% jackfruit - MSB blend and control commercial instant flours attained drinking viscosity (2,500–3,000cP) at 20% and 31% flour rates. The energy, protein, iron, calcium, β-carotene, and vitamin C densities of jackfruit - MSB porridge were 47.8 %, 48.9 %, 158.1 %, 226.5 %, 230.3 % and 125.9 % higher than those obtained from plain MSB porridge respectively. The results showed the potential of jackfruit as an ingredient for the nutritional enrichment of flours meant for making porridge.
... It is immunity booster and acts as a remedy for snake bites.The seeds of jackfruit have diuretic and laxative effects. (Arora & Parle, 2016) [5] . ...
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There are quite a large number of indigenous and underutilized fruit crops, which are being used by the local inhabitants. In fact for people living in villages, these underutilized fruits are the only source of protective food to meet their vitamins and minerals requirements in their poor diet. Because of their curative properties, these fruits have been used in Indian system such as Ayurvedic and Unani since time immemorial. Apart from their nutritive and medicinal values quite a few of these underutilized fruits have excellent flavor and very attractive color. They are rich in vitamins, minerals, and nutrients and have medicinal potential. These crops have many advantages like easier to grow and hardy in nature, producing a crop even under adverse soil and climatic conditions. So, exploitation of underutilized horticultural crops can become a solution to the social problem of health and nutrition insecurity, poverty and unemployment
... Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) is an important fruit, extensively cultivated in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of the world [1]. The fruit and seeds are rich sources of minerals, vitamins, organic acids, and dietary fiber. ...
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Drying processes including solar, oven, and refractance window were studied to determine their influence on the drying behavior of jackfruit slices and properties of resultant jackfruit powders. The loss of sample mass, converted to the ratio between the water content at time t and the initial water content (moisture ratio), was used as the experimental parameter for modelling drying processes. Fifteen thin layer drying models were fitted to the experimental data using nonlinear regression analysis. Based on the highest R 2 and lowest SEE values, the models that best fit the observed data were Modified Henderson and Pabis, Verma et al., and Hii et al. for RWD, oven, and solar drying, respectively. The effective moisture diffusivity coefficients were 5.11 × 10 − 9 , 3.28 × 10 − 10 , and 2.55 × 10 − 10 for RWD, oven and, solar drying, respectively. The solubility of freeze-dried jackfruit powder (75.7%) was not significantly different from the refractance window dried powder (73.2%) and was higher than oven-dried jackfruit powder (66.1%). Oven-dried jackfruit powder had a lower rehydration ratio and porosity. Differences in rehydration ratio and porosity under different drying methods could be explained by the microstructure. Fractal dimension (FD) and lacunarity were applied to study the structure and irregularities of jackfruit dried with the different methods. FD was significantly ( P < 0.05 ) affected by the drying method. FD ranged from 1.809 to 1.837, while lacunarity ranged between 0.258 and 0.404.
... stewartii associated with jackfruit-bronzing is yet to be discovered, and there is little information available on the etiology of this disease. However, jackfruit seeds may be a potential vector of the disease, seeing the propagation by direct seeding is still being practiced worldwide, apart from grafting and cuttings techniques [48]. Shoot borers, bark borers, mealy bugs, and scale insects are the prevalent insect pests linked to most jackfruit diseases [49]. ...
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Jackfruit-bronzing disease, caused by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, has recently become more common in the jackfruit crop. Jackfruit-bronzing disease was first discovered in the Philippines in 2014 and spread to Malaysia and Mexico in 2017. Outbreaks of the disease reduced the quality of fresh jackfruit, lowered the market value of local jackfruit, and caused yield losses to the production and financial setbacks to the processors. This disease is more aggressive toward jackfruits with a sweeter flavor and high Brix composition. Symptoms are observable when the fruit is cut open, indicated by the appearance of rusty specks and yellowish-orange to reddish discoloration of the infected pulps and rags. Extensive research is needed to better understand the pathogen’s nature and pathogenicity, supporting future disease prevention and recognition of the pathogen-host interaction. This review explores the significance of the jackfruit-bronzing bacterium, its biology, diagnostics, and pathogenomics, emphasizing the pathogen’s virulence and the management strategies to mitigate this disease. Understanding this destructive bacterium will guide growers and agricultural practitioners to develop the most efficient and sustainable jackfruit-bronzing control methods.
... The name jackfruit is taken from the Portuguese word jaca, which originates from the Malayalam word chakka. Jackfruit is a significant underutilised tropical fruit, frequently referred to as the poor man's fruit that has been used to add value to dishes in India since ancient times (Arora and Parley 2016) [4] . This section of the jackfruit is a good source of vital food components like carbohydrates, protein, and minerals (Ocloo et al., 2010) [16] . ...
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Artocarpusheterophyllus, the largest fruit bearing tree in the world, has been used for several decades in traditional medicine due to its medicinal properties. Traditional uses of parts of A. heterophyllus are numerableand are used extensively to treat various ailments. The multi-dimensional medicinal uses of A. heterophyllusopen up scope for its use as multi-target drug to suppress disease symptoms and as an approach for an effective treatment measure.
Introduction In India, the plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. is commonly known as "Jackfruit" and has been generally used as food and in many traditional medicines. Objective The present manuscript aimed to collect description information on phytochemistry, ethnomedical uses, pharmacological activities, and patent of A. heterophyllus Lam. that may help in making a bridge between the research gaps as well as the upcoming future findings. Materials and Methods The literature survey was based on a PRISMA systematic study that gathered information from various sources, including journals, e-books, and digital databases such as Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and Science Direct from 1991 to 2021. Results Several bioactive constituents are characterized, including flavonoids, chalcones, flavanols, terpenoids, stilbenoids, and xanthones in the fruit. It also contains tannins, quercetin, gallic acid, saponins, artocarpanone and artocarpin. Many pharmacological studies stated the therapeutic potential of Jackfruit, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. Conclusion The present manuscript summarizes the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of A.heterophyllus Lam. And it is also providing information in-vitro and in-vivo concerning experimental studies with patent data which, in turn, makes the herbal drug a promising source in the nutrition and therapeutic aspects.
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Total water extract, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions from the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus were evaluated for phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities against some foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of extract and fractions determined by the agar dilution method were ranged from 221.9 microg/mL for ethyl acetate fraction to 488.1 microg/mL for total extract. In the agar diffusion method the diameters of inhibition were 12.2 for the total extract, 10.7 and 11.5 for ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions, respectively. A. heterophyllus showed significant antioxidant activity tested in different in vitro systems (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and Fe(2+) chelating activity assay). In particular, in DPPH assay A. heterophyllus total extract exhibited a strong antiradical activity with an IC(50) value of 73.5 microg/mL while aqueous fraction exerted the highest activity in FRAP assay (IC(50) value of 72.0 microg/mL). The total phenols content by Folin-Ciocalteau method was determined with the purpose of testing its relationship with the antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
The ethanol extract of dried leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and different crude fractions such as petroleum ether (40-60°), butanol, butanone and methanol were tested for various phytoconstituents and screened for wound healing properties using incision, excision and dead space (granulation) wound models in albino rats. The methanol fraction had exhibited the most significant wound healing property followed by butanol, butanone fractions and ethanol extract, where as petroleum ether fraction was least effective.
The anti-inflammatory activity of the new protease fraction Artocarpain-H extracted from the fruit stem latex of the plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. was evaluated using Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema and Cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. The Artocarpain-H dose dependently inhibited carrageenan induced rat paw edema. It also showed reduction on the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma method.. In the present investigation, as the test drug is effective in both models of inflammation, there is a possibility that these drugs may be effective in acute and chronic inflammation.
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam, commonly known as the jackfruit tree and belonging to the family Moraceae, is an exotic tree originally native to the Western Ghats of India. The fruits are of dietary use and are an important source of carbohydrate, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins. The heart wood is a very durable timber and is used in the preparation of furniture. The bark, roots, leaves, and fruit are attributed with diverse medicinal properties and are used in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine to treat a range of ailments. Preclinical studies have shown that jackfruit possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticariogenic, antifungal, antineoplastic, hypoglycemic, wound healing effects and causes a transient decrease in the sexual activity. Clinical studies have also shown that the decoction of the leaves possesses hypoglycemic effects in both healthy individuals and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Phytochemical studies have shown that jackfruit contains useful compounds like the flavonoids, sterols and prenylflavones which may have been responsible for the various pharmacological properties. The present paper reviews the nutritional value, culinary uses, the phytochemical compounds, traditional usage and validated pharmacological properties of jackfruit.
The total antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of edible portions and seeds of avocado, jackfruit, longan, mango and tamarind were studied. In addition, the relationship between antioxidant activity, phenolic content and the different degrees of heating of mango seed kernel was investigated. The seeds showed a much higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content than the edible portions. The contribution of all the fruit seed fractions to the total antioxidant activity and phenolic content was always >70%. ABTS cation radical-scavenging and FRAP assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity; FCR assay was used to measure the total phenolic content. The AEAC and FRAP of ethanolic extracts of MSKP products increased to a maximum after heating to 160 °C. The total phenolic content in extracts of MSKP products increased from 50.3 to 160 mg/g GAE with an increase in heating temperature to 160 °C.
Mangifera pajang (family: Anacardiaceae; local name: bambangan) and Artocarpus odoratissimus (familiy: Moraceae; local name: tarap) are popular edible fruits in Sabah, Malaysia. The flesh, kernel and peel from M. pajang; seed and flesh from A. odoratissimus were analysed for total antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, total flavonoid and total anthocyanins contents. M. pajang kernel extract displayed the highest free radical scavenging and ferric reducing activities. Total phenolic content of the samples were in the range of 5.96–103.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. M. pajang kernel and M. pajang flesh contained the highest and lowest total flavonoid content with the values of 10.98 and 0.07 mg rutin equivalent/g, respectively. The antioxidant activities of extracts were significantly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content (but not the anthocyanins content). The phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of M. pajang and A. odoratissimus, especially their by-products (kernel/seed), indicate that they may impart health benefits when consumed and should be regarded as a valuable source of antioxidant-rich nutraceuticals.
Oxyresveratrol, a major compound purified from Artocarpus lakoocha, a Thai traditional medicinal plant, was evaluated for its mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy on cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in mice. The inhibitory concentrations for 50% HSV-1 plaque formation of oxyresveratrol, three clinical isolates, thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA)-resistant HSV-1 were 19.8, 23.3, 23.5, 24.8, 25.5 and 21.7 μg/ml, respectively. Oxyresveratrol exhibited the inhibitory activity at the early and late phase of viral replication and inhibited the viral replication with pretreatment in one-step growth assay of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Oxyresveratrol inhibited late protein synthesis at 30 μg/ml. The combination of oxyresveratrol and acyclovir (ACV) produced synergistic anti-HSV-1 effect, as characterized by the isobologram of plaque inhibition. Mice orally treated with oxyresveratrol (500 mg/kg/dose) dose at 8 h before and three times daily had significant delay in herpetic skin lesion development (P < 0.05). Topical application of 30% oxyresveratrol ointment five times daily significantly delayed the development of skin lesions and protected mice from death (P < 0.0001).
This review explores medieval, ancient and modern sources for ethnopharmacological uses of Ficus (fig) species, specifically for employment against malignant disease and inflammation. The close connection between inflammatory/infectious and cancerous diseases is apparent both from the medieval/ancient merging of these concepts and the modern pharmacological recognition of the initiating and promoting importance of inflammation for cancer growth. Also considered are chemical groups and compounds underlying the anticancer and anti-inflammatory actions, the relationship of fig wasps and fig botany, extraction and storage of fig latex, and traditional methods of preparing fig medicaments including fig lye, fig wine and medicinal poultices.