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Leader emotional intelligence and subordinate job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of main, mediator, and moderator effects

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Abstract

Based on a meta-analysis, leaders' emotional intelligence (EI) positively relates to subordinates' job satisfaction (ρ̂ = 0.308). All three EI streams (ability, self-report, mixed) exhibit significant incremental validity and relative importance (RW) in the presence of personality and cognitive ability in predicting subordinates' job satisfaction (ability EI: ΔR2 = 0.002, RW% = 3.5%; self-report EI: ΔR2 = 0.021, RW% = 25.3%; mixed EI: ΔR2 = 0.085, RW% = 49.9%). Leaders' EI demonstrates significant incremental validity and RW in the presence of subordinates' EI in predicting subordinates' job satisfaction (leaders' EI: ΔR2 = 0.054, RW% = 48.0%). Subordinates' EI positively relates to leaders' EI and mediates the relationship between leaders' EI and subordinates' job satisfaction. Moderator analyses indicate that (1) ability EI has a lower association with subordinates' job satisfaction than self-report EI and mixed EI; and (2) leaders' EI more positively relates to subordinates' job satisfaction in low in-group collectivistic or low humane oriented cultures.

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... Emotional intelligence is well-researched in the prediction of health and mental well-being, life satisfaction, emotional labour, organizational citizenship behaviour, team effectiveness, job performance, work-family conflicts and effective leadership (See meta-analyses: Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2016;O'Boyle et al., 2010;Peña-Sarrionandia et al., 2015: Joseph et al., 2015Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017). EI is also associated with preventing and dealing with stress (Schutte et al., 2007), which reflects an important leadership skill (Miao et al., 2016). ...
... Emotional intelligence is well-researched in the prediction of health and mental well-being, life satisfaction, emotional labour, organizational citizenship behaviour, team effectiveness, job performance, work-family conflicts and effective leadership (See meta-analyses: Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2016;O'Boyle et al., 2010;Peña-Sarrionandia et al., 2015: Joseph et al., 2015Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017). EI is also associated with preventing and dealing with stress (Schutte et al., 2007), which reflects an important leadership skill (Miao et al., 2016). A meta-analysis found that EI is more predictive in health care and service industries where jobs involve frequent management of emotions (Joseph & Newman, 2010). ...
... The role of gender is also an important consideration with EI, although studies report mixed findings (Miao et al., 2016). While some studies indicate that women score more highly for EI than men (Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2012), others report the opposite result (Kong & Zhao, 2013;Mikolajczak, Menil, & Luminet, 2007). ...
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Maintaining good mental well-being is important for leaders, but little attention has been given to how leaders facilitate their own well-being or how leaders evaluate emotions associated with certain events (cognitive reappraisal). This study investigates how mental well-being might influence the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and cognitive reappraisal in leaders and whether this relationship differs by gender. Data from 246 hotel managers in Sweden were collected, with a response rate of 69%. Our findings show that the four EI dimensions play a significant role in cognitive reappraisal, including Self-Emotion Appraisal, a core dimension of EI. The analyses showed that the effect of mental well-being on the relationship between two of the EI dimensions and cognitive reappraisal differed significantly by gender. We recommend the use of tailored training programs such as simulation-based training with real life cases. This type of training can support leaders in using broader strategies to regulate emotions, as well as helping them become more mindful about the consequences of their own and others’ choice of emotion regulation. Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
... As we noted earlier, employee job satisfaction constitutes another important organizational outcome variable. In this regard, Miao, Humphrey, and Qian (2016) conducted a meta-analysis where they examined the effects of leader EI on subordinates' job satisfaction. They found that leaders' EI correlated with follower's job satisfaction (r = 0.24). ...
... It is for this reason that we remain cautious about meta-analyses that do not report their coding according to best practices 1 , as is the case for the Miao et al. (2016Miao et al. ( , 2017aMiao et al. ( , 2017b) studies you referenced in your letter. These meta-analyses report very large SDrho estimates, suggesting very strong moderator effects. ...
... Further, consistent with our own experience, they display enormous method effects, both in terms of measure and source. Sometimes odd decisions were made such as the one to test the incremental effects of leader EI over the effects of subordinate personality and cognitive ability (Miao et al., 2016). Further, in that same study, a meta-analytic estimate of the relationship between an individual's own cognitive ability and their job satisfaction was used as a proxy for the relationship between leader cognitive ability and follower job satisfaction. ...
Article
The study of emotional intelligence (EI) in the field of leadership, and in the organizational sciences in general, has often been characterized by controversy and criticism. But the study of EI has nonetheless persisted by developing new measures and models to address these concerns. In a prior letter exchange by Antonakis, Ashkanasy, and Dasborough (2009), two author teams debated the role of EI in the leadership literature, but also set an agenda for research and reconciliation for the future. The present exchange revisits these arguments using evidence accumulated over the past decade. Specifically, the authors debate not only the evidence for the predictive power of EI for workplace outcomes, but also the validity of EI as a construct, the measurement of EI, and the appropriateness of analytical tests for establishing the value of EI. Although the author teams agree on the value of the study of emotions and the need for rigorous research in this area, they nonetheless propose alternative agendas and priorities for the future. Further, they conclude that the issues identified in this exchange are not unique to the study of EI; but should also serve to inform the study of other personality factors and leadership more broadly.
... In the last decades, EI seems like an important predictor of leader effectiveness. A leader's high EI also has an influence on the success of his/her subordinates (Miao et al., 2016). Goleman (1998) emphasizes the role of EI in the success of leaders and states that successful leaders have high EI. ...
... It was also revealed that global managers with high CI feel more JS and perform better in their jobs in the international business environment. Miao et al. (2016) found that subordinates' EI was positively related to leaders' EI and mediated the relationship between leaders' EI and subordinates' JS. EI had a stronger impact on subordinates' JS because as a result of EI, subordinates could interpret leaders' effective leadership behaviors as more willing and altruistic. ...
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It is seen that employees with high emotional intelligence (EI) generally have low level of job stress; they can also integrate better with their jobs and provide a high level of job satisfaction (JS). This study aims to investigate the moderating effect of the cultural intelligence (CI) level of academicians on the relationship between their EI and JS. The data were collected from 470 academicians working in Turkish universities. The sample consists of 3 subgroups: academicians that are Turkish citizens of and completed their entire education in Turkey, academicians that are Turkish citizens and received a part of their education abroad, and academicians that are not citizens of Turkey and completed their education outside of Turkey. According to the research results, it was found that there is a significant positive relationship between the EI level of the academicians and their JS. The research also determined that CI had a moderating effect on the positive relationship between EI and JS. The CI level of the academicians strengthens the positive relationship between their EI and JS.
... Research suggests that people with high emotional intelligence lead more effectively (Singh and Aditi 2019;Siegling, Sfeir, and Smyth 2014;Siegling, Nielsen, and Petrides 2014). Emotional intelligence has also been associated with efficient job performers (Miao, Humphrey, and Qian 2016;Cherniss 2010) According to Long, Yaacob, and Chuen (2016), employees who are emotionally intelligent engage in organizational citizenship behaviors, feel satisfied with their jobs, are committed both to their career and organization, and also have fewer turnover intentions. Yao, Locke, and Jamal (2018) also assert that emotionally intelligent employees feel less job insecurity. ...
... Thus, emotional intelligence is a crucial ability needed by leaders to achieve success in organizations. Emotional Intelligence is thereby regarded as a key factor in an individual's ability to be socially effective (Miao, Humphrey, and Qian 2016;Choi, Oh, and Colbert 2013) and is viewed in leadership literature as a key determinant of effective leadership (Walter, Cole, and Humphrey 2011). Dhingra and Punia (2016) proposed that a high level of EI would enable a leader to better monitor how well group members are feeling and take the appropriate actions to improve performance. ...
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The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between self-awareness and self-management as the intrapersonal dimension of Goleman’s emotional intelligence to predict effective leadership in the Ghanaian banking industry. Using a descriptive cross-sectional survey design, a sample size of 260 employees was determined for the study from four commercial banks selected from the Ghana Club 100 rankings. Simple random and standardized questionnaires were the main instruments used for data collection. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The results showed that significant positive relationships exist between self-awareness and leadership effectiveness as well as self-management and leadership effectiveness. The study also found that demographic variables such as gender, age, educational level, and tenure significantly influence the relationships between self-awareness and leadership effectiveness as well as self-management and leadership effectiveness. The article endorses self-awareness and self-management as predictors of effective leadership.
... The behavior could escalate quickly and affect the organization's culture negatively. Similarly, Miao et al. (2016) noted that leaders' emotional intelligence is more strongly related to subordinates' job satisfaction in low in-group collectivistic and low humane oriented cultures. This highlights the fact that emotional intelligence is often context-based. ...
... (Miao et al., 2016). ...
Article
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This paper summarizes the arguments and counterarguments within the scientific discussion on emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is an essential trait for managers to possess to be effective and successful in organizations. Soft skills are becoming as crucial as making quotas. Scholarly literature lacks research on emotional intelligence and employee engagement in retail in St. Lucia. Engaged employees could stay motivated during adversity and help maintain an organization's culture. This exploratory observational study's primary purpose was to examine how retail store managers in St. Lucia perceived their emotional intelligence influences employee engagement. The conceptual framework that grounded the study was emotional intelligence and employee engagement from an organizational performance perspective. The data collection process included reviewing archival data. The paper presents empirical analysis results; several patterns and themes emerged from the data analysis, including emotional intelligence, controlling emotions, coaching, legacy, training, hiring well, communication, and personalized relationships. Increased emotional intelligence training emerged as useful in the St. Lucian business landscape and the Caribbean by extension. The research empirically confirms and theoretically proves that researching other sectors at varying levels may give a broader understanding of how emotional intelligence is perceived. This study's findings may be useful to stakeholders and organizational leaders to allow developing strategies to build more emotionally intelligent and engaged organizations and positively affect social change.
... Research has shown that emotional intelligence (EI) is an important individual difference (Schutte and Loi, 2014), a characteristic of great leaders (Goleman, 2003), and accounts for leader emergence (Hong et al., 2011). For example, previous studies reveal that EI of leaders is related to leadership effectiveness and outcomes such as service climate, organisational commitment, turnover intention (Hur et al., 2011;Wong and Law, 2002) and follower job satisfaction (Miao et al., 2016). Beyond the influence of leader EI on followers, studies have examined EI as an individual-level construct and how it affects employee self-rated workplace behaviours. ...
... We controlled for employee age, gender and work experience. These socio-demographic variables have been found to influence EI and employee work engagement (see Akhtar et al., 2015;Luu, 2019;Miao et al., 2016). ...
Article
Purpose Emotional intelligence (EI) plays a vital role in work and non-work outcomes. Gaps exist in the role of contextual factor (i.e. perceived organisational support, POS) and personal resource (i.e. psychological capital, PsyCap) in investigating employees’ EI. This current research draws on the cognitive–motivational–reactional theory of emotions and conservation of resources theory in examining the serial explanatory pathways between EI and work engagement. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected at three points of measurement from the public sector in Nigeria. The authors tested their serial mediation model with a sample of 528 public sector employees using PROCESS macro with a bias-corrected bootstrapping method. Findings The findings show that EI was positively related to work engagement. EI exerted an indirect effect on PsyCap via POS. The indirect effect of EI on work engagement was serially mediated by POS and PsyCap. Practical implications Organisations need to pay attention to the level of support they provide to employees, given that employees differ in their emotional appraisal and regulations. The way employees perceive organisational support is vital to helping them stimulate their personal resources towards work goals. This study further accentuates the fact that emotionally intelligent employees tend to understand how to manage their emotions and that of others in a way that leads to a higher level of work engagement. Originality/value This paper addresses gaps in the literature on EI and regulations in the changing and challenging world of work. In so doing, this paper contributes to the literature by deepening our understanding of the complex relationship between EI, POS, PsyCap and work engagement. Theoretical and practical implications for employees’ emotional appraisal and regulations are discussed.
... The effects of intrinsic job satisfaction are important for the organization, because, when pleased, the individual does the task effectively, keeps his performance stable, and seeks to improve it, taking on new challenges. However, when intrinsically dissatisfied, they will tend to produce less and inefficiently (Herzberg et al., 1959;Miao et al., 2016). In this perspective, being satisfied with the work means having individual needs met, by performing a set of activities in a work environment that offers positive feedbacks on their performance (Miao et al., 2016). ...
... However, when intrinsically dissatisfied, they will tend to produce less and inefficiently (Herzberg et al., 1959;Miao et al., 2016). In this perspective, being satisfied with the work means having individual needs met, by performing a set of activities in a work environment that offers positive feedbacks on their performance (Miao et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Resumo Objetivo: O propósito do estudo foi explorar a associação entre inteligência emocional, congruência pessoa-ambiente e satisfação intrínseca no trabalho em dois grupos profissionais: o primeiro com foco nas relações interpessoais e o segundo voltado para o manuseio de coisas, dados e ideias. Originalidade/valor: O estudo apresenta a associação entre congruência, inteligência emocional e satisfação intrínseca no trabalho e testa o modelo em que a congruência modera a associação entre inteligência emocional e satisfação intrínseca em dois grupos profissionais. Design/metodologia/abordagem: Trata-se de estudo do tipo survey em que participaram 486 trabalhadores distribuídos em dois grupos de profissionais utilizando o modelo RIASEC. Os participantes responderam às medidas de interesse profissional e de ambientes ocupacionais necessárias para a mensuração da congruência, e em seguida às medidas de inteligência emocional e de satisfação intrínseca. Resultados: Foram identificadas associações positivas entre inteligência emocional, congruência pessoa-ambiente e satisfação intrínseca no trabalho, com associações mais altas no grupo com elevadas demandas interpessoais, destacando a relevância das habilidades emocionais nesse segmento profissional. Contudo, identificou-se que a congruência não modera a associação entre inteligência emocional e satisfação intrínseca em nenhum dos dois grupos, salientando que o ajuste pessoa-ambiente e as habilidades emocionais podem contribuir de maneira independente para explicar a satisfação do trabalhador com as atividades desenvolvidas na organização. / Abstract Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore the association between emotional intelligence, person-environment congruence and intrinsic job satisfaction in two professional groups, the first focusing on interpersonal relationships and the second, on data, things, and ideas. Originality/value: The study presents the association between congruence, emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction at work and tests the model in which congruence moderates the association between emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction in two professional groups. Design/methodology/approach: Survey-type study in which 486 workers participated in two groups of professionals using the realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional (RIASEC) model. Participants responded to questionnaires of professional interest and occupational environments necessary to measure congruence, and, then, emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction. Findings: Positive associations were identified between emotional intelligence, person-environment congruence, and intrinsic job satisfaction, with higher associations in the group with high interpersonal demands, highlighting the relevance of emotional skills in this professional segment. However, it was found that the congruence does not moderate the association between emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction in either group, emphasizing that the person-environment fit and emotional skills can contribute independently to explain worker satisfaction with the activities developed in the organization.
... The effects of intrinsic job satisfaction are important for the organization, because, when pleased, the individual does the task effectively, keeps his performance stable, and seeks to improve it, taking on new challenges. However, when intrinsically dissatisfied, they will tend to produce less and inefficiently (Herzberg et al., 1959;Miao et al., 2016). In this perspective, being satisfied with the work means having individual needs met, by performing a set of activities in a work environment that offers positive feedbacks on their performance (Miao et al., 2016). ...
... However, when intrinsically dissatisfied, they will tend to produce less and inefficiently (Herzberg et al., 1959;Miao et al., 2016). In this perspective, being satisfied with the work means having individual needs met, by performing a set of activities in a work environment that offers positive feedbacks on their performance (Miao et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore the association between emotional intelligence, person-environment congruence and intrinsic job satisfaction in two professional groups, the first focusing on interpersonal relationships and the second, on data, things, and ideas. Originality/value: The study presents the association between congruence, emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction at work and tests the model in which congruence moderates the association between emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction in two professional groups. Design/methodology/approach: Survey-type study in which 486 workers participated in two groups of professionals using the realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional (RIASEC) model. Participants responded to questionnaires of professional interest and occupational environments necessary to measure congruence, and, then, emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction. Findings: Positive associations were identified between emotional intelligence, person-environment congruence, and intrinsic job satisfaction, with higher associations in the group with high interpersonal demands, highlighting the relevance of emotional skills in this professional segment. However, it was found that the congruence does not moderate the association between emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction in either group, emphasizing that the person-environment fit and emotional skills can contribute independently to explain worker satisfaction with the activities developed in the organization.
... Research suggests that people with high emotional intelligence lead more effectively (Singh and Aditi 2019;Siegling, Sfeir, and Smyth 2014;Siegling, Nielsen, and Petrides 2014). Emotional intelligence has also been associated with efficient job performers (Miao, Humphrey, and Qian 2016;Cherniss 2010) According to Long, Yaacob, and Chuen (2016), employees who are emotionally intelligent engage in organizational citizenship behaviors, feel satisfied with their jobs, are committed both to their career and organization, and also have fewer turnover intentions. Yao, Locke, and Jamal (2018) also assert that emotionally intelligent employees feel less job insecurity. ...
... Thus, emotional intelligence is a crucial ability needed by leaders to achieve success in organizations. Emotional Intelligence is thereby regarded as a key factor in an individual's ability to be socially effective (Miao, Humphrey, and Qian 2016;Choi, Oh, and Colbert 2013) and is viewed in leadership literature as a key determinant of effective leadership (Walter, Cole, and Humphrey 2011). Dhingra and Punia (2016) proposed that a high level of EI would enable a leader to better monitor how well group members are feeling and take the appropriate actions to improve performance. ...
... Research has shown that emotional intelligence (EI) is an important individual difference (Schutte and Loi, 2014), a characteristic of great leaders (Goleman, 2003), and accounts for leader emergence (Hong et al., 2011). For example, previous studies reveal that EI of leaders is related to leadership effectiveness and outcomes such as service climate, organisational commitment, turnover intention (Hur et al., 2011;Wong and Law, 2002) and follower job satisfaction (Miao et al., 2016). Beyond the influence of leader EI on followers, studies have examined EI as an individual-level construct and how it affects employee self-rated workplace behaviours. ...
... We controlled for employee age, gender and work experience. These socio-demographic variables have been found to influence EI and employee work engagement (see Akhtar et al., 2015;Luu, 2019;Miao et al., 2016). ...
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Purpose Emotional intelligence (EI) plays a vital role in work and non-work outcomes. Gaps exist in the role of contextual factor (i.e. perceived organisational support, POS) and personal resource (i.e. psychological capital, PsyCap) in investigating employees’ EI. This current research draws on the cognitive–motivational–reactional theory of emotions and conservation of resources theory in examining the serial explanatory pathways between EI and work engagement. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected at three points of measurement from the public sector in Nigeria. The authors tested their serial mediation model with a sample of 528 public sector employees using PROCESS macro with a bias-corrected bootstrapping method. Findings The findings show that EI was positively related to work engagement. EI exerted an indirect effect on PsyCap via POS. The indirect effect of EI on work engagement was serially mediated by POS and PsyCap. Practical implications Organisations need to pay attention to the level of support they provide to employees, given that employees differ in their emotional appraisal and regulations. The way employees perceive organisational support is vital to helping them stimulate their personal resources towards work goals. This study further accentuates the fact that emotionally intelligent employees tend to understand how to manage their emotions and that of others in a way that leads to a higher level of work engagement. Originality/value This paper addresses gaps in the literature on EI and regulations in the changing and challenging world of work. In so doing, this paper contributes to the literature by deepening our understanding of the complex relationship between EI, POS, PsyCap and work engagement. Theoretical and practical implications for employees’ emotional appraisal and regulations are discussed.
... These findings are consistent with previous studies bolding the significant role of emotional competence as a stimulus of employee's job satisfaction. Importantly, results underline that a higher level of emotional competence is greatly associated with large-scale positive changes in organizational behavior (Giardini & Frese, 2008;Mayer et al., 2000;Miao et al., 2016). The utilization of emotional competence as a manager's ability to regulate and direct emotions toward constructive performance is fundamental for successful leadership. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine various configurations leading to job satisfaction (JS) in Mongolian private companies through five typical factors: perceived mission statement quality (MSQ), romanticism management philosophy (RMP), psychological ethical climate (PEC), ethical ambiguity (EA), and emotional competence (EC). Method This study conducts a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) with 202 private sector employees in Mongolia. The current study comes up with three propositions, and the research procedure is divided into two stages. This new approach produces configurations sufficiently, leading to outcomes, equifinality, and conjunction. Findings This study explores six pathways leading to employee satisfaction. Each pathway consists of the combination of perceived mission statement quality, romanticism management philosophy, psychological ethical climate, low tendency of ethical ambiguity, and managers’ emotional competence. Among those, managers’ emotional competence is a core condition for high job satisfaction. Implications Our findings suggest that to satisfy employees, managers’ emotional competence plays a vital role in building sufficient conditions that lead to the desired outcomes. Thus, professional development and training are required to maintain and improve managers’ competence. Originality/value This study introduces a fresh theoretical perspective for understanding cause-effect relationships between critical conditions and job satisfaction.
... Extending this theory to EI, workplace events shape how employees express and control their emotions, leading to workplace outcomes, for example, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior (e.g., Bozionelos & Singh, 2017;Joseph et al., 2015). For example, previous studies show that leader EI influences subordinate job satisfaction (Miao et al., 2016). Research also shows that employee EI is positively related to job satisfaction and negatively related to burnout in public service jobs (Lee, 2018). ...
Article
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This study aimed to examine the effect of psychological capital (PsyCap) on work engagement and explore the mediating role of emotional intelligence (EI) on the relationship among public sector employees. Data was collected from a sample of 557 public sector employees in Nigeria, to test the hypothesized model and structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed. The findings of the study indicated that PsyCap has a significant positive influence on work engagement. Importantly, EI fully mediates the relationship between PsyCap and work engagement. The study provides theoretical explanations for the relationship and practical implications were discussed.
... This being said, it is important to note that experiencing mistreatment, bullying or victimization does not and should not fall upon the survivor but rather the perpetrator and perpetrator alone. Evidence suggests that trust, compassion, and empathy within the workplace leads to increases in productivity (Barsade & O'Neill, 2014), job satisfaction (Barsade & O'Neill, 2014), employee retention (Zak, 2017), and engagement (Miao et al., 2016). People also appear to prefer working alongside pleasant but less capable and knowledgeable individuals than individuals who are competent, but unfriendly or hostile (Casciaro & Lobo, 2005). ...
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Having a supervisor with psychopathic characteristics is related to being bullied, poorer job satisfaction, work/family life conflict, financial instability, and distress. To date, all research on corporate psychopathy victims considers how they are negatively impacted rather than potential positive outcomes. In response, this study examined how working with a psychopath impacts posttraumatic growth (PTG). Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, this study draws upon the experiences of 285 individuals who have worked with a colleague or supervisor with alleged psychopathic characteristics. Results indicated that approach coping and psychopathic characteristics predicted PTG. Qualitative analyses revealed that the majority of participants used various coping strategies (e.g., emotion-focused), received support (e.g., emotional), and underwent post-experiential growth or learning (e.g., positive personal growth); not all growth/learning was positive, however (e.g., less trusting). Results suggest that cultivating approach-focused coping strategies may enhance PTG following a traumatic event.
... This study sought to explore the causal relation between TFL, positive high-intensity group emotions (the emotional state passion), and workers' results and wellbeing (satisfaction, commitment, and proactive behavior). Although a large number of studies have demonstrated effects of TFL on various organizational variables (Miao et al., 2016), only a few have analyzed effects of TFL and collective emotions through a longterm longitudinal study. ...
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Positive psychology and positive organizational behavior studies recognize that leadership is extremely important for generating positive well-being. Despite the frequently reported significant positive correlations, the causal long-term relationship between leadership, positive high intense affect, and employee results remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to analyze the long-term (longitudinal) relation of transformational leadership and positive high-intensity emotions with employee group satisfaction, commitment, and proactive behavior. We built a longitudinal structural equation model to test a mediation model with two time points; 2,480 workers from 166 work units completed questionnaires at both time points. Our results reveal that positive high-intensity emotions mediate the relation between transformational leadership and proactive behavior of workers, the bidirectional relations between the variables were also analyzed. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first analyzing the long-term effect of TFL and collective high-intensity emotions on worker’s results longitudinally. Our findings reflect the great complexity of affect and affect-related results in organizations and highlight the need for more longitudinal research to clarify emotional processes at work.
... TEI is often considered as a method to solve challenging interpersonal relationships (Samiuddin et al., 2017). Miao et al. (2016) proved that emotional intelligence is possible to improve the degree of team members' satisfaction. TEI can enhance the connection among coworkers, improve the quality of information exchange and decision-making, and reduce conflict in teams (Lee and Wong, 2017). ...
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From the emotional perspective, this study explores how team leader’s conflict management styles affect team passion. A theoretical model is constructed which describes the mediating role of positive team emotional climate and the moderating impact of team emotional intelligence. We collect 101 teams paired data including 101 team leaders and 383 team members to test theoretical model. It is shown that leader’s cooperative conflict management style has a significant positive effect on both positive team emotional climate and team passion. Meanwhile, positive team emotional climate plays a mediating role between leader’s cooperative conflict management style and team passion. In addition, team emotional intelligence has a moderating effect between leader’s cooperative style and positive team emotional climate. This study not only provides a new perspective for follow-up research but also expands the research scope of impacts of conflict management styles. In addition, this study forms the underlying mechanism of team leader’s conflict management styles on team passion from the emotional perspective and investigates the mediating effect and moderating effect of emotional variable, which broadens the research on the mechanisms of conflict management styles on team outcomes to a certain extent.
... The trust tendency among members helps create a positive organizational climate. This atmosphere may affect employee's work attitude, such as employee satisfaction and organizational commitment (Miao et al., 2016). As trust increases, employees and managers work together, which is more conducive to making informed choices and ultimately achieving job performance (Janssen and Yperen, 2004). ...
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Leadership is generally considered helpful for team knowledge sharing. However, differences in the influence of different leadership styles on team knowledge sharing mechanism is still unclear. To understand different leadership style foster team knowledge sharing, this study focuses on leader–follower trust during team interactions. From the perspective of leadership as social problem solving, we argue that transformational leadership and authoritative leadership are different linked to team knowledge sharing. Through the collection of a sample of 791 valid questionnaires in China, we used the structural equation model to test the theoretical model. Results showed that: (1) Transformational leadership was positively linked to explicit and implicit knowledge sharing, while authoritative leadership was positively linked to explicit knowledge sharing. (2) Trust tendency mediates the relationship between authoritative leadership and knowledge sharing. (3) Supportive and bureaucratic culture moderate the influence of trust tendency on implicit knowledge sharing, such that the positive relationship is stronger for the low-quality of supportive culture and the high-quality of bureaucratic culture. Finally, The study’s implication for theory and practice were discussed, its limitations were identified, and directions for future research were suggested.
... Teachers with more emotional intelligence report higher work satisfaction and lower burnout rates (Mérida-López and Extremera, 2017). Social relationships between students, partners, and employer-employees are better when participants have more emotional intelligence (Malouff et al., 2013;Miao et al., 2016;Petrides et al., 2006). Mental illness, depressive/anxiety symptoms, rumination (Petrides et al., 2007a), and poor social support (Mikolajczak et al., 2007) are lower when people have higher emotional intelligence levels. ...
Article
Trait emotional intelligence reflects a set of self-perceptions and behavioral tendencies to empathize with others and manage one's own emotions. Trait emotional intelligence is a valuable characteristic since it can aid social interaction, bolster subjective wellbeing, and predict career success. Past research suggests that brief exposures to greenspace can enhance outcomes related to facets of trait emotional intelligence. The current study employed a retrospective life course analysis to examine whether residential greenness and other aspects of the residential environment predict trait emotional intelligence in early adulthood. Childhood exposure for 297 college students was based on up to three home addresses from birth to age 18, weighted by residency duration. Greenspace was calculated with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values in 500 m and 1000 m buffers. Partially supporting our predictions, we found emotional intelligence in young adults growing up in lower-income areas was positively associated with cumulative neighborhood greenness around childhood homes. The opposite pattern was found for those who grew up in higher-income areas, with greater greenness500-m being associated with lower emotional intelligence scores. These are the first reported findings involving physical/natural environmental correlates of emotional intelligence and among the first to suggest an equigenic effect of greenspace on socio-emotional outcomes whereby exposure might help overturn inequalities rather than merely reduce them. If a causal link exists between nature exposure and emotional intelligence, then neighborhood greening might help children who begin life at a societal disadvantage through enhancing their ability to understand, use, and manage emotions.
... In this way, Boyatzis and Goleman advanced the idea of Emotional Intelligence (EI) to encompass a more holistic behavioral approach in social and team settings. Subsequent reviews of the literature have shown that the ESI measurement is the strongest indicator of job performance among various types of EI and ESI measures [57][58][59][60][61][62]. As discussed previously, building personal sustainability requires sustainable behavior. ...
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Research about stress management has traditionally focused on reducing possible stressors. However, more recent studies have highlighted the importance of renewal as an antidote to stress. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical explanation of how renewal activities can invoke a psycho-physiological response that enhances personal sustainability. By drawing upon recent evidence from the fields of medicine, psychology, and management, we developed a conceptual understanding of how renewal activities are characterized by the movement of the individual from a negative to a positive psycho-physiological state. Such a transition happens over a tipping point, which people can enact in themselves and in others through emotional and social intelligence competencies. We illustrate this proposition with the specific case of ideal self-based coaching in the workplace that can enhance personal sustainability among both leaders and their team members.
... Pau and Sabri (2015) found that EI is associated with six out of seven aspects of job satisfaction and is a significant predictor of job satisfaction. Miao et al. (2016) found that individually as well as collectively, all three streams (ability, self-report, mixed) of leaders' EI significantly and positively relate to subordinates' job satisfaction, and subordinates' EI partially mediates the positive relationship between leaders' EI and subordinates' job satisfaction. ...
Article
Purpose The paper aims to examine the mediating role of emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction in the emotional intelligence (EI) and job performance (JP) relationship. Design/methodology/approach The data have been collected using a structured questionnaire from 527 females working in education, health and IT/BPO sectors across three cities of Punjab, India. A serial multiple-mediated regression has been used to estimate EI's direct and indirect effects on JP mediated through emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Findings The findings reveal that EI has an indirect positive effect on JP through its influence on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction in serial. The results also suggest that the control variables (namely age, qualification, experience and income) have a limited effect on EI, JP, emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction of female employees. Practical implications The present study asserts that organizations should seek employees with high EI to have high employee performance. The study assists supervisors and human resource (HR) managers in their different functions like recruitment and selection decisions, training and development activities, and designing high-performance work systems. Enhanced EI will improve mental health and well-being, which further drives positive work behaviors. Originality/value This study attempts to examine the EI–JP relationship for working females in more depth. Since the study is based on an Indian sample, it adds to the growing literature on EI and JP of females in the context of non-Western countries. The results are of great value to HR managers and practitioners who aim to develop practices that would increase the performance of females in the workplace.
... As such, there are hints in the literature (e.g., Grandey et al. 2010;Gunkel et al. 2016) that EI itself (and its association with other variables) is influenced by cultural values, which implies that perception, understanding, management, and use of emotions are culture-dependent. Although various meta-analyses stress the existence of a moderating role played by cultural characteristics on the association between a leader's EI and subordinate job satisfaction (Miao et al. 2016), a leader's EI and subordinate task performance (Miao et al. 2018a), a person's EI and entrepreneurial intentions (Miao et al. 2018b), and a service provider's EI and service quality (Miao et al. 2019), there is virtually no research exploring how national culture moderates the influence of EI on cross-border inter-firm relational phenomena. ...
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Building on Emotion Regulation Theory, we examine the role of an exporter’s emotional intelligence (EI) in enhancing the quality and boosting the long-term orientation of the working relationship with its import buyers. Using data gathered from 262 Greek exporters, we confirm that the proper use of EI helps to improve trust, commitment, cooperation, and satisfaction in the relationship with their importers, which subsequently contribute to its long-term orientation. This favorable effect of EI on relationship quality dimensions is amplified when exporters deal with importers located in countries with cultures characterized by low power distance, low individualism, low masculinity, high uncertainty avoidance, and high (national) long-term orientation.
... Among the five traits, the conscientiousness one (consisting in the dimensions of scrupulousness and perseverance) [45,47] has been showed as particularly relevant in the organizational context by several studies, highlighting its associations with important work outcomes, such as attitudes [48,49], job satisfaction [50], performance [51,52], relationships with leaders [53], response to workplace stressors [54], and organizational citizenship behaviors [55]. More specifically, the relationship with job satisfaction was also pointed by previous meta-analyzes, which showed that conscientiousness showed significant positive associations [13], sometimes the highest among different traits of the big five [44,56,57]. Conscientious people tend to be well-organized, self-disciplined, hardworking, growth and success-oriented, persevering, and motivated in the pursuit of established goals [58,59]. ...
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Job satisfaction has gained increasing interest in the world of work and a vast field of research has been stimulated regarding its antecedents. Among these, personality traits have received consistent and significant attention, with a particular emphasis on conscientiousness. To delve deeper and detail these aspects, in the present research, a moderation model was hypothesized, with the aim of investigating the effect of age on the association between conscientiousness (and its subdimensions scrupulousness and perseverance) and job satisfaction. The age-moderated interactions of the other Big Five personality traits were also explored. The study involved 202 Italian workers (92 men, 110 women) with a mean age of 44.82 years ( SD = 10.56) who completed the Big Five Questionnaire and the Job Satisfaction Scale. The results showed a positive association between conscientiousness and job satisfaction. This was moderated by age to the extent that it was significant for younger and average-age workers and was less significant for older workers. Similar results were found for the subdomain of perseverance, while the relationship between scrupulousness and job satisfaction was not significant. Furthermore, no age-moderated interaction between the other Big Five personality traits and Job satisfaction were found. Such data supports interactive models that highlight the need to integrate personality traits with other factors in exploring the antecedents of job satisfaction. These findings provide additional elements to an understanding of the factors contributing to workers satisfaction, and could have important applicative implications in a framework for healthy organizations and the well-being movement.
... Guided by AET, Judge et al. (2006) found evidence for the effect of state hostility, as an affective states, on job satisfaction, as an attitude. In addition, Miao et al.'s (2016) metaanalysis study corroborated the positive relationship between the emotional intelligence of leaders and job satisfaction of followers. Moreover, Rezvani et al. (2016), in the context of Australian defense industry, found empirical evidence for the positive relationship between emotional intelligence of project managers and their job satisfaction, trust and project success. ...
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Guided by affective events theory (AET), our inquiry aims at examining the relationships among affective work events, affective states, affect-driven behaviors, and attitudes of international faculty working in the Malaysian institutions of higher learning. Specifically, the impacts of interpersonal conflict, as a work event, on international faculty’s affective states were in focus. In addition, the mediating role of job performance, as an affect-driven behavior, on the relationship between affective states and job satisfaction, as an attitude, was examined. Data were collected from 152 respondents and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was applied to estimate the proposed theoretical model. Our model was examined from an explanatory-predictive perspective and exhibited a high level of out-of-sample predictive power. In addition, the results of the analysis highlighted the role of interpersonal conflict in causing affective states and affective states in causing job satisfaction. However, empirical evidence was not provided for the mediating role of job performance within the proposed model. Finally, given the fluctuating nature of the affective states, a robustness check verified the nonlinear relationship between positive affect and job performance. Implications of the findings, limitations, and recommendations were elaborated.
... There are 12 competencies measured, which are grouped in four clusters: selfawareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. The meta-analyses show that these measures have the strongest link to performance among the various types of measures of EI or ESI (O'Boyle et al., 2011;Miao et al., 2016Miao et al., , 2017. ...
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Individuals are subject to stressful events from daily chronic stress to traumatic life-changing experiences and the resulting impairment. Efforts to reduce stress or stressors are misdirected. Instead, bouncing back or recovering from such experiences, often called resilience is a far more potent way to ameliorate the ravages of chronic stress and move to a state of renewal, thriving and flourishing. Because we infect each other with stress or renewal through emotional contagion, each person's ability to manage their own emotions as well as those of others and their relationships becomes key to health. These capabilities are called emotional and social intelligence. At the trait level, they are personal dispositions but at the behavioral level they are patterns of behavior we call emotional and social intelligence competencies (ESI). This paper is a review addressing the role of emotional and social intelligence competencies in resilience. By focusing on the behavioral level of ESI, designs for more precise research and practical applications as to how to develop ESI and resilience are offered.
... Follower Job Satisfaction (Miao et al., 2016) Follower task performance (Miao et al., 2018a) Follower Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Miao et al., 2018a) Note: All results include controls for cognitive ability and each of the Big Five personality traits. ...
... Although emotional intelligence is defined in different ways, all the definitions emphasize the ability to perceive and manage emotions and to use emotions to reason effectively. Meta-analyses confirm that the emotional intelligence of leaders is positively related to subordinates' job satisfaction, task performance, and organizational citizenship behavior (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2016, 2018a. Emotionally intelligent leaders are more likely to be authentic leaders (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2018b). ...
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Exploring the psychological foundations of management in family firms is necessary to understand why they formulate and implement strategies differently from nonfamily firms, and why and how family firm behavior varies across different family firms. Picone et al. (2021. The psychological foundations of management in family firms: Values, biases, and heuristics. Family Business Review, 34(1), 12-32) have proposed a conceptual framework for the psychological foundations of management in family business, examining how the values, biases, and heuristics of family firm members affect strategic decision-making and family firm outcomes. Drawing on this framework, we examine emotions, memories, and experiences in family firms, disentangling “what we know” from “what we should know”, and offering some relevant questions to advance the field.
... There has been a debate over the distinction between cognitive and emotional abilities (Locke, 2005), but they are generally considered distinct yet related constructs (Cherniss, 2010;Côté & Miners, 2006;Mayer et al., 2000Mayer et al., , 2001. Recent studies, including several meta-analyses, provide evidence that EI has incremental validity over personality (Sy et al., 2006) and cognitive ability (Joseph & Newman, 2010;Rossen & Kranzler, 2009) when predicting job performance (Joseph et al., 2015) and work attitudes (Miao et al., 2016(Miao et al., , 2017O'Boyle et al., 2011). These meta-analyses show promising benefits of EI for individuals and organizations. ...
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We build on the adaptive leadership framework to include reasoning (i.e., a cognitive ability) and emotional intelligence (EI) (i.e., social ability) factors in predicting potential leader adaptability. We incorporate adaptive and situational leadership theories along with trait process models to examine two types of reasoning abilities, inductive and deductive along with the direct and moderating effect of EI on potential leader adaptability. Using a three wave panel design, we found that inductive reasoning and EI predicted adaptive leadership; we further showed that EI moderated the inductive-adaptive leadership relationship where higher levels of EI and inductive reasoning abilities predicted potential leader adaptability. We discuss the implications of the study findings to theory and practice while offering directions for future research.
... as the antecedent variable of team cohesion (Abraham, 2005). From the cultural perspective, some research supports that leaders in institutional collectivism culture tend to use their emotional intelligence to build a collective identity within the team to cultivate the team's loyalty and cohesion (Miao et al., 2016). China, influenced by Confucian culture, is a significant collectivist nation. ...
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The emotional intelligence of a construction project manager plays an essential role in project management, and recent developments in teamwork have increased the need to explore better ways to utilize teams and achieve effectiveness in the construction sector. However, research that holds the team-level perspective in emotional intelligence studies is lacking, and the mechanism of the construction project manager’s emotional intelligence on team effectiveness remains unexplored. This knowledge gap is addressed by developing a model that illuminates how construction project manger’s emotional intelligence can affect team effectiveness via the mediation of team cohesion and the moderation of project team duration. A questionnaire survey was utilized to gather information from construction project teams across 156 leader-member dyads in the Chinese construction industry. The results reveal that construction project manager’s emotional intelligence is positively related to team effectiveness and the team cohesion mediates this cause and effect. Further, project team duration moderates the relationship between team cohesion and effectiveness. This study offers new insight into how project manager can better lead team members toward desired team outcomes from a team perspective and makes an explorative effort in investigating the “time” role in construction project management.
... Employee job satisfaction is among the last century's most richly studied psychological concepts. The body of job satisfaction empirical studies is vast, commonly employing a variety of quantitative measurements of scaled attributes, typically using multivariate regression in the assessment of mean levels of job satisfaction (Allan et al., 2019;Iaffaldano & Muchinsky, 1985;Judge et al., 2002Judge et al., , 2010Miao et al., 2016;Wilkin, 2013). ...
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This study is an empirical response to the scholarly debate regarding sex work and sex worker empowerment. It drew on job satisfaction literature to derive a theoretical model of pathways for job satisfaction in sex work. It tested this model with data from 96 migrant sex workers from China. It used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to examine the conjunctive pathways among workers who reported that they were satisfied with their vocation. Of the 96 women interviewed, 12 experienced job satisfaction. QCA identified three antecedent conditions as necessary for producing job satisfaction and two additional conditions, either one of which was also necessary. Job satisfaction required: (1) full awareness of the nature of their work prior to starting, (2) perceived agency, and (3) enjoyment of earnings, beyond meeting survival needs. It also required at least one of two additional antecedents: perceiving workplace autonomy or having a favorable workplace environment. This study demonstrates that, while genuine job satisfaction may be relatively rare for sex workers, there are pathways that make it possible.
... La inteligencia emocional es un constructo que ha sido vinculado con diversas variables como el liderazgo (Hong et al., 2011), como una característica de los grandes líderes (Goleman, 2003) y como una diferencia individual importante (Schutte y Loi, 2014). Académicos e investigadores han revelado con sus hallazgos que la inteligencia emocional se vincula con la efectividad del liderazgo y resultados como el clima organizacional, el compromiso organizacional, la intención de rotación (Hur et al., 2011;Wong y Law, 2002), la satisfacción laboral (Miao et al., 2016) y la motivación para el trabajo de los seguidores. Otros autores han destacado que el manejo de las emociones propias y de otros es valioso para los gerentes y los empleados de las empresas (Drigas y Papoutsi, 2019) y que la inteligencia emocional afecta los comportamientos laborales de los empleados (George et al., 2021), el desempeño laboral (Pekaar et al., 2017), el comportamiento de la ciudadanía organizacional (O'Boyle et al., 2011;Weinzimmer et al., 2017) y el conflicto trabajo-familia, equilibrio trabajo-vida y satisfacción con la vida (Bedi y Bedi, 2017;Mahanta, 2015). ...
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Resumen / Abstract En la literatura actual, académicos e investigadores pronuncian la necesidad empresarial de un clima organizacional caracterizado por el uso de los avances tecnológicos para el desarrollo de las redes comunicacionales como herramientas que promueven relaciones interpersonales que vinculan emociones y compromisos para el logro de los objetivos de los empleados y de la organización. Es por ello que en esta investigación se establece un vínculo entre estos constructos con el propósito de determinar la relación entre la Inteligencia Emocional y el Compromiso Laboral en las Mipymes de Ecuador. Con la aplicación de la metodología, bajo un enfoque positivista, descriptivo, con alcance explicativo y un nivel correlacional, el estudio se llevó a cabo en las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MiPymes) de las 24 provincias de Ecuador. Con una muestra de 300 empleados de las empresas seleccionadas, se aplicaron las escalas para evaluar el comportamiento de las variables. Los resultados revelaron que existe una relación directamente proporcional entre los constructos evaluados, indicando que a mayor nivel de inteligencia emocional mayor grado de compromiso laboral. Los hallazgos permitieron inferir que, mientras mejor sea la conciencia y regulación de las emociones, los empleados experimentarán un mayor compromiso en las labores empresariales. Palabras claves: inteligencia emocional; compromiso laboral; empleados. In the current literature, academics and researchers pronounce the business need for an organizational climate in which a close relationship prevails between the objectives of both companies and employees, based on the use of technology and communication networks to create and maintain an environment in which the emotions and commitment of the members converge through their interpersonal relationships. That is why this research establishes a link between these constructs in order to determine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Labor Commitment in MSMEs in Ecuador. With the application of the methodology, under a positivist, descriptive approach, with an explanatory scope and a correlational level; The study was carried out in the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) of the 24 provinces of Ecuador. With a sample of 300 employees of the selected companies, the scales were applied to evaluate the behavior of the variables. The results revealed that there is a directly proportional relationship between the constructs evaluated, indicating that the higher the level of emotional intelligence, the greater the degree of work engagement. The findings allowed us to infer that the better the awareness and regulation of emotions, the employees will experience greater commitment in business tasks.
... This positive signal can make team members feel comfortable with the current communication and cooperation process in work and enhance team cohesion (Chan and Mallett, 2011). From another perspective, some research supports that leaders in institutional collectivism culture tend to use their EI to build a collective identity to cultivate the team's loyalty and cohesion (Miao et al., 2016). China, influenced by Confucian culture, is a significant collectivist nation. ...
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A project manager’s emotional intelligence (EI) is essential to project success. However, the mechanism in this cause and effect remains a black box in extant literature. China is now the world’s largest construction market, and figuring out the mechanism of construction project manager’s (CPM’s) EI on project success is meaningful for developing the global construction market. This study conducted an in-depth interview with 24 CPMs with more than 5-year experience in construction project management. The grounded theory was employed to profile the application of CPM’s EI and to build the multilevel mechanism that explains the influence of CPM’s EI on project success. The mechanism framework conforms to the existed input–process–output (IPO) theory. It consists of a team-level mechanism (including the positive team atmosphere, shared vision, and team cohesion) and an individual-level mechanism (i.e., organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization, perceived supervisor support, trust in leader, and subordinate’s psychological and emotional health). This study further proposed that the effect of this mechanism does not work immediately but develops with time passing. Implications for further research and project management practice are discussed in the end.
... Öte yandan, kendini anlama ve insanlarla etkileşim kurma yeteneğini içeren duygusal bölümün, diğer bir deyişle, duygusal zekanın, kişinin genel anlamda başarısına olan katksının %80 olduğu ifade edilmektedir. Duygusal zekanın, etkili liderlik (Korkmaz & Arpacı, 2009), yaşam doyumu, stres (Wang & Kong, 2014), çalışanın iş tatmini, örgüte olan bağlılığı, işten ayrılma niyeti (Miao, Humphrey & Qian, 2016), performansı (Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004) gibi faktörlerde olumlu etkisi mevcuttur. IQ ise işe alımlarda kilit bir unsur olarak düşünülmektedir. ...
Conference Paper
Bitcoin as one the most famous cryptocurrency has gained more popularity especially in the last few years. Gold is also considered as a safe haven for many investors especially when there is political and financial uncertainty existing in the market. In some previous studies there are some statistically significant connectedness have found between Gold price and Bitcoin price (Jareno et al., 2020). It is determined that gold price return changes have caused some sensitivity over Bitcoin returns. Therefore, in this study, the influence of gold price over Bitcoin price fluctuations has been questioned especially in a term which consists of during and after pandemic term. With this understanding in this study; weekly data regarding BTC/USD and Gold/USD has been collected from the date 08.05.2017 to 25.04.2022 (5 years) and as the statistical method ARDL model approach is applied to find an answer to the question. The results have showed that gold price has no statistically significant impact on the Bitcoin price volatility contrary to previous studies.
... Öte yandan, kendini anlama ve insanlarla etkileşim kurma yeteneğini içeren duygusal bölümün, diğer bir deyişle, duygusal zekanın, kişinin genel anlamda başarısına olan katksının %80 olduğu ifade edilmektedir. Duygusal zekanın, etkili liderlik (Korkmaz & Arpacı, 2009), yaşam doyumu, stres (Wang & Kong, 2014), çalışanın iş tatmini, örgüte olan bağlılığı, işten ayrılma niyeti (Miao, Humphrey & Qian, 2016), performansı (Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004) gibi faktörlerde olumlu etkisi mevcuttur. IQ ise işe alımlarda kilit bir unsur olarak düşünülmektedir. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bitcoin as one the most famous cryptocurrency has gained more popularity especially in the last few years. Gold is also considered as a safe haven for many investors especially when there is political and financial uncertainty existing in the market. In some previous studies there are some statistically significant connectedness have found between Gold price and Bitcoin price (Jareno et al., 2020). It is determined that gold price return changes have caused some sensitivity over Bitcoin returns. Therefore, in this study, the influence of gold price over Bitcoin price fluctuations has been questioned especially in a term which consists of during and after pandemic term. With this understanding in this study; weekly data regarding BTC/USD and Gold/USD has been collected from the date 08.05.2017 to 25.04.2022 (5 years) and as the statistical method ARDL model approach is applied to find an answer to the question. The results have showed that gold price has no statistically significant impact on the Bitcoin price volatility contrary to previous studies.
... Öte yandan, kendini anlama ve insanlarla etkileşim kurma yeteneğini içeren duygusal bölümün, diğer bir deyişle, duygusal zekanın, kişinin genel anlamda başarısına olan katksının %80 olduğu ifade edilmektedir. Duygusal zekanın, etkili liderlik (Korkmaz & Arpacı, 2009), yaşam doyumu, stres (Wang & Kong, 2014), çalışanın iş tatmini, örgüte olan bağlılığı, işten ayrılma niyeti (Miao, Humphrey & Qian, 2016), performansı (Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004) gibi faktörlerde olumlu etkisi mevcuttur. IQ ise işe alımlarda kilit bir unsur olarak düşünülmektedir. ...
Conference Paper
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Over the last few decades; global finance market has experienced series of crises including USA crises in 2008 and Covid-19 Pandemic Global crises. They have had a great impact on the whole economies in the world including Turkey. These crises have strengthened the belief that gold is one of the most valuable investment protection tools. Gold value has reached its all-time high value especially during and after pandemic. This brought the question whether the existing prediction methods for gold price forecasting are still effective with time series analysis. In this study monthly prices of Free market Cumhuriyet gold selling priced (averaged) is being evaluated from January 2008 to April 2022. The ARIMA model is applied and also some other methods are compared with ARIMA. For the evaluation; MAPE, RMSE and MAE metrics are applied and all models’ results are compared in order to select the best time series forecasting model for gold price in Turkey consisting the term before and after pandemic.
... Öte yandan, kendini anlama ve insanlarla etkileşim kurma yeteneğini içeren duygusal bölümün, diğer bir deyişle, duygusal zekanın, kişinin genel anlamda başarısına olan katksının %80 olduğu ifade edilmektedir. Duygusal zekanın, etkili liderlik (Korkmaz & Arpacı, 2009), yaşam doyumu, stres (Wang & Kong, 2014), çalışanın iş tatmini, örgüte olan bağlılığı, işten ayrılma niyeti (Miao, Humphrey & Qian, 2016), performansı (Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004) gibi faktörlerde olumlu etkisi mevcuttur. IQ ise işe alımlarda kilit bir unsur olarak düşünülmektedir. ...
Conference Paper
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The participation of workers in management and, moreover, a regulation form without managers, completely managed by workers, with equally distributed profits, is undoubtedly a democratic form of management, which is the dream of every generation of workers. Especially when the capitalist market is gaining strength, there is an idea that such a practice can become a sip of water in the desert. Conducting Research on Cuba, the only socialist state in the Western Hemisphere, despite the capitalist society and free-market rules that became widespread after the historic collapse of the Soviet Union, and the assessment of the level of workers' participation in administration and democratic decision-making is a very curious issue. The absence so far of any research in Turkey related to the participation of workers in management in Cuba increases the importance of this work, which serves as a practical guide with an informative character. In this study, the concept of participation in management is explained within the scope of industrial democracy, and there are briefly mentioned the forms of participation in governance. There has been examined the level of participation of workers in management in Cuba and presented various points of view. In the conducting of the study has been used the literature review method. According to the findings of the study, workers in Cuba participate in management at different levels through unions and cooperatives. In addition, workers can individually participate in the management and be a participant of the joint decision-making process.
... According to (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017) staff with higher Emotional Intelligence (EI) are capable of understanding and controlling their emotions to reach the best workplace results. Miao, Humphrey, & Qian (2016) explained that staff is able to use their own emotional intelligence to enhance their job satisfaction level since EI Help in experiencing more positive feeling at work. Goleman (1998) suggested that emotional intelligence can help in reaching Open Journal of Business and Management adaptive and productive behavior inside the organization. ...
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Introduction: Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction are of particular importance in the workplace environment, The aim of this research is to investigate, the impact of emotional intelligence training on job satisfaction in an education firm located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results can help organizations realize human capabilities and the way to improve them by providing more attention to the human aspect. Purpose: The purpose of the research is to investigate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence Training and job satisfaction. Design/Methodology/Approach: Mixed methods case study was done on fifty employees from one single company, who were selected based on their low Job satisfaction rate according to the yearly satisfaction questionnaire done by their company. All fifty employees attended Emotional Intelligence training for five days with a total of forty training hours. After three months of completing the training, the employees undergo a satisfaction survey to assess the impact of the training. Analyses were done using SPSS to examine the correlation and the impact of Emotional Intelligence (EI) Training and Job Satisfaction (JS). Finding: Emotional Intelligence Training Positively Impacts the Job Satisfaction (JS). Practical Implications: Emotional Intelligence training will be beneficial to be utilized by the company and human resource management team to foster employees’ EI which will increase job satisfaction. Keywords Job Satisfaction, Emotional Intelligence, Training
... The leader's hierarchical level in psycho-educational interdisciplinary teams, which is the focus of our study, is low. Furthermore, according to Miao et al. (2016), when leader's hierarchical level is low, leaders will have more opportunities to interact with their direct followers and, therefore, more opportunities to use their EI to influence their subordinates. According to Vine et al. (2008), distributed leadership describes those constellations in which teams lead their work 'collectively and independently of formal leaders'. ...
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of emotional skills and gender in the workplace affect through non-hierarchical level and multilevel analyses. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires completed by 19 directors and 128 subordinates working in interdisciplinary teams of Centers of Educational and Counselling Support. At non-hierarchical level, higher-order emotional skills (use of emotions and cognitive reappraisal) were positively related to positive affect in the workplace. Negative affect was negatively associated with the ability to regulate emotions and positively associated with the strategy of emotional suppression. From the multilevel analyses, cognitive reappraisal was a significant predictor for both positive and negative affect (inversed) of subordinates. Gender differences were observed in multilevel analyses. We also explored possible tensions between emotional competencies and emotional outcomes (workplace affect) at non-hierarchical and managerial level in interdisciplinary teams. We suggest training programs that promote group emotional empowerment and focus on higher-order emotional skills. At managerial level, we suggest training programs that penetrate cognitive reappraisal of emotions since this is an emotion regulation strategy that promotes safer emotional affect in the workplace.
... Thanks to the collaborative, impartial, consistent and fair approach of agile leaders, employees feel strong in uncertain and challenging conditions and strengthen their belief that they will find effective solutions in the face of problems (McKenzie and Aitken, 2012). The fact that leaders have the ability to control both their own emotions and the emotions of others during stress enables employees to develop pleasing behaviors (Mayer and Salovey, 1995;Miao et al., 2016) and to experience high job satisfaction (Ouyang et al., 2015). On the other hand, it has been determined that negative leadership characteristics, which cannot analyze problems in organizations, delay the decision-making process, have difficulty in communicating and do not trust their leadership competence, cause a decrease in organizational justice perceptions of employees (Holtz and Hu, 2017). ...
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Teachers with high job satisfaction become more effective and productive by showing high performance and positively affecting student and school outcomes. This study investigates the relationship between school principals’ agile leadership characteristics, organizational justice, and job satisfaction, and sheds light on the role of organizational justice in the relationship between agile leadership and job satisfaction. To achieve this aim, a theoretical model has been put forward and this model has been tested with the data collected from 409 teachers working in public schools in Istanbul. The results show that school principals with high agile leadership characteristics and organizational justice are associated with teachers’ job satisfaction. The analyses also indicate that organizational justice strongly contributes to the relationship between agile leadership and job satisfaction and plays an important role in the relationship between the two determinants.
... El liderazgo también ha sido ampliamente relacionado con la SL (p. ej., Azzollini y Pérez Vilar, 2013;Miao et al., 2016). En concreto, Top et al. (2015) encuentran efectos significativos del liderazgo en la SL y el compromiso organizacional. ...
Article
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Las razones por las que una persona llega a convertirse en un buen líder trascienden el ámbito empresarial y laboral. Los estudios actuales avalan la importancia de las dimensiones personales en el desarrollo del liderazgo. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar el papel de variables personales como la inteligencia emocional, la capacidad de trabajo en equipo y la satisfacción laboral en el desempeño de un liderazgo auténtico. La muestra estuvo conformada por 964 participantes en un proceso de selección de personal (edad, M = 36.37, DT = 8.87). Se realizaron análisis de regresión lineal múltiple para determinar la influencia de la inteligencia emocional, el trabajo en equipo y la satisfacción laboral en el liderazgo auténtico, así como análisis de moderación y mediación. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan la existencia de relaciones entre las variables incluidas en el estudio. Se ha encontrado que la inteligencia emocional, el trabajo en equipo y la satisfacción laboral explican una parte sustancial de la variabilidad en el liderazgo auténtico; así como diferentes relaciones de mediación y moderación. Los resultados obtenidos son discutidos destacando el papel de las variables personales analizadas tanto en los procesos de selección como de formación para el fortalecimiento y el logro de un verdadero liderazgo auténtico.
... Trait emotional intelligence is a strong predictor of job satisfaction, with effects that often persist over and above the Big Five and cognitive ability (Miao et al., 2017). It has also been found that leader trait EI relates positively to subordinate job satisfaction (Miao et al., 2016). Similarly, the construct has shown strong predictive ability in relation to job performance, again, over and above the Big Five and cognitive ability (e.g., O'Boyle et al., 2011). ...
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Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) concerns people’s perceptions of their emotional functioning. Two studies investigated this construct in surgeons and comparison occupations. We hypothesized that trait EI profiles would differ both within surgical specialties as well as between them and other professions. Study 1 (N = 122) compared the trait EI profiles of four different surgical specialties (General, Orthopedic, Head and Neck, and Miscellaneous surgical specialties). There were no significant differences amongst these specialties or between consultant surgeons and trainees in these specialties. Accordingly, the surgical data were combined into a single target sample (N = 462) that was compared against samples of engineers, executives and senior managers, lawyers, junior military managers, nurses, and salespeople. Surgeons scored significantly higher on global trait EI than junior military managers, but lower than executives and senior managers, salespeople, and nurses. There were no significant differences vis-à-vis engineers or lawyers. A MANOVA confirmed a similar pattern of differences in the four trait EI factors (Wellbeing, Self-control, Sociability, and Emotionality). Global trait EI scores correlated strongly with single-question measures of job satisfaction (r = 0.47) and job performance (r = 0.46) in the surgical sample. These findings suggest that interventions to optimize the trait EI profiles of surgeons can be helpful in relation to job satisfaction, job performance, and overall psychological wellbeing.
... Job satisfaction is a significant construct in organizational psychology (Miao et al., 2016), which is a positive emotional state deriving from overall evaluations of the job (Weiss, 2002). Academic researchers and managers show the interest in job satisfaction from three perspectives (Yang, 2010). ...
Purpose: This study examines how employee participation in the performance measurement system affects the relationship between authentic leadership and job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: Survey data for this study were obtained from 322 employees in South Korea. Structural equation modeling and bootstrapping method were applied to test the proposed hypotheses. Findings: This study first confirmed that authentic leadership positively affects job satisfaction. In addition, the results showed that employees' participation in developing performance measures partially mediated the relationship between authentic leadership and job satisfaction. Practical implications: The findings imply that employees' participation in developing performance measures, which is promoted by authentic leadership, can be a strategy for enhancing job satisfaction. Therefore, in order to increase employees' job satisfaction, organizations need to promote employee participation in the performance measurement system and develop authenticity in leaders. Originality/value: Employees' participation in developing performance measures has not been investigated sufficiently from the leadership perspective. This study expands the literature on the influence of employee participation in the performance measurement system on work-related outcomes by demonstrating that employees' participation in developing performance measures partially mediates the effect of authentic leadership on employee job satisfaction.
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Purpose Limited research has been devoted to the entanglement of emotions between leaders and followers (i.e. emotional congruence) and how these emotions may be altering job satisfaction. Current research hints that a leader's emotional intelligence (EI) directly influences follower's satisfaction at work. Using the affective events theory (AET), emotional contagion theory (ECT) and the multi-level model of emotion and leadership, this research attempts to directly examine perceptions of the leader–follower relationship and the relationship's enhancement of follower job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach This paper employs a survey among 427 USA-based workers to test a moderated model of the relationship between follower and leader EI and job satisfaction. The hypothesized relationships and moderation effects are examined using the SPSS macro PROCESS (Hayes, 2018). Common method variance (CMV) was analyzed and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is presented. Findings Direct effects support the hypotheses that follower and leader EI contribute to the job satisfaction of followers. Moderation effects support the enhancing effect of EI congruence, such that the relationship between follower and leader EI and follower job satisfaction is stronger at higher levels of congruence. Originality/value These findings are significant in that the findings are among the first to examine leader and follower EI similarity and the similarity's effect on an employee's satisfaction at work. The findings highlight new opportunities for leadership and emotion researchers to better understand the leader–follower relationship.
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This study aims to determine the role of stakeholder orientation, strategic capability, and joint value creation on the competitiveness of Banten’s cultural tourism destinations. This research is located in Banten Province, Indonesia. This research was conducted by distributing electronic questionnaires to 321 respondents. Furthermore, focus group discussions among stakeholders were conducted to balance and strengthen the data collected. The findings of the test results indicate that Stakeholder Orientation (OS), Strategic Capabilities (KS), and Shared Value Creation (PNB) have a significant role in the competitiveness variable of cultural tourism destinations. The results of the partial test found that the diversity of OS and KS was not significant for the competitiveness variable of cultural tourism destinations (DS). This means that in the future the OS, KS, and GNP indicators must be improved, especially the shared value creation (PNB) variable which has the biggest role.
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Emotional intelligence has been considered an important construct by schools and universities because of its theoretical importance and practical implications. Considerable resources and time have been spent by the educational institutions to develop the emotional skills of their students. The present meta-analysis aimed at studying the relationship of emotional intelligence, including its three theoretical models, with academic performance while accounting for age and gender as moderators. “Robumeta” package was used for the meta-analysis of multilevel random effects with robust variance estimation (RVE) in R version 4.0.3. Effect sizes were calculated and meta-regression analysis with RVE was used to assess the relationship with the moderator variables. A positive and significant overall relationship was found between emotional intelligence and academic performance (ρ = 0.19). The moderating effect of emotional intelligence with gender streams on emotional intelligence and academic performance’s relationship was examined through meta-regression with robust variance estimation and sub-group analyses. Whereas the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic performance was not found to be moderated by age, it was found to be partially mediated by gender.
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Purpose The changing environment of today’s organizations creates an atmosphere ripe for emotions. This ebb and flow of emotions need to be managed to facilitate positive outcomes such as job satisfaction. This paper aims to provide evidence that emotional intelligence directly impacts one’s satisfaction at work. This paper attempts to go beyond these higher-order findings to examine the dimensional aspects of emotional intelligence and the impact each one has on job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach Using a quantitative survey conducted among 427 US-based workers, this paper tests a disaggregated emotional intelligence model and its hypothesized relationships with job satisfaction through structural equation modeling (SEM). Additional analysis includes confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a two-stage common method variance assessment. Findings The results confirmed the positive impact of the dimensions of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction. However, with interactive effects in place, the results also found signs of reciprocal suppression and could not confirm that all four emotional intelligence dimensions significantly and positively related to job satisfaction. Originality/value These findings are significant in that they are among the first to elaborate on the dimensions of emotional intelligence and their role in the improvement of one’s satisfaction at work. Further, these findings legitimize the use of the theoretical higher-order model of emotional intelligence in lieu of investigating its dimensional aspects.
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Servant leadership with its profound effect on the performance of organizations has gained much attention among researchers and practitioners. Likewise, another construct of organizational behavior, emotional intelligence, has been noted to have a significant impact on employees' job performances. This study is undertaken to explore the role of servant leadership between emotional intelligence and job performance, in the higher education sector of Quetta, Pakistan. The present study with the quantitative method in nature used the survey method to collect the data using convince sampling technique, where the data is analyzed using the smart pls software. The results of the study showed that emotional intelligence has a positive association with servant leadership and job performance. In addition, it is also proved that servant leadership mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance. Furthermore, this study contributes to the body of knowledge by exploring the role of servant leadership, emotional intelligence, and job performance. Furthermore, the study would help leaders to groom as servant leaders and learn how to deal with emotions to be more effective in work settings, and assists organizations, to train their current leaders the traits of emotional intelligence and servant leadership and hire future leaders who possess the characteristics of servant leadership and emotional intelligence.
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Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a distinct mental ability, defined by Mayer and Salovey as ability to perceive, use, understand, and manage emotions in self and others. EI is now recognized as a distinct type of intelligence via three main streams of thought: (1) conceptualized and measured as a mental ability; (2) conceptualized as an ability, but measured using self/peer-reporting; and (3) other conceptualizations and measures. Extant research demonstrates that EI can be developed though training; and that it links to positive life outcomes including better mental health and well-being, as well as improved social relations, academic achievement, and work performance.
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This research paper explores the implications of emotional intelligence and the Big Five personality model on virtual team effectiveness. It illustrates how emotional intelligence and Big Five personality traits help team members better understand interpersonal relationships and develop constructive virtual teams. The widespread use of virtual team meetings for collaborative work over in-person interaction with diverse personalities creates discord and trust among team members, limiting overall productivity. A quantitative analysis approach is used, with hypotheses tested and a series of multiple linear regression analyses performed on data collected from relevant industries using convenient sampling. The findings show that the Big Five personality affects the virtual team's trust and collaboration parameters. However, the relationship between personality traits and team effectiveness is mediated by emotional intelligence. Also, it is explored that having control over emotional intelligence or developing emotional intelligence would improve team performance while managing and working with a diverse group of people.
Purpose Hospitality workers are emotional labor workers because they must display appropriate emotions to their customers to provide outstanding service. Emotional intelligence (EI) helps employees regulate their emotions and display appropriate emotions, and hence should help hospitality workers provide outstanding service. However, the strength of the relationship between EI and hospitality workers’ job performance substantially varied across studies. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to clarify the mixed findings and to examine if EI can improve hospitality workers’ job performance. Design/methodology/approach A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between EI and hospitality workers’ job performance as well as the moderators which condition this relationship. Findings The present meta-analysis indicated that EI is positively related to hospitality workers’ job performance ( ρ ̅̂ = 0.54); the relationship between EI and hospitality workers’ job performance is stronger when the percentage of married subjects is low and in feminine cultures; and this relationship does not differ between male-dominated and female-dominated studies, across educational levels, between collectivistic and individualistic cultures, between low and high power distance cultures and between low and high uncertainty avoidance cultures. Research limitations/implications This study uncovers theoretically important moderators that contribute to cross-cultural research, work–family literature and gender-related literature in hospitality research. Originality/value The present study builds a theoretical foundation and performs a meta-analysis to elucidate the relationship between EI and hospitality workers’ job performance and to identify the moderators which condition this relationship.
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This study aims to fill the previous research gap by examining the relationship between job stress, work-family conflict (WFC), and job satisfaction. It also investigates the mediating effect of job burnout, through which job demands influence job satisfaction, and examines the moderating effect of emotional intelligence (EI) on these relationships through the lens of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. The data for this study was collected from 279 respondents who were frontline employees in 14 banks in Palestine. A cross-sectional research approach was performed using a partial least squares path modeling approach. The study finds that job demands (job stress and WFC) increase job burnout. Contrary to expectations, job demands have a negative but not significant direct effect on job satisfaction. Further, job burnout reduces frontline bank employees’ job satisfaction. Regarding the mediating effect, job burnout fully mediates the relationship between job demands and job satisfaction. The findings suggest that the relationship between job stress and job burnout is stronger when EI is comparatively low. The study thus extends prior research by investigating the conditional indirect effect of job stress on job satisfaction when job burnout acts as a mediator and EI is the moderator. It contributes to the JD-R literature by providing support from the Palestinian banking sector.
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Despite ongoing controversy, emotional intelligence is emerging as a potentially important variable in furthering our understanding of individual behavior in organizations. In this respect, however, most of the research in relation to emotional intelligence has been at the individual level of behavior. In this chapter, we develop a framework for considering the impact of emotional intelligence at the organizational level. Specifically, we map Mayer and Salovey's four emotional intelligence abilities onto Shein's three-level organizational culture schema. We conclude with a discussion of implications for managers and suggest that the model we propose may prove to be a useful starting point for future research into emotional intelligence as an organizational phenomenon.
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Research investigations into employee well-being (EWB) have tended to take a between-individual approach, which highlights differences among people. This traditional paradigm has been complemented by examinations of intraindividual EWB, which explores within-person variation over periods of time. Drawing on affective events theory (AET), we further elaborate the implications of intraindividual EWB for two reasonably stable sets of constructs—personality traits and affective climates. We argue that the intraindividual paradigm challenges scholars to rethink what they mean by stability, concluding that stability can be conceptualized in two ways—as reasonably consistent levels of affect and predictable patterns of affective change.
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As societal concern shifts from financial survival towards quality of life issues, both in and outside of the workplace, scholarly interest in employee well-being too has risen greatly in recent years. This greater attention to the antecedents and outcomes of employee well-being, such as job satisfaction, work engagement, and job burnout amongst others, is reflected in the proliferation of theories, constructs, and studies seeking to describe and explain why employees flourish or become exhausted at work, and the effect of employee well-being on individual behaviours and the organization at large. In this article, we provide a selective review of the current state of research in employee well-being, as well as key theories that have been employed in its study, with the aim of providing a critical assessment of the current state of employee well-being research as well as suggest future directions for the field. In particular, we discuss how research adopting intraindividual perspectives in the study of employee well-being can not only add value to our understanding of well-being but also complement the findings from between-individual studies, and offer suggestions for the development of a comprehensive theoretical model that integrates the two perspectives.
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is a divisive topic for many individuals interested in the subject of leadership. Whereas practitioner-oriented publications have claimed that EI is the sine qua non of leadership, academics continue to discuss EI's relevance for understanding leadership emergence, behavior, and effectiveness. Here we critically review recent empirical evidence to constructively frame what has become a contentious debate about the relevance of EI. We also identify unresolved issues and highlight future research directions that may promote our understanding of EI's role for leadership. We close with a practical discussion of possible applications of EI in leadership education, training, and development.
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Perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns correlate moderately and positively but exhibit divergent patterns of associations with positive and negative outcomes. Despite accumulated evidence supporting the incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence, over and above the Big Five, the contention that trait emotional intelligence plays a mediating role in the perfectionism-outcome link has yet to be investigated. To address this, 645 Chinese participants completed pencil-and-paper measures of perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, trait emotional intelligence, depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction with life. Perfectionistic strivings were positively related to trait emotional intelligence while perfectionistic concerns were negatively related to trait emotional intelligence. Moreover, trait emotional intelligence fully mediated the link between perfectionistic strivings and satisfaction with life and partially mediated the link between perfectionistic concerns and depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction with life. However, perfectionistic strivings’ total effects on depression, anxiety, and stress were non-significant, thus precluding mediation.
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A poststructuralist feminist reading of Herbert Simon's construct, bounded rationality, is presented in this article. Following from this notion, it is maintained that even though bounded rationality provides a modified critique of "pure" rationality, this concept is grounded in male-centered assumptions that exclude alternative modes of organizing. Through a feminist deconstructive process, bounded emotionality is introduced as an alternative organizing construct. The premises, conditions of organizing, and implications of this alternative are discussed and illustrated. Finally, theorists are urged to move beyond the traditional dichotomy between rationality and emotionality, in order to question the assumptions that underlie traditional constructs and to create new grounds for future theoretical activities.
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The current study aimed to explore how individual difference in emotional intelligence influenced job satisfaction, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator roles of organizational justice and job insecurity. A total of 420 staffs from a large-scale IT enterprise in China completed the self-reported emotional intelligence scale, the organizational justice scale, the job insecurity scale and Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire. The results revealed that emotional intelligence, organizational justice, job insecurity and job satisfaction were significantly correlated with each other. Structural equation modeling indicated that emotional intelligence can significantly influence job satisfaction and the relationship between EI and satisfaction was partially mediated by organizational justice and job insecurity.
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This study examined the incremental validity of the adult short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) in predicting 7 construct-relevant criteria beyond the variance explained by the Five-factor model and coping strategies. Additionally, the relative contributions of the questionnaire's 4 subscales were assessed. Two samples of Canadian university students completed the TEIQue-SF, along with measures of the Big Five, coping strategies (Sample 1 only), and emotion-laden criteria. The TEIQue-SF showed consistent incremental effects beyond the Big Five or the Big Five and coping strategies, predicting all 7 criteria examined across the 2 samples. Furthermore, 2 of the 4 TEIQue-SF subscales accounted for the measure's incremental validity. Although the findings provide good support for the validity and utility of the TEIQue-SF, directions for further research are emphasized.
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The concepts of Emotional intelligence and employee Job satisfaction are of high interest in the modern work environment. They serve as a competitive edge in personal and organizational life. However, there is little information known about the two variables' relationships especially in the South African electric power industry. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between leader emotional intelligence and employee job satisfaction. A quantitative research design was utilised. The sample for this study consists of 92 randomly selected respondents from two strata (middle level organizational leaders and lower level employees). A self-administered questionnaire was administered to respondents; drawn from a selected Eskom branch in South Africa. The data collected was analysed using SPSS version 20.0. Correlation statistics revealed statistically significant relationship between leader emotional intelligence and employee job satisfaction. The value of the findings of this study lies in the explanatory utility of the identified relationships between leader emotional intelligence and employee job satisfaction.
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This study examined whether trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or emotional self-efficacy) can differentiate between leaders and non-leaders (N = 96) employed by a major multinational company in Europe. Available intelligence test scores along with age, gender, and tenure were used as control variables. Trait EI, cognitive ability, and gender were significant predictors in a logistic-regression model. Further, both leaders and non-leaders scored significantly higher on trait EI compared to the standardization sample of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), though the effect size for the former (Cohen’s d = 2.80) was considerably larger than for the latter (Cohen’s d = 1.23). The results support the notion that leadership and management positions require high trait EI.
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Trait emotional intelligence (EI) was measured and self-estimated in a UK sample of 128 managers (52.3% female), recruited at a professional services firm. Participants’ measured scores were compared to standardization sample data and gender differences in measured and estimated scores, as well as in estimation bias and accuracy were examined. As hypothesized, managers’ global trait EI scores were significantly higher than those of the normative sample of the measure used, although the scores of female participants were largely responsible for this difference. Gender-specific hypotheses were confirmed for measured scores (differences only hypothesized at the factor level) and estimation accuracy (males estimating their trait EI more accurately), but not for estimated scores (female participants had higher estimates, but the opposite was hypothesized). Further, female managers showed signs of estimation bias.
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This paper adds to the current literature on emotional intelligence (EI) by investigating the relationship of employees' perceptions of supervisor's EI with a number of important organizational outcomes. The data for the study were obtained via a questionnaire survey from 130 employees in a large government-run organization in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results indicated that employee perception of supervisor's EI explained 25.9% of variation in job satisfaction and 41.2% of variation in group task satisfaction. Job satisfaction and group task satisfaction, in turn, were found to explain 33.6% of variation in workgroup attachment. Workgroup attachment, in turn, was found to explain 13.3% of variation in group-level turnover intention and 12.3% of variation in organizational-level turnover intention. These results indicate that organizations in the UAE may benefit by developing EI skills in their leaders. This paper also describes specific implications for theory and practice.
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Despite a long period of neglect, research on emotion in organizational behavior has developed into a major field over the past 15 years, and is now seen to be part of an affective revolution in the organization sciences. In this article, we review current research on emotion in the organizational behavior field based on five levels of analysis: within person, between persons, dyadic interactions, leadership and teams, and organization-wide. Specific topics we cover include affective events theory, state and trait affect and mood, emotional intelligence, emotional labor, emotional contagion, emotions and leadership, and building a healthy emotional climate. We conclude with suggestions for future research.
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A set of meta-analyses were conducted to examine the relationship of personality to outcomes associated with two different stages of the entrepreneurial process: entrepreneurial intentions and entrepreneurial performance. A broad range of personality scales were categorized into a parsimonious set of constructs using the Five Factor model of personality. The results show that four of the Big Five personality dimensions were associated with both dependent variables, with agreeableness failing to be associated with either. Multivariate effect sizes were moderate for the full set of Big Five personality variables on entrepreneurial intentions (multiple R = .36) and entrepreneurial performance (multiple R = .31). Risk propensity, included as a separate dimension of personality, was positively associated with entrepreneurial intentions but was not related to entrepreneurial performance. These effects suggest that personality plays a role in the emergence and success of entrepreneurs.
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This series of studies describes the development of a measure of emotional intelligence based on the model of emotional intelligence developed by Salovey and Mayer [Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211.]. A pool of 62 items represented the different dimensions of the model. A factor analysis of the responses of 346 participants suggested the creation of a 33-item scale. Additional studies showed the 33-item measure to have good internal consistency and testretest reliability. Validation studies showed that scores on the 33-item measure 1.(a) correlated with eight of nine theoretically related constructs, including alexithymia, attention to feelings, clarity of feelings, mood repair, optimism and impulse control;2.(b) predicted first-year college grades;3.(c) were significantly higher for therapists than for therapy clients or for prisoners;4.(d) were significantly higher for females than males, consistent with prior findings in studies of emotional skills;5.(e) were not related to cognitive ability and6.(f) were associated with the openness to experience trait of the big five personality dimensions.
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Pastoral leaders of parishes have an effect on people’s lives and communities. Improvement in parishioner satisfaction and support (i.e., donations and attendance) over 3 years were assessed with the Parish Vibrancy Study of 135 parishes in a Catholic Diocese. In 52 of the parishes of this diocese, the priest’s demonstration of emotional and social competencies as seen by others had a positive effect on improvement of parishioner satisfaction but not on their support. The behavioral expressions of power and humility in the form of Influence versus Inspirational Leadership and Transparency versus Self-Confidence competencies were related to improvement in parishioner satisfaction. Size of the parish was related to improvement in parishioner support only.
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Emotional intelligence (EI) has been an emerging topic for educational, psychological and management researchers and consultants in recent years. Despite the emerging consensus of its definition and evidence reported in business organizations, relatively little empirical evidence have been reported in the education literature. We conducted two studies to investigate the impact of middle-level leader and teacher EI on teachers’ job outcomes. In Study 1, 107 teachers were asked to list the attributes of successful middle-level leaders in their schools. In Study 2, 3866 school teachers and middle-level leaders were surveyed on their EI and job satisfaction level. Results provide supports concerning the impact of teacher and middle-level leader EI on school teachers’ job satisfaction. Implications are discussed.
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The study tested the extent to which positive and negative affect at work mediate personality effects (Emotional Intelligence) on job satisfaction. Participants were 523 educators who completed the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, a version of the Job Affect Scale and the General Index of Job Satisfaction. Results using structural equation modelling indicated that positive and negative affect at work substantially mediate the relationship between EI and job satisfaction with positive affect exerting a stronger influence. In males, affect at work fully mediated the EI effect on job satisfaction. Among the four EI dimensions, use of emotion and emotion regulation were significant independent predictors of affect at work. The results confirm expectations deriving from Affective Events Theory regarding the role of work affectivity as an interface between personality and work attitudes and extend the literature on EI effects in organizational settings.
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Job satisfaction is often described as an affective response to one's job, but is usually measured largely as a cognitive evaluation of job features. This paper explores several hypothesized relationships between real time affect while working and standard measures of job satisfaction. Experience sampling methodology was used to obtain up to 50 reports of immediate mood and emotions from 121 employed persons over a two week period. As expected, real time affect is related to overall satisfaction but is not identical to satisfaction. Moment to moment affect is more strongly related to a faces measure of satisfaction than to more verbal measures of satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions both make unique contributions to predicting overall satisfaction, and affect accounts for variance in overall satisfaction above and beyond facet satisfactions. Frequency of net positive emotion is a stronger predictor of overall satisfaction than is intensity of positive emotion. It is concluded that affect while working is a missing piece of overall job attitude, as well as a phenomenon worthy of investigation in its own right. Implications for further research and for improving the conceptualization and measurement of job satisfaction are discussed. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This paper focuses on the interactive influence of two group context variables on employee attitudes and behaviors. The results indicated that group power distance orientation moderated the relationship between procedural justice climate and individual level outcomes (organizational commitment and organization-directed citizenship behavior). More specifically, group power distance orientation was found to attenuate the positive cross-level effects of procedural justice climate on these outcomes. Implications of the findings are discussed.
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This study presents a meta-analysis of 25 individual differences proposed to be related to effective leadership, with an emphasis on comparing trait-like (e.g. personality and intelligence) to state-like individual differences (e.g. knowledge and skills). The results indicate that although both trait-like (achievement motivation, energy, dominance, honesty/integrity, self-confidence, creativity, and charisma) and state-like (interpersonal skills, oral communication, written communication, administrative/management skills, problem-solving skills, and decision making) individual differences were consistent predictors of effective leadership, the impact of trait-like and state-like individual differences was modest overall and did not differ substantially (= .27 and .26, respectively). Finally, organizational level of the leader, method of predictor and criterion measurement, and organization type moderated the relationship between individual differences and effective leadership.
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is a divisive topic for many individuals interested in the subject of leadership. Whereas practitioner-oriented publications have claimed that EI is the sine qua non of leadership, academics continue to discuss EI's relevance for understanding leadership emergence, behavior, and effectiveness. Here we critically review recent empirical evidence to constructively frame what has become a contentious debate about the relevance of EI. We also identify unresolved issues and highlight future research directions that may promote our understanding of EI's role for leadership. We close with a practical discussion of possible applications of EI in leadership education, training, and development.
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This study examined the psychometric properties of Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) with a sample of 1154 Italian young adults. Results confirmed the four factor structure and reliability of the Italian TEIQue. The I-TEIQue and Emotional Quotient Inventory total scores were significantly correlated. In contrast to non-significant correlations with the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test showing these measures tap two different aspects of the same construct. Low to moderate positive correlations with the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) supported the view that Trait EI overlaps with aspects of personality, but is configured as a distinct construct. Overall, the results support the structure of the TEIQue and its use in the Italian context.
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This study explored whether staff members' perceptions of leaders' emotional competency (measured by the Emotional Competency Profiler) significantly and positively predict their satisfaction with a set of factors highlighted by the research literature as being important in the retention of staff (measured by the Retention Factors Scale). Data were collected from a non-probability purposive sample of staff (n = 158) in an asset management company. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the proposed research hypothesis. Our results show that staff perceptions of leaders' emotional competency significantly influence their satisfaction with important retention factors. Organizations need to invest in interventions that enhance their managers' emotional competency.
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The concept of organizational culture has received increasing attention in recent years both from academics and practitioners. This article presents the author's view of how culture should be defined and analyzed if it is to be of use in the field of organizational psychology. Other concepts are reviewed, a brief history is provided, and case materials are presented to illustrate how to analyze culture and how to think about culture change.
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Research investigations into employee well-being (EWB) have tended to take a between-individual approach, which highlights differences among people. This traditional paradigm has been complemented by examinations of intraindividual EWB, which explores within-person variation over periods of time. Drawing on affective events theory (AET), we further elaborate the implications of intraindividual EWB for two reasonably stable sets of constructs—personality traits and affective climates. We argue that the intraindividual paradigm challenges scholars to rethink what they mean by stability, concluding that stability can be conceptualized in two ways—as reasonably consistent levels of affect and predictable patterns of affective change.
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A criticism leveled against the conceptualization of emotional intelligence (EI) as a personality trait is that it overlaps considerably with the higher order personality dimensions and, therefore, has weak utility. To investigate this criticism, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to synthesize the literature examining the incremental validity of the 2 adult self-report forms of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Twenty-four articles reporting 114 incremental validity analyses of the TEIQue were reviewed according to the studies' methodological features. Additionally, data from 18 studies (providing 105 effect sizes) were pooled in a meta-analysis. Results suggest that the TEIQue consistently explains incremental variance in criteria pertaining to different areas of functioning, beyond higher order personality dimensions and other emotion-related variables. The pooled effect size was relatively small, but statistically and practically significant (ΔR(2) = .06, SE = .0116; 95% CI [.03, .08]). The number of covariates controlled for, the form of the TEIQue, and the focus on higher order personality dimensions versus other individual-difference constructs as baseline predictors did not affect the effect size. Analyses conducted at the factor level indicated that the incremental contribution is mainly due to the well-being and self-control factors of trait EI. Methodological issues and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the relationship between general mental ability (GMA) and both job and life attitudes. Drawing on the gravitation model and self- determination theory, we hypothesized that GMA will be positively related to both job and life attitudes, and that the relationships will be mediated by job complexity and incomes. The meta-analytic results provided mixed support for the hypothesized zero-order relationships, as the magnitude of the correlations of GMA with both job and life attitudes were relatively small ( = .14 or less). However, the meta-analytic regression results provided strong support for the hypothesized indirect effects of GMA on work and life attitudes. Specifically, GMA had a positive indirect effect on both job satisfaction and life attitudes through the mediating effects of job complexity; additionally, GMA had a positive indirect effect on life attitudes through the mediating effects of income. Our findings generally discounted the popular folk notion that ignorance is bliss. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of GMA and attitudes as well as for practice.