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Who is visiting the Zagreb zoo: Visitors’ characteristics and motivation

  • Catholic University of Croatia

Abstract and Figures

In order to attract visitors despite a growing competition in entertainment and recreation industry, the service quality in zoos needs to satisfy the ever increasing demands and expectations of the modern visitor. The aim of this study was to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of the Zagreb Zoo visitors, explore their motivation and satisfaction with offered services. A self-administered questionnaire was designed, which included demographic data, frequency of visits, accompanying persons, average spending, motivation and ratings of services and programs. The majority of the Zagreb Zoo visitors were family groups who spend more money on tickets than on gifts and souvenirs. As top motivators for their visit, participants listed children and watching animals, while education was very low on the list. The Zoo staff, facilities and entertainment programs were very highly rated. This was the first ever study of the Zagreb Zoo visitors. These data can be used to help the Zagreb Zoo understand the visitors’ demands and their perception of the zoo. They can also provide a basis for actions to improve weaknesses and enhance the service quality, thereby increasing the enjoyment of future visitors. © 2016 Institut za društvena istraživanja u Zagrebu – Institute for Social Research in Zagreb Sva prava pridržana – All rights reserved.
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DOI 10.5673/sip.55.2.4
UDK 591.52:636.025(497.5Zagreb)
Stručni rad
Who is Visiting the Zagreb Zoo: Visitors’
Characteristics and Motivation
Martina Knežević
University of Zagreb, Croatian Studies, Psychology Department, Croatia
Iva Žučko
Zoological Garden of Zagreb, Croatia
Maša Ljuština
Zoological Garden of Zagreb, Croatia
ABSTRACT In order to attract visitors despite a growing competition in entertainment
and recreation industry, the service quality in zoos needs to satisfy the ever increasing
demands and expectations of the modern visitor. The aim of this study was to examine
the socio-demographic characteristics of the Zagreb Zoo visitors, explore their motiva-
tion and satisfaction with offered services. A self-administered questionnaire was de-
signed, which included demographic data, frequency of visits, accompanying persons,
average spending, motivation and ratings of services and programs. The majority of
the Zagreb Zoo visitors were family groups who spend more money on tickets than
on gifts and souvenirs. As top motivators for their visit, participants listed children and
watching animals, while education was very low on the list. The Zoo staff, facilities
and entertainment programs were very highly rated. This was the first ever study of
the Zagreb Zoo visitors. These data can be used to help the Zagreb Zoo understand
the visitors’ demands and their perception of the zoo. They can also provide a basis
for actions to improve weaknesses and enhance the service quality, thereby increasing
the enjoyment of future visitors.
Key words: Zagreb Zoo, visitor studies, motivation, service quality, animal welfare.
Sociologija i prostor, 54 (2016) 205 (2): 169-184
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1. Introduction
The Zagreb Zoo is situated in more than 200 years old Maksimir Park, almost in
the city centre. This makes it one of the city’s favourite places for relaxation and
entertainment. It was founded in 1925, and at first was situated on the Swan Island
with only 5 animals - 3 foxes and 2 owls (Milčec et al., 2012). Just one year after its
founding, due to numerous donations from wealthy city dwellers, the Zagreb Zoo
territory was expanded to land surface. Today, on 5.5 hectares of land surface (7
hectares together with the lake) visitors can see 338 species and around 6000 indi-
vidual animals from almost every continent – mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians,
fishes and invertebrates (Zagreb Zoo records, 2014). When looking at the numbers
for the last 40 years, the Zagreb Zoo never had less than 215 000 visitors per year
(Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 2014). Major data peaks (600 000 visitors per year) are
correlated with very important projects the Zagreb Zoo finished, like opening new
pavilions or exhibits. It seems that city dwellers and tourists followed the develop-
ment and progress of the Zagreb Zoo and were happy to give their support in form
of their visit.
Entertainment has traditionally been perceived as one of the primary roles of the
zoos. However, entertainment industry is constantly growing enabling individuals to
choose from various attraction, making it very hard for the zoos to provide compet-
ing and satisfactory experiences (Lee, 2015). People generally enjoy and appreciate
nature and wildlife in their day-to-day lives, and museums, zoos, aquariums and
other similar institutions, in addition to entertainment, now offer recreational and
educational opportunities to their visitors (Ballantyne, Packer and Hughes, 2008;
Kamolpattana et al., 2015; Kidd and Kidd, 1997; Ma et al., 2012; Marino et al., 2010;
Randler, Höllwarth and Schaal, 2007). In modern zoos there has been a shift in
emphasis from entertainment toward conservation of species under threat of extinc-
tion. They are promoted as places where visitors can learn about animals and how
to contribute to the survival of endangered species, but also as a place for social
interaction, relaxation or simple outdoor experience (Anderson, Kelling and Maple,
2008; Anderson et al., 2003; Yilmaz, Mumcu and Ozbilen, 2010). Who are modern
zoo visitors and what motivates them to spend their free time visiting animals in zoos?
Most zoo visitors studies have explored visitors’ motivation (Ballantyne et al., 2008;
Connell, 2004; Sickler and Fraser, 2009), behaviour (Anderson et al., 2008; Ander-
son, Maple and Bloomsmith, 2010; Hosey, 2000; McPhee et al., 1998; Yilmaz et al.,
2010), and attitudes (Ballantyne et al., 2008; Marino et al., 2010; Webber and Hill,
2014). They showed that zoos in general give people a chance to observe wildlife
that they may otherwise never see (Carr and Cohen, 2011; Randler et al., 2007). Visi-
tors believe zoos play an important role in conservation, animal care and education,
and that they experience a stronger connection to nature as a result of their visit
(Anderson et al., 2003; Carr and Cohen, 2011; Falk et al., 2007). During a three year
period, Falk et al. (2007) studied more than 5 500 visitors in 12 zoos and aquariums
using various quantitative and qualitative methods, like questionnaires, interviews
and tracking studies. They found that zoos and aquariums can enhance visitors’
knowledge and understandings of wildlife and conservation, as well as their con-
M. Knežević, I. Žučko, M. Ljuština: Who is Visiting the Zagreb Zoo...
S o c i o l o g i j a i p r o s t o r
nection to nature, prompting individuals to reconsider their role in environmental
problems and conservation actions. That is in line with the goal of the modern
naturalistic zoo exhibits to improve animal welfare standards through environmental
enrichment and naturalistic features in order to reduce their behavioural and physi-
ological problems, like stereotypic behaviours or obesity and nutrient deficiencies
(Anderson et al., 2008; Carr and Cohen, 2011; Marino et al., 2010).
Many people visit zoos to share experiences with their children, strengthen social
ties with family and friends, and even find psychological comfort by enjoying the
nature and interacting with animals (Lee, 2015; Sakagami and Ohta, 2010). Others
point out recreation and enjoyment as high motivators for their visit (Sickler and
Fraser, 2009). Lee (2015) conducted a survey at six public zoos in Korea, investigat-
ing the demands and satisfaction levels of zoo visitors. Convenience and safety in
observing animals were rated as very important, and children were a particularly
significant motivators for zoo visits. Animals’ welfare and information-seeking were
identified as the key determinants effecting overall satisfaction. Contrary to the origi-
nal image of zoos as primarily sites of entertainment, increasing interest in welfare
of the zoo animals pressure zoos to maintain high standards of service and provide
a variety of educational programs (Carr and Cohen, 2011; Lee, 2015).
Visitors also report appreciation of the aesthetic and rear qualities of plants, admira-
tion of gardens’ scenery and surroundings, as well as pleasure of being outdoors as
one of the key aspects of their enjoyment during zoo visitation (Ballantyne et al.,
2008). Spending time surrounded by nature provides peaceful and tranquil environ-
ment for leisure consumption. Research has shown that visiting zoos and parks gives
an opportunity to escape everyday life, with benefits for emotional, psychological,
and even spiritual values, enabling recreation in a quiet and enjoyable surroundings
(Connell, 2004). Several researchers have investigated the physical design of exhibits
(Cowan, Darwent and Riva, 1999; Jeggo, Young and Darwent, 2001; Jensen, 2007;
Kelling, Gaalema and Kelling, 2014; Yilmaz et al., 2010), and available services (Lee,
2015). For example, Jensen (2007) stressed the importance of the “hygiene” factors,
such as eating, parking and toilet facilities, because they can have a negative effect
on visitors’ overall perception and therefore satisfaction.
As a member of European and World Association of Zoos and Aquariums and in ac-
cordance with modern zoos around the world, the Zagreb Zoo takes special care in
designing and building new animal enclosures that resemble animals’ natural habi-
tat, conducts enrichment and other programs in order to achieve maximum animal
welfare (Hosey, Melfi and Pankhurst, 2009). It also organizes various educational
programs, some specialized for school groups, and others for everyday visitors, of-
fering information about the animals and the nature itself. Besides giving experience
to visitors through getting to know many wild animal species, the Zagreb Zoo has
more than 127 marked species of plants and very rich cultural and historical heritage
(Milčec et al., 2012). Through fostering an appreciation of biodiversity, it is becom-
ing an important venue for environmental education. As such, it has the potential
to promote the importance of plants and conservation, and to communicate the
significance of preserving not only endangered animal species, but also plants for
Sociologija i prostor, 54 (2016) 205 (2): 169-184
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the future well-being of the planet (Ballantyne et al., 2008; Jordaan and du Plessis,
2011; Luebke et al., 2015).
In order to keep operating and to ensure economic viability, zoos need to attract
visitors. To be able to attract visitors despite the increasing competition in enter-
tainment and recreation industry, the service quality of the zoo needs to satisfy the
demands and expectation of the modern visitor. The aim of this study was to inves-
tigate socio-demographic characteristics of the Zagreb Zoo visitors and to explore
their motivation and attitudes towards the zoo, in order to obtain more information
regarding the demands and requirements for visitors’ satisfaction and to draw im-
plications for possible improvements. This information can be used for improving
existing exhibits and designing new ones more effectively, as well as visitor pro-
grams and facilities. It is up to the zoo exhibit designers to balance between the
welfare of the animals, zoo staff management requirements, and the needs of the
visitors (Hosey et al., 2009; Hosey, 2000). This is a very hard task, because the needs
and wishes of visitors are often not complementary with the needs of animals. The
results of this study will provide information for establishing strategies to improve
zoo experience and satisfaction and to enhance service quality, increasing thereby
enjoyment of future visitors.
2. Method
2.1. Participants
A total of 3052 visitors completed the questionnaire (64% females), ranging from 18
to 83 years of age (M = 36.32; SD = 10.72). The most common age group participat-
ing in the study were 25 – 39 year olds (56%), followed by 40 – 64 year olds (28%)
and 18 – 24 (14%), while only 2% were 65 or older. More details about participants
are outlined in the Results and discussion section.
2.2. Procedure
Trained research assistants were stationed at the main entrance, where they ap-
proached adult visitors aged 18 years and older. Only one volunteering adult per
group was asked to participate. They were informed that the Zagreb Zoo is conduct-
ing a research in order to better understand the visitors, and that the data will be
used to ensure the highest quality service. Also, it was highlighted that their partici-
pation in the study was completely voluntary, including the right to quit at any stage
if they did not feel comfortable continuing the process. If agreed, each participant
received a coded ticket with the time of entrance which they returned to the re-
searchers, marking the time of exit. Upon returning the coded thicket, participants
received the questionnaire which they completed before exiting. Each questionnaire
was coded with identification number in advance, thus ensuring the confidentiality
of the data. Data were collected in autumn, spring and summer of 2010 and 2011.
M. Knežević, I. Žučko, M. Ljuština: Who is Visiting the Zagreb Zoo...
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During that time, we randomly selected one week every month, and collected data
every day during that week, including weekdays, weekends and holiday periods.
Each participant was rewarded with a poster of the one of the zoo animals upon
completion of the questionnaire.
2.3. The questionnaire
A self-administered questionnaire was designed for the purposes of this research, di-
vided into four sections: (1) demographic data, frequency of visits and accompany-
ing persons, (2) average spending (tickets, Zoo café, gifts and souvenirs, other) (3)
motivation, and (4) ratings of services and programs (scale 1 – lowest, 5 – highest,
0 – cannot evaluate). It also contained information about proposed changes for the
Zoo and the amount of time spent viewing the exhibit. Average time for the comple-
tion of the questionnaire was around 10 minutes.
2.4. Statistical analyses
We calculated frequencies, means, standard deviations, t-tests and ANOVAs for
group differences, with Bonferroni post-hoc test.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Demographic data, frequency of visits and average spending
Out of 3052 visitors who participated in this study, 47% reported having a high
school degree, 38% graduate and 14% undergraduate degree, while 1% had less than
high school degree. The majority of participants (64%) were Zagreb residents, with
27% from other parts of Croatia, and 9% from other countries. Given the large pro-
portion of participants from Zagreb, it is not surprising that only 12% were first time
visitors, and out of 88% of repeated visitors, 25% visits the Zoo several times a year.
Most participants came as a family group (72%), and 72% came with children. Par-
ticipants also came as couples (17%), friends (9%) or on their own (2%). They spent
approximately two hours (M = 114.87 minutes; SD = 42.81) on average in the Zoo.
Visitors spend most money on tickets (Table 1), and least on gifts and souvenirs, as
well as on other offerings in the Zoo, like buying ice-creams. Visitors with children
spend significantly more money in total, most on tickets, Zoo café and gifts and sou-
venirs, compared to visitors without children. There were no sex, but we found age
differences in spending. In Zoo café, 18 - 24 year olds spend less money than 25 - 39
(p < .01) and 40 - 64 (p < .01) year olds, which was also reflected in total amount of
spent money, showing that 18 - 24 year olds spend less money in total than 25 - 39
(p < .05) and 40 - 64 (p < .01) year olds. Visitors aged 64 or more did not differ in
average spending in Zoo café from other age groups (p > .05).
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Table 1.
Average spending on various Zoo facilities during the visit.
All visitors
N = 3052
M (SD)
With children
N = 2183
M (SD)
Without children
N = 869
M (SD)
b tab df
Zoo café
Gifts and souvenirs
64.75 (46.02)
18.36 (30.52)
7.54 (31.76)
6.02 (24.51)
96.42 (79.56)
67.35 (47.86)
20.26 (31.99)
8.83 (35.71)
6.54 (23.48)
102.62 (84.12)
58.22 (40.33)
13.59 (25.87)
4.32 (18.05)
4.72 (26.88)
80.84 (64.21)
N = 1096
M (SD)
N = 1951
M (SD) t df
Zoo café
Gifts and souvenirs
64.42 (41.63)
19.20 (32.95)
7.67 (36.28)
5.77 (25.78)
96.71 (84.48)
64.91 (48.34)
17.92 (29.09)
7.49 (28.95)
6.15 (23.76)
96.32 (76.74)
age 18 – 24
N = 422
M (SD)
age 25 - 39
N = 1702
M (SD)
age 40 - 64
N = 837
M (SD)
age 64 >
N = 68
M (SD) F df
Zoo café
Gifts and souvenirs
61.37 (71.01)
12.41 (32.31)
7.71 (63.25)
3.81 (12.15)
85.06 (128.75)
65.02 (39.05)
19.51 (30.19)
6.98 (21.37)
6.88 (29.63)
98.24 (68.23)
66.28 (43.88)
19.00 (30.23)
8.37 (25.18)
5.67 (17.71)
98.96 (68.68)
54.81 (33.12)
18.30 (25.21)
9.25 (32.14)
2.73 (8.36)
83.40 (62.49)
Note: values are in Croatian kunas; *p < .01.
The profile of the Zagreb Zoo visitors is similar to visitors from other zoological
gardens (Lee, 2014; Randler et al., 2007), showing that zoo visitors are likely to be
highly educated mid adults, married with children, who come in family groups.
There are several ways in which the Zoo could attract more tourists. Zoo gardens are
attractive to many people, not just those with a specific interest of seeing animals,
but also those who are looking for a pleasant day out or a way to spend time with
the loved ones. The Zagreb Zoo offers all this and more, and should be presented
as such, for example in stronger cooperation with Zagreb Tourist Board or other
marketing and tourism organizations. Evidence from a number of major European
cities suggest that individual zoos, like Berlin Zoo or Rotterdam Zoo, are indeed
major urban attractions (Catibog-Sinha, 2008; Ryan and Saward, 2010). Therefore,
strengthening collaboration with different tourist agencies could help in establishing
the Zagreb Zoo as a tourist attraction brand. Regarding marketing strategies, age is a
significant factor to consider. Connell (2004) found that visitors between 40 and 60
years of age are more likely than other age groups to be motivated to visit the gar-
M. Knežević, I. Žučko, M. Ljuština: Who is Visiting the Zagreb Zoo...
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den by a leaflet or a flyer, those between 18 and 39 are more likely to use web sites,
while those over 60 are more likely to make use of word-of-mouth. The Zagreb
Zoo should take this into consideration while choosing how to present its offers.
Broadening marketing strategies to social media, e.g. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn,
could help in reaching younger generations prone to using technology in everyday
life, making information about the Zagreb Zoo activities more available and possible
increase the frequency of their visits.
Attracting elderly population may be another factor to consider. The Zagreb Zoo is
very suitable for those seeking a relaxed and peaceful environment, and research
shows this is one of the highest motivators for elderly visitors (Ballantyne et al.,
2008; Dzhambov and Dimitrova, 2014; Jensen, 2007.; Lee, 2015). Therefore, visita-
tions could be encouraged by highlighting peaceful and relaxing aspects of the
zoo, with activities like music concerts, art and craft lessons etc., while first-time el-
derly visitors may appreciate more discovery activities like themed quizzes, maps or
guided walks. Season tickets or loyalty programs through which visitors could gain
reward points for frequent visitations during the season could warrant their return.
The fact that visitors spend least amount of money on gifts and souvenirs can be
changed with changes in offer or souvenir shop improvements. For example, it
seems that orienting the main offer towards families with children is the way to go.
Since visitors rarely come on their own, activities that encourage and enhance social
interaction, e.g. jigsaw puzzles shaped like specific animal or animal playing cards,
may be effective for all age groups and extend the popularity of the Zoo souvenir
shop. It could also offer practical items for the visit, such as rainwear, sunglasses or
sunscreen, as well as toys, puzzles, games, unique gifts and souvenirs depicting the
Zoo. All this should be presented in spacious and colourful shop, ensuring com-
fortable browsing and shopping of the offered items. Considering that the souvenir
shop is currently located in a very small, confined space, before any changes in the
offer, increasing and modernizing the space of the shop should be a top priority.
Research shows that shopping satisfaction is not derived only from acquiring goods,
but shopping environment itself becomes a part of the shopper’s experience influ-
encing subsequent shopping behaviours (Yüksel, 2007).
3.2. Identifying motivation for zoo visit
Motivation is usually defined as an internal state that activates, directs and maintains
one’s behaviour (Ryan and Deci, 2000). Zoo visitors are not a homogenous group,
and their motives for visit can range from recreation to education or social interaction
with friends and family. A number of studies revealed that children accounted for a
very large proportion of zoo visitors (Mason, 2000; Wagoner and Jensen, 2010). Oth-
ers have categorized the zoo mainly as a place of relaxation and personal enjoyment
(Car and Cohen, 2011). Jordaan and du Plessis (2014) showed that some people visit
the zoo in order to have a self-directed zoo experience (e.g., relaxation, recreation),
while other visit the zoo to promote the welfare of others (e.g., family together-
ness). Motivational research broadly distinguishes between two types of motivation:
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(1) intrinsic, which refers to doing something because it is inwardly rewarding or
enjoyable, and (2) extrinsic, which refers to doing something that results in external
(outside of the individual) rewards (Ryan and Deci, 2000). What motivates the Zagreb
Zoo visitors? In order to answer this questions, we asked visitors to write down what
motivated them to come to the Zagreb Zoo. Their answers are shown in Figure 1.
Most of the Zagreb Zoo visitors listed animals, zoo and children as their motivation.
Others listed several motivators for their visit, including children, watching animals,
enjoying nature and spending quality time. According to the motivators that the Zagreb
Zoo visitors listed, they can be classified as primarily intrinsic (doing an activity for its
inherent satisfaction), and our results are in line with most contemporary zoo visitor
research (Jordaan and du Plessis, 2014; Ballantyne et al., 2008; Falk, Heimlich, and
Bronnenkant, 2010). Studies have shown that people are more likely to continue with
their behaviour and invest more time in it if they are intrinsically motivated (Morgan
and Hodgkinson, 1999; Falk, et al., 2010) and thus such activities should be promoted.
Figure 1.
Frequency of visitors answers to the question “What motivated you to come and see the animals in the
Zagreb Zoo?”
The fact that many visitors are accompanied by children suggests that topics and
activities that encourage family sharing and conversations are likely to be attractive.
For example, seeing animals up close, perhaps in walk-through enclosures, and
talking to their caretakers, setting up corners with sketch books and crayons for ob-
serving animals and sketching the observation, organizing birthday parties or wee-
kend workshops in the zoo, is something that any member of the family could enjoy
(Anderson et al., 2003; Ballantyne et al., 2008; Connell, 2004; Davey, 2007). These
activities could increase the popularity of the zoo among families with children, but
also ensure their return. The Zagreb Zoo has some entertainment programs, like
birthday parties or eco academy program, mostly during weekends or in connection
to celebrating important nature conservation dates (Milčec et al., 2012). Advertising
and promotion of these family sharing activities should be upgraded and enhanced
so the visitors become aware of what is offered in the Zagreb Zoo.
M. Knežević, I. Žučko, M. Ljuština: Who is Visiting the Zagreb Zoo...
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Interestingly, only 5% listed education as one of the motivators for visiting the
Zoo. In this respect, the Zagreb Zoo visitors are similar to botanic gardens visitors
(Ballantyne et al., 2008; Connell, 2004) and other modern-day zoo and aquarium
visitors (Jordaan and du Plessis, 2011; Ryan and Saward, 2010), determining zoos
as primarily places of family-oriented trips, and emphasizing enjoyment in animals,
nature, and spending quality time with children, friends and family, rather than
learning. Even though education is not very high on the list of motivators for visiting
the Zagreb Zoo, modern zoos should be places where visitors learn about animals
and should demonstrate how an individual can contribute to the survival of endan-
gered species (Carr and Cohen, 2011; Lee, 2015). If the Zagreb Zoo is to introduce
more educational activities, they need to give careful consideration to how these
are planned and promoted. Since activities with a strong educational emphasis are
unlikely to appeal, preparing visitors for learning experience by, for example, using
inspirational panels or pamphlets to prompt their interest in conservation and ani-
mal care or giving suggestions how to “get the most” out of their visit may prompt
spontaneous, accidental learning and increase interest for learning more about both
individual animals and/or species (McGregor and Gribble, 2015; Thwaites, 2014).
Hands on sessions that make connections between visitors and animals, such as
holding, petting or feeding, are also likely to be popular, enabling each visitor to
form emotional connection with a specific animal and evoke concern about the
importance of protecting wildlife (Wagner et al., 2009). It should also be tested if
conservation oriented education conducted by zoo staff increases knowledge and
understanding or change in behaviour of visitors in any way that would benefit spe-
cies conservation or conservation of nature in general.
Since not everyone can be intrinsically motivated for any particular activity (Ryan
and Deci, 2000) whether for doing it for the first time or repeating the activity, intro-
ducing extrinsic motivators as additional element could make a successful marketing
strategy. Classic examples of very successful extrinsic motivators are rewards. When
used well, they can even enhance intrinsic motivation (Cameron, Banko and Pierce,
2001). For example, zoos could offer gift certificates or credits for future participa-
tion in educational or entertainment programs. In this way, the zoo could promote
those activities in which visitors are not engaged at all or are engaged to a small pro-
portion. Such external motivators could help leveraging motivation toward repeated
visit, however one should be careful since offering excessive rewards can actually
lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation (Cameron, et al., 2001).
3.3. Ratings of Zoo facilities and programs
Visitors rated the Zagreb Zoo facilities with high grades (Table 2). They gave the
highest rates for “the keeper’s talk” program, informative panels and friendliness of
the staff, and lowest for the number of animal species and services of the Zoo café.
Unfortunately, because of the small size of the Zagreb Zoo, number of animals is
not easy to change. This also emphasizes the importance of education on animal
welfare, which is closely linked to number of animals that can be held in good con-
ditions in the zoo (Davey, 2007; Hosey, 2000; Randler et al., 2007).
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Table 2.
Average ratings of Zoo facilities and programs
All visitors
M (SD)
Zoo facilities
Friendliness of the staff
Services of the Zoo café
Appearance of animal enclosures
Number of animal species
Informative panels
Zoo programs
Lake boat-ride (N = 175)
Photo-safari (N = 140)
Keeper’s talk (N = 363)
4.41 (.92)
3.98 (1.03)
4.03 (.88)
3.82 (.90)
4.34 (.95)
4.56 (.76)
4.45 (.99)
4.39 (1.01)
4.59 (.82)
Two questions from the questionnaire were asked in order to assess overall satisfac-
tion with the Zagreb Zoo: “Is there something you would change in Zagreb Zoo?”
and “Would you recommend visiting Zagreb Zoo”. Visitors’ answers are presented
in Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Percentage of participants who would (not) recommend some changes/visit to the Zagreb Zoo.
Out of visitors who suggested changes in the Zoo, 25% did not know quite what
would they change, and 7% where undecided. Interestingly, only one visitor sug-
gested expanding offers in the Zoo shop.
What could change is the fact that only a small proportion of visitors used available
programs: 6% lake boat-ride, 5% photo-safari, 12% keeper’s talk, but rated them with
high grades. Out of these, 70% of lake boat-ride, 64% of photo-safari and 77% of
M. Knežević, I. Žučko, M. Ljuština: Who is Visiting the Zagreb Zoo...
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keeper’s talk consumers were visitors with children. Zoo staff could promote their
programs more and try to engage more visitors in them. For example, some zoos
produce printed leaflets, guidebooks, maps and brochures to inform visitors about
the species on show, but also to promote ongoing events, shopping possibilities or
programs (Anderson et al., 2010; Luebke et al., 2015; Sickler and Fraser, 2009). They
could also try to investigate why visitors do not engage in certain programs in order
to develop best approaches consistent with actual visitors’ needs. For example, Carr
and Cohen (2011) investigated the contents of websites of 54 zoos throughout the
world in order to assess the general public image that they are currently portraying.
They showed that in order to respond to the market demands, zoos nowadays offer
entertainment opportunities beyond simply coming and seeing the animals (Carr
and Cohen, 2011). Besides involving more visitors in available programs, zoo staff
could also try to change amount of time spent in the zoo, which is less than two
hours, and for that purpose, visitors’ answers to the question where they stopped
and spent most of their time in the Zagreb Zoo could be used. For example, since
majority stopped to spend some time watching sea lion feeding, this could mean
that more public feedings could be of interest and prolong their stay in the zoo.
Also, since many say that they spent more time watching African lions, monkeys
and apes, providing environmental enrichment in their exhibits and making animals
more active could have the same effect. Especially since some studies showed that
visitor interest is generally greater when animals are active (Margulis, Hoyos, and
Anderson, 2003) and enriched exhibits influence activity of animals (Hosey et al.,
One third (33%) of the visitors that would change something in the zoo would
like zoo to acquire new animals. As mentioned before, it is not always possible to
acquire new animals, especially since it is to some extent in collision with 20% of
visitors who suggest improvement of animal housing. Zoo visitors clearly identify
that some animals need better and bigger enclosures (such as large carnivores, es-
pecially bears and cats). On the other hand, most of the animals that people want
the zoo to acquire are the animals that need large, spacious exhibits (such as el-
ephants or giraffe). Modern public zoos have made substantial efforts to move from
old-fashioned barred cages, and improve animal housing through more naturalistic
exhibits. Since dissatisfaction with the animal housing is strongly associated with a
reason for not visiting zoos (Lee, 2015), it seems that further efforts should be made
to educate visitors of the limits in acquiring some of the wanted animals. A number
of studies have shown that zoo environment influences visitors’ perception of the
animals (Finlay, James and Maple, 1988; Hosey, 2000; McPhee et al., 1998; Reade
and Waran, 1996; Webber and Hill, 2014; Yilmaz et al., 2010).
This is the first ever study of the Zagreb Zoo visitors. It provided some interesting
and so far not known insights into the motives and interests of a large sample of
visitors, which can be used to help the Zagreb Zoo to understand visitors’ demands
and their perception of the zoo services and performance. It can also provide a basis
for actions to improve the weaknesses and enhance the strengths for better service
quality. Using some advanced analysis techniques in zoo visitor studies could help
provide greater insights into visitor needs and for managerial decision-making.
Sociologija i prostor, 54 (2016) 205 (2): 169-184
S o c i o l o g i j a i p r o s t o r
One of the limitations of this study is the generalization of the results, since this re-
search was undertaken during a defined short-time period, avoiding special events
and celebrations in the Zagreb Zoo. For that reason, the results may not be general-
ized across a wide range of zoos, but the data can be used as a complement infor-
mation about visitors’ characteristics and demands, as a source for benchmarking
and comparison, as well as organizational considerations about how to enhance
visitors’ satisfaction.
4. Conclusion
To attract visitors, modern zoos must be both entertaining and educational, without
jeopardizing the animals’ welfare. Investigating visitors’ demographics, motivation
and satisfaction, this study found that the majority of the Zagreb Zoo visitors are
family groups, specifically parents with children, who spend more money on tickets,
than on gifts and souvenirs. As top motivators for their visit, participants listed view-
ing animals, visiting the zoo as a whole, and their children, while education was
very low on the list. Zoo staff, facilities and entertainment programs were rated with
very high grades. It seems that expectations of the Zagreb Zoo visitors are more ori-
ented on entertainment and family bonding than education. Therefore, the Zagreb
Zoo needs to continue its role as a place for recreation and family bonding, but also
to focus attention to more diverse educational programs that will suit the needs and
requirements of the visitors, and most importantly, invest more in marketing strate-
gies. Further research is required in order to, for example, measure the impact of the
zoo experience on visitors’ conservation knowledge, attitudes and behaviours or to
understand how and what visitors learn during their visitations.
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Sociologija i prostor, 54 (2016) 205 (2): 169-184
S o c i o l o g i j a i p r o s t o r
Stručni rad
Martina Knežević
Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Hrvatski studiji, Odjel za psihologiju, Hrvatska
Iva Žučko
Zoološki vrt grada Zagreba, Hrvatska
Maša Ljuština
Zoološki vrt grada Zagreba, Hrvatska
Tko su posjetitelji zagrebačkog Zoološkog vrta: karakteristike i motivacija
Kako bi mogli privući posjetitelje unatoč sve većoj konkurenciji u industriji zabave i rekre-
acije, kvaliteta usluga zooloških vrtova mora zadovoljiti zahtjeve i očekivanja suvremenog
posjetitelja. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je ispitati sociodemografske karakteristike posjetitelja Zo-
ološkog vrta grada Zagreba te istražiti njihovu motivaciju i zadovoljstvo ponuđenim uslugama.
Za potrebe istraživanja izrađen je upitnik koji je uključivao demografske podatke, učestalost
posjeta, osobe u pratnji, prosječnu potrošnju, motivaciju i ocjene usluga i programa. Većina
posjetitelja zagrebačkog zoološkog vrta obiteljske su grupe, koje troše više novca na ulaznice
nego na poklone i suvenire. Sudionici su naveli djecu i promatranje životinja kao najvažnije
motivatore za posjet, dok je edukacija vrlo rijetko na popisu. Osoblje zoološkog vrta kao i
postojeći zabavni programi ocjenjeni su vrlo visokim ocjenama, iako su zabavni programi
rijetko posjećeni. Ovo je prvo ikad provedeno istraživanje posjetitelja Zoološkog vrta grada
Zagreba, u kojem su uz dosad nepoznate informacije o posjetiteljima, ponuđene i mogućnosti
za poboljšanje ponude s obzirom na iskazane interese i u skladu s praksom drugih zooloških
vrtova. Podaci se mogu iskoristiti za razumijevanje potreba posjetitelja te njihove trenutne
percepcije zoološkog vrta, a mogu poslužiti i kao osnova za poboljšanje kvalitete usluga, što
će u konačnici povećati broj posjetitelja kao i njihovo zadovoljstvo.
Ključne riječi: Zoološki vrt grada Zagreba, istraživanje posjetitelja, motivacija, kvaliteta usluge,
dobrobit životinja.
... Zoos attract over 600 million visitors globally (WAZA, 2016). It is largely acknowledged in the available literature (see Ajayi, 2019;Jordaan and du Pleiss, 2014;Knezevic et al., 2016) that, these visitors are diverse in age, education, marital status, income status, occupation, gender, cultural backgrounds, social orientation, motives and travel characteristics. Generally, the younger folks and educated visitors are more prominently recorded in various studies. ...
... For example, Hun and Anuar (2014) reported more males in a Malaysia Zoo while Adetola and Adedire (2018) documented more females than males in two Nigerian zoos. Repeat visitations are also common in zoos as documented by Adetola et al. (2016), Ajayi et al. (2017), and Knezevic et al. (2016) in a Nigerian and Croatia zoo respectively. Couch (2013) on the other hand reported more first-time visitors in a Detroit zoo. ...
... Couch (2013) on the other hand reported more first-time visitors in a Detroit zoo. Lots of people also visit zoos in order to share experiences with their families and friends (Ajayi et al., 2017;Knezevic et al., 2016;Lee, 2015) and, as such, are seen in the company of such in zoo premises. Zoo visitors have also been documented in several studies to be domestic visitors, and typically from the same city or close cities where the zoo is cited. ...
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When compared to in situ conservation sites like national parks and game reserves in Nigeria, zoos are the most visited wildlife tourism destinations given their proximity to people and close interactions with wildlife. This study explored the characteristics of visitors and the image they possess about zoos. A total of 1529 visitors were sampled using a structured questionnaire in four prominent Nigerian zoos in the southwest zone. The results revealed that the majority of visitors were single, young and mid adult male and female Nigerians within the age range of 18 -37 years. The foremost image of visitors about a zoo is that of close wildlife experience, recreation and entertainment, however, conservation was least acknowledged. Only age was found to have a significant relationship with the destination image. The st udy concludes that zoo managers should continually employ various strategies in projecting the right image of zoos. The study extends current re search on zoos by highlighting so far, the uninvestigated image of zoos in Nigeria and documenting practical implications.
... V případě zoologických zahrad jsou preferovanou cílovou skupinou zákazníků především školská zařízení a rodiny s dětmi. Zejména děti jsou tedy velmi početně zastoupenou skupinou zákazníků zoologických zahrad (Knežević, Žučko, Ljuština, 2016). ...
... Výzkumy v zoologických zahradách byly v minulosti realizovány mnohými autory, část výzkumů se zabývá i návštěvností zoologických zahrad, nebo profilem a preferencemi návštěvníků. Profilu návštěvníka zoologických zahrad se rámcově věnuje například Mason (2010) nebo Knežević, Žučko a Ljuština (2016). Whitword (2012) se ve svém výzkumu zaobíral determinujícími faktory pro návštěvnost zoologických zahrad ve Velké Británii. ...
... Lee (2015) se ve svém výzkum realizovaném ve veřejných zoologických zahradách zabývá zákazníkovou spokojeností. Při výzkumu v zoo je nutné vzít v úvahu skutečnost, že návštěvníci netvoří homogenní skupinu, liší se jejich motivace k návštěvě, která souvisí se vzděláním i sociálními interakcemi s rodinou a přáteli (Knežević, Žučko a Ljuština, 2016). Preferencemi návštěvníků při návštěvě zoologické zahrady se zabývá např. ...
... It is already known that zoos do not reach certain public demographics. More effort is necessary to identify opportunities to reach a broader audience [121]. One way to do this is to support diversity in zoo staffing and encourage the hiring of staff from traditionally marginalized areas. ...
Full-text available
Modern zoos and aquariums have evolved greatly since the end of the Second World War, to become centres of conservation excellence and scientific institutions for the study of animal behaviour, ecology, husbandry management. Whilst the impact of zoos and aquariums to biodiversity conservation, population management and advancement of species care is well documented, their positive impacts on society (including the communities that they are located within) is less well known. The four established aims of the modern zoo—Conservation, Education, Recreation (Engagement) and Research—provide a strong foundation for wider review and critique of the societal value of zoos and aquariums. This article synthesises what such value may be, and how it could be measured, from a systematic review of the literature pertaining to each of these four established aims. It also recommends areas of future scientific inquiry to further study the wider impact of zoos on their local communities and on human populations and behaviour more generally. Including Wellbeing as a fifth aim of the modern zoo would also cement their wider societal value. Further scrutiny of the societal value of the modern zoo enhances the value of the zoo’s living collection and the green spaces that it manages to provide accessibility to biodiversity and nature-centric education essential to long-term, planetary friendly human behaviour change.
... Knežević et al., (2016) on visitors' characteristics and motivation in Zagreb zoo where 88% of visitors were repeated visitors. Adetola & Adedire (2018) also reported that 78.3% of visitors to the University of Ibadan and Obafemi Awolowo University Zoo have patronized the zoos more than four time. ...
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Biodiversity conservation needs systematic conservation effort which includes both in-situ and ex-situ conservation and promotion of sustainable resource use for translation into conservation planning. The degree to which Zoo visits encourage people to visit specific in-situ conservation sites to participate in ecotourism activities was investigated. The study was carried out in nine (9) zoos across 5 States in Southwest Nigeria. Four hundred and fifty (450) questionnaires were administered to visitors in the zoos to acquire information about their socio-demographic attributes, awareness of in-situ ecotourism sites, perception, motivation and visit intention to in-situ conservation ecotourism destinations. Descriptive statistics, Analysis of variance and Chi-square test were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that 39.8% of the respondents were aware of in-situ ecotourism sites in Nigeria. Moreover, 76.2% of the visitors are highly interested in wildlife tourism and willing to visit in-situ conservation destinations. Positive perceptions of in-situ ecotourism destinations were high amongst the respondents. Intentions to visit the wild Journal of Tourism Research, Volume 25 2 were propelled by their visit to the zoo. Craving to acquire knowledge about natural environment, verify what they have seen and told in the zoo about animals and natural habitat, emotionally and physically get refreshed and close to nature and adventure instigated respondents' willingness and curiosity in seeing animals in the wild. Gender, age, marital status, education and income were significantly related to awareness, perception and intention to visit in-situ ecotourism destinations (p˂0.05). There was significant difference in the respondents' awareness of in-situ ecotourism destinations, perception of ecotourism destinations and visit intention to in-situ ecotourism destinations. The great impetus that appearance at the zoos has on visitation to in-situ conservation areas has been documented to inform policy makers and stakeholders in ecotourism management.
... Além disso, normalmente são animais que possuem grandes áreas de vida na natureza e, quando confinados em recintos pequenos, costumam apresentar muitos comportamentos estereotipados, como o pacing (andar de um lado para o outro no recinto; Clubb & Mason, 2003). Assim, a provisão de enriquecimento ambiental para esse grupo funcionaria para melhorar o bemestar, diminuindo a exibição de comportamentos anormais, além de tornar os animais mais ativos, entretendo melhor o público, que aprecia ver os animais comportando-se de maneira mais natural (Altman, 1998;Couch, 2013;Knezevic et al., 2016). ...
Os animais mantidos em zoológicos enfrentam ameaças constantes ao seu bem-estar. Um animal está com alto bem-estar quando está gozando de completa saúde física e mental. Algumas estratégias são utilizadas para se manter o bem-estar dos animais de zoológicos em níveis altos, como o enriquecimento ambiental. O enriquecimento ambiental consiste em inserir estímulos dentro dos recintos dos animais para que eles tenham a oportunidade de exibir comportamentos mais próximos do natural, melhorando sua saúde física e psicológica. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar, através de uma análise bibliométrica, como os zoológicos brasileiros têm utilizado a técnica de enriquecimento ambiental para melhorar o bem-estar de seus animais, bem como elencar lacunas que possam nortear futuros estudos com essa temática pelos gestores/técnicos dos zoológicos e pesquisadores. Os dados foram coletados no em três bases: The Web of Science©, Periódicos CAPES© e Google Scholar©. As palavras-chaves utilizadas para procura de artigos nessas bases de dados foram: “environmental enrichment, zoo, Brazil”. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir do ano de 1945 até 2016. Foram avaliados 52 estudos, que se iniciaram em 2006, sendo a maioria realizados em zoológicos do Sudeste do Brasil, com carnívoros e primatas, e utilizando mais de um tipo de enriquecimento ambiental. A maior parte dos estudos teve avaliação comportamental e positiva dos efeitos dos itens oferecidos aos animais. Concluímos que os estudos sobre os efeitos do enriquecimento ambiental no país ainda são incipientes, embora estejam em franco crescimento. Os estudos sobre o enriquecimento ambiental devem: contemplar um maior número de espécies animais; serem delineados com qualidade, especialmente no tamanho amostral; e devem ser realizados por mais zoológicos no Brasil. Finalmente, os estudos devem ser divulgados em meios de comunicação científica de qualidade, para que sejam replicados não apenas no Brasil, mas por zoológicos de todo o mundo.
Full-text available
In the past few decades, zoos have undergone a transformation from places of entertainment to centers for conservation, with education becoming a particular focus. Interpretation in zoos is a near-universal method for delivering education in zoos and has been shown to prompt learning and pro-conservation behavior change. However, there is limited understanding on how interpretation design itself can influence visitor engagement. Using unobtrusive visitor observations (n = 3890), this study measures visitor engagement of multiple pieces of interpretation with various design "traits," to provide a comprehensive overview of the key traits related to increased visitor engagement. The proportion of visitors who stopped at the interpretation (attraction power), and how long they stopped for (holding power), were our two outcome variables. From our models, we found that attraction and holding power are most strongly influenced by the type of interpretation, with interactive interpretation seeing nearly four times as many visitors stop, and for more than six times longer, when compared to standard text and graphics interpretation. We also found that location was significantly related to attraction power, with visitors more likely to stop at interpretation in more immersive exhibits. Lastly, interpretation containing images of humans were related to a higher holding power. We hope our findings will be used as a guide for designing interpretation that is both attractive and interesting to zoo visitors, maximizing the conservation education value of zoo-based interpretation.
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This research aims to study the motivations and to categorize the motivations of tourists who visited Chiang Mai Zoo in Chiang Mai province. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 408 samples of the tourists in October 2019 all through weekdays, weekends and national public holidays. The data was then analyzed using Descriptive Statistic and Factor Analysis. The result of the motivations of the tourists visiting Chiang Mai Zoo based on their priority of experiences given to 30 factors shows the top three most important motivations as follows. First of all is to spend time with family or friends. Secondly is to see and appreciate nature and animals. The third is to rest and relax from stress, invigorate the mind and body, and release oneself from boredom. While the least important motivation is to buy goods or products related to animals. As for the categories of motivations for the visit can be put into five groups which are Group 1: Exploring the site, Group 2: Learning about animals, Group 3: Relaxation and spending time with closed ones, Group 4: Reminiscing, and Group 5: Taking children to learn about nature. These categories can explain the variance of the 30 factors at 56.10%.
This research identified which aspects of the visitor experience need to be managed to enhance interpretation in a South African zoo. A visitor survey was conducted at the National Zoological Gardens in Pretoria – the largest zoo in the country; a total of 421 questionnaires were obtained at the zoo over a long weekend. A set of distinct visitor motives, visitor experience management factors and interpretation needs for the zoo were identified. The research indicates that visitors have clear expectations regarding the interpretation offerings at the zoo, but that more needs to be done to exceed these expectations. Four interpretation factors were the dependent variable in the research and the linear regression analyses results revealed which combination of the visitor experience factors had the most significant influence on enhancing these critical factors. The contributing factors vary, depending on the type of interpretation. The challenge for the zoo and other captive wildlife establishments is to find a balance between attracting visitors (increased visitor satisfaction) while simultaneously enhancing education and conservation management through prioritizing interpretation. Management implications The research indicates that visitors have clear expectations regarding the interpretation offerings at the zoo, but that more needs to be done to exceed these expectations. It appears that visitors to these establishments seek a relaxing and fun excursion while expecting their interaction to involve getting as close as possible to the wildlife. In the process, the critical function of the zoo in terms of education and conservation are less prioritized than “entertaining” visitors. The findings of this research is the first step in addressing this pertinent issue. This research can help to change the negative perceptions surrounding the management of zoos and can provide guidelines on how to manage the visitor experience sustainably by emphasizing conservation management and education through interpretation.
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In an increasingly competitive tourism market, it is essential to assess visitors' demands and levels of satisfaction. Currently, in Greece, there are two public and one private zoo. The Attica zoological park located in Athens has the most extensive collection of animals from all over the world. At the same time, the two public zoos serve a double purpose as zoos and peri-urban parks. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to determine the views and attitudes of the visitors in both public and private zoos of Greece. A total of 707 questionnaires were collected in Attika Park during the weekends of 2017. According to the results, the visitors were mainly middle-aged and highly educated with their motivation for their visits focused on entertainment. They visit the Park mostly in springtime, traveling mainly by car and covering distances of 5-50 km. As regards the quality of infrastructure, facilities, and services available at the zoo, the visitors of Attica Park found access to the area and security provided at the site as very satisfactory. At the same time, they consider that the animal's living conditions, their hygiene, and the existence of shelters for injured animals to be inadequate. The overall satisfaction with the outdoor recreation experience and satisfaction with the existing park facilities and services was higher at the Attica Zoological Park (91.1%) than in the two public zoos of Greece. The results of this work provide lessons that will improve zoo management, animal welfare, and sustain the flow of visitors.
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Abstract Factors influencing visitors’ choice preference for University of Ibadan Zoological Garden and Agodi Parks and Garden were explored in this study. Data were obtained through the use of well-structured questionnaires administered to the visitors. A total of three hundred and eight four visitors (384) were sampled. Descriptive Statistic and T- test were used for data analysis. Results revealed that majority of the visitors were females, youth, singles and most visitors were educated. Repeat visitors were more and visitation during the festive period was highest. Learning and sightseeing had the highest weighted mean of 82.07, and hence the highest influence on visitors destination choice preference at the University of Ibadan. Tourist destination respect for the natural environment(weighted mean 31.40) and opportunity for rest and relaxation (weighted mean = 31.20)were the major motives for visiting Agodi Parks and Garden. Motivating factors that influence visitors’ destination choice preference to UI Zoo and Agodi Parks and Garden were significantly different. The empirical examination of factors influencing visitors’ choice preference will assist tourist site manager to identify the attributes that are to be promoted so as to match tourist motivations. Keyword: Motivation, Preference, Choice, Garden, Visitors
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Zoos attract hundreds of millions of visitors every year worldwide – many of them children. In the UK, hundreds of thousands of school children visit zoos every year. Thus, the zoo is a key institution for publics engaging with live animals and environmental education. However, zoos have recently come under ethical criticism linked to the claim that they have negligible or even negative educational impact. While there is some evidence of positive outcomes for adult zoo visitors, there is very little prior research available to answer such criticisms when it comes to children. To address these issues, a study was conducted using a mixed methods survey, which included a key visual component designed to track changes in children’s representations of animals over the course of a school visit to the zoo. Specifically, the study investigated the development of new ideas about animals, habitats and the zoo amongst a sample of pupils attending ZSL London Zoo. Results indicate the potential of educational presentations based around zoo visits, for enabling conceptual transformations relating to environmental science. At the same time, the research highlights the vital role of existing cultural representations of different animals and habitats which are confronted by the new ideas introduced during educational visits to the zoo.
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Motor learning occurs not only through direct first-hand experience but also through observation (Mattar AA, Gribble PL. Neuron 46: 153-160, 2005). When observing the actions of others, we activate many of the same brain regions involved in performing those actions ourselves (Malfait N, Valyear KF, Culham JC, Anton JL, Brown LE, Gribble PL. J Cogn Neurosci 22: 1493-1503, 2010). Links between neural systems for vision and action have been reported in neurophysiological (Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuroreport 11: 2289-2292, 2000; Watkins KE, Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuropsychologia 41: 989-994, 2003), brain imaging (Buccino G, Binkofski F, Fink GR, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Gallese V, Seitz RJ, Zilles K, Rizzolatti G, Freund HJ. Eur J Neurosci 13: 400-404, 2001; Iacoboni M, Woods RP, Brass M, Bekkering H, Mazziotta JC, Rizzolatti G. Science 286: 2526-2528, 1999), and eye tracking (Flanagan JR, Johansson RS. Nature 424: 769-771, 2003) studies. Here we used a force field learning paradigm coupled with resting-state fMRI to investigate the brain areas involved in motor learning by observing. We examined changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) after an observational learning task and found a network consisting of V5/MT, cerebellum, and primary motor and somatosensory cortices in which changes in FC were correlated with the amount of motor learning achieved through observation, as assessed behaviorally after resting-state fMRI scans. The observed FC changes in this network are not due to visual attention to motion or observation of movement errors but rather are specifically linked to motor learning. These results support the idea that brain networks linking action observation and motor control also facilitate motor learning.
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The Output Hypothesis proposes that language production can facilitate language learning in a number of ways. However, while early research into this theory provided a strong starting point for further research, it did not provide clear, long-term evidence of output’s role in language acquisition. More recent research has addressed this problem by using simple writing task sequences in which output precedes input in order to maximize its role in noticing. Results have been encouraging. In this article, I summarize this research before going on to suggest ways in which teachers can utilize similar task sequences in order to create practical classroom techniques which encourage learners to notice holes in their own knowledge and gaps between their written ability and expert user texts.
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Zoos are the most important way of learning about animals for people. They are also effective educational environments for natural habitats of animals. Zoo design must be a successful exhibit of animals identical to their natural habitats. Therefore, the image of people about animals in natural settings can appropriately be formed. This study investigated whether the areas in which the animals are exhibited make any difference on the perceptions of visitors. The study has two stages, comprised of two questionnaire survey carried out with 420 zoo visitors. In the first stage, the reasons for visiting zoo and visitor preferences of exhibits were determined. In the second stage, we determined how spatial differences of zoo exhibits influence visitor perceptions. The collected data were analyzed using chi-square test, t test, and factor analysis. Results suggested that, spatial differences of zoo exhibits have significant influences on visitor perceptions. Animals exhibited in the semi-natural settings of the zoo are perceived as if they are in a natural setting, while animals in the caged exhibits that are perceived totally different from their natural living environment. The results have also shown that people visit the zoo for educational purposes especially for their children.
Opened on 26 March 1999, First Impressions is a multi-species animal enclosure at Jersey Zoo, housing Andean bears Tremarctos ornatus, ring-tailed coatis Nasua nasua and short-clawed otters Aonyx cinerea. All levels of staff from all departments participated in the design of First Impressions through staff workshops. Flexibility in design was of paramount importance when developing the enclosure, so that species housed in the exhibit could, if needed, be changed in the future without the need for major renovations of the area. Multi-species environments may provide a method for the more efficient use of limited zoo resources, and documentation of multi-species design characteristics is therefore important. This paper describes features of the design of the outside habitat and the building complex which make up the First Impressions enclosure.
In 1992 Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust became involved in the conservation of the Madagascar teal Anas bernieri, and birds were brought to Jersey Zoo for captive breeding. A large aviary was constructed that zoo visitors view from hides, giving privacy for the ducks and a different exhibition experience for the visitors. The aviary is landscaped both to provide for the birds' requirements and to give it a natural appearance suggesting the environment of the western Madagascan wetlands, and is shared by several other bird species from Madagascar. The teal bred for the first time in captivity in 1998 and this success has been repeated each year since.
Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed.
There is a substantial gap between the scientific evidence for anthropogenic climate change and the human response to this evidence. Perceptions of and responses to climate change can differ among regions of the world, as well as within countries. Therefore, information about the public's attitudes and perceptions related to climate change is essential to the development of relevant educational resources. In the present study, zoo visitors in four South American countries responded to a questionnaire regarding their attitudes and perceptions toward global climate change. Results indicated that most respondents are already highly concerned about global climate change and are interested in greater engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Visitors also perceive various obstacles to engagement in climate change mitigation behaviors. We discuss the results of our study in terms of addressing visitors' climate change attitudes and perceptions within the social and emotional context of zoo settings. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Understanding the demands and satisfaction levels of zoo visitors becomes indispensable to sustain a flow of visitors in the increasingly competitive tourism market. This research assessed the importance and performance of the service and facilities attributes in order to measure visitor satisfaction using an importance-performance analysis (IPA). Results of the questionnaire survey of 697 visitors at six public zoos in Korea indicated that convenience and safety in observing animals were important to visitors, and children were a particularly significant motivator for zoo visits. Although attributes related to animal welfare and information-seeking had low importance and low performance in the IPA results, they were identified as the key determinants affecting overall satisfaction in the regression analysis. In order to enhance visitors' satisfaction levels, more efforts are required to improve zoo environment and animal welfare, in addition to developing diverse educational programs that can maximize the intrinsic nature and quality of zoos.