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... Outreach efforts are necessary before initializing MSE development to ensure that the public is informed about the process and to engage key participants (Thompson et al. 2017b). Outreach coordinators are valuable for identifying the extended peer community that should be included in the MSE (i.e., the potential stakeholder groups; Dankel 2016) and to spread the word about the opportunity to be directly involved in the management decision-making process (Chuenpagdee and Jentoft 2007). ...
... Although no management approach will satisfy all stakeholder objectives or resolve conflicts among all user groups, engaging in open dialogue, clear communication, and group decision-making can often produce management procedures that "satisfice" the needs of all MSE participants (Miller and Shelton 2010) and reduce user group conflicts (Davis 2008;Msomphora 2016;Curseu and Schruijer 2017). Outreach and engagement Provide stipend to participants to cover attendance costs Interactive and positive meeting facilitator Note: These issues were identified through analysis of the example MSE processes for Atlantic tunas, Atlantic herring, and eastern oyster and were supplemented by similar suggestions from the participatory modeling and MSE literature (e.g., Kolody et al. 2008;Reed 2008;Punt et al. 2016;Voinov et al. 2016;Thompson et al. 2017aThompson et al. , 2017bJordan et al. 2018). ...
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Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a simulation-based approach to examine the efficacy of management options in achieving fishery-, ecosystem-, and socioeconomic-related objectives while integrating over system uncertainties. As a form of structured decision analysis, MSE is amenable to stakeholder involvement, which can reduce implementation barriers associated with non-transparent decision-making procedures. Based on analysis of three MSE processes (Atlantic tunas, Atlantic herring, and eastern oysters), we provide suggestions for improving stakeholder engagement in MSE. By assembling a workgroup and modeling team with diverse backgrounds, including professional facilitators, communication liaisons, and social scientists, dialogue can be improved and an atmosphere of mutual learning fostered. Communication further benefits from clearly defining roles, responsibilities, and terms of engagement for all involved; explicitly and transparently identifying goals and objectives of the MSE before modeling has begun; and, when appropriate, revisiting goals and objectives throughout the MSE process. Although MSEs are not without limitations, the participatory modeling framework, wherein stakeholders are actively engaged at each stage of MSE development, provides a useful mechanism to support fisheries management.
... A host of unforeseen challenges and expenses arose including overall communication and the impossibility of financing simultaneous trilingual translation, travel documents, hidden travel fees and cultural challenges. The authors contributed these and other considerations to the FLE Guidelines described by Thompson et al. [39]. Regarding participant selection, the authors had planned to choose six individuals from each country to participate in the full program. ...
... It will offer a formal definition of FLEs, describe different configurations of FLEs, discuss the utility, common objectives, and common outcomes of FLEs, and outline a research agenda for future work on FLEs. This paper also serves as an introduction to the other articles in this special issue which include: 1) a comparative case study that elucidates "Key characteristics of successful fisheries learning exchanges" [30], 2) guidelines for consideration when organizing a FLE [31], and illustrative examples of how FLEs have 3) yielded intended and unintended consequences in community-based fisheries in Madagascar [32], 4) addressed sea turtle conservation during a tri-lateral exchange between the United States, Mexico, and Cuba [33], and 5) created a transpacific sea turtle conservation network between Japan, Mexico, and the United States [34]. ...
... Phase 1 consisted of a workshop in May 2013 that brought together 22 participants from 11 countries to establish a community of practice for FLEs, achieve a shared understanding of what defines an FLE, and compile lessons learned [18]. Several outputs from the workshop discuss FLEs in detail, including their scope and history [12], key characteristics of successful FLEs [20], and suggested guidelines for conducting an FLE [18]. Phase 2 of the project consists of a number of in-depth case studies of FLEs across the world, intended to elucidate best practice for designing and conducting FLEs. ...
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In order to strengthen biological and social success of community-based marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Philippines, many organizations have begun instituting MPA networks. In the Central Visayas Region, Coastal Conservation and Education Foundation and Fisheries for Improved Sustainable Harvest are implementing socioecological networking initiatives. Educational programs, employing diverse methods such as cross visits and community MPA monitoring, are integral components of these projects. This article analyzes the relationship between education, information diffusion, and standard measures of MPA success (e.g., MPA rule compliance and fish abundance) in communities participating in these networks. Surveys were conducted with 13 individuals per community in 36 communities. Statistical tests reveal that the presence of a clear MPA leader, participation in cross visits, and presence of community environmental education programs were the strongest predictors of social and biological MPA success. Formal education programs (e.g., management committee member trainings) independent of other processes did not demonstrate strong statistical relationships with MPA success. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrate the current and potential benefits and efficacy of education programs for communities in MPA networks. When linked to a strong infrastructure for information diffusion, education programs have the potential to increase both biological and social MPA success.
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Various management approaches have been proposed to address the alarming depletion of marine coastal resources. Prominent among them are community-based management and the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). The overall poor performance of MPAs can be traced to a failure to effectively include local communities in the design and implementation of relevant measures. Recent efforts have incorporated aspects of community-based management into a hybrid form of management, which ideally builds upon existing local management practices. A key challenge lies in the development of appropriate frameworks that allow for the successful participation of local communities in management. A review of studies on MPA design and community-based marine resource management and fieldwork observations provides suggestions on how to address current socioeconomic shortcomings in MPA design and implementation, successfully involving local communities in order to provide a better local basis for effective larger MPA networks. A combination of MPA tools as the formal frame and community-based natural resource management as the adaptive core that recognizes local communities as allies, not aliens, is needed to develop successful conservation approaches.
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Social learning approaches have become a prominent focus in studies related to sustainable agriculture. In order to better understand the potential of social learning for more sustainable development, the present study assessed the processes, effects and facilitating elements of interaction related to social learning in the context of Swiss soil protection and the innovative ‘From Farmer - To Farmer’ project. The study reveals that social learning contributes to fundamental transformations of patterns of interactions. However, the study also demonstrates that a learning-oriented understanding of sustainable development implies including analysis of the institutional environments in which the organizations of the individual representatives of face-to-face-based social learning processes are operating. This has shown to be a decisive element when face-to-face-based learning processes of the organisations’ representatives are translated into organisational learning. Moreover, the study revealed that this was achieved not directly through formalisation of new lines of institutionalised cooperation but by establishing links in a ‘boundary space’ trying out new forms of collaboration, aiming at social learning and co-production of knowledge. It is argued that further research on social learning processes should give greater emphasis to this intermediary level of ‘boundary spaces’.
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"Fishers often rely on their social capital to cope with resource fluctuations by sharing information on the abundance and location of fish. Drawing on research in seven coastal fishing communities in Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico, we examine the effect of resource scarcity on the bonding, bridging, and linking social-capital patterns of fishers information-sharing networks. We found that: (1) fishers information sharing is activated in response to varying ecological conditions; (2) resource scarcity is an ambiguous indicator of the extent to which fishers share information on the abundance and location of fish within and between communities; (3) information sharing is based on trust and occurs through kinship, friendship, and acquaintance social relations; (4) friendship ties play a key and flexible role in fishers social networks within and between communities; (5) overall, the composition of fishers social networks follows a friendship>kinship>acquaintance order of importance; and (6) the function of social ties, internal conflict, and settlement histories moderate the effects of resource scarcity on fishers social capital. We conclude by arguing that the livelihoods of fishers from Loreto have adaptive capacity for dealing with fish fluctuations but little or no proactive resilience to address resource-management issues."
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Congratulations to H. Russell Bernard, who was recently elected as a member of the National Academy of Sciences"This book does what few others even attempt—to survey a wide range of systematic analytic approaches. I commend the authors for both their inclusiveness and their depth of treatment of various tasks and approaches." —Judith Preissle, University of Georgia "I appreciate the unpretentious tone of the book. The authors provide very clear instructions and examples of many different ways to collect and analyze qualitative data and make it clear that there is no one correct way to do it." —Cheryl Winsten-Bartlett, North Central University "The analytical methodologies are laid out very well, and I will definitely utilize the book with students regarding detailed information and steps to conduct systematic and rigorous data analysis." —Dorothy Aguilera, Lewis & Clark College This book introduces readers to systematic methods for analyzing qualitative data. Unlike other texts, it covers the extensive range of available methods so that readers become aware of the array of techniques beyond their individual disciplines. Part I is an overview of the basics. Part II comprises 11 chapters, each treating a different method for analyzing text. Real examples from the literature across the health and social sciences provide invaluable applied understanding.
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International conservation organisations have invested considerable resources in fostering biodiversity conservation programs in the humid tropics, the most biologically diverse areas on earth. Recent approaches to conservation have centered on integrated conservation and development projects and participatory resource management programs, co-managed between governments and local communities. But these programs have had only mixed success and often suffer from insufficient quantity or quality of participation by local communities. We pose that participatory resource management is more likely to succeed when community members, 1) gain a global perspective on how their social, economic and environmental conditions compare with peer communities in other similar areas of the world, and thus better understand issues of relative scarcity and the benefits of sustainable resource management, and 2) engage as decision-makers at every stage of the conservation process up to reflective program evaluation. This paper examines the role of South-South exchanges as a tool to achieve these intermediate goals that ultimately foster more effective and participatory conservation and support sustainable local livelihoods. The data are extracted from the initiatives of the authors in two different environments - marine and coastal communities in Central America and the Caribbean, and lowland rainforest communities in the western Amazon of South America. We conclude that the exchanges are effective ways to build stakeholder comprehension about, and meaningful engagement in, resource management. South-South exchanges may also help build multi-local coalitions from various remote areas that together support biodiversity conservation at regional and global scales.
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To address biodiversity loss and secure livelihoods reliant on natural resources, environmental governance is increasingly focused on connecting local management to higher scales of policy and planning. Governance networks can foster cross-scale relations between actors for collective purposes. We examine a governance network of non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and local communities involved in adaptive co-management of coastal ecosystems in Solomon Islands. We use quantitative social network analysis to examine patterns of collaborative and knowledge-exchange relations among agencies. We examine network structure alongside qualitative data to understand the potential of the network to facilitate coordination and learning among management actors. We identify social networks that transcend the formal membership of the governance network. Cross-scale analysis highlights that network members are the only functional pathway for cross-scale knowledge-exchange and higher-level representation of local issues. We find midscale managers (e.g., provincial governments) are poorly connected. The governance network also provides the primary means for knowledge-exchange between agencies and is important for multi-actor learning about best practice for conservation. Yet, we identify geographic, logistical, and institutional barriers and tradeoffs to multi-actor and cross-scale coordination and learning.
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Most writing on sociological method has been concerned with how accurate facts can be obtained and how theory can thereby be more rigorously tested. In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss address the equally Important enterprise of how the discovery of theory from data--systematically obtained and analyzed in social research--can be furthered. The discovery of theory from data--grounded theory--is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. In Part I of the book, "Generation Theory by Comparative Analysis," the authors present a strategy whereby sociologists can facilitate the discovery of grounded theory, both substantive and formal. This strategy involves the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups. In Part II, The Flexible Use of Data," the generation of theory from qualitative, especially documentary, and quantitative data Is considered. In Part III, "Implications of Grounded Theory," Glaser and Strauss examine the credibility of grounded theory. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is directed toward improving social scientists' capacity for generating theory that will be relevant to their research. While aimed primarily at sociologists, it will be useful to anyone Interested In studying social phenomena--political, educational, economic, industrial-- especially If their studies are based on qualitative data.
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The world's grasslands and large migratory populations of wildlife have been disproportionately lost or disrupted by human activities, yet are poorly represented in protected areas. The major threats they face are land subdivision and the loss of large-scale dynamic processes such as wildlife migrations and fire. The large-scale dynamical processes and ubiquity of livestock economies and cultures across the grasslands calls for an integrated ecosystem approach to conservation to make up the shortfall in protected-area coverage. Ranchers and pastoralists will be more inclined to adopt an integrated landscape approach to conservation if they also see the threats to wildlife and grassland ecosystems as affecting their livelihoods and way of life. We arranged a series of learning exchanges between African and American pastoralists, ranchers, scientists, and conservationists aimed at building the collaboration and consensus needed to conserve grasslands at a landscape level. There was broad agreement on the threat of land fragmentation to livelihoods, wildlife, and grasslands. The exchanges also identified weaknesses in prevailing public, private, and community modes of ownership in halting fragmentation. New collaborative approaches were explored to attain the benefits of privatization while keeping the landscape open. The African-U.S. exchanges showed that learning exchanges can anticipate over-the-horizon problems and speed up the feedback loops that underlie adaptive management and build social and ecological resilience.
Learning Through Sharing: the Power of Exchange Visits and How to Make Them Work. Growing Forest Partnership
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G. Piras, Learning Through Sharing: the Power of Exchange Visits and How to Make Them Work. Growing Forest Partnership. London: IIED.
Information and knowledge sharing. FAO Fisheries Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries
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FAO. Information and knowledge sharing. FAO Fisheries Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries, Rome, 2009.
Report of the FAO/CRFM/WECAFC Caribbean Regional Consultation on the Development of International Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries
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FAO. Report of the FAO/CRFM/WECAFC Caribbean Regional Consultation on the Development of International Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries, Kingston, Jamaica, 6-8 December 2012. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2013.
South-South Knowledge Exchange
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World Bank Institute. "South-South Knowledge Exchange." Retrieved 10.04.13, from 〈http://wbi.worldbank.org/sske〉.
Fishermen learning exchanges for conservation: an examination of lessons learned: Workshop Summary and Outputs
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K.R. Thompson, L.D. Jenkins, S.H. Peckham, Fishermen learning exchanges for conservation: an examination of lessons learned: Workshop Summary and Outputs 2013 National Socio-Evironmental Synthesis Center Annapolis, MD.
Innovation by Design: Improving Learning Networks in Coastal Management: The H. John Heinz III Center for Science
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The Heinz Center. Innovation by Design: Improving Learning Networks in Coastal Management: The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, 2004.
Fishermen learning exchange for conservation: An Examination of Lessons Learned Pre-Workshop Summary of Lessons Learned
  • K R Thompson
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K.R. Thompson, L.D. Jenkins, S.H. Peckham, Fishermen learning exchange for conservation: An Examination of Lessons Learned Pre-Workshop Summary of Lessons Learned, 2013.
Great Rivers Partnership
The Nature Conservancy, 2012, "Great Rivers Partnership." Retrieved 20.03.13, from 〈http://www.greatriverspartnership.org〉.