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Antibiotic use and practices in commercial poultry laying hens in Ogun State Nigeria

Authors:
  • Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta
  • Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

Abstract

Poultry production contributes largely to the Nigerian economy. However, antibiotics misuse by poultry farmers has resulted in multidrug resistance and impeded efficiency of antibiotic treatments in the industry. The study was carried out to assess antibiotic usage in commercial poultry farms. A survey using a structured farm-manager questionnaire was conducted to obtain information on socioeconomic characteristics of the farm owners or managers, the types of antibiotics used, their frequency and purpose of use, the awareness of antibiotics usage and associated consequences, and farmers’ preferred channels of information on prudent antibiotic usage. The respondents’ level of education was university or equivalent (70.9%), high school (12.6%), or no formal education (13.6%). Antibiotics were primarily used for prophylaxis (> 60%) and therapeutics (< 15%). Gentamicin (76.7%) was the most used, followed by tetracycline (64.1%), enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (57.3%), furazolidone (49.5%), streptomycin (46.6%), furaltadone (43.7%), chloramphenicol (41.7%), penicillin (25.2%), erythromycin (24.3%), and nalidixic acid (11.7%). About half of the farms used banned furazolidone and chloramphenicol. In total 82 (79.6%) farmers were aware that the use of random antibiotics in the treatment of improperly diagnosed diseases can lead to antibiotic resistance. However 73 (70.9%) were less aware that antibiotics misuse in animals poses a serious threat to human health. Antibiotics were not prudently used by poultry producers, whose lack of awareness may contribute to the issue. It is anticipated that the results of this survey will assist in developing relevant policies toward controlling antibiotic use in poultry farms in Nigeria.
INTRODUCTION
Livestock contributes 40% of the global value of agricultural output
and supports the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion
people worldwide (Carrique-Mas et al., 2015). Rapidly rising incomes
and urbanization, combined with underlying population growth are
driving the demand for meat and other animal products in many
developing countries (Carrique-Mas et al., 2015). In Nigeria, the poul-
try industry has contributed to the economic growth and assumed
greater importance in improving employment opportunity and ani-
mal food production (Adebayo and Adeola, 2005).
Antibiotics play a significant role in controlling infectious diseases.
The past few decades, however, have witnessed a steady increase in
the number and diversity of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, rendering
some bacterial infections virtually untreatable (Hurd et al., 2004).
The cost of resistance associated with the treatment of infections
caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria has increased manyfold (Ghosh
and Lapara, 2007). The pervasive use of antibiotics for both therapeu-
tic and non-therapeutic purposes is associated with the occurrence
of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, due to selective pressure in favor of
resistant bacteria (Ghosh and Lapara, 2007).
SANTÉ ANIMALE ET ÉPIDÉMIOLOGIE
41
Revue d’élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux, 2016, 69 (1) : 41-45
Antibiotic use and practices
in commercial poultry laying hens
in Ogun State Nigeria
Oluwawemimo O. Adebowale1* Olanike K. Adeyemo2
Olajoju Awoyomi1 Racheal Dada1 Oluseyi Adebowale3
Summary
Poultry production contributes largely to the Nigerian economy. However,
antibiotics misuse by poultry farmers has resulted in multidrug resistance and
impeded efficiency of antibiotic treatments in the industry. The study was car-
ried out to assess antibiotic usage in commercial poultry farms. A survey using
a structured farm-manager questionnaire was conducted to obtain information
on socioeconomic characteristics of the farm owners or managers, the types of
antibiotics used, their frequency and purpose of use, the awareness of antibiotics
usage and associated consequences, and farmers’ preferred channels of infor-
mation on prudent antibiotic usage. The respondents’ level of education was
university or equivalent (70.9%), high school (12.6%), or no formal education
(13.6%). Antibiotics were primarily used for prophylaxis (>60%) and therapeu-
tics (<15%). Gentamicin (76.7%) was the most used, followed by tetracycline
(64.1%), enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (57.3%), furazolidone (49.5%), strep-
tomycin (46.6%), furaltadone (43.7%), chloramphenicol (41.7%), penicillin
(25.2%), erythromycin (24.3%), and nalidixic acid (11.7%). About half of the
farms used banned furazolidone and chloramphenicol. In total 82 (79.6%) farm-
ers were aware that the use of random antibiotics in the treatment of improperly
diagnosed diseases can lead to antibiotic resistance. However 73 (70.9%) were
less aware that antibiotics misuse in animals poses a serious threat to human
health. Antibiotics were not prudently used by poultry producers, whose lack
of awareness may contribute to the issue. It is anticipated that the results of this
survey will assist in developing relevant policies toward controlling antibiotic
use in poultry farms in Nigeria.
How to cite this article: Adebowale O.O., Adeyemo O.K., Awoyomi O., Dada R., Adebowale O., 2016.
Antibiotic use and practices in commercial poultry
laying hens in Ogun State Nigeria. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet.
Pays Trop., 69 (1): 41-45
1. Department of Veterinary Public Health and Reproduction, College of Veterinary
Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
2. Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of
Ibadan, Nigeria.
3. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of
Ibadan, Nigeria.
* Corresponding author
Tel.: +234 (0)90 85 60 80 43
Email: oluwawemimo1@yahoo.com
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords
Poultry, layer chicken, resistance to
antibiotics, antibiotic residues, farm
manager, Nigeria
Accepted: 16 February 2016
Published: 4 July 2016
SANTÉ ANIMALE ET ÉPIDÉMIOLOGIE
Antibiotic use in laying hens in Nigeria
Revue d’élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux, 2016, 69 (1) : 41-45
42
Bacterial diseases are recognized as an important risk factor in poul-
try health management. Every poultry farmer is aware of the risk of
bacterial infections and their subsequent effect on mortalities, pro-
ductivity, and profitability. Consequently, farmers in the tropics spend
more money on control and management of bacterial diseases than on
any other form of poultry diseases. A recent survey in Nigeria esti-
mated that layer farmers spend over 35% of their cost of medication
on treating bacterial diseases up to the end of lay (Adejoro, 2007).
Antibiotic resistance translates into costs of about 75 million US$
to medicate 40 million commercial layers in Nigeria to end of lay.
Accordingly, this has led farmers to the inappropriate use and han-
dling of antibiotics. The persistent use of antibiotics is suspected to be
the major cause of antibiotic resistance in man and animal (Adejoro,
2007). The overall relationship between drug use and resistance is
well established and based on laboratory, cross-sectional, case-con-
trol and prospective studies (Olonitola et al., 2015). Also, self-medi-
cation with antibiotics, use of human antibiotics in food animals and
non-regulated prescriptions are increasingly alarming and may have
contributed to antibiotic resistance scourge in the poultry industry in
Nigeria.
Furthermore, the rationale for prophylaxis stems from the fact that
antibiotic is more efficient when used for prevention rather than
for therapeutics (Gustafson and Bowen, 1997). However, misuse of
antimicrobials may lead to carryover of residues in animal products,
which may result in detrimental effects on consumers and public
health in general (Anderson et al., 2003; Cheng et al., 2012; FAO,
2010). Measures to minimize and contain resistance are thus essen-
tial to ensure the continued availability and efficacy of veterinary
and human antimicrobial drugs. Containment of antibiotic resistance
depends on the responsible use of antibiotics, which prompted us to
investigate the commonly used antibiotics and farmers’ awareness
and practices to antibiotic usage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study location
This study was conducted from March to July 2011 in Ogun State,
Nigeria, which holds the largest concentration of commercial laying
poultry in the country. This State is located in the southeast of Nige-
ria, at 3° 19’ 65” E and 7° 09’ 77” N, at an elevation of 51.5 meters,
and a total land area of 16,762 km
2
. Ogun State, also known as the
Gateway State, shares an international border with Benin in the west,
and interstate boundaries with Oyo in the north, Lagos in the south
and Ondo in the east.
Study design and poultry farm selection
The target population was commercial poultry farms with a popula-
tion of 200 or more laying hens. Commercial laying-hen farms were
selected for study, as they constitute over 89% of poultry production
in the study area, whereas broiler farms account for only 2.2%. In
addition, laying hens are more lucrative and produce all year around.
A list of 200 poultry farms in Ogun State, from which 106 were ini-
tially randomly selected for this study, was obtained from the Minis-
try of Agriculture. In cases where farms were not reachable because
of lack of addresses, distance or unwillingness to participate, they
were conveniently replaced with other farms. Eventually, 103 farms
participated in the survey. We only sampled 103 farms because of
logistics and because most farms were located in rural communities
with or without addresses, and locating them was difficult. One of
the farmers refused to participate because of the lack of feedback and
benefits from past studies in which he had been involved.
A farm manager questionnaire was designed and pretested on a small
sample of 10 commercial laying-hen farms outside Ogun State to
detect any flaws in the wording, sequencing of the questions and con-
sistency. The internal validation of the questionnaire was done using
Cronbach’s alpha (test for reliability = 0.7), which ranges from r = 0
to 1, where r = 0.7 or greater is considered as sufficiently reliable
(Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994). The questionnaire was not however
re-pretested to ensure repeatability of respondents’ responses.
The questionnaire consisted of a brief introduction, which explained
the purpose of the questionnaire, the importance of the respondent’s
participation and a statement guaranteeing confidentially. The rest
comprised questions to gather information on the i) socioeconomic
characteristics of the farm owners/managers, ii) types of antibiotics
commonly used, iii) frequency and purpose of use, iv) awareness of
poultry farmers on the use of antibiotics and associated problems,
and v) sources and appropriate channel of information on antibiotic
usage. The questionnaire was administered to either farm owners or
managers by two of the authors and filled in by the respondents. The
majority of the respondents were well educated. On the other hand,
the few farmers who were uneducated were assisted with filling in the
questionnaire. All questions were closed-ended as respondents were
given options to select.
Data analysis
Data were processed with Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed as
descriptive statistics. All graphic presentations were performed with
Graphpad prism 6.0. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were
determined using Graphpad Quickcalcs.
RESULTS
Poultry characteristics
Major strains of layers raised in the study area included Nera Brown,
Black Haco, Lohmann brown and Issa brown. The flock size of the
farms studied ranged from 500 to 50,000 birds.
Farmers’ socio-economic characteristics
The results showed that among the respondents 74 (71.8%) were men
and 15 (14.6%) were women. With regard to the level of education
73 (70.9%) had attended the university or an equivalent establish-
ment, 13 (12.6%) had a high school level and 14 (13.6%) no formal
education.
Antibiotics commonly used by laying-hen farmers
The choice and commonly used antibiotics among farmers were
investigated. All respondents recruited for the study had specified the
use of antibiotics for their farm poultry production. Antibiotics used
among farmers included a whole range of different classes. How-
ever, farmers’ preference of antibiotics was, in the following, order
gentamicin 79 (76.7%), tetracycline 66 (64.1%), enrofloxacin and
ciprofloxacin 59 (57.3%), furazolidone 51 (49.5%), streptomycin 48
(46.6%), furaltadone 45 (43.7%), chloramphenicol 43 (41.7%), penicil-
lin 26 (25.2%), erythromycin 25 (24.3%), and nalidixic acid 12 (11.7%)
(Figure 1). Out of 103 farmers interviewed, 20.4% used tetracyclines
always, whereas nalidixic acid was never used by 85.4%. Gentamicin
was a common antibiotic occasionally used by 61 (59.2%) farmers
(Table I). The purpose of use of antibiotics was mainly prophylactic
(> 60%) and less frequently therapeutic (< 15 %) (Figure 2).
Antibiotic administration in poultry
Seventy-five poultry farmers believed that veterinary prescriptions
were not necessary because of long years of experience in the poul-
try business. However, 81 (78.6%, 95% CI, 69.7–85.5) agreed that
Utilisation des antibiotiques chez les pondeuses au Nigeria
43
Revue d’élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux, 2016, 69 (1) : 41-45
antibiotics used in poultry should be regulated and used when pre-
scribed by veterinarians only. When asked if antibiotics could be dis-
continued when clinical signs of infection subside, 53 (51.5%, 95%
CI, 41.9–60.8) agreed this could be done. It was also observed that 67
(65.0%, 95% CI, 55.4–73.5) agreed it was always advisable to admin-
ister antibiotics regularly to prevent diseases outbreak on the farm.
Moreover, 72 (69.9%, 95% CI, 60.4–77.9) disagreed with the use of
higher doses of antibiotics to enhance effectiveness. Nearly 50%
agreed that antibiotics used in humans could be applied in poultry
disease treatment.
Awareness of associated problems
Concerning associated problems encountered with misuse of anti-
biotics, 82 (79.6%, 95% CI, 70.7–86.3) farmers were aware that
improper diagnosis of the disease can lead to antibiotic resistance.
Likewise, 70 (68.0%, 95% CI, 58.4–76.2) knew that antibiotic resist-
ance is the ability of bacteria to resist the effect of antibiotics. On the
other hand 73 (70.9%, 95% CI, 61.6–78.8) were not aware that misuse
of antibiotics in animals poses a serious risk to human health. Data
also showed that farmers felt that the public could consume eggs from
hens receiving antibiotic treatment and that it would be a major loss
for them if they were asked to dispose of such eggs. We observed
that 72 (69.9%, 95% CI 60.4–77.9) of the farmers lacked awareness
of antibiotic residue. Many farmers 69 (67.0%, 95% CI, 59.4–75.3)
however acknowledged that there may be associated environmental
problems with improper disposal of antibiotics.
Source of information on antibiotic use
Figure 3 shows the different sources of information available to farm-
ers on antibiotic use, and issues associated with misuse, for instance
antibiotic resistance in the poultry industry. Figure 4 identifies the
three main sources used by the farmers, i.e. seminars/workshops
for 75 of them (72.8%), veterinary officers for 72 (69.9%), and other
farmers for 66 (64.1%).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Yes
No
Figure 1: Antibiotics used by laying-hen farmers in Ogun State,
Nigeria.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Yes
No
0
Figure 3: Sources of information on antibiotic use in laying hens
available to farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Appropriate
Inappropriate
I don't know
No response
0
Figure 4: Farmers’ preferred information sources for antibiotic
awareness and use in laying hens in Ogun State, Nigeria.
Figure 2: Farmers’ objectives when using antibiotics in laying
hens in Ogun State, Nigeria.
Antibiotic type Number of farms (%)
Always Occasionally Never
Penicillin 8 (7.8) 21 (20.4) 74 (71.8)
Gentamicin 16 (15.5) 61 (59.2) 26 (25.2)
Enrofloxacin/
ciprofloxacin 15 (14.6) 47 (45.6) 41 (39.8)
Streptomycin 11 (10.7) 40 (38.8) 52 (50.5)
Tetracyclines 21 (20.4) 48 (46.6) 34 (33.0)
Erythromycin 12 (11.7) 15 (14.6) 76 (73.8)
Chloramphenicol 9 (8.7) 35 (34.0) 59 (57.3)
Nalixidic acid 8 (7.8) 7 (6.8) 88 (85.4)
Furazolidone 7 (6.8) 39 (37.9) 57 (55.3)
Furataldone 10 (9.7) 33 (32.0) 60 (58.3)
Table I
Types of antibiotics and frequency of their use in
laying-hen farms in Ogun State, Nigeria
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Antibiotic use in laying hens in Nigeria
Revue d’élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux, 2016, 69 (1) : 41-45
44
study area. For instance, poultry were more vulnerable to salmonel-
losis, collibacillosis, fowl cholera, infectious bronchitis, coccidiosis,
and Newcastle and Gumboro diseases, which may cause high mor-
tality or morbidity, and huge economic losses (Kabir et al., 2004). To
prevent or reduce the impact of these diseases poultry farmers tend
to abuse indiscriminately antibiotics. Additionally, the predisposition
to rely on personal experience sometimes leads farmers to use these
drugs indiscriminately, and makes them unaware of the need to con-
sult veterinarians, whom they all see when all obtainable means of
treatment have been tried with no effect. Furthermore, the lack of
hygiene and sanitary measures, the inadequacies in management and
animal husbandry, and biosecurity practices may also contribute to
the high use of antibiotics to prevent disease outbreaks. These short-
comings predispose birds to stress, susceptibility to infections and
high pathogen transmission dynamics. To curb the extensive use of
antibiotics in sub-therapeutic doses, probiotics in animal feeds and
drinks have been encouraged. Probiotics are safe, and reduce intesti-
nal infections and resistance to antibiotics (Lutful Kabir, 2010).
Farmers’ main preferred source of information on antibiotic use was
through seminars. The choice may have resulted from the fact that
the poultry farmers’ association in Ogun State holds regular meetings
which encourage group talks on issues concerning the poultry indus-
try or various challenges. We thus suggest this could be an appropri-
ate medium with the support of government veterinarians to reduce
antibiotic misuse in food animals in Nigeria. In addition, farmers
agreed on the need for a policy regulating antibiotics prescription
and administration by veterinarians. Along with seminars, veterinary
extension services were found to be most useful for information dis-
semination on antibiotic use. This study serves as the basis for the
development and enforcement of policies on antibiotics and banned
drug use in food animals with a view to safeguard public health. An
awareness campaign toward enlightening stakeholders on this topic,
especially through farmers’ preferred sources of information or com-
munication is also recommended.
Acknowledgments
The authors acknowledge the Department of Veterinary Public
Health, COLVET, FUNNAB, and Ogun State Ministry of Agricul-
ture, Veterinary Services Department, for their support during this
stu d y.
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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Antibiotic usage in farm animals has raised many concerns among
which the potential transfer of antibiotic resistant pathogens from ani-
mals to humans. This transfer has severe health implications includ-
ing treatment failures, which has led to some deaths and increased the
cost of human therapies (Lutful Kabir, 2010). Furthermore, overuse
of antibiotics leads to the occurrence of harmful residues in edible
poultry tissues (meat and eggs) and other animal products (Olatoye
and Ehinmowo, 2009; Shareef et al., 2009; Lawal et al., 2015), which
consequently are detrimental to health when such products are con-
sumed by the public.
The most commonly used antibiotics observed in the present study
were gentamicin, tetracyclines, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. This
data agrees with that of Ogunleye et al. (2008), who reported enro-
floxacin, tetracyclines, gentamicin, streptomycin and furaltadone as
common antibiotics used among poultry farms in Ogun State. Multi-
drug resistance to the listed antibiotics has been reported in poultry
farms in Nigeria, and the studies have attributed this to the uncon-
trolled use of antibiotics among farmers because of a lack of antibi-
otic control policies in the country (Livermore, 2003; Lutful Kabir,
2010). The use of quinolones in poultry is worrisome as this drug is
classified by the World Health Organization as critically important
for treatments of enteric diseases in humans and has been associated
with increased resistance in humans exposed to it from farm animals.
The increased use of this drug has been attributed to several factors
that include its broad-spectrum activity, its easy application in water
and food, and its lack of restrictions (www.soilassociation.org).
In countries such as Australia where this antibiotic is not used in food
animals, cases of resistance to quinolones in farm animals have not
been reported. Cases of antibiotic resistance in humans in Australia
have been reported to be less than 4% (Cheng et al., 2012). Quinolo-
nes are locally manufactured by Nigerian pharmaceutical companies
and distributed to other African countries. However, some of these
companies serve as major distributors of antibiotic for international
manufacturers. The use of banned animal drugs including furazoli-
done and chloramphenicol was still well in practice among poultry
farmers in the study area. Furazolidone is mostly used by farmers
in the treatment of salmonellosis as the drug is commonly called a
‘wonder drug’. Furazolidone and chloramphenicol in food-produc-
ing animals are banned in the United States, United Kingdom and
European Union because of their carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and
linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans (Berend-
sen et al., 2010; Kabir et al., 2004). Farm owners also administered
antibiotics without veterinary consultation mainly because of the cost
of veterinary services. A study conducted in Nigeria by Geidam et
al. (2012) reported that over 80% farmers admitted having purchased
antibiotics without veterinarian prescriptions, and 60% did not com-
plete drug treatment or followed manufacturer’s instructions. Anti-
biotics are supposed to be a restricted medicine, only handled and
used by trained professionals. However, over the counter antibiotics
are available from pet and human pharmacy stores for farmers’ use as
there are no stringent government regulations guiding prescriptions
for humans and animals in Nigeria.
Results also showed that antibiotics were administered prophylacti-
cally. Most antibiotics used in poultry production in the country are
administered prophylactically in drinking water or incorporated in
feed (Lawal et al., 2015), as it is the case in Vietnam (Carrique-Mas
et al., 2015) and in Uganda (Bashahun and Odoch, 2015). In Nigeria
Ogunleye et al. (2008) reported that seven of the eight farms studied
used between three and seven different antimicrobial agents at differ-
ent times for prophylaxis or treatment purposes. Several reasons may
have contributed to the high prophylactic usage of antibiotics in the
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Résumé
Adebowale O.O., Adeyemo O.K., Awoyomi O., Dada R., Ade-
bowale O. Pratiques d’utilisation des antibiotiques dans les
élevages de poules pondeuses dans l’Etat d’Ogun au Nigeria
La production de volailles occupe une place prépondérante
dans l’économie nigériane. Toutefois, l’utilisation abusive des
antibiotiques par les éleveurs de volailles a entraîné une multi-
résistance et nuit à l’efficacité des traitements antibiotiques dans
l’industrie. Cette étude a été réalisée afin d’évaluer l’utilisation
d’antibiotiques dans les exploitations avicoles commerciales.
Une enquête a été menée à l’aide d’un questionnaire structuré
destiné aux chefs d’exploitation pour obtenir des informations
sur les caractéristiques socio-économiques des propriétaires ou
desdits chefs, les types d’antibiotiques utilisés, la fréquence et la
raison de leur utilisation, la sensibilisation à l’usage des antibio-
tiques et à leurs problèmes associés, et les sources d’information
privilégiées par les éleveurs pour un recours raisonnable aux
antibiotiques. Le niveau d’instruction des interviewés était uni-
versitaire ou équivalent (70,9%), collège ou lycée (12,6%), ou
sans éducation formelle (13,6%). Les antibiotiques étaient utili-
sés principalement en prophylaxie (>60%) et en thérapeutique
(< 15 %). La gentamicine (76,7 %) était l’antibiotique le plus
utilisé, venaient ensuite la tétracycline (64,1%), l’enrofloxacine
et la ciprofloxacine (57,3%), la furazolidone (49,5 %), la strep-
tomycine (46,6%), la furaltadone (43,7 %), le chloramphénicol
(41,7 %), la pénicilline (25,2 %), l’érythromycine (24,3%), et
l’acide nalidixique (11,7%). Environ la moitié des exploitations
agricoles utilisaient les produits interdits que sont la furazolidone
et le chloramphénicol. Au total 82 (79,6%) éleveurs savaient
que l’utilisation aléatoire d’antibiotiques dans le traitement de
maladies incorrectement diagnostiquées pouvait conduire à
la résistance aux antibiotiques. Cependant, 73 (70,9 %) étaient
moins informés sur le fait qu’un mauvais usage des antibiotiques
chez les animaux constitue une grave menace en santé humaine.
Les antibiotiques n’étaient pas utilisés avec prudence par les pro-
ducteurs de volailles. Le manque de sensibilisation de ces der-
niers à cette situation serait un facteur qui y contribuerait. Les
résultats de cette enquête devraient permettre d’élaborer des
politiques pertinentes pour établir un contrôle de l’utilisation des
antibiotiques dans les élevages de volailles au Nigeria.
Mots-clés: volaille, poule pondeuse, résistance aux antibio-
tiques, résidus d’antibiotiques, chef d’exploitation, Nigeria
Resumen
Adebowale O.O., Adeyemo O.K., Awoyomi O., Dada R., Ade-
bowale O. Uso y prácticas de antibióticos en gallinas ponedo-
ras comerciales en el estado de Ogun Nigeria
La producción avícola contribuye en gran medida a la eco-
nomía nigeriana. Sin embargo, el mal uso de antibióticos por
parte de los avicultores ha llevado a la resistencia a múltiples
drogas e impide la eficacia de los tratamientos con antibióti-
cos en la industria. Este estudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar
el uso de antibióticos en las granjas avícolas comerciales. Se
llevó a cabo una encuesta mediante un cuestionario estruc-
turado granja-administrador para obtener información sobre
las características socioeconómicas de los dueños/administra-
dores de la granja, los tipos de antibióticos utilizados, su fre-
cuencia y el propósito de su uso, el conocimiento del uso de
antibióticos y las consecuencias asociadas, y las preferencias
de los agricultores en cuanto a los canales de difusión de la
información sobre el uso adecuado de antibióticos. El nivel de
educación de los encuestados fue la universidad (70,9%), la
escuela secundaria (12,6%) o sin educación formal (13,6%).
Los antibióticos se utilizan principalmente para la profilaxis
(> 60%) y terapéutica (< 15%). Gentamicina (76,7%) fue el
más utilizado, seguido por tetraciclina (64,1%), enrofloxacino
y ciprofloxacina (57,3%), furazolidona (49,5%), estreptomicina
(46,6%), furaltadona (43,7%), cloranfenicol (41,7%), penici-
lina (25,2%), eritromicina (24,3%) y ácido nalidíxico (11,7%).
Aproximadamente la mitad de las granjas utilizaron furazo-
lidona prohibida y el cloranfenicol. En total 82 (79,6%) agri-
cultores estaban conscientes de que el uso de antibióticos al
azar para el tratamiento de enfermedades incorrectamente dia-
gnosticadas puede conducir a la resistencia a los antibióticos.
Sin embargo, 73 (70,9%) estaban menos conscientes de que
el mal uso de antibióticos en animales representa una seria
amenaza para la salud humana. Los antibióticos no fueron uti-
lizados con prudencia por los productores de aves de corral, y
la falta de conciencia sobre esta cuestión podría ser un factor
contribuyente. Se prevé que el resultado de esta encuesta ayu-
dará en el desarrollo de políticas pertinentes para el control en
el uso de antibióticos en las granjas avícolas en Nigeria.
Palabras clave: ave de corral, gallina ponedora, resistencia a
los antibióticos, residuos de antibióticos, gestor de empresas
agrarias, Nigeria
... Inappropriate use of antimicrobials in humans, poultry, fish, and livestock has contributed to AMR emergence [2,3]. Antimicrobials are frequently used as prophylactic drugs in commercial animal production systems in low-and middle-income countries [4][5][6][7][8][9]. A study suggests that global consumption of antimicrobials in animals will rise by 67% by 2030 [10]. ...
... Colistin is recognized as category of Highest Priority Critically Important Antimicrobials by WHO [30]. Previous studies conducted in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Vietnam, Philippines, Tanzania, Pakistan, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon have also reported common usage of such antibiotics of critical importance for animal and/or human health in commercial broiler and layer chickens [5,6,9,15,24,25,27,31,32].The usage of antibiotics in animal production systems is a global issue. Some antibiotics (colistin, fluoroquinolones and third-and fourth-generation cephalosporins) are advised not to be used in food-producing animals [33]. ...
... Earlier studies from Bangladesh reported similar evidence of antibiotic use for prophylaxis (23-32%) and growth promotion (8%) in commercial chicken production [16,22]. The routine use of antibiotics at different stages of the production cycle in commercial chicken for prophylactic purposes has also been reported in Cameroon (11%), Pakistan (100%), Nigeria (29-60%), Nepal (22%) and Thailand (38%) [5][6][7][8][9]28]. OIE and WHO advise to avoid antimicrobials for prophylactic purposes in the absence of clinical signs in food-producing animals [30,33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Irrational and inappropriate use of antibiotics in commercial chicken production can contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to assess antibiotic usage in commercial chicken production in Bangladesh, and identify factors associated with this practice. We conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study to collect information on antibiotic usage in commercial chickens from January to May 2021. Structured interviews were conducted with 288 broiler, 288 layer and 192 Sonali (locally-produced cross-bred) farmers in 20 sub-districts across Bangladesh. The frequency of antibiotic usage, the types of antibiotics and purpose of usage were estimated for each production type. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated to measure the association between antibiotic usage and factors related to the characteristics of the farms and farmers using multivariable logistic regression models. The proportion of farms, irrespective of their production type, reporting usage of antibiotics in the 24 hours preceding the interview was 41% (n = 314, 95% CI: 37-44%). Forty-five percent (n = 344, 41-48%) reported antibiotic usage in the last 72 hours, 86% (n = 658, 83-88%) in the last 14 days, and almost all farms, 98% (n = 753, 97-99%), had used antibiotics since the start of their production cycle. Use of antibiotics in the 24 hours preceding an interview was more frequently reported in broiler (OR 1.91, 95% CI: 1.36-2.69) and Sonali (OR 1.94, 95% CI: 1.33-2.33) than layer farms. Oxytetracycline (23-31%, depending on production type), doxycycline (18-25%), ciprofloxacin (16-26%) and amoxicillin (16-44%) were the most frequently used antibiotics. Antibiotics were reported to be used for both treatment and prophylactic purposes on most farms (57-67%). Usage of antibiotics in the 24h preceding an interview was significantly associated with the occurrence of any illnesses in chickens (aOR broiler: 41.22 [95% CI:13.63-124.62], layer: aOR 36.45[9.52-139.43], Sonali: aOR 28.47[4.97-162.97]). Antibiotic usage was mainly advised by veterinary practitioners (45-71%, depending on production type), followed by feed dealers (21-40%) and farmers (7-13%). Improvement of chicken health through good farming practices along with changes in key stakeholders (feed dealers and practitioners) attitudes towards antibiotic recommendations to farmers, may help to reduce the levels of antibiotic usage and thus contribute to mitigate antimicrobial resistance.
... For example, 2% of nitrofurans was sold and used in layer poultry farms in the West Region of Cameroon. This antibiotic has been banned from being used in food-producing animals since 1991 in the United States and 1995 in the European Union due to concerns over its carcinogenicity (29). ...
... Irrespective of the active substance, indications, and routes of administration, the average treatment incidence, TI UDD , was lower than 382.6, as reported by Van Cuong et al. (37) in Vietnam. A lack of hygiene observed in poultry farms in Cameroon increases the risk of disease emergence (10), which would favor a greater use of preventive treatments, resulting in high incidence of treatment in farms (29). ...
Article
Full-text available
An evaluation of the patterns of antimicrobial use in livestock can help understand the increasing level of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. This study aimed at evaluating antimicrobial usage in modern layer poultry farms in the West Region of Cameroon. In this light, 70 layer poultry farms and 4 veterinary pharmacies were surveyed. Data on antimicrobial use were collected through interviews using a quantitative-frequency questionnaire and consultation of medical records. The four veterinary pharmacies sold a total of 2.8 tons of antimicrobials (active ingredients) during 2011. At the level of farms, 297 kg of antimicrobials (active ingredients) were used in the 50 layer poultry farms surveyed. Tetracycline, sulfonamides, quinolones, and β-lactams (aminopenicillins) were the most sold and used drugs in layer farms. As for treatment indication, metaphylactic (58.1%) and prophylactic (41.9%) treatments were the most observed practices, and nearly all (99%) treatments were administered per os as remedies to respiratory (33.4%) and digestive (24.7%) tract symptoms. Overall, 78.2% of antimicrobials sold in pharmacies and 67.3% used in the farms belonged to the class of critically important antimicrobials of the WHO categorization of antimicrobials according to their importance to human medicine. Doxycycline, sulfonamide, ampicillin, and streptomycin, which have been banned for layer poultry in the production of eggs for human consumption, were still used in Cameroon. The treatment incidences based on the used daily dose (TI UDD) and animal daily dose (TI ADD) were 11.59 and 10.45, respectively. In regard to dosage correctness based on the UDD/ADD ratio, aminoglycosides (100%), macrolides (90.6%), and tetracyclines (74.5%) were the most underdosed, while trimethoprim sulfonamides Mouiche et al. Antimicrobial Use in Layers in Cameroon (45.8%) and β-lactams (35.7%) were overdosed. This study highlights an irrational antimicrobial usage in layer poultry farms. Regulation of the use of antimicrobials and the education of farmers on adequate antimicrobial use are essential to preserve the effectiveness of drugs in both humans and animals.
... In Nigeria, antibiotic use in poultry farming is very common (Adebowale et al., (2016). The use of antibiotics in animal production is one of the key factors leading to the emergence of resistant strains. ...
Article
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Bacteria in healthy body sites of humans and livestock waste may harbour antibiotic resistance and cause community-based opportunistic and resistant infections. The study profiled the antibiotic susceptibilities of resident bacteria in healthy humans and livestock waste. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 23 specimens including skin swabs (6), nasal swabs (4), urine (6), stool (3), chicken droppings (2) and cattle droppings (2). VITEK® 2 Automated System was used for identification, antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production test of the isolates. Nineteen (19) Gram-negative bacteria belonging to five genera and six species were identified, including Escherichia coli (n=9) 47.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp pneumoniae (n=1) 11.1%, Enterobacter cloacae ssp dissolvens (n=1) 11.1%, Acinetobacter baumannii (n=3) 15.8%, Acinetobacter haemolyticus (n=1) 11.1%, and Providentia stuartii (n=4) 21.1%. The isolates showed highest resistances to Ampicillin (78.6%) and Piperacillin (63.2%) and high susceptibilities to Ertapenem, Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin (100%); Ceftazidime, Cefepime, Meropenem (94.7%); Cefoxitin (93.3%); Gentamicin and Tobramycin (73.7%). Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values above the critical limit of 0.2 were shown by 100% (4/4) of Providentia stuartii isolates, 75% (3/4) of Acinetobacter isolates and 33.3% (3/9) of E. coli isolates. All the isolates tested negative for ESBL production. The public health implication is that resident bacteria from healthy individuals harbouring antibiotic resistance may transmit these to other bacteria or cause resistant opportunistic infections difficult to treat. Resistant bacteria from livestock can be transmitted to humans through the food chain. Proper disposal or decontamination of human body secretions and livestock waste is necessary.
... This study was carried out in two states, namely Oyo and Ogun states, located in the southwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria (Fig. 1 [24,25]. Both states were chosen for the study as they have a relatively high livestock population, including poultry, catfish, and pigs. ...
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Objective: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is one of the most important causative agents of swine diseases that pose a global economic threat. Presently, there is little or no information on the perception and awareness of PCV2 and its associated effects among pig farmers in Nigeria. Therefore, this research was carried out to describe pig farmers' views, awareness, and likely impact of PCV2 and its associated postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) on pig production in the southwestern region of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pig farmers in Oyo and Ogun states, Southwest Nigeria, was carried out with the help of a self-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 111 farms out of the 385 required took part in the study, resulting in a total response rate of 28.8%. 89 (79.2%, 95% CI = 70.8–85.8) pig farmers who participated were unaware of PCV2, while 46 (41.4%, 95% CI = 32.7–50.7) had heard about PMWS. The level of awareness was generally poor, with an average score of 1.43 (SD ± 1.25; 23.9%). Only 23% (25/111) of the participants had a high level of awareness. To promote awareness about PCV2/PMWS, participants' most preferred sources of information were seminars, extension services (especially by veterinary and agricultural extension officers), social media (WhatsApp and YouTube), and mobile telephone (through calls or text messages). Conclusions: The present study showed a gap in the level of farmers' awareness about PCV2/ PMWS, and to bridge the gap, more scientific-based evidence is needed to promote targeted educational programs and policy formulations. Also, with the dearth of information about PCV2, it is necessary to determine its prevalence and the characteristics of the virus possibly circulating within the swine herds in Nigeria. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2022; 9(2.000): 203-210]
... The Federal Ministries of Agriculture, Environment and Health had anticipated the loss of effective antimicro- (23). Antimicrobial use and misuse are driven by patients, farmers and the general populace who demand antimicrobials for real or presumed infections and procure them from unsanctioned sources even when they are not prescribed (23,38). The present results are comparable with those of Gulani et al. (39), who observed high resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline and cefoxitin among strains of S. aureus from ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats) and animal handlers in Maiduguri, Northern Nigeria. ...
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The epidemiology of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is dynamic and the associated public health risk is likely to increase in settings where there is close interaction between humans and animals. This study assessed the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among S. aureus from livestock and farm personnel, and estimated methicillin-resistance among the isolates. Two hundred and fifty (250) nasal specimens were collected from sheep, goats, cows and farm personnel who had contact with the animals in two farms in a suburban region within Lagos State. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using disk diffusion method. The presence of mecA and mecC gene was determined by PCR. S. aureus was recovered from 141 (56.4%) of the 250 nasal samples analyzed: 32 (22.7%) from cows, 25 (17.7%) from sheep, 32 (22.7%) from pigs, 24 (17.0%) from goats and 28 (19.9 %) from farm workers. Ten isolates, consisting of 4 from cows (8%), 3 from pigs (6%), and 3 from farm personnel (6%), were positive for MRSA. The human-MRSA were recovered from pig workers (2) and a cow farm worker (1). All MRSA strains were resistant to at least three different antimicrobial categories. The MSSA strains were classified into thirteen antibiotypes of various subtypes. mecC-MRSA was not detected. The high frequency of S. aureus with phenotypic multidrug resistance traits encountered in this study presents a major public health issue. Thus, practices directed at minimizing the burden of antimicrobial resistance in farm animals should be initiated.
... Antibiotic use is a world standard procedure for the treatment of diseases and to promote growth in factory farms. Antibiotics were also primarily used for prophylaxis and therapeutics in a percentage of more than 60Á0% and less than 15Á0%, respectively, in Nigeria (Adebowale et al. 2016). Moreover, the bad climate, newly emerging microbes and significant attention for elevation the antimicrobial-resistant issue, may lead to an elevating of antibiotic utilization from 29Á5 mg kg À1 in 2018 to 31Á0 mg kg À1 in 2019 to treat the United Kingdom field animals. ...
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A total of 300 quail eggs were collected randomly from different markets in Cairo and Giza Governorates. Five eggs were represented as one egg sample. Shell and content of each egg were examined for their microbiological contents, sensory evaluation, and study of E. coli O157 survival in artificially contaminated eggs. Moreover, qualitative detection of antimicrobial residues by seven plates microbiologically bioassay and confirmed by validated High‐performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for positively reacted antimicrobials in raw and boiled samples. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) between the grading score of eggs after the boiling at 2‐, 4‐, 5‐, and 7‐min. Based on the survival results, the refrigeration storage and boiling for five min of quail eggs was confirmed that such eggs without E. coli O157. After the boil, the concentrations of Oxytetracycline (OTC) and 4‐Epi‐OTC residues were significantly reduced, and there was no effect on the concentration of Sulfadimidine (SDD), Amoxicillin (AMO), and Diketo residues. Samples that exceeded the maximum residual limits (MRLs) were 17.0%, 12.0%, 10.0%, 16.0%, and 14.0% for SDD, OTC, 4‐Epi‐OTC, AMO, and Diketo, respectively. After boiling, no significant change was noted for SDD, AMO, and Diketo but all OTC and 4‐Epi‐OTC were completely below MRLs. Therefore, SDD and AMO with their metabolite (Diketo) are heat‐stable antimicrobials residues with multiple human health hazards.
... For-profit interest, information from drug sellers can be biased in favour of more antibiotics purchases and consequent excessive use in poultry production. In line with the findings of Di Martino et al. [29] and Adebowale et al. [30], poultry farmers in the present study indicated an interest in deepening their knowledge of antibiotics with seminars/workshops and classrooms as the preferred training platforms. Veterinarians and extension agents can therefore use these platforms to interface with the poultry farmers in the provision of accurate and reliable information on antibiotics and their prudent use. ...
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This study examined the knowledge and practices regarding antibiotic use among small-scale poultry farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select 88 poultry farmers. The interview schedule was used for data collection. Respondents’ indices of knowledge of antibiotic use (KABU), antibiotic resistance (KABR) and antibiotic use practices (PABU) were determined. Binary logistic regression was performed to ascertain the effect of socio-demographics of respondents, knowledge of antibiotic use and knowledge of antibiotic resistance on the likelihood that farmers use antibiotics inappropriately. All poultry farmers studied used antibiotics for growth promotion, disease prevention, and treatment. The mean index of KABU was 0.54 with 48 % of the respondents having good KABU while the mean index of KABR was 0.65 and 70.5 % of the farmers had good KABR. The farmers’ mean index of PABU was 0.47 and 83 % of them used antibiotics inappropriately. Farmers with good KABU (OR=4.2; 95% CI=1.030-17.222) and KABR (OR=4.5; 95% CI=1.258-15.791) were more likely to misuse antibiotics than those with poor knowledge. Antibiotics are routinely, and on many occasions inappropriately, used in small-scale poultry production in Enugu State, Nigeria. Antibiotics are valuable agents whose efficacy can only be preserved if they are handled with care. Training small-scale farmers will allow them to improve their knowledge and practices regarding antibiotic use.
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Antimicrobial use in livestock production has been linked to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide; however, optimization of their use has been considered an important strategy in dealing with it. The aims of this study were as follows: (a) to assess the literature on antimicrobial usage (practices, frequency, class, type) in cattle and poultry production with regard to resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) including multidrug resistance (MDR) (b) summarize evidence for quantitative (volumes of active antimicrobial ingredients) and quality (identify and quantify active ingredient) and (c) to identify data gaps. Peer reviewed literature search was conducted by querying two online databases: PubMed and Google scholar from November 15, 2018 to February 2019. The inclusion criteria for eligibility were articles: published in English between 2008 and 2018, including poultry (chicken) or cattle or both, E. coli bacteria of choice, antimicrobial use on farms, quantitative data and quality of antimicrobial used. Microsoft Excel was used for data extraction and Rayyan software for eligibility studies. The search retrieved 1,446 probable articles including those from the reference list of significant papers, of which twenty-four articles remained on full text review with more than a third of the studies being conducted in Nigeria. Farm surveys and antimicrobial sales were identified as the main sources of data and the mean quantities of antimicrobials based on sales data were 23,234, 41,280.87, and 1,538,443 kg of the active ingredient in Nigeria, Zambia and South Africa, respectively. One study from Cameroon determined the quantities of active ingredients based on dose metrics while another study still from Cameroon mentioned the quality of antimicrobials. Tetracyclines, beta-lactams/aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones were the most common classes of antimicrobials (antibiotics) used. Our review reveals a dearth of information in Sub- Saharan Africa on the quantity and quality of veterinary drugs and yet they play a role in the overall picture of antimicrobial resistance. This finding gives an opportunity in the area of focus for future research as far as resistance and multidrug resistance are concerned in food producing animals.
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Antibiotics are used by the veterinarians and poultry industry to enhance growth rates, health of the birds, feed efficiency, egg production and for therapeutic reasons to reduce the incidence of poultry diseases. Antibiotics had been used in poultry production for both therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Most poultry farmers in Nigeria have employed the use of various antibiotics with or without the guidance of veterinarians. Although antibiotics benefit most of its uses, the illegal use of these drugs has led to the accumulation of toxic antibiotic residues in edible poultry products destined for human consumption. And this poses a major threat and hazard to the public that could be toxicological, microbiological or immunological. Several analytical techniques are available to screen edible poultry products with levels of toxic antibiotic residues. Drug withdrawal period and maximum residue level of antibiotics should be strictly observed in treated birds before any poultry product (meat or eggs) is passed " wholesome " for human consumption. There are still few researches addressing this major public health problem coupled with lack of awareness in Nigeria. Therefore, there is need for public enlightenment campaign on the dangers of antibiotic residues in edible poultry tissues and products to the teeming populace and restriction and regulation of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in poultry production and industry to curb the incidence of this public health hazard in Nigeria.
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A cross-sectional study was carried out in Wakiso district to determine antibiotic usage in intensive poultry farms from December 15th 2013 to January 28th 2014. A total of 30 poultry farmers, three veterinary drug sellers and two veterinary officers were interviewed to collect information related to antibiotic use in intensive poultry farms. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Majority (96.7%) of the respondents reported to frequently use antibiotics for their chickens. Ten (33.3%) of the respondents were reported to use antibiotics to promote growth and enhance feed efficiency. Twenty-two (73.3%) of antibiotics used in poultry farms were tetracycline groups. Sixteen (53.3%) of respondents were aware of withdrawal periods of antibiotics. However, most of them were reported to sell/consume their products during with-holding time. This clearly show the risks of exposing of humans to products containing antibiotic residues. Thus, a restrictive use of antibiotics will potentially have a positive contribution for the poultry farmers and consumers of poultry products. Therefore, to regulate the problem, collaborative actions with different relevant stakeholders are the most helpful strategy we recommend.
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Antimicrobials are used extensively in chicken production in Vietnam, but to date no quantitative data are available. A 2012–2013 survey of 208 chicken farms in Tien Giang province, stratified by size (10–200 chickens; >200–2000), was carried out to describe and quantify the use of antibacterial antimicrobials (usage per week per chicken and usage per 1000 chickens produced) in the Mekong Delta and to investigate factors associated with usage. Twenty-eight types of antimicrobial belonging to 10 classes were reported. Sixty-three per cent of all commercial formulations contained at least two antimicrobials. On 84% occasions, antimicrobials were administered with a prophylactic purpose. The overall adjusted quantities of antimicrobials used/week/chicken and per 1000 chickens produced (g) were 26.36 mg (SE ± 3.54) and 690.4 g (SE ± 203.6), respectively. Polypeptides, tetracyclines, penicillins and aminoglycosides were the antimicrobials used by most farms (18.6% farms, 17.5%, 11.3% and 10.1% farms, respectively), whereas penicillins, lincosamides, quinolones, and sulphonamides/trimethoprim were quantitatively the most used compounds (8.27, 5.2, 3.16 and 2.78 mg per week per chicken, respectively). Factors statistically associated with higher levels of usage (per week per chicken) were meat farms (OR = 1.40) and farms run by a male farmer (OR = 2.0). All-in-all-out farming systems (correlated with medium farms) were associated with reduced levels of antimicrobial usage (OR = 0.68). Usage levels to produced meat chickens were considerably higher than those reported in European countries. This should trigger the implementation of surveillance programmes to monitor sales of antimicrobials that should contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of existing antimicrobials in Vietnam.
Article
A total of 75 samples stored poultry products; liver, breast and thigh muscle samples, were tested for the presence of four antibiotics residue; oxytetracycline, sulfadiazine, neomycin, and gentamycin using thin layer chromatography. The results revealed 39 (52%) positive samples. From 25 samples of each of liver, breast and thigh muscle samples tested, 7 (28%) of liver and breast muscle were positive for sulfadiazine and oxytetracycline while 7 (28%) of thigh muscle were positive for oxytetracycline and 4 (16%) samples were positive for sulfadiazine. No neomycin or gentamycin residues were detected on TLC plates in all samples tested. Oxytetracycline was the most predominant antibiotic detected (28%), among the four studied antibiotics and followed by Sulfadiazine (24%). Liver and breast muscle had the highest percentage of antibiotic detected (56%), followed by for thigh muscle (44%).