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Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content, and GC-MS Analysis of the root of Kawilan (Embelia philippinensis A. DC.)

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The root of " kawilan " (Embeliaphilippinensis) is known by the Talaandig tribe of Bukidnon, Philippines to cure tumors, cysts, and few types of cancer yet it lacks scientific authentication of its medicinal properties. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of E. philippinensis roots was evaluated by determining the free radical scavenging activity using 2,2 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH)assay method and substantiated by total phenolics content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteu's assay method. GC-MS analysis of methanol extract was also performed to identify the specific semi-volatile chemicals present. Both aqueous and methanol root extracts showed high DPPH inhibition activity at high concentrations. However, the aqueous root extract of E. philippinensis showed higher DPPH inhibition activity than methanol root extract. The TPC assay showed higher phenolics content on the methanol extract. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds with known antioxidant) ester. Results indicate that E. philippinensis possesses antioxidant properties, which may account for its folkloric medicinal uses.
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BEPLS Vol 5 [5] April 2016 42 | P a g e ©2016 AELS, INDIA
Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences
Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 5 [5] April 2016: 42-47
©Academy for Environment and Life Sciences, India
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS
Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content, and GC-MS Analysis
of the root of Kawilan (EmbeliaphilippinensisA. DC.)
Nyzar Mabeth O. Odchimar1, Olga M. Nuñeza1*, Mylene M. Uy2, W.T.P.S.K. Senarath3
1Department of Biological Sciences, Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology,
Philippines
2Department of Chemistry, Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology, Philippines
3Department of Botany, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka
*Corresponding author’s Email: olgamnuneza@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The root of “kawilan” (Embeliaphilippinensis) is known by the Talaandig tribe of Bukidnon, Philippines to cure tumors,
cysts, and few types of cancer yet it lacks scientific authentication of its medicinal properties. In the present study, the
antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of E. philippinensis roots was evaluated by determining the free
radical scavenging activity using 2,2 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH)assay method and substantiated by total
phenolics content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteu’s assay method. GC-MS analysis of methanol extract was also performed to
identify the specific semi-volatile chemicals present. Both aqueous and methanol root extracts showed high DPPH
inhibition activity at high concentrations. However, the aqueous root extract of E. philippinensis showed higher DPPH
inhibition activity than methanol root extract. The TPC assay showed higher phenolics content on the methanol extract.
Furthermore, GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds with known antioxidant properties: (a) 9,12-
octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, (b) eicosane, (c) hexadecane (d) hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, (e) 9, 12,
octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z), (f) 9, 12, 15- octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z), (g) n-hexadecanoic acid, (h) squalene, (i) phenol,
2,4-bis (1,1-dimethyl), and (j) 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester. Results indicate that E.
philippinensis possesses antioxidant properties, which may account for its folkloric medicinal uses.
Keywords: bioactive compounds, DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteu’s assay, free radical scavenging, medicinal.
Received 12.02.2016 Revised 24.02.2016 Accepted 20.03.2016
INTRODUCTION
Free radicals are generated from the by-products of normal metabolic endogenous processes [1] and
from the reaction with exogenous sources such as oxygen which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS)
[2]. ROS such as superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide have
unpaired electrons which make them highly unstable and highly reactive [3]. Being unpaired and
aggressive, they attempt to steal electrons from other neighboring molecules which can lead to a
destructive chain reaction and eventually causes oxidative stress in the body [4]. Oxidative stress is the
overproduction of free radicals in the body system, which is capable of reversibly or irreversibly
damaging compounds of all biochemical classes, including nucleic acids, proteins and free amino acids,
lipids and lipoproteins, carbohydrates and other macromolecules [5]. Thus, oxidative stress is implicated
in the pathogenesis of ageing, immunodepression, atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes,
cardiovascular, and neurological disorders [6, 7]. Importantly, in carcinogenesis and tumor-bearing
cancer, oxidative stress has been implicated [8]. It has a particular role in DNA damage leading to various
mutations [9, 10]. Specifically, reactive oxygen species acts directly or indirectly by altering gene
expression particularly the DNA binding of transcription and signaling factors [11] which at some rate
causes the onset or contribute to the metastatic potential of cancer and/or tumor formation [2]. However,
studies have shown that free radicals, in vitro, can be stabilized by the application of an anti-oxidant.
Antioxidants are chemical substances that inhibit free radical activities by donation of the missing
electrons without joining the chain of reactions [7]. There are synthetic and naturally occurring anti-
oxidants. The synthetic antioxidants, however, impose potential health risks and toxicity [12]. They have
been reported to induce liver and kidney dysfunction, and carcinogenic effect in experimental animals,
thus, naturally occurring antioxidants are preferred [13]. They occur naturally in plants mainly in the
BEPLS Vol 5 [5] April 2016 43 | P a g e ©2016 AELS, INDIA
form of phenolic compounds [14]. Plant phenolics are reported as the most abundant secondary
metabolites found in plants, with approximately 8,000 known to date [15]. Phenolics (phenols or
polyphenols) are chemical component responsible for a plant’s color, flavor, odor and oxidative stability
[16]. They are compounds possessing one or more aromatic rings with one or more hydroxyl groups [17].
Flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids are the major groups of compound belonging to plant phenolics
[18]. These compounds are known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic property [19] as well
as free-radical scavenging property [20]. Thus, damaging effects of free radicals can be prevented by
treatment using naturally occurring medicinal plant which is already scientifically accepted [21]. Hence,
plant diet rich in phenolics is gaining medical interest. In vitro, antioxidant activity of a medicinal plant
can be investigated through 2, 2 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay method which is the
most used method in determining the free radical scavenging property of the plant extract [22]. DPPH is a
stable free radical which readily accepts an electron or hydrogen radical donated from the antioxidants,
which converts and neutralizes the free radical 2-2 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl hydrate to 1-1 diphenyl-2-
picrylhydrazine [23]. Neutralization of DPPH is indicated in the discoloration of the reaction mixture from
violet to yellow [24]. Embeliaphilippinensis, from the family Primulaceae, is a woody climbing vine which
can be found in the deep forest of Mt. Kitanglad, Philippines. It’s roots, by decoction, is one of the most
used herbal medicines of the Talaandig tribe of the Philippines being traditionally used as sedative, and
anti-hypertensive, but prominently used for eliminating tumors or cysts, and treating few types of
cancers [25]. There were no recent scientific investigations on E. philippinensis roots and its antioxidant
activity. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the antioxidant properties of the root of E.
philippinensis using DPPH assay method with determination of its total phenolics content.
METHODOLOGY
Fresh roots of Embeliaphilippinensiswere collected at the deep forest of Lilingayon, Valencia City,
Bukidnon, Philippines. Prior to collection, Gratuitous Permit from Department of Environment and
Natural Resources of the Philippines and an official permission from the local government were obtained.
The collected roots were washed thoroughly and air-dried until crispy. The dried plant materials were
pulverized using an electric blender and were subjected to two types of extraction: decoction and
maceration. In decoction, 10 grams of powdered root of E. philippinensis were allowed to boil with 400 ml
distilled water on a medium heat until the volume was reduced to approximately 50 ml. In maceration,
same amount of powdered root was soaked with 100 ml of 70% methanol in a shaker (100 rpm)
continuously for seven days at 26°C. Both filtrates were collected by passing through Whatman no.1 filter
paper and were subjected to rotary evaporator, 60°C for decoction filtrates and 50°C for maceration
filtrates, to obtain the aqueous and methanol crude extracts. The crude extracts were stored in a tight
glass container at 4°C until used. The samples were then subjected to DPPH assay method to determine
the free radical scavenging activity of the plant extracts.DPPH (2, 2 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate)
(Sigma) scavenging activity was determined using a spectrophotometric method [26]. Freshly prepared
DPPH solution was used. Reaction mixture was prepared using 2.5 ml of 6.5x10-5 M DPPH solution and
0.5 ml of sample extracts dissolved in methanol. Methanol was used as the control. Samples were tested
in four concentrations (0.25 mg/ml, 0.50 mg/ml, 1.0 mg/ml, and 2.0 mg/ml) with three replicates. Both
set-ups were placed untouched for 30 minutes in the dark at room temperature. Absorbance was
measured at 517 nm using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (SHIMADZU UV mini 1240). The percentage of
DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined using the equation mentioned below. IC50 value was
also calculated.
% DPPH scavenging activity = (Acontrol – Asample/ Aco ntrol) x 100
To further lend support on the antioxidant activity of E. philippinensis root extracts, total phenolics
content and GC-MS analysis were done to determine and evaluate possible compound responsible for the
activity. The total phenolics content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s assay [26]. A 100 µL of the
extract in methanol (1mg/mL) was mixed with 1.0 mL of distilled water and 0.5 mL of Folin-Ciocalteu’s
reagent (1:10 v/v). After mixing, 1.5 mL of 2% aqueous sodium bicarbonate was added and the mixture
was allowed to stand for 30 min with intermittent shaking. The absorbance was measured at 765nm
using a spectrophotometer (SHIMADZU UV mini 1240). A standard calibration plot of absorbance values
of Gallic acid was measured at different concentrations (64 µg/ml, 32 µg/ml, 16 µg/ml, and 8 µg/ml, 4
µg/ml). Methanol was used as a blank and the assay was carried out in triplicates. GC-MS analysis was
performed according to Chipitiet al. [13] with modifications. The methanol root extract of E. philippinensis
was analyzed and wasdiluted with chloroform. The sample was subjected to Agilent Technologies 7890A
GC system coupled with (an Agilent) 5975C Mass Selective detector. A HP-5MS capillary column (30 m x
0.25 mm internal diameter, 0.25 µm film thickness) was used. The carrier gas was helium. The injector
Odchimar et al
BEPLS Vol 5 [5] April 2016 44 | P a g e ©2016 AELS, INDIA
temperature was set at 320°C. The initial oven temperature was at 70°C which was programmed to
increase to 280°C at the rate of 10°C/min with a hold time of 4 min at each increment. Injections of 1 µL
were made in split mode with a split ratio of 100:1. The mass spectrometer was operated in the electron
ionization mode at 70 eV and electron multiplier voltage at 1859 V. Other MS operating parameters were
as follows: ion source temperature 230°C, quadrupole temperature 150°C, solvent delay 3 min and scan
range 33-550 amu. The compounds were identified by direct comparison of the mass spectrum of the
analyte at a particular retention time to that of a reference standard found in the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) library. At least 80% similarity index was considered significant [27].
Total GC-MS running time was 45 minutes.
RESULTS
Table 1 shows the scavenging activity of the extracts which are evident in both the aqueous and the
methanol extracts indicated by the concentration dependent increase in the % inhibition. It also showed
that the aqueous root extract of E. philippinensis (IC50= 0.3286 mg/ml)has lower IC50 value than the
methanol extract (IC50= 0.6203 mg/ml).
Table 1.DPPH – Radical Scavenging Activity of E. philippinensis root extracts.
% Activity
Extract 0.25mg/ml 0.5mg/ml 1mg/ml 2mg/ml IC
50
(mg/ml)
Aqueous 42.60±0.98*
58.59±1.30
72.79±0.79
74.14±0.98
0.3286
Methanol 43.79±2.74 44.92±2.09
53.36±0.93
55.90±1.44
0.6203
Ascorbic Acid
65.17±0.93 72.20±0.39
73.39±0.30
83.86±1.32
<0.2500
*mean±SD; n=3
To further ascertain the antioxidant activity of E. philippinensis root extracts, total phenolics content was
assessed since phenolics are compounds with known free radical scavenging activity [28]. The total
phenolics content, calculated using a standard curve, of E. philippinensisaqueous and methanol root
extracts is presented in Table 2. The results showed that the aqueous extract have lower phenolics
content at 42.16 mg GA/g extract than methanol extract with 131.10 mg GA/g extract.
Table 2. Total Phenolics content of E. philippinensis root extracts.
Total Phenolics Content, GAE
Extracts mg GA /g of extract
Aqueous 42.16±0.03*
Methanol 131.10±0.001
*mean±SD; n=3
Meanwhile, the GC-MS analysis of the methanol root extract of E. philippinensis revealed the presence of
(a) 9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, (b) eicosane, (c) hexadecane (d) hexadecanoic acid methyl
ester, (e) 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid, (f) 9, 12, 15- octadecatrienoic acid, (g) n-hexadecanoic acid, (h)
squalene, (i) 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethyl) phenol, and (j) 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl)
ester (Table 3) which are previously known to possess antioxidant activity.
Table 3. Possible Compounds Found in the Methanolic Extract of E. philippinensis roots.
Name of Compound Similarity
index (%)
Retention time
(minutes)
9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester 98 20.810
1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis(2-
methylpropyl) ester
97 18.896
Eicosane 97 19.874
Hexadecane 97 24.957
Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester 95 19.169
9, 12-octadecadienoic acid 95 21.187
9, 12, 15-octadecadienoic acid 94 20.869
n-hexadecanoic acid 92 19.525
Squalene 92 27.035
2,4-bis(1,1-dimethyl) phenol 90 14.646
Odchimar et al
BEPLS Vol 5 [5] April 2016 45 | P a g e ©2016 AELS, INDIA
DISCUSSION
The concentration-dependent increase in the DPPH percent inhibition of the aqueous and methanol root
extracts of E. philippinensis indicates that it has a free radical scavenging property, thereby, antioxidant
activity. Moreover, IC50 which is the concentration of sample at which the inhibition percentage reaches
50%, has an inverse relationship to the activity of a sample. The lower the IC50 value, the higher is the
activity. Results indicated that the aqueous extract has higher free radical scavenging activity than the
alcohol extract. This is in agreement with the study conducted by Chanda et al. [29] in which decoction
extract of Syzygium cumini leaves showed higher free radical scavenging activity than the 80% methanol
extract. The results of total phenolics content of E. philippinensis aqueous and methanol root extract are
opposite to that in the free radical scavenging assay. The methanol extract exhibited higher total
phenolics content than the aqueous extract. Other studies have shown the same inverse relationship
results on free radical scavenging activity and total phenolics content for aqueous and methanol extracts
[30, 31]. This suggests that phenolic compounds are not the predominant antioxidant components in E.
philippinensis aqueous root extract. Other compounds with antioxidant properties like alkaloids [32],
terpenes [33, 34], sterols [35, 36], saponin [18], and many more may have contributed to these activities
exhibited by the methanol extract against DPPH radical. In addition, Folin-Ciocalteau reagent is sensitive
in recognizing oxidizable phenolics only [37]. Moreover, phenolics content of the sample can be
negatively affected by other competing pre-existing oxidants present during the reaction period [15]. The
aqueous extract of E. philippinensis may contain several pre-existing oxidants which can affect the results
of Folin-Ciocalteau assay. This may explain the negative correlation between aqueous and methanol
extract’s DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolics content.
The GC-MS analysis of the methanol root extract of E. philippinensis revealed the presence of Squalene,
which is a known anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant [38], thus, the free radical scavenging activity of the
plant is expected. Moreover, the GC-MS also revealed the presence of 2, 4-bis (1, 1-dimethyl) phenol,
which is the only known phenolics identified. The other compounds belong to hydrocarbons, alkanes,
esters, fatty acids, and terpenes. This further indicates that phenolic compounds arenot the only group of
compound contributing to the antioxidant activity of the E. philippinensis roots.
CONCLUSION
The results from the study indicated that the aqueous and methanol extracts of E. philippinensisroots have
antioxidant activities as shown in the DPPH scavenging activities of the extracts. This study also revealed
that aside from phenolics there are other compounds which may be responsible for the antioxidant
activity of the methanol extract. The free radical scavenging effects of the aqueous extract were higher
than the methanol extract suggesting that the use of the ethnobotanical preparation (decoction) of the
root of E. philippinensisin the treatmentof the diseasecan be supported.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank the Department of Science and Technology –Accelerated Science and
Technology Human Resource Development Program (DOST-ASTHRPDP) of the Philippines for the
funding support. We also thank the key informant, Datu George T. Antihao, who willingly shared his
knowledge on the medicinal plants of the Talaandigs and the local officials especially Barangay Captain
Rey Bonilla for allowing us to conduct this study in the area.
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CITATION OF THIS ARTICLE
OdchimarN M O,NuñezaO M, Uy M S, Senarath WTPSK. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content, and GC-MS
Analysis of the root of Kawilan (Embeliaphilippinensis A. DC.).Bull. Env.Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 5[5] April 2016: 42-47
Odchimar et al
... The result from Figure 2 showed that UV-visible absorption spectra profile from scanning spectrum fraction a were similarly to the UV visible absorption spectra of bisphenol A in previous publications (Zhuang et al., 2014). if > 80% (Odchimar et al., 2016) (NIST), and mass bank spectra (www.massbank.jp) that peak 1 was 4-4'-(1methylethylidene)-bisphenol also supported by data fraction a showed similarly to the UV visible absorption spectra of bisphenol A in previous publications (Zhuang et al., 2014). ...
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... In the past decade, finding solutions to emerging diseases and health problems had led to a plethora of published related materials [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] . Most of the results of these works show the importance of plants for the treatment of various ailments. ...
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The Cordillera region occupies a mountainous and forested area in the northern most part of the Philippines. With a favorable temperate climatic regime, the region is endowed with a rich and diverse flora and fauna. Moreover, the region is inhabited by local communities with a diverse culture. With an intimate interaction with the environment, the communities have developed inherent indigenous uses of the plant resources around them. The main aim of this project is to determine the useful plants in Kabayan, Benguet province and document the traditional knowledge that are associated with the useful plants, Kabayan is one of the 13 municipalities in Benguet province. The municipality is predominantly peopled by three ethnolonguistic groups namely: Ibaloi, Kankanaey and Kalanguya, that demonstrate inimitable indigenous knowledge on plant utilization. Ethnobotanical survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire which was used as a guide for the individual interviews and focused group discussions. Plant uses range from food, shelter, clothing, rituals, medicine and many more. They also preserve their dead using various plant extracts. This indigenous knowledge is currently endangered because these are held by the older generation and if not documented, this ethnobotanical knowledge will be irreversibly lost. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
... This finding is in line with Sulaiman et al. (2015), who reported that higher antioxidant activities in C. nutans followed by total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. This is because many antioxidant properties such as terpenes, sterols and saponin may have contributed to these activities and not only phenolic compounds (Odchimar, Nuñeza, Uy, & Senarath, 2016). The result by IBM SPSS Statistics version 19 showed that there were significant values of ANOVA of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant activities among tested extracts in different locations (P ≤ 0.05). ...
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Clinacanthus nutans is an essential medicinal plant that had been used in various local remedies to treat many illnesses. A study had been conducted to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, antioxidant activities and phytochemical compounds of C. nutans in different locations. C. nutans were harvested from eight locations and the leaves were extracted with 80 % methanol by maceration process. Then, the phytochemical screening using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), 2,2 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay method, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu’s assay method and total flavonoid content by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) were carried out. The C. nutans extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than phenolic and flavonoid content. The neutral pH sandy clay soil from location KKK (Kuala Ketil, Kedah, Malaysia) had higher antioxidant activities (58.0 %), phenolic (44.1 mg GA.100 g⁻¹) and flavonoid content (30.8 mg QE.100 g⁻¹) compared to other locations. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of phytochemicals constituents of 20 compounds. The results revealed that environmental factors (light intensity, temperature and soil characteristics) of eight locations were responsible for variations of phenolic, flavonoids, antioxidants and GC-MS analysis in C. nutans. The findings of this study will provide baseline data for future breeding programs for commercial cultivation. © 2017, Agriculture Faculty Brawijaya University. All rights reserved.
... The BVM contains methyl salicylate, which has previously been reported as good radical scavenger in the experiment involving free radicals (Oloyede 2016). GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of bicyclo-eicosane (E), which was also reported as antioxidant and cosmetic emollient (Odchimar et al. 2016). Moreover, β-sitosterol and vitamin E are good and promising radical scavengers, which are in agreement with the report published by Radice et al. (2014), and could be suggested as active component in cosmetics. ...
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The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of antityrosinase activity and chemometric analysis of Bauhinia vahlii. The experimental results revealed that the methanol extract of Bauhinia vahlii (BVM) possesses higher polyphenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity than those reported elsewhere for other more conventionally and geographically different varieties. The BVM contain saturated fatty acids such as hexadecanoic acid (10.15%), octadecanoic acid (1.97%), oleic acid (0.61%) and cis-vaccenic acid (2.43%) along with vitamin E (12.71%), α-amyrin (9.84%), methyl salicylate (2.39%) and β-sitosterol (17.35%), which were mainly responsible for antioxidant as well as tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of this extract was comparable to that of Kojic acid. These findings suggested that the B. vahlii leaves could be exploited as potential source of natural antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory agent, as well.
... Hence, these plants likely contain ingredients that could have an enormous potential for use in humans worldwide. Based on previous research in other plant groups, the chemical composition of various Dillenia extracts can be successfully determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Duraiswamy, Shanmugasundaram, & Sheela, 2016;Ganaie, Ali, Ganai, Kaur, & Ahmad, 2016;Hesam, Farhadi, Ebrahimi, Jalali, & Moradpour, 2016;Mariajancyrani, Chandramohan, Brindha, & Saravanan, 2014;Odchimar, Nuñeza, Uy, & Senarath, 2016). Plants must be thoroughly tested for toxicity prior to their application in humans can be approved. ...
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Plants in genus Dillenia have traditionally been consumed as foods and used for cancer and diarrhea treatments. Crude hexane extracts of nine species, D. aurea, D. excelsa, D. grandifolia, D. ovata, D. parviflora, D. philippinensis, D. pulchella, D. reticulata, and D. suffruticosa were analyzed for chemical contents via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and for their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on leukocytes via cell counting and comet assays. Oleamide, a chemopreventive agent which acts against Alzheimer's disease, enhances memory function and promotes sleep, was found at the highest amount (18.05–75.60%). The other components discovered in high amounts were squalene and vitamin E. The IC50 of all studied species was higher than 430 µg/mL. Comet assay indicated insignificant DNA damage (p > .05). These results indicate that the plants containing a high amount of useful phytochemicals are nontoxic to normal human cells, thus may be safely applied for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other related conditions.
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The use of herbs was identified in the mummification process to preserve the dead body. In the Cordillera, mummification is unique. After the dead bodies are cleaned and applied with herbal extracts, these are exposed to smoke from a fire beneath the corpse seated on a death chair called sangadil. The process drains the fluids from the body. In the municipality of Kabayan in Benguet province, the preserved bodies are called fire mummies because fire was used in addition to the herbal extract application in the preservation. Thus, this study was conducted to identify the herbs used in the mummification process and test their antibacterial potential against selected bacteria to determine the contribution of the herbs in the preservation of the mummies. Based on the interviews and focused group discussions, four plants were mentioned to have been used in mummification namely; bayabas (Psidium guajava L.), diwdiw or tibig [Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr.], patani (Phaseolus lunatus L.), and besudak (Embelia philippinensis A. DC). Antibacterial assays of the ethanolic extracts of the plants showed that E. philippinensis and F. nota have antibacterial properties which suggest that these plants have contributed to the preservation of the Kabayan fire mummies. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
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The oxidative reactions limit the shelf life of fresh and processed foodstuff and are a serious concern in the food industry. The free radical formations leading to the oxidation of biomolecules are implicated in several diseases. Many foods are becoming more susceptible to oxidative rancidity due to attempts to make foods healthier by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acids and more sustainable by introducing light weight oxygen-permeable and light penetrating packaging. The use of synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) have been used widely for many years to retard lipid oxidation, but current concern about their safety, together with increasing consumer preference for natural products, has resulted in an increased demand for natural antioxidants. Due to natural antioxidant components, spices and herbs are great sources of antioxidants for food preservation. Therefore, use of spices and herbs present a better choice than synthetic antioxidants, which has become popular and is widely accepted by consumers.
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The antioxidant activity of Psychotria carthagenensis, P. leiocarpa, P. capillacea and P. deflexa (Rubiaceae) extracts were investigated, and the concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and flavonols were determined. The chemical compositions of the extracts were investigated using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/PAD) method. We used 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), β-Carotene bleaching and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cations to determine antioxidant activity. The ability to scavenge radical was measured in these experiments by the discoloration of the solution. Concentrations of constituents were measured spectrophotometrically. P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, in the DPPH test, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS system. The highest phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin and flavonol concentration was found in P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea extracts. HPLC-PDA analysis of P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea revealed hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid). This is the first report on the antioxidant properties and constituent analysis of these Psychotria extracts.
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ABSTRACT Non enzymatic glycation is the major cause of spontaneous damage to proteins leading to various complications due to formation of non-reversible Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) and oxidative stress. Medicinal plants having both antiglycation and antioxidant activities may have good therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetic mellitus. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiglycation effect, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Osbeckia octandra leaf decoction used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Ayurvedic medicine. The water extracts of three samples of Osbeckia octandra leaves from three different areas had significant anti-glycation activity (23.0 μg/mL, 25.2 μg/mL, 28.5 μg/mL), ABTS antioxidant activity (1375, 794, 1231 TEAC mmol/g) and DPPH activity (55.5 μg/mL, 97.7 μg/mL, and 98.4 μg/mL). Total phenolic content ranged from 483-667 mg/GAE/g. Keywords: Antiglycation activity, antioxidant activity, ABTS antioxidant activity, DPPH activity, Phenolic content
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The study was intended to explore the antioxidant potential and phytochemical content of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaf and root samples of Cissus comifolia (Baker) Splanch (Vitaceae) across a series of four in vitro models. The results showed that all the extracts had reducing power (Fe3+- Fe2+), and DPPH, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities to varying extents. However, the ethanol root extract had more potent antioxidant power in all the experimental models than other extracts and possessed a higher total phenol content of 136.1 +/- 6.7 mg/g. The GC-MS analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the roots indicated the presence of the common aromatic phenolic compounds, pyrogallol, resorcinol and catechol, a fatty acid, n-hexadecanoic acid and an aldehyde, vanillin. Data from this study suggest that both the leaves and roots of C. comifolia possessed anti-oxidative activities with the best anti-oxidant activity being exhibited by the ethanolic extract of the root. The antioxidant properties of the root extracts can be attributed to the phenolic compounds present in the extracts.
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Tephrosia purpurea is a polymorphic, much - branched, sub erectm perennial herb, 30 - 60 cm. high, found through out India, ascending to an altitude of 1,850 m. in the Himalayas. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro anti oxidant study was performed on hydroalcoholic extract of shade dried roots. The hydroalcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea were prepared and evaluated for its primary phytochemical analysis for total phenolic content and in vitro anti oxidant activity study by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, super oxide free radical activity and nitric oxide scavenging activity. Results indicate that hydroalcoholic root extract of Tephrosia purpurea have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the anti oxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea but the mechanism remains unclear and could be further investigated by detailed phytochemical investigation.
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Oxygen free radicals induce damage due to peroxidation to biomembranes and also to DNA, which lead to tissue damage, thus cause occurrence of a number of diseases. Antioxidants neutralise the effect of free radicals through different ways and may prevent the body from various diseases. Antioxidants may be synthetic or natural. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, non-toxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review includes a brief account of research reports on plants with antioxidant potential. © 2014, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.