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Occurence of Hypodermosis in Pakistan, Iran and Turkey: Comparative risk factor analysis and future perspectives

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Occurence of Hypodermosis in Pakistan, Iran and Turkey: Comparative risk factor analysis and future perspectives

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Letter to the Editor
Occurence of hypodermosis in Pakistan, Iran and Turkey: comparative risk
factor analysis and future perspectives
Haroon Ahmed1,5, Muhammad Sohail Afzal2,Ozge Ozyalin3, Mobushir Riaz Khan4, Sami Simsek5
1 Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad, Pakistan
2 Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore, Pakistan
3 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Inonu, Malatya, Turkey
4 Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, University Institute of Information Technology,PMAS Arid Agriculture
University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
5 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Firat, Elazig, Turkey
Key words: Hypodermosis; occurence; comparative; risk factor; future perspective.
J Infect Dev Ctries 2017; 11(2):207-211. doi:10.3855/jidc.8146
(Received 21 January 2016 Accepted 13 May 2016)
Copyright © 2017 Ahmed et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Dear Editor,
Hypodermosis is one of the most serious veterinary
health problems among all the parasitic infestations in
the world. Among several restraining factors, parasitic
infestations that severely affect the livestock sector are
the biggest culprit in reducing the economic impact of
hide industry. It is an endemic disease which is
regularly observed in both wild and domestic ruminants
(cattle and buffaloes) across the northern hemisphere
[1]. It results in severe decrease in meat and milk
production and reducing the hide quality, causes a great
deal of economic loss in developing countries [2]. The
present report shows the systemic pattern of
hypodermosis in Pakistan [2-8], Iran [9-14] and Turkey
[15-19] from 2000-2015. The data analysis showed that
hypodermosis is highly prevalent in Pakistan followed
by Iran and Turkey (Table 1).
There are different risk factors responsible for the
presence of hypodermosis in Pakistan, Iran and Turkey.
The potential risk factors are categorized into the
following types; (a) Biological factors such as age, sex,
breed, previous exposure and medication schedule (b)
Physical factors such as grazing pattern, management
practices, presence of waterbodies, sunshine, humidity,
month, area, color, rainfall, precipitation, location and
field/slaughter house [20,21]. The results showed that
age, sex, breed, medication schedule, grazing pattern,
area, month, previous exposure, management practices,
presence of water bodies, temperature, precipitation and
location are significant risk factors (p < 0.05) in
Pakistan. Similarly, in Turkey (age, sex, breed, color
and rainfall) while in Iran (age and sex) are among the
significant risk factors (p < 0.05) in comparison with
the other factors. In some studies it was reported that
non-significant risk factors are in Pakistan (sex, breed,
age, medication), Turkey (breed) while in Iran (sex)
(Table 2).
In the last decade, the eradication programmes for
the management and control of hypodermosis have
been developed and many strategies were used in some
countries. These strategies depend on the
environmental conditions of that country e.g.
insecticides in warble season. One of the major
challenges in the eradication strategies is that
hypodermosis is diagnosed at the last stage of its life
cycle by using the traditional palpation method. The
ELISA should be used for early diagnosis. So it will be
the only possible way for early diagnosis and the
eradication at the early phase of infestation, that is
possible.
Control programs should be launched for the
eradication of hypodermosis in Pakistan, Iran and
Turkey. There is wide variation in the epidemiology of
Hypoderma infestation in different areas of the world
[22]. Due to some factors like (i) inefficient strategies
for infection control (ii) re-introduction of the infection
(iii) importation of infested cattle (iv) immigration of
flies, there is very high chance of Hypoderma
regeneration [23].The second-generation avermectin
(like eprinomectin) belongs to the class of macrocyclic
Ahmed et al. Risk factor analysis of hypodermosis J Infect Dev Ctries 2017; 11(2):207-211.
208
lactone which can be used as insecticide. The
endectocidal activity was recorded in a 0.5%
formulation. It has been reported all over the world that
it consists of natural oils for pour-on administration at
0.5 mg eprinomectin/kg body weight in laboratory and
field investigations [24].There might be some
recombinant vaccine that should be used to control the
menace and to reduce the economic losses.
Recommendations
On the basis of the above mentioned facts, some
guidelines are proposed according to local
environmental factors and life style to help an optimal
control program. These guidelines can be adjusted
according to individualized risk assessment.
1. It is strongly recommended in the above mentioned
countries to determine the intensity of disease and
the livestock population at risk should be estimated.
Due to poor immunity of these animals are under
high risk of developing a disease e.g. WFI.
2. Antiparasitic drugs should be used to control of
hypodermosis in Pakistan, Iran and Turkey. So
there is dire need to implement the eradication
strategies to control the disease.
3. There should be some training workshops for the
livestock owners to train them for the protection of
their cattle from the warble fly.
4. In “fly” season the regular monitoring by the
livestock department regarding the infestation
intensity is highly recommended. This will help to
control the disease spread and ultimately in disease
eradication.
Concerns and future perspectives
Recombinant vaccines development against many
parasitic infestations is in progress. Efficacy results of
these vaccines targets strongly suggests that most of
these vaccines likely to become reality in near future. It
is very important to control Hypoderma spp due to its
economic significance. The initial concept
Table 1. Occurence of hypodermosis in Pakistan, Turkey and Iran
Country
Year
District
Hosts
Prevalance (%)
References
Pakistan
2014
Toba Tak Singh
Buffalo
11.37
[6]
2014
Blochistan
Goat
16.59
[7]
2013
Chakwal
Goat
17.8
[8]
2013
Norhern Punjab
Cattle
17.4
[5]
2013
Jehlum
Buffalo
3.2
[21]
2012
Norhern Punjab
Cattle
18.4
[4]
2006
D.G.Khan
Cattle
29.5
[2]
Buffalo
5
RajanPur
Cattle
26
Buffalo
4
2002
D.G. Khan
Buffalo
0.036
[3]
Turkey
2011
Afyonkarahisar
Cattle
2.96
[19]
2010
Erzurum
Cattle
28.6
[18]
2008
Malatya
Cattle
22.3
[17]
Elazig
26.3
Diyarbakir
22.1
2008
Nigde
Cattle
5.08
[16]
2005
Kars
Cattle
31.9
[15]
2000
Thrace
Cattle
3.56
[27]
Iran
2014
Tabriz
Cattle
13.75
[28]
2014
Khorasan
Goat
11.11
[14]
2012
Afshan
Cattle
5
[11]
2012
Kerman
Goat
14.7
[12]
2012
Shiraz
Goat
2.67
[13]
2012
Kashan
Cattle
61.4
[10]
12.6
2007
Southwestern Iran
Sheep
Goat
0.2
5.3
[9]
Table 2. Comparative risk factors analysis of hypodermosis in Pakistan, Iran and Turkey.
Country
Year
District
Risk Factors
References
Biological
Physical
Age
Sex
Breed
Previous
exposur
e
Medication
Mont
h
Area
/Distric
t
Color
Rain
Fall
Humidit
y/Precıp
itation
Sunshin
e
Temperatur
e
Water
bodies
Managemen
t practices
Location
Grazzin
g
Pattern
Field/
Slaug
hter
Pakistan
2015
Punjab
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
S
-
S
-
-
-
-
-
[29]
2014
Toba Tak
Singh
S
S
-
-
-
S
-
-
$
$
-
$
-
-
-
S
-
[6]
2014
Blochistan
S
N.S
N.S
-
-
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[7]
2013
Chakwal /
Khoshab
N.S
N.S
S
-
N.S
S
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[8]
2013
Jehlum
S
S
-
-
-
-
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[5]
2013
Norhern
Punjab
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
-
-
-
-
-
S
S
S
S
-
[21]
2012
Norhern
Punjab
-
-
-
-
-
S
S
-
-
-
-
-
S
-
-
-
-
[4]
2006
D.G. Khan
$
$
-
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
$
[2]
RajanPur
$
$
-
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
$
2002
D. G. Khan
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[3]
Turkey
2011
Afyonkarahis
ar
S
S
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
$
[19]
2010
Erzurum
-
-
$
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[18]
2008
Malatya
S
S
N.S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[17]
Elazig
S
S
N.S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Diyarbakir
S
S
N.S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2008
Nigde
-
-
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[16]
2005
Kars
S
S
S
-
-
-
S
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[15]
2000
Thrace
-
-
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
$
-
-
[27]
Iran
2014
Tabriz
$
-
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
$
[28]
2014
Khorasan
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[14]
2012
Afshan
-
-
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[11]
2012
Kerman
S
N.S
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[12]
2012
Shiraz
-
-
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[13]
2012
Kashan
$
N.S
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[10]
2007
Southwestern
Iran
$
S
-
-
-
$
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[9]
S:Significant difference; N.S: Non significant difference; $: The difference was present but statistical analysis was not performed; - : Factor not studied.
Ahmed et al. Risk factor analysis of hypodermosis J Infect Dev Ctries 2017; 11(2):207-211.
Ahmed et al. Risk factor analysis of hypodermosis J Infect Dev Ctries 2017; 11(2):207-211.
210
regarding Hypoderma spp. vaccines development was
to use crude hypodermin proteins to induce adaptive
immune response. Later on vaccine which was based on
three enzymatic secretions (i.e. HyA, HyB and HyC).
Among them HyA was used in its purified form [25].
HyA in combination with the adjuvant
(alhydrogel/amphigen) was the main component of
vaccine [26]. But these vaccination trials are not very
successful in controlling of hypodermosis. These
vaccine candidates were not ideal because it would be
difficult to standardize a vaccine in field animals.
Although some efforts were taken to overcome this
limitation of the vaccine, but there are very few studies
regarding the development of a vaccine candidate
having higher efficacy, safety and long-term stability
under field conditions. The future studies are highly
warranted to develop recombinant vaccines/antibodies
which meet the standard defined by WHO regarding
vaccine purity, safety and efficacy.
Due to inconsistence risk factors analysis in these
countries there is no conclusive evidence about any
specific risk factor for hypodermosis. It is a need of
hour to have a specific mapping of risk factors in near
future. It is obligatory to contain the infection to avoid
economic losses as all of these countries are agricultural
countries.
Acknowledgements
We are very thankful to TUBITAK (2216-research
fellowship program for international researchers) to provide
the opportunity and funding to work for Dr. Haroon Ahmed.
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doi:10.3855/jidc.538
Corresponding author
Prof. Dr. Sami Simsek
Department of Parasitology,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Firat, 23119, Elazig-Turkey.
Phone: +90 424 2370000 ext: 3967
Fax: +90 424 2388173
Email: ssimsek@firat.edu.tr
Conflict of interests: No conflict of interests is declared.
... Hypodermosis is a subcutaneous myiasis and larvae of the order Diptera are responsible for causing this disease and has worldwide geographical distribution (Ahmed et al., 2012;2013;2016;2017). The defined hosts for the parasite of this disease are the domestic and wild animals. ...
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An epidemiological study on prevalence of Goat Warble Fly Infestation (GWFI) in Punjab Province, Pakistan.
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Livestock plays a vital role in economic development of a nation and is being used in agriculture for draft power, production of farmyard manure as well as milk and meat production. Bovine hypodermosis is the top culprit among all parasitic infections across the world. Hypodermosis is an endemic disease in the mountainous areas/plain areas and is regularly observed in the northern hemisphere of the globe affecting cattle, deer, yaks and buffaloes. There is a wide variation in geographical distribution of Hypoderma spp.during the years 1945–2015. The manuscript includes a geospatial study that tries to maps the global distribution of hypodermosis in different areas of the world in order to detect hotspots or endemicareas that may be a potential source for disease spread. This information’s are very useful to predict the potential high risk areas that are prone to disease outbreak. The present review aims to evaluate the global distribution, molecular discrimination, diagnostics and vaccination of hypodermosis, focusing on its current status and future perspectives towards the management of the disease and its control strategies.
Article
Livestock plays a vital role in economic development of a nation and is being used in agriculture for draft power, production of farmyard manure as well as milk and meat production. Bovine hypodermosis is the top culprit among all parasitic infections across the world. Hypodermosis is an endemic disease in the mountainous areas/plain areas and is regularly observed in the northern hemisphere of the globe affecting cattle, deer, yaks and buffaloes. There is a wide variation in geographical distribution of hypoderma spp during the years 1945-2015. The manuscript includes a geospatial study that tries to maps the global distribution of hypodermosis in different areas of the world in order to detect hotspots or endemic areas that may be a potential source for disease spread. This information’s are very useful to predict the potential high risk areas that are prone to disease outbreak. The present review aims to evaluate the global distribution, molecular discrimination, diagnostics and vaccination of hypodermosis, focusing on its current status and future perspectives towards the management of the disease and its control strategies.
Article
In this study, a total of 365 cattle (234 male, 131 female) slaughtered in different localities in Thrace (The European part of Turkey) were examined for hypodermosis between January and May of 1997. Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum and unidentified 2nd instar larvae were found in the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the back region of the animals. The prevalence rate and intensity of infestation were 3.56% and 10.23 respectively.