ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs) and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP) for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs) and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP), although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e160209, Jan/Dec 2017
1
Vol.60: e17160209, January-December 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4324-2017160209
ISSN 1678-4324 Online Edition
BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF
BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY
A N I N T E R N A T I O N A L J O U R N A L
Tropical Fruit Pulps: Processing, Product Standardization
and Main Control Parameters for Quality Assurance
Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva
1
,2*, Ana Karla de Souza Abud 3
1Universita degli Studi di Padova Department of Industrial Engineering Via Marzolo, Italy; 2Universidade
Federal de Alagoas Centro de Tecnologia, Maceio, Brasil; 3Universidade Federal de Sergipe DTA São
Critovão, Sergipe, Brasil. ABSTRACT
Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for
long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The
exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance
of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last
decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative
scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps
as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for
delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs) and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP)
for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs) and hazard analysis and critical control
points (HACCP), although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the
lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It
has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within
fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would
assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards
international markets.
Key words: processing, standards of identity and quality, vegetable product, food safety.
*Author for correspondence: eduardo.farias.ufal@gmail.com
Food/Feed Science and Technology
Silva, CEF and Abud, AKS.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e160209, Jan/Dec 2017
2
INTRODUCTION
Quality is increasingly referred to as an important element within the food industry.
The growing demand for high quality food products has disseminated the use of
quality management tools to meet expectations of consumers and market throughout
the world, and also to manufacture safe products, thereby reducing costs and
production losses 1.
Consumer expectations are much more demanding than in the past. Nowadays, there
are major concerns related to food safety (pathogenic microorganisms and harmful
substances) and food quality that involve various aspects, from the entire production
chain up to fair labor payments and environmental impacts to soil and water. The
rapidly increasing demand for fresh fruits has reflected changes in consumer
preferences for healthier foods, which should also be produced through
environmentally friendly processes 2.
Brazil is an essentially agricultural country with a huge potential for cultivating
traditional and exotic fruits. Fruit pulp is the most basic product obtained from fresh
fruit processing, although its production and conservation have not been correctly
accomplished in Brazil. In the last decades, numerous studies have pointed out the
technological inadequacy of Brazilian fruit pulps for human consumption, which
reflect lack of qualified labor, standardized processing methods and good
manufacturing practices (GMPs) in small and medium-sized companies. These
aspects are considered important because they guarantee the adequate quality control
on raw materials and processed foods.
This review article gathers the major shortcomings of quality control within the
Brazilian fruit pulp production sector. Moreover, the most important aspects for
obtaining innocuous and nutritious fruit pulps to meet consumer expectations are
also outlined.
FRUIT MARKET AND FRUIT PULP PRODUCTION
Brazil produces a wide diversity of tropical, subtropical and temperate fruits due to
its continental dimensions and variety of climates. Brazil also presents regional
productions specialized in certain types of fruits 3.
Brazil is the third world’s largest fruit producer with an annual production of 42,416
million tons in 2012, after China and India. Unprocessed fresh fruits accounts for
53% of the total commercial Brazilian fruit production, of which 3% is used to
supply the international market. Of the total amount of fresh fruits 47% is processed
by the national food industry. This means that 71% of total Brazilian fruit production
is consumed by the domestic market, while the remaining 29% is exported to abroad
4.
European Union and United States are the main purchasers of Brazilian fruits and
their derivative products. According to the Brazilian Fruit Institute (IBRAF),
759,400 and 2,149,800 tons of fresh and processed fruits, respectively, were
exported in 2010, with focus on tropical fruits, whose sensorial acceptance and
production have been continuously increasing in the past two decades.
Pulp and juice processing are important agro-industrial activities for the food
production sector as they add economic value to fruits, avoid fruit wasting and
minimize losses during commercialization of unprocessed fresh fruits. Pulp and juice
processing also constitute an alternative way by which fruit growers sell their
products.
One advantage of industrializing fruit pulp is the consumption of fruits native to
particular regions throughout the country, some of which being highly coveted on
the international market 5. Fruit pulps could also supply the food industry for
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160209, Jan/Dec 2017
3
producing juices, ice creams, candies and confectionery and dairy products such as
yogurts 6. The markets of concentrated juice and pulp are notably relevant because
they seek to attract consumers fundamentally by the idea of fruit nutritional value
preservation 7.
Preserving highly perishable fruits constitute a big challenge for agro-industries.
These industries have been focused mainly on processing methods that conserve the
physical structure and the nutritional and sensory attributes of fruits. Agro-industries
have also been focused on expanding the consumer market of fruit pulps.
Nevertheless, the lack of standard procedures within the fruit processing sector, from
the farm to the final consumer, is among the major shortcomings to be overcome by
fruit pulp agro-industries 8.
FRUIT PULP PROCESSING AND ASPECTS FOR QUALITY
MAINTENANCE
Postharvest loss is an important shortcoming for fruit pulp production because
certain fruits remain alive after they are harvested. This implies that specific
procedures and recover methods must be adopted in order to extend fruit shelf-life
and use surplus production. These measures are taken according to the fruit type,
which helps defining the best ways to handle fresh fruits during harvest,
transportation, storage and commercialization.
Climacteric fruits, such as peach, apple, mango, guava, passion fruit, among many
others, can be harvested when they reach the physiological maturation point, i.e.,
when they reach an ideal size and format, even if they are not ready for consumption.
In this sense, climacteric fruits are suitable for industrialization because they provide
higher uniformity in the maturation process. On the other hand, non-climacteric
fruits, such as orange, lemon, pineapple and grape, do not have the ability to reach
attributes that are typical of ripe fruits (sweetness, color, and acidity) after
harvesting. In this case, non-climacteric fruits must be harvested only when they are
completely ripened.
Consumption of fruit pulp and juice is rising continuously due to the consumer
preference for healthy eating habits. Advances on food technology have enabled
successful fruit processing and pulp freezing storage in appropriate packages within
the food industry. Commercialization of frozen fruit pulps also make possible
consumption of fruits little known, which have already attracted interest from the
international market, especially those from Cerrado, North and Northeast regions of
Brazil 9.
Fruit pulp production line normally embraces the following steps: reception,
weighing, pre-selection, washing and sanitization, pulping, packaging and freezing.
In general, fruits are frozen when there is insufficient amount of fruit to be pulp,
whereas unripe fruits are cooled after the washing/sanitization step. The flowchart in
Figure 1 illustrates the overall process that should be adopted in order to
manufacture good quality fruit pulps. Pre-selection/selection of fruits, washing and
sanitization, cooling or freezing are the most important steps and must be efficiently
performed 10.
Silva, CEF and Abud, AKS.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160240, Jan/Dec 2017
4
Figure 1 - Fruit pulp processing flowchart.
For small and micro-sized agro-industries, harvesting fruits at the maturation point is
the most recommended practice. The maturation point is commonly referred to as
firm ripe or "turning", which means that fruits will rapidly attain the maturation
degree suitable for processing. A number of parameters defined by law, including
physiological maturation (if the fruit is climacteric or non-climacteric), pH, soluble
solid content (°Brix) and acidity, should be determined still in field in order to
harvest fruits with characteristics apposite for processing 11,12. After harvesting, fruits
must be suitably transported and handled to avoid mechanical injuries, heating and
accumulation of metabolites 13.
The reception step consists in receiving, weighing and pre-selecting fruits, thus
avoiding entrance of unsuitable fruits within the processing line and improving the
final product quality. Fruit pre-selection should be conducted efficiently in order to
remove physically damaged, dirty or completely decayed fruits which could spoil the
final product.
Storing insufficient amounts of ripe fruits for processing should be preferably done
after the sanitization step. Cleaned fruits can be organized into plastic boxes and
stored under refrigeration or in ventilated and little humid areas for preventing
rodent attacks and proliferation of molds and insects.
Cleaning and sanitization are different steps although they are fundamental for
removing microbial load from fruits. Cleaning usually consists in washing fruits with
water to eliminate impurities and part of the microbial load brought from plantations,
whereas sanitization is generally carried out with chlorine-based substances.
1) Reception
2) Pre-selection
3) Washing and
sanitization
4) Fruit maturation
stage
6) Pulp processing
7) Homogeneization
and packaging
8) Freezing
5) Cooling and
freezing
1) Fruits are weighted and evaluated in terms of quality.
2) Pre-selection excludes fruits improper for pulp production.
3) Fruits are washed to remove impurities, and undergo a sanitization
process with chlorinated water (10 100 ppm, depending on fruit
type). Lastly, fruits are rinsed to remove chlorine residue.
4) Amount and maturation degree of fruits are
evaluated, thus forwarding to the processing zone
only the items suitable for obtaining good quality
pulps.
5) Cooling and freezing
conditions depend on fruit
type and maturity degree
6) Use of pulper-finishers equipped
with sieves of different meshes to
retain peels, seeds and other fruit
portions.
7) Possibility of adding
acidulants or preservatives.
8) Important step to maintain the
nutritional, microbiological and
organoleptics characteristics of the
fruits.
Insufficient Adequate
Important influence on final fruit pulp quality
Efficiency is necessary
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160209, Jan/Dec 2017
5
Sodium hypochlorite is one of the most popular chlorine-based sanitizers whose
antimicrobial activity is rather widespread 14,15. When sodium hypochlorite is
dissolved in cold water, it reacts to form hypochlorous acid, which is a strong
oxidizing agent that is effective against foodborne pathogens (S. aureus, L.
monocytogenes and E. coli). Hypochlorous acid serves to disinfect surfaces, fruits
and vegetables, by killing suspended and film-forming microorganisms 16-19.
Fruit immersion into sodium hypochlorite solution is usually performed for 15 min,
using concentrations between 20 and 100 ppm to reduce the microbial load to
permissible levels. Long-term usages of sodium hypochlorite solution should be
previously tested due to the time-dependent chlorine degradation. Fruits must be
subsequently rinsed in order to remove hypochlorite residue (Table 1).
Table 1 Initial sodium hypochlorite concentration and residual chlorine concentration after sanitization (15 min)
of some tropical fruits.
Fruit
Initial Concentration (ppm)
Residual Concentration (ppm)
Pineapple
30
25
Acerola
90
20
Hog plum
70
10
Cashew
80
10
Guava
50
25
Soursop
20
10
Mango
50
20
Passion fruit
30
20
Umbu
80
10
Umbu-hog plum
80
10
Sodium hypochlorite is advantageous over various sanitizers due to its low cost, easy
storage when produced in situ, disinfection efficiency similar to that of chlorine gas,
and can remain at residual concentration. On the other hand, sodium hypochlorite is
toxic and corrosive, especially at high concentrations. It also tends to decompose in
contact with air, spreading chlorine gas which is toxic.
The chlorine antimicrobial activity efficiency is influenced by:
Presence of organic matter: Organic materials such as food residue decrease the
chlorine antimicrobial activity. Thus, fruits must be previously cleaned to attain a
proper sanitization efficiency;
• Chlorinated solution pH: pH affects microbial activity. The highest chlorine
antimicrobial activity occurs at pH 6.5 - 7.0 because hypochlorite is highly unstable
at pH 4;
Temperature: Sanitizers often exhibit synergistic effect with temperature.
However, chlorinated compounds decompose into chlorine gas at elevated
temperatures, in addition to increasing their corrosive potential over heating;
Concentration: As aforementioned, chlorine levels of 20 and 200 ppm are used to
sanitize fruits and processing, which must be washed afterwards to remove the
chlorinated solution residue;
Contact time: Fruit sanitization with sodium hypochlorite is efficiently attained
within 30 min. Longer treatments should be avoided because the chlorine corrosive
potential increases significantly over time 20.
The water used in the fruit sanitization step must present physical, chemical and
microbiological qualities in consonance with the ordinance 2914 of December 12,
2011 of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. These quality aspects include absence of
dirties and fecal coliforms and Salmonella (in 100 mL), reduced number of
heterotrophic bacteria, appropriate pH and turbidity. Sanitization water must also
contain sodium hypochlorite at concentrations between 0.2 - 2.0 ppm, or chlorine
Silva, CEF and Abud, AKS.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160240, Jan/Dec 2017
6
dioxide at a minimum level of 0.2 ppm throughout all water distribution system in
order to warranty the use of disinfected water in fruit sanitization 21.
According to the ordinance CVS 6-99 of the Health Surveillance Center of São
Paulo Secretary of Health, the chemicals and their final concentrations authorized for
food sanitization are listed below:
Sodium hypochlorite at 2.0 - 2.5%, to obtain concentrations from 100 to 250
ppm;
Sodium hypochlorite at 1%, to obtain concentrations from 100 to 250 ppm;
Organic chlorine at 100 - 250 ppm.
Controlling the sanitization process by proper adjustment of the active chlorine
concentration is important to ensure not only elimination of microbial load, but also
to preserve fruit organoleptic attributes. Sanitization of surfaces, machines and tools
with chlorinated solutions 100 - 200 ppm and subsequent rinsing should also be
performed before and after fruit pulp processing.
Fruits must be separated according to their maturation degree. Unripe fruits must be
stored under adequate temperature and relative humidity in order to control the
ripening process and extend their shelf-life. This preserves the physical and sensory
characteristics of fruit pulps.
According to the ordinance CVS 6-99 of the Health Surveillance Center of São
Paulo Secretary of Health, perishable food storage has to meet the following
temperature criteria:
Frozen foods: -18 ºC with tolerance of up to -12 ºC;
Cooled foods: 6 - 10 ºC, or in conformity with supplier’s specifications;
Refrigerated: up to 6 ºC, with tolerance of 7 ºC.
Storage chamber temperature should be ideally monitored by charts displaying
inferior and superior temperature limits (Figure 2). In this way, the storage chamber
is operated most of the time within the permitted temperature range. Points that lie
outside the limits can also be identified.
Figure 2 Chamber temperature monitoring chart.
Fruit freezing must be performed as rapidly as possible in order to maintain the fresh
fruit attributes. The usual freeze temperature range is between -12 and -23 °C. From
chemical and technical points of view, the ideal temperature is -18 °C and this
should be held constant throughout the freezing step. The cooling times to reach -5
°C and -18 °C should not be longer than 8 and 24 h, respectively 22.
Fruit pulp processing is carried out with the aid of pulper-finishers containing sieves
with different apertures to separate peels, seeds and fibers from pulp. Fruit pulping
should be performed continuously (all raw materials must be separated for
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160209, Jan/Dec 2017
7
continuous processing, while the packaging sector has to be prepared to receive the
pulp) and rapidly, because the cooling and freezing times directly influence on the
fruit pulp quality. Hand peeling, such as that used for pineapple and soursop, is
another important aspect of pulp processing because food handlers contact directly
internal portions of fruits. This requires maximum personal hygiene and sanitized
premises. Hand peeling also constitutes a time-consuming additional stage of the
fruit pulp production with high probability of microbial spoilage and fruit oxidation
(nutrient and color losses).
The homogenization stage is ideally performed by coupling the pulper-finishers to
the homogenization tank and packing machine, so that exposition of fruit pulp to
light, air, and processing environment is efficiently avoided. Food preservatives are
generally added to fruit pulps at the homogenization stage to increase consumer
acceptance or extend their shelf-life.
The normative instruction No 01, 2000, of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture,
Livestock and Supply (MAPA) defines that fruit pulps used in beverage
industrialization are permitted to contain chemical additives, such as acidulants
(acidity regulators), synthetic preservatives, and natural colorants, at concentrations
equivalent to those allowed for fruit juices, with some specific exceptions.
The use of food preservatives aims to prevent fruit pulps from oxidation and
microbial spoilage. Citric acid and sodium benzoate are among the most used food
additives; the first one is used as an acidulant in sufficient amounts, while the latter
is used as a preservative at maximum concentration of 1 g per kg or L of product.
These limiting concentrations are listed in the resolution RDC No. 8 March 6, 2013,
which establishes food additives permitted in fruits, vegetables and mocotó jelly.
Acidulants are added to food products with the purpose of intensifying their sour
attribute. Citric acid is the most used acidulant in the food industry due to:
Versatile applications, including flavouring (taste and aroma) to synergy with
antioxidant compounds, in addition to controlling pH.
Easy obtaining (fermentation with Aspergillus niger).
Relatively low cost 23.
Although citric acid is highly compatible with most fruits, its usage as an acidulant
should not be generalized. Citric acid may affect fruit sensory attributes, for
example, in the case of pineapple. Ascorbic acid is considered more suitable than
citric acid for acerola, soursop and cashew. Lemon juice is recommended for
pineapple and hog plum fruits. In the case of passion fruit, the use of acidulants is
not recommended due to the high acidity of this fruit 24.
Benzoic acid and its derivatives, such as sodium benzoate, are efficient in controlling
growth of yeasts and molds at pH range 2.5 - 4.0, over which they occur
predominantly in a chemically dissociated form. Sodium benzoate is a microbiostatic
agent that exhibits temporary activity on microorganisms. It is compatible with fruit
pulps, whose shelf-life is no longer than 45 days, but for durable food products
sodium benzoate must be used in conjunction with other antimicrobial agents. The
maximum sodium benzoate concentration authorized in fruit juices and pulps is 1000
ppm, which is not deleterious to human health, being excreted as hippuric acid after
reacting with glycine 25.
Fruit pulp quality inspection takes into account the standard microbiological and
physico-chemical parameters for fruit pulps. Microbiological parameters are defined
by product class (fruit-derived consumer goods, for instance), whereas physico-
chemical parameters are specifically defined by fruit type because of the peculiar
characteristics of each fruit 12.
In Brazil, microbiological quality of commercial fruit pulps is mainly legislated by
the resolution RDC No 12, 2001, of ANVISA which approves technical regulation
Silva, CEF and Abud, AKS.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160240, Jan/Dec 2017
8
on the microbiological standards for foods 26 and the normative instruction No 12,
1999, of MAPA which legislates the quality parameters of fruit pulps 11. The
MAPA’s normative instruction No 1, 2000, determines the main standardized
physico-chemical parameters of fruit pulps with basis on acidity, total soluble solid
content (°Brix), pH, total solids content, total natural sugar content, and vitamin C
content. This normative instruction defines fruit pulp as a non-fermented, non-
concentrated and undiluted product obtained from pulpy fruit crushing 12.
The microbial load in fruit-derived products is normally an outcome of raw material
conditions and washing step efficiency, in addition to the hygienic-sanitary
conditions of food handlers 27. Microbiological parameters are important food
quality aspects because they allow evaluating food products in relation to processing
conditions, storage, distribution, shelf-life and risk to public health 28.
Reaching high fruit pulp quality standards requires effective hygienic conditions
from the production stage until commercialization. This also involves control on raw
materials, industrial processing, transport and storage. Inside a processing plant,
there must exist proper maintenance of equipment, water supply network, sewage
network and electricity, as well as a correct stock flux. Training and ongoing
supervision of food handlers by competent professionals is also indispensable
because all activities are always performed by a considerable number of employees
29.
Fruit pulp obtaining is a basic physical extraction process with possible addition of
food preservatives and acidulants. Therefore, the final pulp quality will be highly
dependent on the fresh fruit characteristics. In this context, fruit integrated
production (FIP or PIF in portoghese) is a program that was developed in
collaboration with MAPA to evaluate adequacy of fruit-derived products. FIP is
based on four pillars: Production basis organization, system sustainability, and
process and information monitoring (Figure 3). The main purpose of FIP is to
monitor increases in the Brazilian fruit agribusiness exportation and Brazilian fruit
quality. The application of natural resources with focus on environmental
conservation and agriculture sustainability is the principal operation strategy of FIP.
This has been implemented through systematic evaluation of fruit production with
periodic monitoring, use of integrated pest management (IPM) techniques, reduction
of pollutant inputs to ensure diversity and equilibrium to agro-ecosystems, and to
ensure adequate and safe working conditions to employees 30.
Figure 3- Fruit integrated production scheme. Source: Adapted from EMBRAPA 30.
Culture integrated manag ement
Environmentalmonitoring
Pest integrated manegement
Harvestand postharvestintegratedmanagement
Nutrientintegratedmanagement
Water and soil integrated management
Silva, CEF and Abud, AKS.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e160209, Jan/Dec 2017
9
Standard conformity seals containing numeric codes have served to validate food
products as FIP, and also to track information on their origin and management
procedures (pests, diseases, etc.). Consequently, there is a possibility of inspecting
the conditions by which fruits were produced, transported, processed and packed,
thus identifying fruit pulps since the production source until the final
commercialization 8. FIP program helps the food industry obtain good quality fruits
suitable for pulp production.
IDENTITY AND QUALITY STANDARDS (IQSs) FOR FRUIT PULPS
The RDC No. 12, 2001, of ANVISA and the normative instructions (IN) No. 12,
1999 and IN No. 01, 2000, of MAPA are the main legislations on identity and
quality standards (IQSs) of fruit pulps. The underlying purpose of an IQS is to
protect consumers. Food IQSs can be used to prevent diseases transmission, restrict
sale of fraudulent products and simplify purchase and sale of certain food products
31.
In relation to microbiological analyses, the ANVISA legislation DRC No. 12, 2001,
recommends a limit of 102 fecal coliforms (MPN/mL) and absence of Salmonella in
25 g of pulp. The MAPA IN No. 12, 1999, recommends limits of 5.103 CFU/g for
molds and yeast, and 1 NMP/g for fecal coliforms. The limit value of yeasts and
molds for chemically conserved or thermally treated fruit pulps changes to 2.103
CFU/g according to the same legislation.
Regarding physico-chemical analyses of fruit pulps, including acidity, pH, °Brix,
total solid content, total sugar content and vitamin C content, the Brazilian
legislation establishes minimum required standards which depend on the fruit type 12.
Table 2 summarizes quality standards of some tropical fruits produced at the
Brazilian northeast region that are widely accepted in the national market.
Table 2 Identity and quality parameters (IQP) of tropical fruits.
Fruits
TSS (°Brix)
20°C
Acidity
(g citric acid/100 g)
pH
Vitamin C
(mg/100g)
Total natural sugars
(g/100 g)
Total solids (g/100g)
Acerola
≥ 5.5
≥ 0.80
≥ 2.8
800.0
4.0 - 9.5
≥ 6.5
Pineapple
11.0
≥ 0.30
-
-
≤ 17.0
≥ 14.0
Cocoa
≥ 14.0
≥ 0.75
≥ 3.4
-
10.0 - 19.0
≥ 16.0
Hog plum
≥ 9.0
≥ 0.90
≥ 2.2
-
≤ 12.0
≥ 9.5
Cashew
≥ 10.0
≥ 0.30
≤ 4.6
≥ 80.0
≤ 15.0
≥ 10.5
Guava
≥ 7.0
≥ 0.40
≥ 3.5
≥ 40.0
≤ 15.0
≥ 9.0
Soursop
≥ 9.0
≥ 0.60
≥ 3.5
≥ 10.0
6.5 - 17.0
≥ 12.5
Papaya
≥ 10.0
≥ 0.17
≥ 4.0
-
≤ 14.0
≥ 10.5
Mango
≥ 11.0
≥ 0.32
3.3 - 4.5
-
≤ 17.0
≥ 14.0
Mangaba
≥ 8.0
≥ 0.70
≥ 2.8
-
≤ 8.5
≥ 10.0
Passion fruit
≥ 11.0
> 2.50
2.7 - 3.8
-
≤ 18.0
≥ 11.0
Melon
≥ 7.0
≥ 0.14
≥ 4.5
-
≤ 12.0
≥ 7.5
Pitanga
6.0
≥ 0.92
2.5 - 3.4
-
≤ 9.5
≥ 7.0
Source: MAPA 12.
It is worth mentioning that many tropical fruit pulps highly valued in the Brazilian
market do not have identity and quality standards yet, for example umbu, tamarind,
sapodilla, and genipap. This hinders the requirement for control parameters and
quality adjustment for these fruit pulps.
Problems on physico-chemical standards of fruit pulps
Table 3 compares some physico-chemical data of tropical fruit pulps already
published in literature. The largest discrepancies between the physico-chemical
parameters and the decreed values are observed for total soluble solid content
(°Brix), total titratable acidity (g citric acid/100 g) and vitamin C content.
Silva, CEF and Abud, AKS.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160240, Jan/Dec 2017
10
The main variables affecting the total soluble solid content of fruit pulps are the
rainfall regime during harvest season and fruit maturation degree. These natural
problems indicate wrong cultivation or harvest management. They are also
associated with poor quality raw materials and pulp dilution (water addition), which
is a common practice justified by some producers as a way to improve the pulping
step efficiency.
Table 3 Summary of published studies on physico-chemical analysis of tropical fruit pulps.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160209, Jan/Dec 2017
11
Diluting fruit pulps to reduce the total solid content (°Brix) to minimum levels
required by the Brazilian legislation is a fault, since the law states that "fruit pulp is
an unfermented, not concentrated and undiluted product obtained from pulpy fruits
by a technical process and with a minimum total solid content from the fruits edible
portion" 12.
The discrepancies of acidity and vitamin C content among the published data are
mainly ascribed to the low quality of the fruits used to produce pulps, thus indicating
fruit deterioration. Fruits improper to be eaten fresh due to complete decaying,
mechanical injuries and deformations or breakage during transport are often used in
pulp production.
It is worth pointing out that every activity, from postharvest to fruit processing,
affects the phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of fresh fruits, the latter related
to bioactive compounds beneficial to human health, such as vitamins C and E,
carotenoids and polyphenols 32. In this context, the determination of vitamin C
content in fruits is very important because vitamin C degradation favors the
appearance of non-enzymatic browning and bitter taste in fruit pulps 33. Furthermore,
vitamin C is an important food quality indicator due to its thermolabile nature. The
presence of vitamin C in foods may lead to believe that other food nutrients are also
preserved 33,34. The processing method, storage condition, packaging, exposure to
oxygen, light, and metallic catalysts, initial vitamin C content, and microbial load are
among the principal factors that lead to vitamin C degradation 35.
Considering fruit pulp processing solely as a physical extraction method, the main
aspects that must be controlled for pulp quality assurance are raw material quality,
fruit washing/sanitization efficiency, processing time (prevent aeration or
unnecessary lighting), and effective freezing procedures (observing the entire cold
chain, processing, transport and sale to consumer). Campelo et al. 48 observed that
the vitamin C content of acerola pulp produced in laboratory under controlled
conditions decreased by 40% after 12-month storage. The remaining vitamin C
content was still greater than the recommended daily intake (RDI), 90 mg/day. The
lost vitamin C percentage decreased when acerola pulp was pasteurized before
storing. Yamashita et al. 49 found that the vitamin C content of pasteurized acerola
pulp reduced by 10 to 15% for storage times between 10 - 120 days, regardless of the
freezing temperature (-12 and -18°C). On the other hand, fresh acerola fruits lost
between 20 and 40% of vitamin C depending on the freezing temperature, with best
vitamin C maintenance occurring at -18°C. Heat treatments involving temperatures
above 60°C are able to inactivate enzymes. Therefore, vitamin C oxidation occurs
throughout the exhaustion and pasteurization steps, but the remaining content
becomes more stable after pasteurization due to enzyme inactivation 50.
In relation to acidity and pH analyses, Chitarra & Chitarra 51 reported that the ability
to regulate some fruit derivatives can lead to broad variations in acidity without
affecting pH, even though small pH variations interfere on the organoleptic
characteristics of fruit pulps. pH is an important parameter because it influences
directly organoleptic characteristics, microbial growth and selection of materials for
the processing environment (corrosion) 39.
Organic acids, which are secondary products from fruit breathing metabolism, play a
direct role on the development of characteristic flavor and aroma in fruits 42.
Titratable acidity and pH measurements provide an estimative of the deterioration
level of certain types of foods, which is confirmed by the development of uncommon
acidity or alkalinity 31. High acidity values are related to low quality raw materials
and excessive addition of acidulants, whereas low acidity values are likely due to
dilution of fruit pulp to obtain minimum soluble solid contents (°Brix).
Silva, CEF and Abud, AKS.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160240, Jan/Dec 2017
12
A parameter that is increasingly used to characterize fruit pulps is Ratio 37,39,45,52.
Ratio evaluates correctly the pulp taste, being more representative than individual
measurements of sugars and acidity 53. It consists of a relationship between total
soluble solids content (°Brix) and acidity (g/100 g) (Equation 1).
  
 (1)
Another fruit pulp parameter easily determined is density (ρ). Equation 2 provides a
relationship between density and total soluble solid content (10 - 18°Brix) at 30°C
with correlation factor (R2) of 0.91. This equation was based on analyses of acerola,
cashew, soursop, mandarin and passion fruit 54.
  
   (2)
Problems on microbiological standards of fruit pulps
The microbiological parameters listed in Table 4 allow concluding that the yeasts
and molds counts were the most worrying index within the pulp production chain.
Filamentous fungi and yeasts are the main cause of microbiological deterioration of
fruit-derived products, mainly due to their growth capacity at low pH and
anaerobiosis (yeast) 37.
Low counts of yeast and mold are considered to be normal (not significant) in fresh
and frozen foods. On the contrary, high counts signify microbial spoilage, which
may lead to product refusal, and represent a risk to public health because some mold
species produce mycotoxins 27,55.
High counts of mold and yeast, with or without presence of bacterial coliforms
strengthen the idea of inappropriate processing and/or post-processing
contamination. This is possibly explained by the raw material quality, improper
handling and dirty equipment or unsatisfactory sanitization procedures 10,27,56-58.
The mammal intestinal tract contains a myriad of microorganisms, representing a
major source of foodborne pathogens. In absence or poor hygiene conditions, these
enteric microorganisms contaminate manipulators and, consequently, the foods
prepared by them 61. Enteric bacteria commonly associated with food poisoning are
Salmonella sp., Shigella sp. and Escherichia coli, which belong to the coliforms
group (total coliforms). This bacterial group is one of the best hygiene indicators in
food processing. The fecal coliforms subgroup (commonly known as E. coli) is
exclusive to mammal intestinal tract and relates specifically to total coliforms which
have the ability to ferment lactose with gas production when they are incubated at 44
- 45°C 28. Salmonella and Shigella, on the other hand, do not ferment lactose.
Spoilage bacteria, usually associated with genus Acetobacter, Alicyclobacillus,
Bacillus, Clostridium, Gluconobacter, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Saccharobacter,
Zymomonas and Zymobacter, are native to fruit cultivation areas, where potentially
pathogenic bacteria are nonexistent 37.
Studies listed in Table 4 reveal that lack of hygiene is related to the fecal coliforms
group, although these cases were identified only in a small number of samples.
These results lead to infer that the major microbiological problems are associated
with the amount of yeasts and molds caused by the poor quality raw materials,
inefficient fruit washing/sanitization steps and improper preservation of fruit pulps.
The two laws on microbiological standards for fruit pulp industry differ with respect
to the microbiological parameters. While ANVISA focuses on pathogenic
microorganisms, such as coliforms and Salmonella, MAPA focuses on hygiene
aspects of the fruit pulp processing stages, mainly the fecal coliforms and molds and
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160209, Jan/Dec 2017
13
yeasts counts (common microorganism that grow very rapidly if the fruit pulp is not
handled or stored properly).
Table 4 - Summary of published studies on microbiological analyses of tropical fruit pulps.
GMPs, SOPs AND HACCP IN THE FRUIT PULP INDUSTRY
This topic addresses the relationships between quality aspects and food industry
legislation. Among the tools available to create these relations are good
manufacturing practices (GMPs), standard operating procedures (SOPs),
microbiological risk assessment (MRA), quality management (ISO series), total
quality management (TQM) and hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) 1,62.
The Brazilian legislation obliges GMPs for any producer or food handler. GMPs are
Silva, CEF and Abud, AKS.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160240, Jan/Dec 2017
14
considered in 77% of the national or international certification processes, of which
50% use only GMPs to certify food products. Hence, GMP compliance is considered
to be a minimum procedure for obtaining safe food products 63.
The most representative GMPs and SOPs texts, as well as water portability for food
handling processes are described in the documents listed below:
Ordinance No. 326 of July 30, 1997, of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which
declare a technical regulation on hygiene and sanitary conditions and good
manufacturing practices for food companies;
Ordinance No. 368 of September 4th, 1997, of the Brazilian Ministry of
Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), which establishes technical
regulations on hygiene and sanitary conditions and good manufacturing practices for
food companies;
RDC Resolution No. 275 October 21, 2002, of the Brazilian Health Surveillance
Agency (ANVISA), which provides a technical regulation on standard operating
procedures and a verification service for good manufacturing practices in food
companies;
Ordinance No. 2914 of September 12, 2011, which regulates procedures to
monitor quality of water for human consumption.
The GMP manual has to include all parameters and control operations used within
the food industry, and their respective periodicity monitored by a technician. The
manual must declare general personal hygiene and training aspects, facility project,
as well as production flowchart, and pest and quality control programs. The control
periodicity must be established in the eight SOPs generally required for a food
processing industry:
1. Hygiene of premises, machines and tools, which define the entire cleaning
management process, its maintenance, sanitizer concentration, time and periodicity.
2. Water portability, which emphasizes water standards required in all process and
its portability, with periodic analyses.
3. Hygiene and health of food handlers. The conduct and physical state of food
handlers are an essential aspect of food quality. This SOP emphasizes the Program
for Medical Control of Occupational Health (PMCOH), training periodicity and
employees conduct required in a processing area.
4. Waste management, referring to management of residues generated in the
industry.
5. Preventive maintenance and calibration of equipments, which indicates the need
for maintenance of equipment and premises in the processing area.
6. Integrated management of vector and urban pests, which defines potential pests
and vectors, as well as the methods and their periodicity to avoid presence of pests in
the processing area.
7. Selection and reception of raw materials, packaging and ingredients. Important
item that safeguards the traceability of all inputs used in fruit pulp production. This
is one the most important fundaments of food product safety.
8. Food gathering program. Food companies are also responsible for withdrawal
products from market if the food expiration date is exceeded. This SOP establishes
the final management of unsold products.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) provides guidance on how to
identify biological, chemical and physical hazards in a particular food processing
line and how to control them at the Critical Control Points (CCP) throughout
production 1,64. Some HACCP implementation attempts in vegetal food area, such as
olive oil and minimally processed vegetables, have already been published, and
revealed that the use of HACCP as a control system tool is a natural trend 65,66.
Nevertheless, the current Brazilian legislation requires HACCP only for animal food
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160209, Jan/Dec 2017
15
companies, such as meat, milk, honey and their derivative products. The fruit
processing industry is still exempt from HACCP, but this requirement will tend to be
gradually imposed over the years.
The four actions (5S program, GMPs, SOPs and HACCP) constitute the pyramid
quality basis. According to this pyramid, food product standardization recognized
nationally and internationally (ISO, for example) is only accomplished when all four
actions are formed and well adapted to real industrial conditions 10.
Investigations aim to discover existence of hazards to health and integrity of
consumers. It is performed by inspecting raw materials and all relevant production
chain stages, including product consumption by consumers. These investigations are
focused on:
Microbiologically susceptible foods that favor microbial growth and toxin
production;
Pathogenic microorganisms or toxic substances;
Inadequate heat treatment, that is, inadequate time-temperature combinations;
Inadequate procedures after heat treatment;
Environmental conditions that allow the transfer of pathogenic microorganisms or
toxic substance to foods through air, water or other vectors 1,10,64.
Microbiological analyses should be carried out in stages of sanitization, peeling,
pulping, heat treatment or preservative addition and freezing, in order to minimize
significant microbial proliferation or existence of physical or chemical hazards.
In general, safety management may be assumed as the sum of risks management that
is usually administered by the government at a macro level. The government
supervises and establishes IQSs for food products, while the food production sector
executes the risk management, not only in terms of application, but also maintenance
through quality tools such as GMPs, SOPs, HACCP, ISO etc. This ensures that good
quality food products will be available to consumers 63.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
Quality of fruit pulps involves various control aspects that must be respected in order
to offer high nutritional, microbiological and sensory quality product to consumers.
The increasing number of fruit pulp producers, generally represented by small
groups of producers without skilled labor, constant hygiene facilities inspection, and
standard pulp conservation procedures, jeopardizes the expansion of the entire
Brazilian fruit pulp economy, mainly in relation to the use of fruit pulps for
manufacturing other products (juices and ice creams) and exportation. Correct
washing and sanitization of good quality fresh fruits may be responsible for the
absence of microbial load or pathogenic microorganisms in fruit pulps. Diluting fruit
pulps to increase pulp yield and adjust the minimum total soluble solid content must
be abolished because it is not permitted by law, even if this procedure is justified by
the decrease of pulp viscosity. Adoption of HACCP could help strengthen the
microbiological control within all fruit pulp processing lines. Effective inspections
on small and micro-sized companies should be adopted by governmental agencies.
Data listed in this article reveal that a public health crisis in underway once fruit
pulps are frequently distributed from the industries directly to markets.
REFERENCES
1 Dias SS, Barbosa VC, Costa SRR. Utilização do APPCC como ferramenta da qualidade em
indústrias de alimentos. Rev. Ciênc Vida, Seropédica. 2010; 30(2): 99-111.
2 Cantillano FF, Almeida GB. Manejo e logística na colheita e pós-colheita na produção
integrada de frutas no Brasil. In: Zambolim L. et al. Procedimentos de produção integrada
Silva, CEF and Abud, AKS.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160240, Jan/Dec 2017
16
de frutas: agropecuária sustentável alimentos seguros. Brasília: Ministério da Agricultura,
Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA) e Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Agropecuário e
Cooperativismo, 2009. 977-1008.
3 Agência de Desenvolvimento do Estado do Ceará. Perfil da produção de frutas Brasil
Ceará. Fortaleza: ADECE Internet. 2013 cited 2015 March 20. Available from:
<http://www.adece.ce.gov.br/phocadownload/Agronegocio/perfil_da_producao_de_frutas_
brasil_ceara_2013_frutal.pdf>.
4 Associação Brasileira de Fruticultura. Anuário Brasileiro da Fruticultura 2014. Santa Cruz
do Sul: Editora Gazeta; 2014.
5 Moraes IVM. Produção de Polpa de Fruta Congelada e Suco de Fruta. Rio de Janeiro:
REDETEC (SBRT Serviço Brasileiro de Normas Técnicas) Rede de Tecnologia do Rio
de Janeiro, 2006.
6 Dantas RL, Rocha APT, Araujo AS, Rodrigues MSA, Maranhão TKL. Perfil da qualidade
de polpas de frutas comercializadas na cidade de Campina Grande/PB. Rev. Verde
Agroecol. Desenv. Sustentável. 2010; 5(5): 61-66.
7 Guerra NR, Carvalho JLM, Gama MB. Coordenação da qualidade de frutas para a
produçao de sucos e polpas: um estudo exploratório. In: Nordeste: Desafios do
desenvolvimento para a inclusão social. Proceedings of Nordeste: Desafios do
desenvolvimento para a inclusão social; 19-21 october 2011; Petrolina. Petrolina:
Sociedade Brasileira de Economia, Administração e Social Rural VI SOBER Nordeste;
2011. 1-15.
8 Vendrametto LP, Di Augustini CA, Bonilla SHA. Produção integrada de frutas no Brasil e
sua interface com a produção mais limpa. In: 3° International Workshop Advances in
Cleaner Production: Cleaner Production Initiatives and Challenges for a Sustainable World;
18-20 May 2011; São Paulo. São Paulo: Universidade Paulista; 2011.
9 Matta VM, Freire Junior M, Cabral LMC, Furtado AAL. Polpa de fruta congelada. Brasília:
Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, 2005.
10 Silva CEF, Moura EMO, Souza JEA, Abud AKS. Quality control of tropical fruit pulp in
Brazil. Chem. Eng. Trans. 2015; 44: 193-198.
11 Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA). Instrução Normativa
12, de 10 de setembro de 1999. Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade para Polpas de Frutas
Internet. 1999 cited 2015 Oct 19. Avaiable from:
http://sistemasweb.agricultura.gov.br/sislegis/action/detalhaAto.do?method=gravarAtoPDF
&tipo=INM&numeroAto=00000012&seqAto=000&valorAno=1999&orgao=MAA&codTi
po=&desItem=&desItemFim=
12 Ministério da Agricultura, do Abastecimento. Instrução Normativa Nº 01, de 07 de janeiro
de 2000. Regulamento técnico geral para fixação dos padrões de identidade e qualidade
para polpa de fruta Internet. 2000 cited 2015 Oct 19. Available from:
http://sistemasweb.agricultura.gov.br/sislegis/action/detalhaAto.do?method=gravarAtoPDF
&tipo=INM&numeroAto=00000001&seqAto=000&valorAno=2000&orgao=MAPA&cod
Tipo=&desItem=&desItemFim=.
13Tolentino VR, Silva AG. Processamento de vegetais: frutas e polpa congelada. Manual
Técnico n°. 12. Niterói: Programa Rio Rural; 2008.
14 Green DE, Stumpf PK. The mode of action of chlorine. J. Am Water Works Assoc. 1946;
38: 1301-1305.
15 Knox WE, Stump PK, Green DE, Auerbach VH. The inhibition of sulfhydryl enzymes as
the basis of the bactericidal action of chlorine. J. Bacteriol. 1948; 55: 451-458.
16 Cabeça TK, Pizzolitto AC, Pizzolitto EL. Activity of disinfectants against foodborne
pathogens in suspension and adhered to stainless steel surfaces. Braz J Microbiol. 2012;
43(3): 1112-1119.
17 Sun SH, Kim SJ, Kwak SJ, Yoon KS. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and acidified
sodium chorite in preventing browning and microbial growth on fresh-cut produce. Prev.
Nutr. Food Sci. 2012; 17: 210-216.
18 Lima FR, Ahmed S. Activity of disinfectants related to food hygiene and sanitation.
Northern Int. Med. Coll. J., 2015; 6(2): 64-67.
19 Silva CEF, Moura EMO, Andrade FP, Góis GNSB, Silva ICC, Silva LMO, Souza JEA,
Abud AKS. Importância da monitoração dos padrões de identidade e qualidade na indústria
da polpa de fruta. J. Bioen. Food Sci. 2016; 3(1): 17-26.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160209, Jan/Dec 2017
17
20 Eifert JD, Sanglay GC. Chemistry of chlorine sanitizers in food processing. Dairy, Food
Environ Sanit. 2002; 22(7): 534-538.
21 Ministério da Saúde. Portaria N.º 2.914, de 12 de dezembro de 2011. Dispõe sobre normas
de potabilidade de água para o consumo humano Internet. 2011 cited 2015 Oct 19.
Available from:
http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/saudelegis/gm/2011/prt2914_12_12_2011.html
22 NPC. Produção de polpa de fruta congelada Internet. 2015 cited 2016 March 25.
Available from: http://www.npcequipamentos.com.br/info_polpa_congelada.asp.
23 Macena PT, Nunes WV. Acidulantes. Food Ingredients Brasil. 2011; 19: 24-30.
24 Silva CEF, Silva ICC, Abud AKS. Acidulants in tropical fruit pulp: physicochemical and
sensory changes. Chem. Eng. Trans. 2015; 44: 109-114.
25 Chipley JR. Sodium benzoate and benzoic acid. In: Davidson PM, Branen AL, editors.
Antimicrobials in foods. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1993. p.11-48.
26 Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Resolução RDC nº 12, de 02 de janeiro de
2001. Regulamento Técnico sobre padrões microbiológicos para alimentos Internet. 2001
cited 2015 Oct 19. Available from:
http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/wps/wcm/connect/a47bab8047458b909541d53fbc4c6735/RDC_
12_2001.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
27 Santos CAA, Correia AFS, Carneiro SC. Avaliação microbiológica de polpas de frutas
congeladas. Food Sci. Technol. 2008; 28(4): 913-915.
28 Franco BDGM, Landgraf M. Microbiologia dos alimentos. São Paulo: Atheneu, 2005.
29 Riedel G. Controle sanitário dos alimentos. 3 ed. São Paulo: Atheneu, 2005.
30 EMBRAPA. Produção integrada de frutas Internet. 2014 cited 2015 March 15. Available
from: http://www.cnpuv.embrapa.br/publica/artigos/pif.html
31 Dantas RL, Rocha APT, Araujo AS, Rodrigues MSA, Maranhão TKL. Qualidade
microbiologica de polpa de frutas comercializadas na cidade de Campina Grande/PB. Rev.
Bras. Prod. Agroind. 2012; 14(2): 125-130.
32 Robles-Sanchez M, Gorinstein S, Martin Belloso O. Minimal processing of tropical fruits
antioxidant potential and its impact on human health. Food Chem. 2007; 32(4): 227-232.
33 Alves JA, Nassur RCMR, Pires CRF, Alcantara EM, Giannoni JA, Lima LCO. Cinética
de degradação de vitamina C em mangas ‘Palmer’ minimamente processadas armazenadas
em diferentes temperaturas. Cienc. Agrotec. 2010; 34(3): 714-721.
34 Ozkan M, Aysegul K, Cemeraglu B. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on the stability of acid
ascorbic during storage in various fruit juices. Food Chem. 2004; 88(4): 591-597.
35 Teixeira M, Monteiro M. Degradação da vitamina C em suco de fruta. Alim. Nutr. 2006;
17(2): 219-227.
36 Amorim GM, Santos TC, Pacheco CSV, Tavares IMC, Franco M. Avaliação
microbiológica, físico-química e sensorial de polpas de polpas de frutas comercializadas em
Itapetinga-BA. Enc. Biosfera. 2010; 6(11): 1-8.
37 Benevides SD, Ramos AM, Stringheta PC, Castro VC. Qualidade da manga e polpa da
manga Ubá. Food Sci. Technol. 2008; 28(3): 571-578.
38 Sa CP, Magalhães CH, Nascimento WCA, Gonçalves CP. Caracterização físico-química
de polpa de acerola, polpa de maracujá e extrato aquoso de albedo obtidos a partir de frutos
de acerola (Malpighia emarginata D. C.) e maracujá (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa,
Degener). In: Semana da Ciência e Tecnologia CEFET-BAMBUI; 17-21 november 2008;
CEFET-BAMBUI. CEFET-BAMBUI, 2008.
39 Machado SS, Tavares JTQ, Cardoso RL, Machado CS, Souza KEP. Caracterizaçao de
polpas de frutas tropicais congeladas comercializadas no Reconcavo Baiano. Rev. Cienc.
Agr. 2007; 38(2): 158-163.
40 Monçao EC, Silva EF, Sousa PB, Silva MJM, Sousa MM. Avaliação físico-química e
centesimal de polpas congeladas de cajá (Spondias mombin L.) e de manga (Mangifera
indica L.) consumidas em teresina-PI. Proc. V CONNEPI; 17-19 november 2010; Maceió.
Instituto Federal de Alagoas; 2010.
41 Oliveira MEB, Feitosa T, Bastos MSR, Freitas ML, Morais AS. Qualidade de polpas
congeladas de frutas, fabricadas e comercializadas nos estados do Ceará e Rio Grande do
Norte. B. CEPPA. 1998; 116(1): 13-22.
Silva, CEF and Abud, AKS.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160240, Jan/Dec 2017
18
42 Oliveira MEB, Bastos MSR, Feitosa T, Branco MAAC, Silva MGG. Avaliação de
parâmetros de qualidade físico-químicos de polpas congeladas de acerola, cajá e caju. Food
Sci. Technol. 1999; 19(3).
43 Paglarini CS, Silva FS, Porto AG, Santos D, Leite ALM. P.Avaliação físico-química de
polpas de frutas congeladas comercializadas na região médio norte mato-grossense.
Enciclopédia Biosfera. 2011; 7(13): 1391- 1398.
44 Pereira JMATK, Oliveira KAM, Soares NFF, Gonçalves MPJC, Pinto CLO, Fontes EAF.
Avaliação da qualidade físico-química, microbiológica e microscópica de polpas de frutas
congeladas comercializadas na cidade de Viçosa-MG. Alimentos & Nutrição. 2006; 17(4):
437-442.
45 Raimundo K, Magri RS, Simionato EMRS, Sampaio AC. Avaliação física e química da
polpa de maracujá comercializada na região de Bauru. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura.
2009; 31(2): 539-543.
46 Silva MTM, Oliveira JS, Jales KA. Avaliação da qualidade físico-química de polpas de
frutas congeladas comercializadas no interior do Ceará. Proc.V CONNEPI; 17-19
november 2010; Maceió. Instituto Federal de Alagoas; 2010.
47 Temoteo J.L.M., Gomes SEM, Silva EVL, Correia AGS, Sousa JS. Avaliação de vitamina
C, acidez e pH em polpas de acerola, cajá e goiaba de uma marca comercializada em
Maceió-Alagoas. Proc. VII CONNEPI; 19-21 outubro 2012; Palmas. Instituto Federal do
Piauí; 2012.
48 Campelo ECS, Martins MHB, Carvalho IT, Pedrosa EMR. Teores de vitamina ‘C’ em
polpas de acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) congeladas. B. CEPPA. 1998; 16(1): 107-113.
49 Yamashita F, Benassi MT, Tonzar AC, Moriya S, Fernandes JG. Produção de acerola:
estudo da estabilidade da vitamina C. Food Sci. Technol. 2003; 23(1): 92-94.
50 Jawaheer B, Goburdhun D, Ruggoo A. Effect of processing and storage of guava into jam
e juice on the ascorbic acid content. Plants Food Hum. Nut. 2003; 58: 1-12.
51 Chitarra MIF, Chitarra AB. Pós-colheita de frutos e hortaliças: fisiologia e manuseio.
Lavras: ESAL/FAESPE, 1990.
52 Tazima ZH, Neves CSVJ, Stenzel NMC, Yada IFU, Leite Junior RP. Produção e
qualidade de frutos de cultivares de laranja-doce no norte do Paraná. Rev. Bras. Frut. 2009;
31(2): 474-479.
53 Pinto WS, Dantas ACVL, Fonseca AAO, Ledo CAS, Jesus SC, Calafage PLP, Andrade
EM. Caracterização física, físico-química e química de frutos de genótipos de cajazeiras.
Pesq. Agropec. Bras. 2003; 38(9): 1059-1066.
54 Mattos JS, Mederos BJT. Densidade de polpas de frutas tropicais: Banco de dados e
determinação experimental. 2008; 2(2): 109-118.
55 Batista AG, Oliveira BD, Oliveira MA, Guedes TJ, Silva DF, Pinto NAVD. Parâmetros de
qualidade de polpas de frutas congeladas: uma abordagem para produção do agronegócio
familiar no Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha. Tecnol. Cienc. Agropec. 2013; 7(4): 49-54.
56 Sebastiany E, Rego ER, Vital MJS. Qualidade microbiológica de polpa de frutas
congeladas. Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz. 2009; 68(2): 224-231.
57 Sebastiany E, Rego ER, Vital MJS. Avaliação do processo produtivo de polpas de frutas
congeladas. Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz. 2010; 69(3): 318-326.
58 Faria M, Oliveira LBD, Costa FEC. Qualidade microbiológica de polpas de açaí
congeladas. Alim. Nutr. 2012; 23(2): 243-249.
59 Souza BA, Lopes ES, Fortuna JL, Macena TNS. Análise microbiológica e higiênico-
sanitária de polpas de frutas comercializadas em supermercados do município de Teixeira
de Freitas-BA. Revista Higiene Alimentar. 2011; 25(194/195): 1022-1024.
60 Souza GC, Carneiro JG, Gonçalves HRO. Qualidade microbiológica de polpas de frutas
congeladas produzidas no município de Russas CE. ACSA Agrop. Cient. Semiárido.
2011; 7(3): 1-5.
61 Brito CS, Rossi DA. Bolores e leveduras, coliformes totais e fecais em sucos de laranja in
natura e industrializados nao pasteurizados comercializados na cidade de Uberlandia-MG.
Biosci. J. 2005; 21(1): 133-140.
62 Furtini LLR, Abreu LR. Utilização do APPCC na Indústria de Alimentos. Rev. Cienc
Agrotec. 2006; 30(2): 358-363.
63 Peretti APR, Araujo WMC. Abrangência do requisito segurança em certificados de
qualidade da cadeia produtiva de alimentos no Brasil. Gest. Prod. 2010; 17(1): 35-49.
Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. v.60: e17160209, Jan/Dec 2017
19
64 Profeta RA, Silva SF. APPCC Análises de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle na
Empresa de Açúcar. In: XXV ENEGEP Encontro Nacional de Engenharia de Produção,
29 october 2005; Porto Alegre.
65 Pardo JE, Snachez JE, Perez JI, Andres M, Alvarruiz A. Aplicaciòn del sistema de analisis
de peligros y puntos de control critico (APPCC) em la linea de envasado de aceite de oliva
virgen. Grasas Aceites. 2003; 54(1): 58-64.
66 Cruz AG, Cenci SA, Maia MCA. Pré-requisitos para implementação do sistema APPCC
em uma linha de alface minimamente processada. Food Sci. Technol. 2006; 26(1): 104-109.
Received: February 03, 2016;
Accepted: July 14, 2016
... Fruit pulps are unfermented products of well-ripened mature edible fruit flesh obtained through chemical or mechanical extraction with optional fiber removal to ensure smoothness. 1 Although fruit pulps are necessary for industrial or small-scale fruit processing, they must be processed and stored properly to prevent degradation of the finished product due to microbial and enzymatic activity. 2 Pulping has several advantages over fresh fruits, including increased shelf stability (in comparison to raw fruits' short shelf life), increased monetary value, and, most importantly, the prevention of food loss and waste during the glut. Additionally, it is a convenient method of obtaining fruits that are out of season. 2 The pulping process incorporates several unit operations to ensure that the end product meets the minimum specified standards for safety and quality, including sorting for uniformity, cleaning and sanitization to remove dirt, fruit crushing and flesh extraction through mechanized processes. ...
... Additionally, it is a convenient method of obtaining fruits that are out of season. 2 The pulping process incorporates several unit operations to ensure that the end product meets the minimum specified standards for safety and quality, including sorting for uniformity, cleaning and sanitization to remove dirt, fruit crushing and flesh extraction through mechanized processes. 3 Pulping, like other food processing techniques, entails a number of hurdle techniques, including pasteurization, lowering the pH, adding permitted food-grade preservatives at recommended levels, and packaging in appropriate airtight containers to ensure shelf-life stability. ...
... 11,12 Because the pulp is a critical component of several guava products, it is necessary to employ mechanized methods for extracting the Kenyan guava pulp in order to increase consumption of alternative forms of the fruit and thus contribute to reducing the losses associated with the fruit's glut. 2 The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the changes in the physicochemical properties of guava pulp during the processing of the red and whitefleshed Kenyan fruits into shelf-stable pulp that can be used as key ingredients in subsequent processes for guava-based products. ...
Article
Although fruit pulping is a highly effective global practice for ensuring a steady supply of fruit for processing during the offseason, industrial pulping of Kenyan guava cultivars is lacking, contributing to their annual losses. The present study compared the yield characteristics, physicochemical profile, and nutrient retention of pulp extracted from white and red‐fleshed Kenyan guavas using cold and hot extraction methods. The pulp yield was highest in the red guava with the pulp to by‐product ratio being significantly (p < 0.05) higher at 2.58, 2.97, and 3.30 for cold, hot water, and steam‐blanched compared to 1.66, 1.95, and 2.03 for the white guava respectively. Although hot extraction methods resulted in significantly (p < 0.0001) higher yields (67–77%) compared to the cold (62–73%), the heat‐labile nutrients were affected with as much as 60% and 64% of the white and the red guava's vitamin C being lost. The steam blanched pulps exhibited significantly (p < 0.0001) high overall color changes (∆E) ranging from 22–30 in the pasteurized white guava pulp compared to the red's (−0.24–6). The cold extraction method resulted in better retention of β‐carotene (1.9 ± 0.4 mg), zinc (5.6 ± 2.1 mg), iron (20.1 ± 8.6 mg), flavonoids (241.3 ± 56mgCE), phenolics (1548.7 ± 25.8mgGAE) and antioxidant activities (1998.6 ± 333μMTE) per 100 g in the red guava pulp. Compared to the white cold‐extracted pulp, the red guava pulp was more suitable for further processing due to its high nutrient retention, high pulp to by‐products ratio, and textural properties therefore recommended for adoption of processing the Kenyan guava cultivars. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Fruit pulp has good organoleptic and nutritional values. Pulp produced with a high level of quality control and safety can be stored chilled or frozen for a long time and can be sold in a wider global market (De Farias Silva & Abud, 2016). Long shelf-life, stable natural nutritional content, and preserved flavor are factors that increase the demand of fruit pulp from the global market. ...
... Fruit pulp is normally produced during peak season and is not intended to be consumed immediately, where instead it is an intermediate product that will be processed further as one of the ingredients for different value-added products in the food industry De Farias Silva & Abud, 2016). One type of fruit that has the potential to be processed as pulp is mango. ...
... The fruits are selected and only the fruits with the appropriate ripeness level are pulped using a pulper machine equipped with a filter so as to separate the pulp from the skin, seeds, and other nonpulp parts. The fruit pulp is then homogenized and sometimes added with acidulants and preservatives, before being packaged and stored frozen (De Farias Silva & Abud, 2016). ...
Chapter
Food commodities are extremely important for human consumption. Thus, a continuous supply of commodities such as grains, dairy products, meat, eggs, sugar, fruits and vegetables are required to meet the current demand of an increasing world population. This chapter explores the postharvest processing of food commodities in terms of size reduction operations. Some of raw food materials undergo minimal changes before being packaged for consumers. These processes are usually carried out at the farm itself, such as cutting, dicing, crushing, grinding, shredding, sheeting and pulping, depending on the type of food commodity involved. Similarly, the handling techniques and equipment are different based on the farm capacity, whether it is small, medium, or large scale. Processing equipment used at different farm capacity levels is further discussed in this chapter. This will enable an overall view for food industrialists and create room for improvement at each process and capacity level. Size reduction is highly necessary to ensure the maintenance and extension of the shelf-life of raw food materials, reduce wastage and loss prior to reaching the manufacturers, retailers, and consumers. The effect of size reduction and conditions on the quality of food commodity will be further discussed. In addition, the stability of nutritional composition and other bioactive compounds undergoing these processes will be explored.
... Fruit pulp has good organoleptic and nutritional values. Pulp produced with a high level of quality control and safety can be stored chilled or frozen for a long time and can be sold in a wider global market (De Farias Silva & Abud, 2016). Long shelf-life, stable natural nutritional content, and preserved flavor are factors that increase the demand of fruit pulp from the global market. ...
... Fruit pulp is normally produced during peak season and is not intended to be consumed immediately, where instead it is an intermediate product that will be processed further as one of the ingredients for different value-added products in the food industry De Farias Silva & Abud, 2016). One type of fruit that has the potential to be processed as pulp is mango. ...
... The fruits are selected and only the fruits with the appropriate ripeness level are pulped using a pulper machine equipped with a filter so as to separate the pulp from the skin, seeds, and other nonpulp parts. The fruit pulp is then homogenized and sometimes added with acidulants and preservatives, before being packaged and stored frozen (De Farias Silva & Abud, 2016). ...
Chapter
During production and after harvest or slaughter of crops or livestock, respectively, raw food materials generally tend to obtain a number of different contaminations. These can be inedible parts, microbes, or other unwanted organisms or they have varied quality and quantity measurements below industry standards. When marketed and consumed without processing, these might result in poor and low product demands, human health issues, environmental issues, animal and plant hazards, and therefore, it becomes an important and integral part of food industries and companies to carry out postharvest or postmortem food processing. The aim of this chapter is to consider these postharvest and postmortem techniques, so as give a basic understanding of these concepts. In the second section, primary postharvest processes are described, which include methods like cleaning, sorting, grading, and peeling. The third section deals with the disintegration processes of food materials and inedible materials presented along with them. The fourth section discusses the postmortem processing of red meat, poultry, and fish, and the fifth section discusses the physiological changes during postharvest processes. Similarly, section sixth describes the physiological changes during postmortem processes, while the seventh section focuses on the postmortem treatments of red meat, poultry (white meat), and fish.
... Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and Brazilian cherry pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) are berries consumed raw or processed as pulps (FAO, 2019;Silva and Abud, 2017). Commercial processing of raspberry and pitanga generally consists of: selection, washing, sanitization with chlorine-based solutions, and rinsing followed by freezing. ...
... Raspberry pulp was 12 • Brix, pH 2.52 with a titratable acidity of 1.2 g/100 mL citric acid. Pitanga pulp was 13 • Brix, pH 2.81 with a titratable acidity of 1.0 g/100 mL citric acid, meeting quality standard parameters for fruit pulp (Silva et al., 2017). Pulps were always prepared on the same day of the experiments. ...
Article
This study aimed to determine the growth potential (δ) of L. monocytogenes (CLIST 3974, CLIST 3969, and CLIST 4162) and S. enterica [S. Typhimurium (ATCC SM 14028), S. Enteritidis (SM 64), and S. Montevideo (SM 129)] in the presence of a pool of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with antimicrobial activity in Frescal and semi-hard Minas microcheeses. The δ was determined after storing Frescal cheese at 4 and 7 °C for 15 days and the and semi-hard Minas cheese during ripening (22 °C for 22 days). The δ of L. monocytogenes was significantly higher in Frescal Minas cheese with no added LAB (p > 0.05). On the other hand, in semi-hard cheese inoculated with LAB, inactivation of L. monocytogenes was observed. No significant differences were found in the δ of S. enterica in Frescal Minas cheese inoculated with LAB at 4 and 7 °C. S. enterica SM 14028 and SM 129 could grow in semi-hard cheeses non-inoculated with LAB, while when LAB was inoculated, S. enterica was inactivated. The findings of this study indicated that the δ of L. monocytogenes strains was more affected in cheeses inoculated with LAB than the δ of S. enterica.
... Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and Brazilian cherry pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) are berries consumed raw or processed as pulps (FAO, 2019;Silva and Abud, 2017). Commercial processing of raspberry and pitanga generally consists of: selection, washing, sanitization with chlorine-based solutions, and rinsing followed by freezing. ...
... Raspberry pulp was 12 • Brix, pH 2.52 with a titratable acidity of 1.2 g/100 mL citric acid. Pitanga pulp was 13 • Brix, pH 2.81 with a titratable acidity of 1.0 g/100 mL citric acid, meeting quality standard parameters for fruit pulp (Silva et al., 2017). Pulps were always prepared on the same day of the experiments. ...
Article
This study assessed the norovirus (NoV) surrogate bacteriophage MS2 transfer from stainless steel, glass and low-density polypropylene surfaces to raspberry and pitanga fruits. The effect of sodium hypochlorite (100 ppm, 1 min) on MS2 survival on whole fruits, the MS2 survival in sanitized fruits and derived pulps during frozen storage, and in response to preservation technologies (heat, organic acids and salts) was also assessed. The highest (p < 0.05) viral transfer (%) was observed from glass and stainless steel (∼90%) to raspberry, and from glass and polypropylene (∼75%) to pitanga, after 60 min of contact. Sodium hypochlorite reduced (p < 0.05) MS2 titer by 3.5 and 3.8 log PFU/g in raspberry and pitanga, respectively. MS2 decreased (p < 0.05) up to 1.4 log PFU/g in frozen stored sanitized fruits (whole fruits and pulps) after 15 days, with no further changes after 30 days. Thermal treatments reduced MS2 titer (p < 0.05) in both fruit pulps. MS2 inactivation was higher in pitanga pulp. The addition of ascorbic acid, citric acid, sodium benzoate, or sodium metabisulfite had little effect (<1 log PFU/g) on MS2 concentration in either fruit. These results may inform NoV risk management practice in processing and handling of fruits.
... Frozen fruit pulps are easy to prepare and a significant source of raw material and bioactive compounds carrying health benefits (Spada et al., 2009(Spada et al., , 2008. They could also supply the food industry for producing beverages, candies and confectionery, and dairy products such as yogurts or ice creams (Costa and Mercadante, 2018;Farias Silva and de Souza Abud, 2017). The markets of pulp are notably relevant because they seek to attract consumers fundamentally by the idea of fruit nutritional value preservation. ...
... The freezing temperature is reported to decrease water activity and, as a consequence, reduce or inhibit the growth of microorganisms, thus prolonging shelf life and ensuring the quality of food products, including fruits (Tan et al., 2020). On the contrary, high counts indicate microbial spoilage, which may lead to product refusal, and represent a risk to public health because some mold species produce mycotoxins (Farias Silva and de Souza Abud, 2017). High counts of molds and yeasts, with or without the presence of bacterial coliforms, strengthen the idea of inappropriate processing/post-processing contamination. ...
Article
The frozen fruit pulp market has shown suitable growth due to the current technology available, having broad market potential. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, microbiological, functional, and sensorial characteristics of Solanum betaceum pulp (chilto pulp) with different skin colors (orange and orange-red) under storage at −18 °C during different periods: 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 days. The pulps were stable microbiologically during the entire storage time, according to food legislation. The physicochemical results indicate that all the frozen pulps of chilto fruits had values in conformity to identity and quality standards and had a high content of bioactive compounds, fibers, and proteins. The pulps presented a powerful antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity demonstrated by in vitro tests, which gives it a functional value in addition to the nutritional value. The results of the sensory analysis showed a good acceptance of the pulps by consumers, particularly in attributes such as color, aroma, and texture. The chilto fruit pulp can store up to 180 days at −18 °C retaining the physicochemical, microbiological, functional, and sensorial characteristics similar to the fresh pulp. For this reason, it is considered an interesting post-harvest conservation method for the expansion and revalorization of native Argentine fruits.
... In addition, in the conditions of competition in the domestic market, manufacturers of jelly and marmalade products are looking for ways to increase their competitiveness by improving the functional and technological characteristics of raw ingredients; consumer properties of finished products, reducing the cost and extending their shelf life [1,2]. To improve the structural and mechanical properties of gel-like masses and consumer characteristics of finished products, non-traditional raw materials are used, such as waste from the food industry (Canning, wine, sugar beet industries) and agriculture (seed State Farms, Cotton, melon) [14][15][16]; as well as alternative raw materials: chitosan, vegetable, vegetable and fruit and vegetable products [17,18] in that puree feijoa, Kiwi, Jerusalem artichoke [19,20]; extracts and powders of spicy-aromatic herbs and vegetable, fruit and Berry powders (help to improve the consistency and consumption characteristics of the finished product (their disadvantage is insufficient stability of the gel-like structure) [21,22]; sorbitol [23]; hydrocolloids: carrageenan and its sodium, potassium, ammonium salts, including furcellaran; xanthan, tari, guar gum, carob gum, xanthan gum, etc. (help to increase moisture-retaining ability and improve elasticity -elastic properties of jelly-marmalade products with a long shelf life) [4,5,[8][9][10]. Combined systems of structure -forming agents are widely used, in particular combinations of gelatin with pectin, with sulfated polysaccharides, gelatin-K -carrageenan, gelatin-pectin LM [5,7,8]; pectin with hydrocolloids (Herbagel SW -010, rikogel 8100), pectin LM-K-carrageenan [7,10]; Agar with animal protein concentrate "Scanpro" [4,11]; various modifying systems: sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (S-CMC) with iron chloride [4,7]; sodium lactate, sodium citrate with glycerin [10,11], mannite or sodium alginate [12,13]; modifications of metal nanoparticles and their oxides with polysaccharides, vegetable and animal proteins: egg and whey protein albumin, gelatin, whey protein, gliadin, legumes and soy proteins, elastin, Zein, milk protein [24][25][26][27][28]. ...
Article
With the growing interest of the general population in a healthier diet, it is possible to notice an increase in the demand for sweet fruit preserves with the partial or total substitution of sugar by different sweeteners. This systematic review identified 28 studies to answer the following question: “What are the effects of different sugar substitute sweeteners on the sensory aspects of jams, jellies, and marmalades?”. Results show that the blends of different sweeteners, either artificial and/or natural are probably the best strategy to sweeten these products when it comes to their sensory aspects. In addition, a greater demand for natural products is one of the reasons to combine bulk and high-intensity natural sweeteners, especially xylitol and stevia. This is a promising alternative that deserves to be further studied and explored for the development of low-sugar or sugar-free natural products, which besides being sensory-friendly, are possibly lower in calories and costs.
Article
Disposal of fruit and vegetable by‐products has drawn the attention of several sectors worldwide, not only because of the concern over environmental impacts, but also due to high ratios of nutrients and bioactive compounds which are found in these non‐edible parts. These by‐products still have great technological potential, since they can be processed and transformed in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food and other products and biomaterial with high added value. The most common form of incorporating them into food is flour. Drying operations enable waste to keep higher concentration of nutrients, less susceptibility to be attacked by microorganisms (due to low humidity), lower storage volumes and longer shelf‐life. The process of transforming residue into flours can be carried out by different equipment whose goal is to remove moisture. Afterwards, dry products pass through mills to reduce particle size. Then, standardization of granule size is recommended. In the conversion steps, processing conditions are particularly important since they should not cause any loss of nutrients, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity to the final product. In view of the need to control production steps, this review aimed at compiling information on the theme found in the literature and at highlighting existing gaps to show the scientific community the importance of studying the factors that affect the quality of dehydrated final products.
Article
In this study, agglomeration process was applied in concentrated rice protein (RP) powder using hydrolyzed collagen (HC) as binder to improve wetting time and flowability, aiming at its application in the food industry, namely for fruit pulp supplementation. Fruit pulps from acerola (Malpighia emarginata), cashew (Anarcadium occidentale), guava (Psidium guajava), soursop (Annona muricate), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata) replaced in 1–5% (w/w) by RP or RP agglomerated with collagen were evaluated in terms of viscosity/color and sensory attributes. The addition of RP led to changes in the color of the pulps analyzed, resulting in a red and yellowish color. Viscosity analysis showed that the agglomeration process increased RP dispersion as a function of collagen concentration. The percentage of concentrated RP and RP agglomerated with collagen was limited to 1–3% in order to generate acceptance levels higher than 80%, which is similar to the acceptance rate of pulps without any addition (control—NA).
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO: O presente trabalho visou a avaliação microbiológica, físico-química e sensorial de polpas de goiaba, acerola, cacau e abacaxi congeladas, comercializadas na cidade de Itapetinga-BA. Analisaram-se duas marcas, denominadas A e B. A avaliação microbiológica foi fundamentada na quantificação de coliformes totais, determinados pelo método do NMP (Número mais provável). Os testes físico-químicos basearam-se na determinação de sólidos solúveis (°Brix) e pH. Para os testes sensoriais o método utilizado foi o Teste de comparação Pareada. As contagens de coliformes para todas amostras, nas duas marcas, foram inferiores a 0,3 NMP.g-1 , atendendo à legislação em vigor. Os resultados obtidos na avaliação físico-química revelaram acordo com a legislação para as polpas de goiaba, acerola e cacau. A polpa de abacaxi não apresentou padrões legais de identidade e qualidade. Para os valores das análises físico-químicas submetidos ao teste de Tukey, somente os resultados de pH das polpas de goiaba e abacaxi, diferiram significativamente ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, entre as marcas. Na avaliação sensorial foi possível observar que as polpas de goiaba, acerola e cacau da marca A apresentaram preferência significativa em relação à marca B em nível de 2% de probabilidade pelo teste de Comparação Pareada. Para a amostra de abacaxi não houve preferência significativa entre as marcas em estudo. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Polpa de fruta, Análises e Legislação. ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory of frezon guava, barbados cherry, cocoa and pineapple pulp, sold in the city of Itapetinga-BA. Were analyzed two brands named A and B. The microbiological evaluation was based on quantification of total coliforms determined by the method of the MPN (most probable number). The physical-chemical tests were based on the determination of soluble solids (° Brix) and pH. For sensory testing method used was the paired comparison test. The total and fecal coliform counts were inferior to 0.3 MPN.g-1 for all brands, given the existing legislation. The results obtained in the physical-chemical revealed agreement with the law of guava, barbados cherry and cocoa pulps. The of pineapple pulp has no identity standards and quality. For the values of physical-chemical analysis submitted to the Tukey test, only the pH values of pulp of guava and pineapple, differ significantly at 5% level of probability between the brands. In sensory evaluation it was observed that the pulp of guava, barbados cherry and cocoa brand A showed significant preference towards the brand B at 2% level of probability by paired comparison test. For sample pineapple no significant preference between the brands under study. KEYWORDS: Fruit Pulp, Analysis and Legislation
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the efficacy of various disinfectants on planktonic cells and biofilm cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Numbers of viable biofilm cells decreased after treatment with all tested disinfectants (iodine, biguanide, quaternary ammonium compounds, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite). Sodium hypochlorite was the most effective disinfectant against biofilm cells, while biguanide was the least effective. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that cells adhered on stainless steel surface after treatment with the disinfectants. No viable planktonic cells were observed after treatment with the same disinfectants. Based on our findings, we concluded that biofilm cells might be more resistant to disinfectants than plancktonic cells.
Article
Full-text available
Devido ao aumento significativo do consumo de frutas e seus derivados, é preciso investir em operações que visem seu aproveitamento, minimizando as perdas pré e pós-colheita, devido a sua alta perecibilidade. O processamento de polpa de frutas é uma técnica muito utilizada, pois grande parte da população busca praticidade e uma alimentação mais saudável, além de aumentar o tempo de conservação do produto e conseguir fornecê-lo a regiões distantes e em períodos de entressafras. O presente trabalho avaliou físico-química e microbiologiamente, em três meses consecutivos, 17 sabores de polpas de fruta de uma empresa produtora com a finalidade de utilizar o controle do produto final como meio de identificar falhas de controle presentes na aquisição de matéria-prima e durante as etapas de processamento e embalagem. Percebeu-se que cerca de 65% do total das polpas estavam impróprias ao consumo humano, sendo o maior percentual entre as análises físico-químicas (45%), seguidas pelas microbiológicas (30%). Na característica microbiológica, a grande quantidade de bolores e leveduras sugere falha nas etapas de limpeza e sanitização dos frutos e na área de processamento. Para as análises físico-químicas, pH e teor de sólidos solúveis totais foram os mais alarmantes, verificando-se a possibilidade de adição de água (ilegal) e excesso de acidulante, o que faz com a polpa perca sua identidade com a fruta.As frutas mais problemáticas foram abacaxi, ameixa, cajá, caju, graviola, goiaba e maracujá. O controle do produto final se mostrou essencial para a garantia de qualidade da empresa.
Chapter
Benzoic acid is one of the oldest chemical preservatives used in the cosmetic, drug, and food industries. Sodium benzoate was the first chemical preservative approved for use in foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Jay, 2000). Its preservative action appears to have been first described in 1875, when a relationship was established between the action of benzoic acid and that of phenol (Lueck, 1980). Because benzoic acid could not initially be produced synthetically in large quantities, it was not introduced for food preservation until around 1900 (Lueck, 1980). The advantages of its low cost, ease of incorporation into products, lack of color, and relatively low toxicity subsequently caused benzoic acid to become one of the most widely used preservatives in the world (Davidson, 2001). During the last 10 years, several articles concerning various aspects of food additives and preservatives (e.g., benzoic acid) have been published. General evaluations of the use of these compounds in foods (Vogel, 1992), in prevention of microbial spoilage (Giese, 1994), in meat products (Gerhardt, 1995), in beverage manufacture (Giese, 1995), and in consumer attitudes toward the use of preservatives (Jager, 1994) serve as examples.
Article
The development of non-thermal and effective technologies or its combination can allow offering consumers fresh-cut tropical fruit, microbiologically safe and with a nutritional value and sensorial quality, similar to that of the intact product. Tropical fruits like mango, papaya, pineapple and banana stored at low temperature in controlled and/or modified atmosphere can preserve its commercial quality for up 10 days in the case of mangoes and by 8 y 7 days for pineapple and papaya, respectively. Very few studies exist concerning the effects of minimal processing on their nutritional properties and antioxidant potential, the latter being related to bioactive compounds such as vitamin C and E, carotenoids and phenolics, which have been strongly associated with the prevention of certain chronic-degenerative diseases. These bioactive compounds are present in significant amounts in tropical fruits and to date its antioxidant activity has been measured as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in whole fruits, reporting values from 7 to 11μm ET/g. However, changes of these bioactive compounds taking place upon processing and storage have not been reported. Several aspects related to the effect of minimal processing of tropical fruits on their antioxidant components are reviewed and discussed. In addition the importance of measuring total antioxidant activity and its biological action in vivo is emphasized.