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Spiritual Leadership: State-of-the-Art and Future Directions for Theory, Research, and Practice

Authors:

Abstract

A person’s spirit is the vital principle or animating force traditionally believed to be the intangible, life-affirming force in the self and in all human beings.1 Now people, as part of their spiritual journey, are struggling with what this means for their work.2 Some are calling this trend “a spiritual awakening in the American workplace.”3 Patricia Aburdene in her recent book Megatrends 2010, states that the focus on spirituality in business is becoming so pervasive that it stands as “today’s greatest megatrend.” She contends that more and more people are making choices in the marketplace as “values-driven consumers” and the power of spirituality is increasingly impacting our personal lives and spreading into organizations to foster a moral transformation in them.
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82.
83.
d+
85
124 Louis W (Jody)
Fr1,
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for
positive
leadership
developrnent.
Paper presented
ar
rhe
Inrernarronal
Gallup
LeaJership
Summit,'Washrngton,
DC.
Fry,
L.'W.,
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S.
2006,
Spiritual leadership
rheorv
as
a source
t,or
furure
rheorv, research, and
recoverv
for workaholism.
In Burke,
R. (ed.),
Researclt
cr.tnr-
panion
to
workaholism
in
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Horizons
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Cheitenharn.
UK ; Northampron, MA: Edw'ard
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and
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1
00.
... Çünkü makyavelistler amaçları uğrunda her yolu mübah görürler (Ergeneli, 2006, s. 105). Otantik liderler; kendilerini ve etraflarını dönüştürmek zorunda değildir (Puls, 2011, s. 38 Literatür incelendiğinde; Ruhsal Liderlik Teorisi'nin farklı modellerle açıklandığı çalışmalar (Chen ve Yang, 2012;Fairholm, 1998;Fry, 2003;Fry, 2008;Fry ve ark., 2017) tespit edilmiştir. Fairholm (1998) ruhsal liderlik modelini geliştiren ilk teorisyen olarak kabul edilir. ...
... Fry ise ruhsal liderliği en kapsamlı şekilde ele alan araştırmacıdır. Şöyle ki: Fairholm (1997Fairholm ( , 1998Fairholm ( , 2001 tarafından yapılan çalışmaları dikkate alarak 2003 yılında ruhsal liderliğin nedensel modelini geliştirdikten sonra tek başına ya da arkadaşlarıyla birlikte bu konuya dair çok sayıda teorik (Fry ve Cohen, 2009;Fry ve Kriger, 2009;Fry ve Slocum, 2008;Fry, 2003;Fry, 2005;Fry, 2008) Malone ve Fry (2003) tarafından ABD'nin Teksas eyaletindeki okullar üzerinde yapılan araştırmada; 17 maddelik "ruhsal liderlik" ve 9 maddelik "ruhsal varoluş için izleyicilerin ihtiyaçları (followers' needs for spiritual survival)" ölçekleri geliştirilmiştir. Her iki ölçek de birinci düzey çok faktörlü bir yapıdadır. ...
... "Ruhsal liderlik"; 5 maddelik "vizyon (vision)", 5 maddelik "umutlu ve inançlı olma (hope/faith)" ve 7 maddelik "özverili sevgi (altruistic love)" boyutlarıyla, "ruhsal varoluş için izleyicilerin ihtiyaçları" ise özellikler istatistiksel olarak desteklenmektedir. Fry (2008)'in teorik çalışmasında; Malone ve Fry (2003)'ün "ruhsal varoluş için izleyicilerin ihtiyaçları" olarak adlandırdığı değişken "izleyicilerin ruhsal iyi oluş hali (followers' spiritual well-being)" şeklinde revize edilmiştir. Bu teorik çalışmada; "ruhsal liderliği" 4 maddelik "vizyon", 4 maddelik "umutlu ve inançlı olma" ve 5 maddelik "özverili sevgi" boyutlarının, "izleyicilerin ruhsal iyi oluş halini" ise 4 maddelik "işin anlamlılığı" ve 4 maddelik "aidiyet hissi" boyutlarının temsil ettiği iddia edilmektedir. ...
Article
Full-text available
SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONTENT ANALYSIS Spiritual leadership is a process that intrinsically motivates both the spiritual leader and her/his followers in a spiritual atmosphere to achieve positive results at the individual, group and organizational levels. Given some information about the spiritual leadership’s scale, dimensions, antecedent and outcome variables in the studies carried out by Fry alone or with his friends between 2003 and 2017 has been transferred to the national literature in a different way from the original studies. This situation has led to many contradictions in the national literature. This study aims to eliminate the problems in the national literature and to give direction to it by giving detailed information about the relevant issues in the “literature review” section. In addition, this study reveals the current status and trend of graduate theses written in Turkey on the subject of spiritual leadership. Thus, this study also aims to shed light on the researchers who are considering working on this subject. For this purpose, the Database of National Thesis Center of the Council of Higher Education was searched until 2021. As a result of the search, a total of twenty-two graduate theses prepared between 2009 and 2021, of which are fifteen master’s theses, six doctoral dissertations and one “specialization in medicine” thesis with determinations/inferences and/or findings about spiritual leadership, were included in the research scope of this study. And then, content analysis was employed by using secondary data to determine the bibliometric characteristics of these theses in terms of “descriptive features”, “content and research method”, “sample”, “data”, “analysis techniques”, “references” and “citation”. The findings of analysis were tabulated mostly on the basis of frequency and percentage in terms of the type of thesis, in line with the research questions and criteria determined. Based on these findings, determinations/inferences and suggestions for future studies were made in the “discussion and conclusion” section. Keywords: Spiritual Leader(ship), Content Analysis, Bibliometric Analysis, (Graduate) Thesis
... Ruhsal liderlik kavramı ile ilgili yaygın şekilde kullanılan ve Fry (2003Fry ( , 2008 tarafından ortaya konan Ruhsal Liderlik Teorisi, üyelerin içsel motivasyonlarının artırılmasına odaklanmakta ve öğrenen örgütlerin oluşum sürecinde liderlin pozisyonunu resmetmektedir. Değişim ve dönüşümün başarılı bir şekilde gerçekleşmesi ve öğrenen örgüt yapısının sürekliliğinin korunması için ruhsal liderliğin gerekliliğine vurgu yapan Fry (2003), ruhsal liderliği "insanların bir fark yaratma, anlamlandırma, anlaşılma ve takdir edilme yoluyla ruhsal yaşantılarına anlam kazandırılabilen, kendisini ve başkalarını içten güdüleme için gerekli olan değer, tutum ve davranışlar" olarak tanımlamıştır. ...
... Yapılan iş ve kapsamı ile kişinin benlik kavramı arasındaki uyum ne kadar yüksek düzeyde olursa o kadar motive edici olur. Bu nedenle, yüksek bir içsel yaşama sahip ve ruhsal eylemlerde bulunan liderlerin, özgecil sevgi ve diğer merkezli değerlere sahip oldukları, aşkın ve anlamlı bir vizyon sunarak takipçileri bu vizyona ulaştırma noktasında gerekeni yapmaları için umut ve inanç sağlama konusunda daha iyi oldukları düşünülebilir (Fry, 2008). ...
... Örgütsel değişimde ruhsal liderlerin oynadığı role vurgu yapan Fry (2003), vizyonun değişimde yön gösterici olduğunu ve çok fazla sayıda insanı kolay ve etkin bir şekilde organize ettiğini belirtir. Vizyon, uygun örgütsel davranışı iletmenin, pekiştirmenin ve ödüllendirmenin birincil aracı olarak hizmet eder, örgüt kültürünün ve onun altında yatan etik sistemin ve değerlerin sosyal inşasının temelini oluşturur (Fry, 2008). Bu boyutta ruhsal lidere ait özellikler; belli başlı hedefler için paydaşlara başvurmak, çıkılacak ruhsal yolculuğu ve rotayı belirlemek, büyük idealleri yansıtmak, umut ve çaba için cesaretlendirici olmak ve mükemmellik standartlarını oluşturmaktır. ...
Book
Organizasyonların amaç ve hedeflerine ulaşmasında liderler ve davranışları hayati öneme sahiptir. Kendi çıkarlarını önceleyen ve ferdi hareket eden liderler birçok olumsuzluğa sebep olabilirken, ortak yaşamın kazanımlarından olan kültürel değerleri benimsemiş ve birlikte hareket etmeyi ilke edinmiş liderler hem kendileri hem de organizasyonları için faydalı çıktılar sunabilmektedir. Buradan hareketle, hayatın tüm alanları için önemli olan değer kavramı, bu kitapta liderlik kavramıyla birlikte araştırılmıştır. Alan yazınında liderlik çalışmalarına sıklıkla rastlanmaktadır fakat değer temelli liderliği konu alan çok az çalışma bulunmaktadır. Kitapta demokratik, hizmetkar, fedakâr, karmaşık, paylaşılan, ruhsal, otantik, etik, bilgi odaklı, babacan, ilham verici, yenilikçi, küresel, mizahi ve sorumlu liderlik kavramları değer temelli olarak ele alınmıştır.
... The studies of Mousa et al. (2020) and Mousa (2021a) assert the lack of empirical studies on workplace happiness, while the studies of Syed et al. (2017) and Syed and Pio (2018) confirm the dearth of studies on individual religiosity. Therefore, this paper explores the effect of academics' perceptions of the rector's religiosity on their workplace happiness and the effect of the level of mutual trust between academics and their rectors on workplace happiness based on the contingency theory of leadershipwhich elaborates that the principles and values of Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism assume that religiosity influences followers' beliefs, attitudes and behaviours at the organizational level (Kriger and Seng, 2005) and spiritual leadership theory (Fry, 2003(Fry, , 2005(Fry, , 2008)which elaborates how leaders' spirituality and religious beliefs trigger high levels of intrinsic motivation, inspiration, commitment, improved performance and well-being among his/her employees. The impetus for this study lies in addressing religiosity and workplace happiness in an unstable organizational setting where employees (academics in this case) experience clear cases of cultural clashes and low levels of commitment, as is common in other sociocultural and political settings in contemporary Egypt (Mousa and Ayoubi, 2019;Mousa, 2021b). ...
... Spiritual leadership theory (Fry, 2003(Fry, , 2005(Fry, , 2008 can provide a useful overarching framework to help understand how spirituality and religious beliefs in leaders trigger high levels of intrinsic motivation, inspiration, commitment, improved performance and wellbeing among employees. By incorporating spiritual leadership (i.e. ...
... This study also provides implications for society by demonstrating that religiosity can contribute positively to increase trust, engagement, job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. Indeed, employees respond to the religiosity of their superior with high levels of intrinsic motivation, inspiration, dedication and even happiness (Fry, 2003(Fry, , 2005(Fry, , 2008. Religiosity establishes a firm's culture based on values of altruism, whereby leaders and followers have a sense of belonging, feel truly appreciated, have a caring attitude for both self and others and are compelled to do something meaningful with their lives and create change (Benefiel et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper focuses on academics in public universities in Egypt. It explores the effect of perceptions of the rector's religiosity and trust on workplace happiness among academics. Design/methodology/approach A total of 600 academics are contacted. After two follow-ups, a total of 540 responses are collected, of which 525 are valid. This study uses SmartPLS 3 to test the hypotheses. Findings This paper finds that academics' perceptions of their rector's religiosity have a positive effect on engagement, job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. Moreover, academics' perceptions of their rector's religiosity positively affect their perceptions of their rector's ability, benevolence and honesty. Furthermore, academics' trust in their rector has a positive effect on their engagement, job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. Originality/value This paper contributes by filling a gap in management and organization literature, in which empirical studies of the relationship between religiosity, organizational trust and workplace happiness are limited or scarce.
... Altruistic love is defined as "a sense of wholeness, harmony, and well-being produced through care, concern, and appreciation for both self and others" (Fry, 2003: 712). In his updated model, Fry (2008) contends that an inner life is a fundamental source of inspiration and insight that positively influences the development of the spiritual leadership variables. It includes "personal practices such as meditation, prayer, religious practices, yoga, journaling, walking in nature, and organizational contexts (e.g., rooms for inner silence and reflection) to help individuals be more self-aware and conscious from moment to moment and draw strength from their beliefs" (Fry et al., 2017: 24). ...
... Second, an effective inner life also enhances the (quality of) interaction among these spiritual leadership variables, out of which spiritual well-being emerges. Hence, inner life is not only considered as a fundamental source for the development of vision, altruistic love and hope/faith (Fry, 2008). In Boolean terms, Sandra & Nandram (2020) express the revised theory as: IL x CI  SWB, where Inner Life (IL) and Coherent Interaction (CI) are jointly sufficient to foster entrainment among the spiritual leadership variables through which spiritual well-being (SWB) emerges. ...
... In practical terms, spiritual well-being at the individual or team level can easily be assessed applying the defined fuzzy set break-points (Table 4) to the boolean expression IL x CI  SWB. Next, it adds further support to other studies by Jeon et al. (2013) and by Fry et al. (2017) that inner life has a positive influence on all spiritual leadership variables, i.e., a fundamental source for the development of shared vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love (Fry, 2008). Finally, this study indicates a positive relationship between personal and team spiritual leadership, supporting the theory put forward by Sandra & Nandram (2020). ...
Conference Paper
Based on the theory of entrainment - a process of synchronizing rhythms over time - it is suggested that applying the coherence model of spiritual leadership across an organization can positively influence organizational outcomes. This study evaluates the conditions for such entrainment at a professional services company at the individual and group level. It uses an explanatory sequential research design as mixed methods approach, integrating quantitative data from eighty-six participants across fourteen teams with qualitative data from five team leaders. The quantitative data are analyzed using techniques stemming from a qualitative comparative analysis approach. The findings support that inner life and coherent interaction can be usefully deployed in a consistent way to understand the emergence of spiritual well-being through entrainment. In addition, it further supports that developing personal spiritual leadership directly influences the level of spirtual leadership of the group to which the individual belongs. Finally, better performing teams pay more attention to inner life practices, while taking care of and believing in their team members.
... Both have their own challenges as one strategy is focused on exploring knowledge and another one focuses on exploiting knowledge. Based on the literature review conducted in this paper, some constructs/theories were adopted, combined, and extended, namely SECI model, spiritual leadership, and knowledge workers productivity (Drucker 1999;Fry 2003;Fry 2008;Lerner et al. 2001;Morgeson and Humphrey 2006;Nonaka 1994;Wang et al. 2019). Obtaining the goals of knowledge explorative and knowledge exploitative throughout the organisation is addressed to as knowledge creation or SECI model by (Nonaka 1994). ...
Article
The productivity of worker is crucial not only for company performance but also for sustainable development. In the context of knowledge-economy firms, leadership issues and knowledge resources capabilities are likely to enhance knowledge worker productivity. The purpose of this study is to design a preliminary conceptual analysis of spiritual leadership and knowledge explorative-exploitative on knowledge worker productivity. This study adopts a systematic literature review (SLR) through searching, analysing, and selecting research studies comprising a total of 1355 research papers. The literature was searched in digital scientific libraries and big indexing systems such as Web of Science and Scopus. This research essentially contributes to providing a conceptual/theoretical model of effective knowledge explorative-exploitative in the context of knowledge workers productivity. Several enabler factors such as spiritual leadership (vision, hope/faith, altruistic), knowledge explorative (socialization and internalization), knowledge exploitative (combination and externalization), and knowledge worker productivity (job outcome, problem-solving, work scheduling) were explored and explained. The research provides beneficial knowledge and strategy for managers/leaders on ways to initiate and develop a knowledge-sharing strategy to enhance employee’s effectiveness through pursuing and maximizing leadership contributions. Multifarious constructs and theories are combined. This model further offers a new paradigm for upcoming research.
... Most previous researches surveyed the association between environment and intention or between environment and performance (e.g Yusliza et al., 2020). Fry (2008) states that the leader builds a sense of alignment with organizational values for empowering the team that enhances commitment and productivity, which are associated with engagement. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Organizations are increasingly being responsible for providing good and healthy work ‎environment that can help in supporting employees performing their duties. Supportive work ‎environment can increase the degree of employee engagement, which in turn, makes them more ‎attached to their roles. The purpose of the current study is two-folded: to investigate the effect of ‎work environment on engagement, and to test ethical decision making as a mediator between ‎environment and engagement. ‎ Data were collected from a sample of 237 employees from transportation corporations listed ‎on the Amman Stock Exchange (2019) in Jordan. Structural equation modeling was utilized to test ‎the model. Results proposed that engagement was significantly related to work environment and ‎ethical decision-making. Work environment has a greater effect on employee engagement than on ‎ethical decision-making. Moreover, the effect of ethical decision-making on employee engagement ‎was greater than the effect of work engagement on ethical decision-making. ‎ Furthermore, the study yielded support for the claim that ethical decision-making played a ‎significant role in the relationship between work environment and employee engagement. Therefore, ‎employees having good working conditions and making ethical decisions tend to get higher levels of ‎employee engagement.
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