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In Small We Trust: Lay Theories About Small and Large Groups

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Abstract

Day-to-day interactions often involve individuals interacting with groups, but little is known about the criteria that people use to decide which groups to approach or trust and which to avoid or distrust. Seven studies provide evidence for a “small = trustworthy” heuristic, such that people perceive numerically smaller groups as more benevolent in their character and intentions. As a result of this, individuals in trust-sensitive contexts are more likely to approach and engage with groups that are relatively small than those that are relatively large. We provide evidence for this notion across a range of contexts, including analyses of social categories (Studies 1 and 2), ad hoc collections of individuals (Study 3), interacting panels (Studies 4-6), and generalized, abstract judgments (Study 7). Findings suggest the existence of a general lay theory of group size that may influence how individuals interact with groups.

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... [24] "The generalized expectation of predictable and benevolent motives and/or behavior from others." [25] actions of the members based on the expectation that members will perform a particular action important to the group, encompassing social exchange, collective perceptions, and interpersonal trust." Fig. 2 outlines the relationship between individual trust and various characterizations of group trust in the literature, which include the three broad categories mentioned in our definition: individual (sometimes referred to as interpersonal) trust, social exchange, and collective perceptions. ...
... Group Size [25] Smaller groups have been shown to be more trustworthy than larger groups While small groups are perceived to be more trustworthy from an external perspective, training programs need to weigh factors such as the number of trainees and faculty availability when deciding the optimal size of their competency committee(s). ...
... If a committee is required to report to another entity outside of this chain, it may decrease trust amongst members of the group, especially member stability tends to positively impact communication patterns, the social interaction of teams, and interpersonal trust [42]. From an external perspective, smaller groups (i.e. less than 10 individuals) have generally been shown to be more trustworthy than larger groups (i.e. 10 or more individuals) in undergraduate psychology students [25]. ...
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Background: Trust is a critical component of competency committees given their high-stakes decisions. Research from outside of medicine on group trust has not focused on trust in group decisions, and "group trust" has not been clearly defined. The purpose was twofold: to examine the definition of trust in the context of group decisions and to explore what factors may influence trust from the perspective of those who rely on competency committees through a proposed group trust model. Methods: The authors conducted a literature search of four online databases, seeking articles published on trust in group settings. Reviewers extracted, coded, and analyzed key data including definitions of trust and factors pertaining to group trust. Results: The authors selected 42 articles for full text review. Although reviewers found multiple general definitions of trust, they were unable to find a clear definition of group trust and propose the following: a group-directed willingness to accept vulnerability to actions of the members based on the expectation that members will perform a particular action important to the group, encompassing social exchange, collective perceptions, and interpersonal trust. Additionally, the authors propose a model encompassing individual level factors (trustor and trustee), interpersonal interactions, group level factors (structure and processes), and environmental factors. Conclusions: Higher degrees of trust at the individual and group levels have been associated with attitudinal and performance outcomes, such as quality of group decisions. Developing a deeper understanding of trust in competency committees may help these committees implement more effective and meaningful processes to make collective decisions.
... Trust, a willingness to be vulnerable to the action of another party (1), plays an important role in facilitating exchanges in personal and professional life (2,3). An individual's transactions occur not only with another individual but also with a group of people (4)(5)(6). Thus, an individual's decision to trust sometimes involves another individual and, other times, a group of people. A job applicant in recruitment processes, for example, sometimes waits for a particular decision maker to choose and at other times waits for the collective decision of a committee. ...
... La Macchia et al. (5) conducted a set of experiments and found that smaller (e.g., three-person) groups were perceived to be warmer and hence more trustworthy than larger (e.g., ten-person) groups. The groups in our own study consisted of just three members, so another useful extension of this research would be to examine perceived differences in the intentionality of individuals, small groups, and large groups. ...
... This perspective suggests that people in high-trust groups believe that others will enforce norms (Coleman, 1988). Moreover, people consider smaller groups as more trustworthy (Wheelan, 2009;La Macchia et al., 2016), and punishment more strongly promotes cooperation in high-trust groups (Balliet and Van Lange, 2013). Thus, we will test whether punishment is more effective (Hypothesis 3a) or less effective (Hypothesis 3b) in promoting cooperation in larger groups than in smaller ones when temptation increases with group size. ...
... Group size, as well as reputation and punishment, may affect cooperation through three proximate psychological processes: (a) expected others' cooperation (Pruitt and Kimmel, 1977), (b) perceived collective efficacy (i.e., group members' belief that they can solve their problem through collective effort; Kerr, 1989), and (c) perceived conflict of interest (Kelley et al., 2003). First, people in larger groups often feel more uncertain about others' decisions and thus show lower trust in others (Wheelan, 2009;La Macchia et al., 2016), which predicts less cooperation in social dilemmas (Pletzer et al., 2018). Second, the higher levels of anonymity and uncertainty in larger groups may weaken individuals' belief that the group can maximize the collective interest through joint effort (Kerr, 1989). ...
Article
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Reputation and punishment are two distinct mechanisms that facilitate cooperation among strangers. However, empirical research on their effectiveness is mainly limited to relatively small groups and does not address how they enhance cooperation in relatively larger groups. We address this gap in the literature by testing hypotheses from competing perspectives about the extent to which reputation-based partner choice and punishment enhance cooperation in both small and large groups. Prior work recognizes that an increase in group size is accompanied by a change in the incentive structure, which determines whether the temptation (extra benefit for each person from non-cooperation over cooperation, regardless of others’ choices) or gain (extra benefit for each person from full cooperation over full non-cooperation) remains constant or varies with group size. Thus, we first test how group size affects cooperation when temptation or gain increases with group size (Study 1), and then move on to testing predictions on the effectiveness of reputation and punishment across different group sizes (Study 2). In Study 1 (N = 820), we randomly assigned participants to play an online one-shot public goods game in groups of 4, 20, or 40, while keeping the marginal group return or marginal per capita return fixed across groups, in which case the temptation or gain increased with group size. In Study 2 (N = 1,132), we further compared a public goods situation involving a punishment or reputation mechanism with an anonymous situation across group sizes, while the marginal group return was fixed across groups. Overall, we found that when temptation increased with group size, 20-person groups cooperated significantly less than 4-person groups in one-shot interactions, and that this effect was explained by lower expectation of others’ cooperation, less perceived collective efficacy, and greater perceived conflict. However, 40-person and 4-person groups did not vary in one-shot cooperation. Importantly, reputation-based partner choice and punishment invariably promoted one-shot cooperation in groups of different sizes. These findings suggest no simple effect of group size on cooperation and underscore the utility of reputation and punishment in fostering cooperation (at least in one-shot interactions) regardless of the size of groups.
... A messaging group for family or close friends is likely to differ considerably from a work-based group. Furthermore, trust-sensitive contexts (where privacy is needed) seem to also support the formation of smaller groups (La Macchia et al., 2016). Hence, we expect that WhatsApp messaging groups that are smaller (H2a), closer-knit (H2b), and more homogenous in terms of age (H2c), gender (H2d), race (H2e), and political views (H2f) will offer fertile ground for the cultivation of group trust. ...
Article
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In a survey study of WhatsApp users across three different countries (N = 3,664), we tested how misinformation processes on messaging apps are driven by the levels of information shared vs. social dynamics within messaging groups. Integrating recent perspectives, we offer a conceptual model that focuses on the informational activity of users and trust among group members as predictors of misinformation outcomes within WhatsApp groups. Specifically, we focus on how content-sharing practices of users and characteristics of messaging groups (size, type, homogeneity) explain information exposure and group trust, which then predict misinformation risk perceptions and corrections. Structural equation models revealed that contributing content (vs. checking content) positively predicted (mis)information exposure, which then positively predicted risk perceptions and social corrections. Additionally, smaller, closer, and homogeneous groups were associated with greater group trust, which then predicted lower risk perceptions and, concurrently, more social corrections. Overall, the study shows the value of testing informational and social pathways in parallel.
... Entre las teorías implícitas (TI) sobre la inclusión y exclusión social hay que considerar las creencias que afectan a las relaciones grupales, como prejuicios, actitudes racistas y conflictos sociales, de clase e intergrupales (Hong et al., 2001;Levy et al., 2006;Ramírez & Levy, 2010;La Macchia et al., 2016), las creencias acerca de las clases sociales (Varnum, 2013), las creencias sobre la bondad o maldad de la raza humana (Leyens, 1983), la maleabilidad o flexibilidad conductual, el locus de control de la conducta y la posibilidad de cambio y crecimiento personal (teoría de la entidad versus la incrementalidad de Dweck et al., 1995). También hay que atender a los estudios sobre creencias acerca de las causas de la pobreza, el desempleo, la inflación, el éxito económico, etc. y las creencias acerca del juego, el cálculo y las probabilidades (suerte y fracaso al jugar) reseñadas por Furnham (1996) y Zedelius et al. (2017). ...
Article
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Se investiga cómo las creencias de futuros profesionales del ámbito sociosanitario acerca de los prototipos de persona responsable y persona irresponsable pueden impactar en sus actitudes y conductas respecto a la inclusión social de sujetos vulnerables. Para la investigación, 520 estudiantes universitarios citaron espontáneamente cuatro adjetivos descriptores de los prototipos y luego los ordenaron según su adecuación a cada prototipo. Como resultado se obtuvo que la persona responsable se describe en relación con los términos constante, aplicado, cuidadoso, centrado y trabajador. La persona irresponsable se describe destacando los términos vago, imprudente e inconstante. Los prototipos tienden a describirse según diadas de términos antagónicos: constante-inconstante, cuidadoso-descuidado, organizado-desorganizado, maduro-inmaduro, puntual-impuntual, prudente-imprudente y consciente-inconsciente. Se concluye que la perseverancia, la libertad individual y el desempeño aparecen como tres criterios de inclusión-exclusión relacionados con las creencias sobre la responsabilidad y la irresponsabilidad. Se sugiere que estas creencias son congruentes con actitudes profesionales que busquen más la integración sociolaboral que la inclusión social y el desarrollo personal desde la diversidad.
... Dentro de las Teorías Implícitas [TI] sobre la Inclusión y Exclusión Social hay que considerar las investigaciones sobre creencias que afectan a las relaciones grupales como prejuicios, actitudes racistas y conflictos sociales, de clase e intergrupales (Hong et al., 2001;Levy et al., 2006;Ramírez & Levy, 2010;La Macchia et al., 2016), las creencias acerca de las clases sociales (Varnum, 2013), las creencias sobre la bondad o maldad de la raza humana (Leyens, 1983), la maleabilidad o flexibilidad conductual, el locus de control de la conducta, y la posibilidad de cambio y crecimiento personal (teoría Entidad versus Incrementalidad de Dweck et al., 1995). También hay que atender a los estudios sobre creencias acerca de las causas de la pobreza, desempleo, inflación, éxito económico, etc…, o las creencias acerca del juego, cálculo y probabilidades (suerte y fracaso al jugar), … reseñadas por Furnham (1996) y Zedelius et al. (2017). ...
Preprint
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(PERSONA). Garcia-Hernández, F.R., y Quevedo-Aguado, M.P.(2022). Creencias de estudiantes universitarios sobre responsabilidad: Implicaciones para la intervención social. Revista Persona – Facultad de Psicología – Universidad de Lima. 25(1). https://doi.org/10.26439/persona2022.n025(1) ///// Resumen (Abstract): Se investiga cómo las creencias de futuros profesionales del ámbito socio-sanitario acerca de los prototipos persona responsable y persona irresponsable pueden impactar en sus actitudes y conductas respecto a la inclusión social de sujetos vulnerables. Método: 520 estudiantes universitarios citaron espontáneamente 4 adjetivos descriptores de los prototipos y luego los ordenaron según su adecuación a cada prototipo. Resultados: La persona responsable se describe en relación a los términos constante, aplicado, cuidadoso, centrado y trabajador. La persona irresponsable se describe destacando los términos vago, imprudente e inconstante. Los prototipos tienden a describirse según diadas de términos antagónicos: constante-inconstante, cuidadoso-descuidado, organizado-desorganizado, maduro-inmaduro, puntual-impuntual, prudente-imprudente, y consciente-inconsciente. Conclusiones: La perseverancia, la libertad individual, y el desempeño aparecen como tres criterios de inclusión-exclusión relacionados con las creencias sobre la responsabilidad e irresponsabilidad. Se sugiere que estas creencias son congruentes con actitudes profesionales que busquen más la integración socio-laboral que la inclusión social y desarrollo personal desde la diversidad. Palabras Clave: Descripción libre de personalidad; Responsabilidad; Irresponsabilidad; Inclusión Social; Exclusión Social ////// Abstract: We investigate how the beliefs of future social and healthcare professionals about the prototypes responsible person and irresponsible person may impact on their attitudes and behaviours regarding the social inclusion of vulnerable subjects. Method: 520 university students spontaneously cited 4 adjectives describing the prototypes and then ordered them according to each prototype. Results: The responsible person is described around the terms constant, applied, careful, focused and hard-working. The irresponsible person is described by highlighting the terms lazy, reckless and inconsistent. The prototypes tend to describe themselves according to dyads of antagonistic terms: constant-inconstant, careful-careless, organized-disorganized, mature-immature, punctual-impunctual, prudent-imprudent, and conscientious-unconscious. Conclusions: Perseverance, individual freedom, and performance appear as three inclusion-exclusion criteria related to beliefs about responsibility and irresponsibility. It is postulated that these beliefs are congruent with professional attitudes that seek socio-labor integration rather than social inclusion and personal development from diversity. Keywords: Free personality description; Responsibility; Irresponsibility; Social Inclusion; Social Exclusion. ///////
... Diversity within a geographic community was shown by Putnam to be associated with lower trust between groups and within groups in a large survey conducted in 2000 (Putnam 2007). Generally, people place more trust in smaller groups (La Macchia et al. 2016). In the online setting, Ma et al. (2019) found people to place more trust in Facebook groups which were smaller, private as opposed to public, having denser networks of friendships within the group, as well as greater age and gender homogeneity. ...
Preprint
We use exploratory factor analysis to investigate the online persistence of known community-level patterns of social capital variance in the U.S. context. Our analysis focuses on Facebook groups, specifically those that tend to connect users in the same local area. We investigate the relationship between established, localized measures of social capital at the county level and patterns of participation in Facebook groups in the same areas. We identify four main factors that distinguish Facebook group engagement by county. The first captures small, private groups, dense with friendship connections. The second captures very local and small groups. The third captures non-local, large, public groups, with more age mixing. The fourth captures partially local groups of medium to large size. The first and third factor correlate with community level social capital measures, while the second and fourth do not. Together and individually, the factors are predictive of offline social capital measures, even controlling for various demographic attributes of the counties. Our analysis reveals striking patterns of correlation between established measures of social capital and patterns of online interaction in local Facebook groups. To our knowledge this is the first systematic test of the association between offline regional social capital and patterns of online community engagement in the same regions.
... o Creencias acerca de los procesos atribucionales y el autocontrol, la toma de decisiones propia y ajena (Teoría de la Mente), la Conciencia (Rosenthal, 2009;Malle, 2010), y la inteligencia (Villamizar-Acevedo, 2011). o Teorías implícitas grupales o creencias acerca de las relaciones grupales, incluyendo prejuicios, actitudes racistas y conflictos sociales, de clase e intergrupales (Hong et al., 2001;Levy, Chiu y Hong, 2006;Ramírez y Levy, 2010;La Macchia et al., 2016). o Creencias acerca de las clases sociales (Varnum, 2013). ...
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ABSTRACT: Beliefs regarding responsible and irresponsible people were investigated, considering the Implicit Theories of Personality frameword and the psycholexical approach. The sample was 520 subjects, between 18 and 30 years old, students in the first and fourth years of the degrees of Psychology and Nursing in 2019, in two Spanish private universities. The main results obtained were: [1] beliefs about responsible and irresponsible people can be explained by attending to less than 10 highly differentiating descriptive terms, [2] the Spanish taxonomy of personality terms is exhaustive and sufficient to explain beliefs; especially, the Responsibility, Integrity and Agreeableness factors of this taxonomy are the best differentiating the responsible from the irresponsible, [3] the positive poles of these factors are the best explaining beliefs about responsible people, and the negative ones the best to irresponsible people, [4] the Integrity factor has a different role depending on how it is used to qualify the person responsible versus the irresponsible, [5] the Extraversion factor does not serve to differentiate the person responsible from the irresponsible, [6] no sociodemographic variable had any significant influence on the beliefs, and [7] the results obtained are similar in the two study methodologies used (spontaneous citation of descriptor adjectives, and assessment of terms from the Spanish taxonomy of personality terms). It is suggested that Responsibility is an explicable construct at a macro level from Work and Ethics, and at a micro level from Continuity and Safety. Practical applications to promote responsability and minimize irresponsibility are proposed. KEYWORDS: personality, psycholexical approach, implicit theory of personality, beliefs, Big Five, conscientiousness, responsibility, irresponsibility, integrity. / / / / / / RESUMEN: Se investigaron las creencias respecto a las personas responsables y las irresponsables, desde el marco de las Teorías Implícitas de Personalidad y el enfoque psicoléxico o psicolingüística. La investigación se realizó con una muestra de 520 sujetos, entre 18 y 30 años, estudiantes en primero y cuarto curso de los grados de Psicología y Enfermería en el año 2019, en dos universidades privadas españolas. Los principales resultados obtenidos fueron: [1] las creencias sobre las personas responsables y las irresponsables se pueden explicar atendiendo a menos de 10 términos descriptores muy diferenciadores de las creencias, [2] la taxonomía de términos de personalidad en español es exhaustiva y suficiente para explicar las creencias; especialmente, los factores Responsabilidad, Integridad y Agradabilidad de esta taxonomía son los factores que mejor permiten diferenciar al responsable del irresponsable, [3] los polos positivos de estos factores son los que mejor explican las creencias sobre las personas responsables, y los negativos las referidas a las personas irresponsables, [4] el factor Integridad de esta taxonomía tiene un rol diferente según se emplee para calificar al responsable del irresponsable, [5] el factor Extraversión no sirve para diferenciar al sujeto responsable del irresponsable, [6] ninguna variable sociodemográfica considerada influye significativamente en las creencias, y [7] los resultados obtenidos son semejantes en las dos metodologías de estudio utilizadas (citación espontánea de adjetivos descriptores, y valoración de términos de la taxonomía de términos de personalidad en español según su ajuste a los objetos de creencia evaluados). Se sugiere que Responsabilidad es un constructo explicable a nivel macro desde el Trabajo y la Ética, y a nivel micro desde la Continuidad y Seguridad. Se proponen aplicaciones prácticas para promover la responsabilidad y minimizar la irresponsabilidad. PALABRAS CLAVE: personalidad, enfoque psicoléxico, teoría implícita de la personalidad, creencias, Big Five, conciencia, responsabilidad, irresponsabilidad, integridad.
... La Macchia et al demonstrated that large decisionmaking groups are viewed as less trustworthy than small ones and that trust is essential in evaluations and feedback. 53 This idea was furthered by Saap et al who described that if the number of learners to be assessed is high, even with an optimized number of CCC members, there is more risk of decision fatigue leading to groupthink about an individual learner. 54 If the number of learners and the number of members of the CCC are both high, there is an opportunity for distributed responsibility for the evaluation, which if not managed carefully may mean evaluation according to the mental model of an individual or subgroup rather than the SMM of the CCC as a whole. ...
Article
Background: Shared mental models (SMMs) help groups make better decisions. Clinical competency committees (CCCs) can benefit from the development and use of SMMs in their decision-making as a way to optimize the quality and consistency of their decisions. Objective: We reviewed the use of SMMs for decision making in graduate medical education, particularly their use in CCCs. Methods: In May 2020, the authors conducted a narrative review of the literature related to SMMs. This review included the SMM related to teams, team functioning, CCCs, and graduate medical education. Results: The literature identified the general use of SMMs, SMMs in graduate medical education, and strategies for building SMMs into the work of the CCC. Through the use of clear communication and guidelines, and a shared understanding of goals and expectations, CCCs can make better decisions. SMMs can be applied to Milestones, resident performance, assessment, and feedback. Conclusions: To ensure fair and robust decision-making, the CCC must develop and maintain SMMs through excellent communication and understanding of expectations among members.
... Research finds that the number of others around us is key to understanding social phenomena such as free riding, trust, or helping behaviour. For example, people are less likely to free ride in smaller groups [2], more prone to trust others in smaller groups [3], and they are more inclined to feel responsible to help others in need when part of a small group [4], compared to larger group sizes. ...
Article
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A salient objective feature of the social environment in which people find themselves is group size. Knowledge of group size is highly relevant to behavioural scientists given that humans spend considerable time in social settings and the number of others influences much of human behaviour. What size of group do people actually look for and encounter in everyday life? Here we report four survey studies and one experience-sampling study (total N = 4,398) which provide evidence for the predominance of the dyad in daily life. Relative to larger group sizes, dyads are most common across a wide range of activities (e.g., conversations, projects, holidays, movies, sports, bars) obtained from three time moments (past activities, present, and future activities), sampling both mixed-sex and same-sex groups, with three different methodological approaches (retrospective reports, real-time data capture, and preference measures) in the United States and the Netherlands. We offer four mechanisms that may help explain this finding: reciprocity , coordination , social exclusion , and reproduction . The present findings advance our understanding of how individuals organize themselves in everyday life.
... At the same time, we need to consider another factor, the size of the collaboration. In a larger-scale alliance -for instance, one with dozens of membersmembers may have a hard time identifying each other (Haeberle 1989), and the trust within the alliance would be low (La Macchia et al. 2016). Therefore, we propose: ...
Article
This study explores how intra-alliance factors (size, resource constraints, mission nature, operating mechanisms) and contextual factors combine to contribute to the sustainability of self-organized non-profit collaboration in disaster relief. A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis was used to analyze 17 non-profit collaborations that emerged after the 2008 Wenchuan and 2013 Lushan earthquakes in China. The findings show that the absence of political pressure (a contextual factor) and having a formal contract-based operating mechanism (an intra-alliance factor) are two necessary conditions for a sustainable non-profit collaboration, and two configurations are identified to contribute to a high degree of sustainability for non-profit collaboration.
... For example, the size and the entitativity of a group can affect people's moral judgment of the group. Small groups are perceived to be more communal and trustworthy than big ones [51,52]. Therefore, the moral potential of small companies may have a greater impact than big companies on an applicant's willingness to join. ...
Article
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The current study examined the effect of a group’s potential for improvement and decline in morality and competence on applicants’ willingness to join the group. We conducted four experiments with 399 Chinese participants who rated their willingness to join groups with potential for improvement, potential for decline, or stability in terms of morality or competence. The results showed that, compared with groups with stable competence, participants preferred groups with potential for competence improvement and were more averse to groups with potential for competence decline. However, the biases regarding the potential for moral improvement and decline were asymmetric. Specifically, compared with groups with stable morality, participants had no preference for groups with potential for moral improvement, but were more averse to groups with potential for moral decline. Possible explanations for the asymmetric biases regarding the potential for moral improvement and decline and future research directions are discussed.
... At the same time, we need to consider another factor, the size of the collaboration. In a larger-scale alliance -for instance, one with dozens of membersmembers may have a hard time identifying each other (Haeberle 1989), and the trust within the alliance would be low (La Macchia et al. 2016). Therefore, we propose: ...
Article
Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) can provide services to disaster-impacted communities and residents in a more timely manner than the government can. The Wenchuan earthquake, which occurred on May 12, 2008, was the most severe natural disaster in China in recent years. NPOs participated in rescue and reconstruction efforts and were an important emergency response force, leading some to call 2008 “the first year of nonprofit organizations in China” (Yang, 2015). The most striking feature of NPOs’ participation in the Wenchuan earthquake relief efforts was that they set up different types of collaborations among themselves to better leverage limited resources and expand on the power of any single organization acting alone. This article differentiates between two types of nonprofit collaboration—contract-based and voluntary-based collaborations—and explores the factors that facilitated the formation of each type of collaboration following the Wenchuan earthquake. Based on three in-depth case studies of (1) Sichuan 5/12 Center for Voluntary Disaster Relief (CVDR), (2) the Sichuan Province NPOs Joint Office (SPNJO), and (3) the New Hometown Plan (NHP), we found that resource dependence, network effect, and volunteerism played different roles in the formation of the two types of collaboration. These findings lead to policy recommendations for improving nonprofit collaboration to respond to and recover from natural catastrophes.
... Three hundred participants (mean age = 37 years; 38% male) from Mechanical Turk participated in an online study in exchange for 30 cents. We aimed to recruit 100 participants per condition in Study 1B and Studies 2-5 following prior research investigating lay beliefs (e.g., Hannikainen, 2018;Klinger, Scholer, Hi, & Molden, 2018;La, Louis, Hornsey, & Leonardelli, 2016). A sensitivity power analysis with the same previously-described data simulation approach (i.e., 1,000 simulations of three conditions with 100 participants each) indicated that a sample of this size would provide 80% power to detect an effect (with an ANOVA) for the difference between the planned contrasts of Cohen's d = .41 ...
Article
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People frequently forecast the outcomes of competitive events. Some forecasts are about oneself (e.g., forecasting how one will perform in an athletic competition, school or job application, or professional contest), while many other forecasts are about others (e.g., predicting the outcome of another individual's athletic competition, school or job application, or professional contest). In this research, we examine people's forecasts about others' competitive outcomes, illuminate a systematic bias in these forecasts, and document the source of this bias as well as its downstream consequences. Eight experiments with a total of 3,219 participants in a variety of competitive contexts demonstrate that when observers forecast the outcome that another individual will experience, observers systematically overestimate the probability that this individual will win. This misprediction stems from a previously undocumented lay belief-the belief that other people generally achieve their intentions-that skews observers' hypothesis testing. We find that this lay belief biases observers' forecasts even in contexts in which the other person's intent is unlikely to generate the person's intended outcome, and even when observers are directly incentivized to formulate an accurate forecast. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... While these results support previous findings showing that intragroup trust decreases with increasing group size and increases with membership restriction [13,21,47,55,85], we find that these trends only hold up to a certain point. When the size of a group exceeds 150 members (roughly Dunbar's number, or the expected cognitive limit beyond which social relationships are difficult to maintain [23]), the membership policy of the group (public v.s. ...
Preprint
Trust facilitates cooperation and supports positive outcomes in social groups, including member satisfaction, information sharing, and task performance. Extensive prior research has examined individuals' general propensity to trust, as well as the factors that contribute to their trust in specific groups. Here, we build on past work to present a comprehensive framework for predicting trust in groups. By surveying 6,383 Facebook Groups users about their trust attitudes and examining aggregated behavioral and demographic data for these individuals, we show that (1) an individual's propensity to trust is associated with how they trust their groups, (2) smaller, closed, older, more exclusive, or more homogeneous groups are trusted more, and (3) a group's overall friendship-network structure and an individual's position within that structure can also predict trust. Last, we demonstrate how group trust predicts outcomes at both individual and group level such as the formation of new friendship ties.
... While these results support previous ndings showing that intragroup trust decreases with increasing group size and increases with membership restriction [13,21,47,55,85], we nd that these trends only hold up to a certain point. When the size of a group exceeds 150 members (roughly Dunbar's number, or the expected cognitive limit beyond which social relationships are dicult to maintain [23]), the membership policy of the group (public v.s. ...
Conference Paper
Trust facilitates cooperation and supports positive outcomes in social groups, including member satisfaction, information sharing, and task performance. Extensive prior research has examined individuals' general propensity to trust, as well as the factors that contribute to their trust in specific groups. Here, we build on past work to present a comprehensive framework for predicting trust in groups. By surveying 6,383 Facebook Groups users about their trust attitudes and examining aggregated behavioral and demographic data for these individuals, we show that (1) an individual's propensity to trust is associated with how they trust their groups, (2) smaller, closed, older, more exclusive, or more homogeneous groups are trusted more, and (3) a group's overall friendship-network structure and an individual's position within that structure can also predict trust. Last, we demonstrate how group trust predicts outcomes at both individual and group level such as the formation of new friendship ties.
... However, a second possibility is that class size directly leads to an increase in antisocial behavior and/or reduced trust, which in turn might have a detrimental effect on social cohesion. This hypothesized pathway is supported by studies that show that increased group size can indeed lead to reductions in interpersonal trust [47,48]. Regardless of whether the exact causal structure is correct, our results underline that it is crucial to understand the determinants of the social structure in the classroom in order to contribute to interventions programs aimed at reducing antisocial behavior and promoting prosocial behavior. ...
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Adolescence is a key period of social development at the end of which individuals are expected to take on adult social roles. The school class, as the most salient peer group, becomes the prime environment that impacts social development during adolescence. Using social network analyses, we investigated how individual and group level features are related to prosocial behavior and social capital (generalized trust). We mapped the social networks within 22 classrooms of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (N = 611), and collected data on social behaviors towards peers. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality show both higher levels of prosocial behavior and relational aggression. Importantly, greater social cohesion in the classroom was associated with (1) reduced levels of antisocial behavior towards peers and (2) increased generalized trust. These results provide novel insights in the relationship between social structure and social behavior, and stress the importance of the school environment in the development of not only intellectual but also social capital.
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We study how the growth of teams affects leadership effectiveness and intragroup cooperation. We put experimental participants in two teams. In each team, the members voluntarily contribute to a club good. In one of the two teams, the members observe the contribution of a randomly chosen leader before they decide themselves. Two treatments allow for migration between the teams. In one of them, participants control access to their team with a voting process. By design, participants can achieve the efficient outcome only if they all move into one team. We compare the results with a leaderless setting as well as with four treatments which vary team size exogenously. The results show that high contributions of leaders encourage higher per‐capita contributions of their followers which foster migration into their teams. In turn, larger teams experience even more courageous leadership and higher contributions, but the coordination effect diminishes. Nevertheless, the dismissal of potential newcomers in the treatment with voting suggests that team members see a trade‐off between team size and contributions. They sacrifice economic benefits from potential entrants to maintain intrateam cooperation.
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Understanding how consumers categorize a consumer good as eco-friendly is key to facilitating consumers' purchasing of products with lower environmental footprints. Scholarship has increasingly addressed this question. However, most research has examined a single cue that prevents the building of a holistic explanation. An integrative review of studies may provide not only a synthesis of the state of the art but also an overarching integrative theoretical framework that explains what cues consumers use to categorize products as green and the mechanisms guiding the interpretation of these cues. This review of 29 studies examining consumers' assessment of eco-friendliness in consumer goods unearths five cues used as surrogate indicators of eco-friendliness. Nevertheless, these cues are not entirely related to the actual environmental footprint of a product based on the life cycle assessment. Drawing from schema categorization theory, an integrative theoretical framework is presented whereby categorization processes are said to be guided by consumers' lay theories. A research agenda is outlined to stimulate new lines of inquiry around lay theories and product attributes.
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According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests.
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Many theories of trust emphasize that trust is most relevant to behavior in situations involving a conflict of interests. However, it is not clear how trust relates to behavior across situations that differ in the degree of conflicting interest: Does trust matter more when the conflict of interest is small or large? According to an interdependence perspective, trust becomes an especially important determinant of behavior in situations involving larger, compared to smaller, degrees of conflicting interests. To examine this perspective, we conducted a meta-analysis involving 212 effect sizes on the relation between trust (both state and dispositional trust in others) and cooperation in social dilemmas-situations that involve varying degrees of conflict between self-interest and collective interest. Results revealed that the positive relation between trust and cooperation is stronger when there is a larger, compared to smaller, degree of conflict. We also examined several other possible moderators of the relation between trust and cooperation. The relation between trust and cooperation was stronger during individual, compared to intergroup, interactions but did not vary as a function of the situation being either a one-shot or repeated interaction. We also find differences across countries in the extent that people condition their own cooperation based on their trust in others. We discuss how the results support an emerging consensus about trust being limited to situations of conflict and address some theoretical and societal implications for our understanding of how and why trust is so important to social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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Analyses designed to detect mediation and moderation of treatment effects are increasingly prevalent in research in psychology. The mediation question concerns the processes that produce a treatment effect. The moderation question concerns factors that affect the magnitude of that effect. Although analytic procedures have been reasonably well worked out in the case in which the treatment varies between participants, no systematic procedures for examining mediation and moderation have been developed in the case in which the treatment varies within participants. The authors present an analytic approach to these issues using ordinary least squares estimation.
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The present research examined the effects of the need to belong and group size on cooperation in a public goods dilemma. On the basis of previous research (R. F. Baumeister & M. R. Leary, 1995), it was expected that those high in the need to belong would cooperate most. In addition, it was expected that the need to belong would predict cooperation for large-group members but not for small-group members. Anal-yses supported both hypotheses. Furthermore, individual differences in the need to belong were positively correlated with frustration about individuals' (cooperative) decision, a feeling believed to emerge from the felt uncertainty over whether cooper-ation would be reciprocated by others, the conflicting motivations of the need to belong and personal self-interest, or both. Social interactions in dyads, groups, or com-munities are frequently characterized by a con-flict between personal and collective interest. One type of interdependence situation is re-ferred to as a social dilemma, where if decision makers decide in favor of personal rather than collective self-interest, the final outcomes will ultimately be worse than if individuals decide to contribute to the group (at least a minimum amount of effort, time, or money). The follow-ing research is focused on one type of social dilemma called the public goods dilemma (Ko-morita & Parks, 1994). In this dilemma, indi-viduals must contribute to a public resource to maintain the presence and use of the resource. If insufficient contributions are given to the public resource, then it will no longer exist. A critical issue, then, is what psychological processes pro-duce cooperation in this type of dilemma. One potential cause of cooperation in the public goods dilemma may be individuals' need to belong (Baumeister & Leary, 1995).
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Optimal distinctiveness theory [Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self: on being the same and different at the same time. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 17(5), 475–482] proposes that individuals have two fundamental and competing human needs—the need for inclusion and the need for differentiation—that can be met by membership in moderately inclusive (optimally distinct) groups. In this chapter, the optimal distinctiveness model and its origins are summarized, and theoretical extensions and empirical tests of the model are discussed. In particular, the empirical review summarizes the model's consequences for social identification, social cognition, and intergroup relations. The evidence strongly supports the notion that the needs for inclusion and differentiation influence self-categorization resulting in a curvilinear relation between group inclusiveness and group identification. The existing evidence also indicates that the two needs influence perceptions and judgments of the self and others and the nature of intragroup and intergroup relations. The chapter concludes by discussing the interplay of the needs for inclusion and differentiation across levels of the self and how the needs for inclusion and differentiation influence which level of self (individual or collective) is motivationally primary.
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This research examined reasons for the frequently obtained finding that members of numerically minority groups exhibit greater intergroup discrimination than members of majority groups and also sought to determine the conditions under which members of both majority and minority groups exhibit intergroup discrimination. Experiment 1 examined the role of group identification and found that discrimination by members of a majority group was equivalent to that of minority group members when identification was experimentally induced. Experiments 2 and 3 examined further the underlying bases for minority and majority discrimination. Consistent with predictions derived from optimal distinctiveness theory (12), identification with the in-group was found to be a necessary condition underlying intergroup discrimination, but motivations for discrimination varied as a function of satisfaction with in-group size and distinctiveness.
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This article describes computer simulations in which pairs of "individuals" in large groups played a prisoners' dilemma game. The individual's choice to cooperate or not was determined by 1 of 3 simple heuristics: tit-for-tat; win-stay, lose-change; or win-cooperate, lose-defect. Wins and losses were determined through the comparison of a play's outcome with the average outcome of the individual's neighbors. The results revealed qualitative differences between smalland large groups. Furthermore, the prevalence of cooperation in the population depended in predictable ways on the heuristic used, the values of the payoff matrix, and the details of the social comparison process that framed the outcomes as wins or losses.
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Three studies examined perceptions of the entitativity of groups. In Study 1 (U.S.) and Study 2 (Poland), participants rated a sample of 40 groups on 8 properties of groups (e.g., size, duration, group member similarity) and perceived entitativity. Participants also completed a sorting task in which they sorted the groups according to their subjective perceptions of group similarity. Correlational and regression analyses were used to determine the group properties most strongly related to entitativity. Clustering and multidimensional scaling analyses in both studies identified 4 general types of groups (intimacy groups, task groups, social categories, and loose associations). In Study 3, participants rated the properties of groups to which they personally belonged. Study 3 replicated the results of Studies 1 and 2 and demonstrated that participants most strongly valued membership in groups that were perceived as high in entitativity.
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Two studies documented the "David and Goliath" rule--the tendency for people to perceive criticism of "David" groups (groups with low power and status) as less normatively permissible than criticism of "Goliath" groups (groups with high power and status). The authors confirmed the existence of the David and Goliath rule across Western and Chinese cultures (Study 1). However, the rule was endorsed more strongly in Western than in Chinese cultures, an effect mediated by cultural differences in power distance. Study 2 identified the psychological underpinnings of this rule in an Australian sample. Lower social dominance orientation (SDO) was associated with greater endorsement of the rule, an effect mediated through the differential attribution of stereotypes. Specifically, those low in SDO were more likely to attribute traits of warmth and incompetence to David versus Goliath groups, a pattern of stereotypes that was related to the protection of David groups from criticism.
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Four studies examined cognitive and affective experiences of minority and majority members. We predicted and found that minority members were more cognitively preoccupied with their group membership and experienced less positive affect as a consequence of their group membership than majority members. The first experiment established these effects with numerical minority and majority groups. The second experiment ruled out status as an explanatory variable, and the third experiment uncovered the role of power in the differential cognitive and affective experiences of minority and majority members. The final field study substantiated the ecological robustness of the experimental findings and provided further evidence for the role of power. The interrelation of status and power is discussed as well as the phenomenology of being a minority member.
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Participants are not always as diligent in reading and following instructions as experimenters would like them to be. When participants fail to follow instructions, this increases noise and decreases the validity of their data. This paper presents and validates a new tool for detecting participants who are not following instructions – the Instructional manipulation check (IMC). We demonstrate how the inclusion of an IMC can increase statistical power and reliability of a dataset.
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We designed an experiment to study trust and reciprocity in an investment setting. This design controls for alternative explanations of behavior including repeat game reputation effects, contractual precommitments, and punishment threats. Observed decisions suggest that reciprocity exists as a basic element of human behavior and that this is accounted for in the trust extended to an anonymous counterpart. A second treatment, social history, identifies conditions which strengthen the relationship between trust and reciprocity.
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Social dilemmas appear in two basic forms: the public goods problem (in which the individual must decide whether to contribute to a common resource) and the commons dilemma (in which the individual must decide whether to take from a common resource). The two forms of choice dilemma are equivalent in terms of outcomes, but because they involve different decision frames, they are not psychologically equivalent. In this research, framing effects on decisions involving use of a common resource pool were explored in a 2 × 2 × 2 (Public Goods vs. Commons Dilemma Task Structure × Small vs. Large Group Size × Individualistic vs. Collective Social Identity) experiment. That the two versions of the decision task were not psychologically equivalent was evidenced both by a main effect of task structure and by interactions involving task structure, group size, and social identity. Overall, subjects kept more of the common resource for themselves under the public goods version of the task than under the commons dilemma frame. Furthermore, under the commons dilemma structure, group size had no effect on choice behavior, but in the public goods version individuals in large groups kept more than did individuals in small groups. Lastly, as the resource pool was depleted, the social identity manipulation had opposite effects for large groups under commons dilemma and public goods frames.
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People often draw trait inferences from the facial appearance of other people. We investigated the minimal conditions under which people make such inferences. In five experiments, each focusing on a specific trait judgment, we manipulated the exposure time of unfamiliar faces. Judgments made after a 100-ms exposure correlated highly with judgments made in the absence of time constraints, suggesting that this exposure time was sufficient for participants to form an impression. In fact, for all judgments-attractiveness, likeability, trustworthiness, competence, and aggressiveness-increased exposure time did not significantly increase the correlations. When exposure time increased from 100 to 500 ms, participants' judgments became more negative, response times for judgments decreased, and confidence in judgments increased. When exposure time increased from 500 to 1,000 ms, trait judgments and response times did not change significantly (with one exception), but confidence increased for some of the judgments; this result suggests that additional time may simply boost confidence in judgments. However, increased exposure time led to more differentiated person impressions.
Trust in the law: Encouraging public cooperation with the police and courts
  • T R Tyler
  • Y J Huo
Tyler, T. R., & Huo, Y. J. (2002). Trust in the law: Encouraging public cooperation with the police and courts. New York, NY: Russell Sage.