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η-conversions of IPC implemented in atomic F

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Abstract

It is known that the $\beta$-conversions of the full intuitionistic propositional calculus ($\mathbf{IPC}$) translate into $\beta\eta$-conversions of the atomic polymorphic calculus ${\mathbf{F}}_{\mathbf{at}}$. Since ${\mathbf{F}}_{\mathbf{at}}$ enjoys the property of strong normalization for $\beta\eta$-conversions, an alternative proof of strong normalization for $\mathbf{IPC}$ considering $\beta$-conversions can be derived. In the present article, we improve the previous result by analysing the translation of the $\eta$-conversions of the latter calculus into a technical variant of the former system (the atomic polymorphic calculus ${\mathbf{F}}_{\mathbf{at}}^{\wedge}$). In fact, from the strong normalization of ${\mathbf{F}}_{\mathbf{at}}^{\wedge}$ we can derive the strong normalization of the full intuitionistic propositional calculus considering all the standard ($\beta$ and $\eta$) conversions.

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... Besides being predicative, the FF-and ESF-translations have another significant advantage over the RP-translation: they do preserve the equivalence arising not only from β-conversions, but also from ηand γ-conversions for disjunction and ⊥ [5,8,11]. 2 For these reasons the predicative translations were advocated in [9] as evidence in favor of taking NI 2 at as a convenient meta-language to investigate propositional connectives. ...
... As we recalled in the introduction, Ferreira and Ferreira [7][8][9]11], proposed an alternative translation of NI-derivations into NI 2 that we call the FFtranslation. The FF-translation agrees with the RP-translation on how to translate formulas, but not on how to translate derivations. ...
... We define D ↓ by a sub-induction on F . they refer to what we here called the FF-translation of D as to "the canonical translation of D in F at provided by instantiation overflow" [11]. This difference in presentation will allow a more straightforward formulation of our results. ...
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In a previous paper (of which this is a prosecution) we investigated the extraction of proof-theoretic properties of natural deduction derivations from their impredicative translation into System F. Our key idea was to introduce an extended equational theory for System F codifying at a syntactic level some properties found in parametric models of polymorphic type theory. A different approach to extract proof-theoretic properties of natural deduction derivations was proposed in a recent series of papers on the basis of an embedding of intuitionistic propositional logic into a predicative fragment of System F, called atomic System F. In this paper we show that this approach finds a general explanation within our equational study of second-order natural deduction, and a clear semantic justification in terms of parametricity.
... This idea is implicit in [8] -we will confirm this later on in this paper. Following [5,9], we are calling Russell-Prawitz translation the translation of IPC into system F based on this translations of proofs. ...
... There are several reasons to study embeddings of IPC into F at , the foremost being that F at is a predicative fragment of F. Another reason has to do with preservation of proof identities generated in IPC by commuting conversions or η-reductions: the various embeddings into F at achieve that preservation [4,5,2], while the Russell-Prawitz translation into F does not [6,10,4,5,9]. This seems an indication that other conversion principles are missing in F, besides the βη ones. ...
... There are several reasons to study embeddings of IPC into F at , the foremost being that F at is a predicative fragment of F. Another reason has to do with preservation of proof identities generated in IPC by commuting conversions or η-reductions: the various embeddings into F at achieve that preservation [4,5,2], while the Russell-Prawitz translation into F does not [6,10,4,5,9]. This seems an indication that other conversion principles are missing in F, besides the βη ones. ...
Preprint
Given the recent interest in the fragment of system F where universal instantiation is restricted to atomic formulas, a fragment nowadays named system F_at, we study directly in system F new conversions whose purpose is to enforce that restriction. We show some benefits of these new atomization conversions: (1) They help achieving strict simulation of proof reduction by means of the Russell-Prawitz embedding of IPC into system F; (2) They are not stronger than a certain "dinaturality" conversion known to generate a consistent equality of proofs; (3) They provide the bridge between the Russell-Prawitz embedding and another translation, due to the authors, of IPC directly into system F_at; (4) They give means for explaining why the Russell-Prawitz translation achieves strict simulation whereas the translation into F_at does not.
... 3 Two translations of NI into NI 2 at As we recalled in the introduction, Ferreira and Ferreira [4,5,6,8], developed an alternative translation of NI-derivations into NI 2 that we propose to call the FF-translation. The FF-translation agrees with the RP-translation on how to translate formulas, but not on how to translate derivations. ...
... Remark 3.1. Ferreira and Ferreira present their result in a slightly different way, by using the inductive clauses of Definition 3.2 to give a direct proof of Proposition 3.1, and they refer to what we here called the FF-translation of D as to "the canonical translation of D in F at provided by instatiation overflow" [8]. This minor difference in presentation is however inessential for the results presented here. ...
... Moreover, as Ferreira and Ferreira observed in [8], Theorem 3.2 fails if NI is extended to include also conjunction. On the other hand, our Theorem 2.1 keeps on holding. ...
Preprint
In this paper (which is a prosecution of "The naturality of natural deduction", Studia Logica 2019) we investigate the exact relationship between the Russell-Prawitz translation of intuitionistic propositional logic into intuitionistc second-order propositional logic (System F), and its variant proposed by Fernando Ferreira and Gilda Ferreira into the atomic fragment of System F (System Fat). In the previous paper we investigated the Russell-Prawitz translation via an extended equational theory for System F arising from its categorical semantics. The main result of this paper is that the Russell-Prawitz translation and Ferreira and Ferreira's translation are equivalent modulo this extended equational theory. This result highlights a close connection between our previous work and that of Ferreira and Ferreira. We argue however that the approach obtained by coupling the original Russell-Prawitz translation with our extended equational theory is more satisfactory for the study of proof identity than the one based on System Fat.
... F at expresses the connectives of IPC in a uniform way avoiding bad connectives (according to Girard [GLT89], page 74) and avoiding commuting conversions. This explains the usefulness of the system in proof theoretical studies [Fer17a,Fer17b]. For related work in the topic see [PTP22], where the authors investigate predicative translations of IPC into system F at using the equational framework presented in [TPP19] and giving an elegant semantic explanation (relying on parametricity) of the syntactic results on atomic polymorphism. ...
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It is well-known that typability, type inhabitation and type inference are undecidable in the Girard-Reynolds polymorphic system F. It has recently been proven that type inhabitation remains undecidable even in the predicative fragment of system F in which all universal instantiations have an atomic witness (system Fat). In this paper we analyze typability and type inference in Curry style variants of system Fat and show that typability is decidable and that there is an algorithm for type inference which is capable of dealing with non-redundancy constraints.
... Interestingly, at the level of conversions, this encoding is stronger than the usual one: it translates not only β-reductions, but also the permutative conversions and a restricted form of η-conversion for sums, into β and η-reductions of F at (see [11,14,9]). ...
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Due to the undecidability of most type-related properties of System F like type inhabitation or type checking, restricted polymorphic systems have been widely investigated (the most well-known being ML-polymorphism). In this paper we investigate System Fat, or atomic System F, a very weak predicative fragment of System F whose typable terms coincide with the simply typable ones. We show that the type-checking problem for Fat is decidable and we propose an algorithm which sheds some new light on the source of undecidability in full System F. Moreover, we investigate free theorems and contextual equivalence in this fragment, and we show that the latter, unlike in the simply typed lambda-calculus, is undecidable.
... F at expresses the connectives of IPC in a uniform way avoiding bad connectives (according to Girard [GLT89], page 74) and avoiding commuting conversions. This explains the usefulness of the system in proof theoretical studies [Fer17a,Fer17b]. For related work in the topic see [PTP19], where the authors investigate predicative translations of IPC into system F at using the equational framework presented in [TPP19] and giving an elegant semantic explanation (relying on parametricity) of the syntactic results on atomic polymorphism. ...
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Full-text available
It is well-known that typability, type inhabitation and type inference are undecidable in the Girard-Reynolds polymorphic system F. It has recently been proven that type inhabitation remains undecidable even in the predicative fragment of system F in which all universal instantiations have an atomic witness (system Fat). In this paper we analyze typability and type inference in system Fat and show that these two problems are decidable in the atomic polymorphic system.
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It is known that there is a sound and faithful translation of the full intuitionistic propositional calculus into the atomic polymorphic system F at, a predicative calculus with only two connectives: the conditional and the second-order universal quantifier. The faithfulness of the embedding was established quite recently via a model-theoretic argument based in Kripke structures. In this paper we present a purely proof-theoretic proof of faithfulness. As an application, we give a purely proof-theoretic proof of the disjunction property of the intuitionistic propositional logic in which commuting conversions are not needed.
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It has been known for six years that the restriction of Girard's polymorphic system $\text{\bfseries\upshape F}$ to atomic universal instantiations interprets the full fragment of the intuitionistic propositional calculus. We firstly observe that Tait's method of “convertibility” applies quite naturally to the proof of strong normalization of the restricted Girard system. We then show that each $\beta$-reduction step of the full intuitionistic propositional calculus translates into one or more $\beta\eta$-reduction steps in the restricted Girard system. As a consequence, we obtain a novel and perspicuous proof of the strong normalization property for the full intuitionistic propositional calculus. It is noticed that this novel proof bestows a crucial role to $\eta$-conversions.
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This paper proposes a new proof method for strong normalization of classical natural deduction and calculi with control operators. For this purpose, we introduce a new CPS-translation, continuation and garbage passing style (CGPS ) translation. We show that this CGPS-translation method gives simple proofs of strong normalization of λμ→∧∨⊥, which is introduced in [P. de Groote, Strong normalization of classical natural deduction with disjunction, in: S. Abramsky (Ed.), Typed Lambda Calculi and Applications, 5th International Conference, TLCA 2001, in: Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci., vol. 2044, Springer, Berlin, 2001, pp. 182–196] by de Groote and corresponds to the classical natural deduction with disjunctions and permutative conversions.
Natural Deduction. Almkvist & Wiksell, 1965. Reprinted, with a new preface
  • D Prawitz
The faithfulness of atomic polymorphism
  • F Ferreira
  • G Ferreira