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... Those different impacts on primary sector (agribusiness) and second sector (manufacturing services) had been studied , ,  resulting on a first attempt to describe service systems into three main characteristics: co-production, value co-creation and co-design. In fact, for those two sectors of economy those characteristics are clear and can be easily detached, since there is clear the boundary between market (supply), production process and costumer. ...
... This time, there exists a real movement toward the final consumer instead of a metamorphosis of the classic producer. It also complete the horizontal integration that lead to the modern supply chain process , , , . That real movement comes in the flux of the service-oriented paradigm, changing not only the manufacturing industry but all primary and third sector of economy. ...
... All these new features will be briefly described during the presentation of two case studies: the first is an illustrative example of a proposal to fit general requiments from rural producers, mautomated equipment suppliers and also the government in a new model of agribusiness that integrates farming, cattle breeding and forest preservation (in Brazil); the other is based on the design of hightech consulting as a service, where we used our own lag, Dlab 3 as a guinea pig. Details in SoftDiss architecture and internal algorithms could be found in , . ...
Pushed for different factors, services are now assuming distinct configurations that affect no only the third sector of economy but propagates toward the primary sector (agribusiness) and the second sector (the chemical and manufacturing industry). However, there is another important issue which is the capability of the service oriented paradigm to offer good opportunities to invest in new approaches based on knowledge and cognitive aspects involving the domain where such solutions are applied. For instance, virtual productive arrangements can be launched to provide service, changing the relation between industry production and costumers which demands a previous design in order to achieve the expected results. In this work we discuss a method for service design that could cover virtual arrangements of companies and a heterogeneous production arrangements coupling industry of machines involved in agribusiness. Such approach would strongly rely on information systems. A case study will be applied to small knowledge companies and to agribusiness.
... Regardless of the type of product/service, the general idea is that it is better for business to have partners/suppliers, involved with the codesign and/or co-production processes. As outlined by several studies in literature, this approach is called service relation, or more specifically, manufacturing service relation (Dutra et al., 2013;Silva, 2014). ...
... An approach that seeks such a good design based on the new framework concentrates on a combination of available and recent design methods and tools (Dutra et al., 2013;Silva, 2014). As depicted in Fig. 2, the left figure shows a framework with a rich set of modeling and design resources. ...
From classic process-and product-oriented production lines, several alternative production arrangements have been tried and modeled. Exploring new features such as non-linearity, integration, supply-chaining and flexibility, more recently focus has been on distributed and collaborative holonic and multi-agent approaches. This production evolution reflects the evolution in manufacturing design and the integration of manufacturing with the ubiquitous culture introduced by e-Work, communication and information systems. More recently, there is another influential vector, typically not considered in the technological analysis of manufacturing advances: the tendency to move from the traditional process-and product-oriented approaches to service-oriented approaches. Such tendency is being spread in research labs and increasingly, in current management decisions, especially in computer and cyber industries. In this article, we analyze closely the coalition between e-Work and service-oriented approach towards a new manufacturing architecture composed by a grid of services which operates in parallel to a main process that defines the manufactured artifact—targeting an interesting blending of product and service. The need to explore and provide different design approaches for this emerging product-service architecture (PSA) is discussed as a future challenge, which demands multidisciplinary tools for analysis and planning.
... Requirements for services constantly increase in social economy, collaborative optimization of products and services has become a concern of enterprises in the stage of product design. Dutra et al.  interpreted coalescence of manufacturing and service as a paradigm shift, and provided a new service design framework based on petri nets which made the characteristics of manufacturing and service fuse and changed the design of manufacturing process. In the context that fully integrated enterprises are being replaced by business networks, each participant provides others with specialized services. ...
In recent years, the nations of the world have presented the development strategy of manufacturing. Manufacturing is the foundation of a country. However, with the increasing global resource constraints and market heterogeneity, the variety of individual demands, and the long-term goals of sustainable development, with the support of emerging information and communication technologies such as Internet, cyber-physical system, Internet of Things, cloud computing, and big data, industrial value creation is causing a paradigm shift in manufacturing. This paper studies a range of new manufacturing paradigms and presents a state-of-the-art survey of published works. It explores the corresponding current manufacturing concepts, technologies, framework features, application effects, resource optimization, and future challenges in these new paradigms. The integration of various manufacturing paradigms is also analyzed. Through this survey, the developments of these new manufacturing paradigms are explained and the future prospects are also discussed.
... This paradigm applies both to consumer as well as to capital goods, as companies are more and more willing to sell (and buy) manufacturing capacity instead of new equipment, making the Manufacturing as a Service (MaaS) paradigm arise. This paradigm can be particularly relevant to either small or new businesses in high-tech sectors seeking for the right supplier or competence who may see their effort hindered by lack of visibility, leading to incapacity to find the right partners . It appears evident that, to fully achieve the MaaS paradigm, an aggregation and information sharing point is required to give visibility to the manufacturing capacity that any company may want to make available at any location and field . ...
The integration of IoT infrastructures across production systems, together with the extensive digitalisation of industrial processes, are drastically impacting manufacturing value chains and the business models built on the top of them. By exploiting these capabilities companies are evolving the nature of their businesses shifting value proposition towards models relying on product servitization and share, instead of ownership. In this paper, we describe the semantic data-model developed to support a digital platform fostering the reintroduction in the loop and optimization of unused industrial capacity. Such data-model aims to establish the main propositions of the semantic representation that constitutes the essential nature of the ecosystem to depict their interactions, the flow of resources and exchange of production services. The inference reasoning on the semantic representation of the ecosystem allows to make emerge non-trivial and previously unknown opportunities. This will apply not only to the matching of demand and supply of manufacturing services, but to possible and unpredictable relations. For instance, a particular kind of waste being produced at an ecosystem node can be linked to the requirements for an input material needed in a new product being developed on the platform, or new technologies can be suggested to enhance processes under improvement. The overall architecture and individual ontologies are presented and their usefulness is motivated via the application to use cases.
... Service Systems are defined as systems with an intense relationship (or collaboration) with the customer. That relationship can be translated to three main features: co-design, co-production and (value) co-creation (Dutra et al., 2014(Dutra et al., , 2013. In other words, the customer provides significant inputs to the design of the delivered product/service (co-design), to the production process itself (co-production) and, most important, to the generation of value created from the coupling between the delivered product/service solution and the customer (Vargo and Lusch, 2010;Maglio, 2009). ...
Service Systems are characterized by its intense collaborative relation with the customer. In fact, the customer gives significant input also in the service providing process which anticipates the proper adaptation to a class of services - which normally appears in the design process as a customer feedback. That is a key issue to export the concept of service to other sector as manufacturing.
Service science is an emerging discipline concerned with the evolution, interaction, and reciprocal cocreation of value among service systems (Maglio and Spohrer [Maglio, P. P., J. Spohrer. 2008. Fundamentals of Service Science. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 36(1) 18–20.]; Spohrer et al. [Spohrer, J., S. Vargo, N. Caswell, P. Maglio. 2008. The Service System is the Basic Abstraction of Service Science. 41st Annual HICSS Conference Proceedings.]). Service-dominant (S-D) logic (Vargo and Lusch [Vargo, S., R. F. Lusch. 2004a. Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing. Journal of Marketing 68(1) 1–17.] [Vargo, S., R. F. Lusch. 2008. Service-Dominant Logic: Continuing the Evolution. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 36(1) 1–10.]) is an alternative to the traditional, goods-dominant (G-D) paradigm for understanding economic exchange and value creation. This service-centered view is based on the idea that service – the application of competences for the benefit of another – is the ba...
The first comprehensive analysis of concepts and models in production systems management to consider a broad perspective covering outsourcing strategies and dynamic pricing policies.
Supply Chain Engineering considers how modern production and operations management (POM) techniques can respond to the pressures of the competitive global marketplace by integrating all activities in the supply chain, adding flexibility to the system, and drastically reducing production cost.
Several POM challenges are answered through a comprehensive analysis of concepts and models that assist the selection of outsourcing strategies and dynamic pricing policies. The ramifications of these topics are discussed from local to global perspectives.
Supply Chain Engineering also presents:
inventory control policies,
radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies,
flexible and re-configurable manufacturing systems,
real-time assignment and scheduling methods,
new warehousing techniques.
In addition, a significant part of the book is devoted to: lean manufacturing, line balancing (assembly lines, U-lines, and bucket brigades), and dynamic facilities layout approaches.
Explanations are given using basic examples and detailed algorithms, while discarding complex and unnecessary theoretical minutiae. Moreover, all the examples have been carefully selected with a view to eventual industrial application.
Supply Chain Engineering is written for students and professors in industrial and systems engineering, management science, operations management, and business. It is also an informative reference for industrial managers looking to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their production systems.
Service engineering is a huge research topic that addresses the specification, the compliance and the sharing of business and IT services across companies, institutions or governmental organizations. Despite many advantages of working with the services, the guarantee of service compliance and management of the service overlaps by the stakeholders remains challenging. The objective of this document is to present a methodological approach in order to specify the links between the organizational layer and the informational layer of services. Therefore our research has focused on clarifying the responsibility dimension of the stakeholders involved in those services. The proposed approach is illustrated with an example in the context of sensitive data exchange between stakeholders from the healthcare domain.
Service plays an increasingly important role in modern manufacturing: (a) Services and physical products are integrated into
one product service system (PSS) to provide a comprehensive solution for customers; (b) The companies involved in offering
PSS focus on specialized sectors, and provide producer services for one another. In this paper, the new product pattern together
with the innovative manufacturing paradigm is called service-oriented manufacturing. The competitive advantage of a PSS can
be originated from products or services, and the ownership of PSS’s may or may not be transferred from sellers to buyers during
transactions. Various PSS’s were categorized into three classes. The characteristics of each type of PSS’s and the shift between
them are discussed. Many companies, which provide producer services and manufacturing services to one another, form a service-based
manufacturing network. The reasons why producer services act as intermediate goods among different companies and motivations
for companies to outsource their business processes are analyzed economically. Many companies in different segments of the
production-chain may have discrepant profitability. Technology strength and industry insight competences are adopted to explain
the discrepant values added from various segments along the production chain. Service-oriented manufacturing is summarized
from the perspectives of business model, industry insight and technology strength (BIT).
KeywordsService-oriented manufacturing–Product service system–Producer service–Value curve–BIT model
The service concept plays a key role in service design and development. But while the term is used frequently in the service design and new service development literature, surprisingly little has been written about the service concept itself and its important role in service design and development. The service concept defines the how and the what of service design, and helps mediate between customer needs and an organization’s strategic intent. We define the service concept and describe how it can be used to enhance a variety of service design processes. As illustrations here, we apply the service concept to service design planning and service recovery design processes. Employing the service concept as an important driver of service design decisions raises a number of interesting questions for research which are discussed here.
The history of any field of study is an important topic, but few authors have taken on the task of writing the history of service research since the early 1990s. We attempt to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive account on the general course of the service literature from 1993 to now. We propose an extension of the evolutionary metaphor originally proposed by Fisk et al. (1993). Drawing on an extensive multidisciplinary literature, we paint a portrait of the evolution of the service literature over three new stages termed Racing Ahead (1993–1999), Looking Back and Moving Forward (2000–2003), and Airborne (2004–Now). Within each era, we first identify key observations that make it distinguishable from the other stages, and then specifically highlight the major contributions that were made. We also underscore and provide some recommendations for further consideration by interested thinkers in the field for moving it forward.
In order to address the resource service optimal-selection (RSOS) and composition problem in manufacturing grid (MGrid) system and provide high-quality service to users, an MGrid RSOS and composition framework (MGrid-RSOSCF) is investigated in this study. The process of RSOS and composition is divided into the following five steps in MGrid-RSOSCF: (1) decomposing the submitted manufacturing task into several subtasks (i.e. single resource service requested task) if the submitted task is a multiple resource service requested task; (2) searching out the qualified resource service for each decomposed subtask and generating the corresponding candidate resource service set; (3) retrieving, evaluating and comparing the quality of service (QoS) for each candidate resource service, and provide data for service optimal-selection and composition –if the submitted task is a single resource service requested task; (4) evaluating synthetically the overall quality of each candidate resource service and ranking them, and selecting the optimal one for the task – if the submitted manufacturing task is an multiple resource service requested task; (5) selecting one candidate resource service from each candidate resource service set and constructing a new composite resource service according to the submitted task requirements, and collecting all the possible resource service composite execution paths (RSCEP) and selecting the optimal paths to execute the task. The proposed MGrid-RSOSCF consists of five layers and each layer provides the corresponding necessary services and algorithms to address one problem mentioned above. The five layers are: (1) T-layer, responsible for MGrid task decomposition; (2) S-layer, responsible for resource service match and search; (3) Q-layer, responsible for QoS processing; (4) O-layer, responsible for evaluating and ranking the candidate resource service and (5) C-layer is responsible for resource service composition and optimal-selection. The case study and comparison of performances of the algorithms demonstrate that the proposed methods are sound on success rate and executing efficiency.
There is currently much interest in model driven approaches to software engineering. The basic idea is to make business, architecture and design models frst class artefacts that are not discarded once the code gets built, but rather can be exercised independently, be reconciled with each other and underlying implementations, and used to (partially) generate each other and implementations. This is particularly valuable when an application needs to be updated and changed, as up-to-date models will still be there to help understand and evolve it using the same abstractions originally used to build it. It is also valuable for applications that need to be delivered on multiple platforms and technologies, which may also change over time, as the models are generally independent of these, hence longer-lived.This talk will argue that to support model driven software engineering, one needs to support model driven language engineering. The former is likely to lead to a larger number of more focused modelling languages, as opposed to a small number of monolithic, poorly integrated languages than we have at present. There will be more emphasis on domain specifc languages. We will need to support the definitions of families of languages where overlap in language capabilities is recognized and repetition is avoided. Furthermore, more sophisticated modelling tools will be required, including tools to exercise models, for validation and verifcation, and tools for reconciliation and translation between models. Thus defnitions should be platform independent, and it should be possible to automate (at least partially) the generation of language-specific modelling, reconciliation and translation tools. The talk will present some on-going work in this area, including a demonstration of language engineering tools that we are currently building, and a vision for the tools and languages we would like to build.
Advancing service science requires a service-centered conceptual foundation. Toward this goal, we suggest that an emerging logic of value creation and exchange called service-dominant logic is a more robust framework for service science than the traditional goods-dominant logic. The primary tenets of service-dominant logic are: (1) the conceptualization of service as a process, rather than a unit of output; (2) a focus on dynamic resources, such as knowledge and skills, rather than static resources, such as natural resources; and (3) an understanding of value as a collaborative process between providers and customers, rather than what producers create and subsequently deliver to customers. These tenets are explored and a foundational lexicon for service science is suggested.
Marketing inherited a model of exchange from economics, which had a dominant logic based on the exchange of "goods," which usually are manufactured output. The dominant logic focused on tangible resources, embedded value, and transactions. Over the past several decades, new perspectives have emerged that have a revised logic focused on intangible resources, the cocreation of value, and relationships. The authors believe that the new per- spectives are converging to form a new dominant logic for marketing, one in which service provision rather than goods is fundamental to economic exchange. The authors explore this evolving logic and the corresponding shift in perspective for marketing scholars, marketing practitioners, and marketing educators.
The service sector accounts for more than 80 percent of the US gross domestic product and employs a growing share of the science and engineering workforce. Yet it's one of the least-studied areas of the economy. Some see economics, operations research, industrial engineering, or the science of complex systems as the appropriate starting point for a general services theory. Others contend that the pervasiveness of services creates a need for many specific disciplines. An interdisciplinary effort called Service Science, Management, and Engineering provides a solution that falls between those two approaches.
In its eighth edition, the book has again been revised and redesigned, undergoing a substantial content update that addresses new topics in what many have called “the engineering discipline of the 21st-century.” Entertaining and informative sidebars and marginal content have been expanded and make the book still easier-to-use in the classroom and as a self-study guide.
Four new chapters, emphasizing software security and the unique challenges of developing software for mobile applications, have been added to this edition. In addition, new content has been added to many other chapters. The eighth edition is organized into 5 parts:
• Part 1, The Software Process, presents both prescriptive and agile process models.
• Part 2, Modeling, presents modern analysis and design methods with an emphasis on you UML-based modeling.
• Part 3, Quality Management, addresses all aspects of software testing and quality assurance, formal verification techniques, and change management.
• Part 4, Managing Software Projects, presents software topics that are relevant to those who plan, manage, and control a software project.
• Part 5, Advanced Topics, presents dedicated chapters that address software process improvement and future software engineering trends.
Introduces the concept of a manufacturing strategy based on a service
orientation. Traditional manufacturing strategies have often been
driven by cost minimization decisions and have encouraged the
over-reliance by managers on inventories to satisfy demand. In today's
business environment, a reliance on inventory is often not feasible.
Suggests a reliance on capacity available to meet demand, as used by the
service industry. Such a strategy is in direct conflict with most
cost-accounting systems because of the absorption of overhead costs
based on direct labour. Proposes two alternatives for changing the
accounting system, to enhance the move towards the service-based
strategy. Lastly, presents a case study of a US plant to illustrate the
results that a company adopting this approach should expect.
This article describes how service and manufacturing firms are different when it comes to innovation, based on a survey of firms in both sectors. Overall, four of the five hypotheses developed for comparative study of new offerings were supported by the analyses of 38 new products and 29 new services. First and foremost, there appear to be real differences between how manufacturing and services approach the innovation process, primarily because of the way organizations formalize development of new offerings in these two sectors. Manufacturing is more likely to report the need for new strategies and structures when products are new to the industry or new to the firm. However, services are more likely to convert novelty into success. Services are significantly more likely to have a short beta testing process and to exploit general manager (internally sourced) ideas for new offerings as an alternative to formal innovation structures. However, manufacturing and services exhibit a similar tendency to exploit customer (externally sourced) ideas for new offerings.
The potential contribution of this study is to point the direction for future work in the nascent research stream of service innovation, highlighting areas where there appear to be fundamental differences between the innovation process in services and other sectors of the economy. Key differences appear to be the alternative ways services formalize the innovative process, the unique way services test customer concepts, and the combined role of general managers and professionals in the development process. These differences have managerial implications. Working closely with customers, service managers should proceed with their own unique approach to the innovative process, especially with respect to prototyping and beta testing. Senior managers in service organizations should participate in the ideation process for successful new service offerings, as part of their strategy-making responsibilities.
Cloud computing is changing the way industries and enterprises do their businesses in that dynamically scalable and virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. This model creates a brand new opportunity for enterprises. In this paper, some of the essential features of cloud computing are briefly discussed with regard to the end-users, enterprises that use the cloud as a platform, and cloud providers themselves. Cloud computing is emerging as one of the major enablers for the manufacturing industry; it can transform the traditional manufacturing business model, help it to align product innovation with business strategy, and create intelligent factory networks that encourage effective collaboration. Two types of cloud computing adoptions in the manufacturing sector have been suggested, manufacturing with direct adoption of cloud computing technologies and cloud manufacturing—the manufacturing version of cloud computing. Cloud computing has been in some of key areas of manufacturing such as IT, pay-as-you-go business models, production scaling up and down per demand, and flexibility in deploying and customizing solutions. In cloud manufacturing, distributed resources are encapsulated into cloud services and managed in a centralized way. Clients can use cloud services according to their requirements. Cloud users can request services ranging from product design, manufacturing, testing, management, and all other stages of a product life cycle.Highlights► Cloud computing is emerging as a major enabler for the manufacturing industry. ► Cloud computing technologies can be adopted in manufacturing. ► Cloud manufacturing is a pay-as-you-go business model. ► Distributed resources are encapsulated into cloud services and managed centrally.
The design of science-based products (SBP) combines three main issues: exploring a functional space, producing scientific knowledge about key phenomena related to the concept and ensuring manageability of the project. Literature on the subject generally considers the three issues to be irreconcilable, on the grounds that a project involving functional exploration and phenomenological exploration is unmanageable. However, based on two SBP cases, we show that this apparent unmanageability is mainly a result of the lack of a relevant managerial model for the interpretation of the observations. We introduce the notion of ‘design space’ as a collective working place where designers can act to learn about what they want to learn (for their overall design process). We show that the design of an SBP is managed as a sequence of design spaces.
Petri net (PN) modeling is one of the most used formal methods in the automation applications field, together with programmable
logic controllers (PLCs). Therefore, the creation of a modeling methodology for PNs compatible with the IEC61131 standard
is a necessity of automation specialists. Different works dealing with this subject have been carried out; they are presented
in the first part of this paper [Frey (2000a, 2000b); Peng and Zhou (IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern, Part C Appl Rev 34(4):523–531,
2004); Uzam and Jones (Int J Adv Manuf Technol 14(10):716–728, 1998)], but they do not present a completely compatible methodology
with this standard. At the same time, they do not maintain the simplicity required for such applications, nor the use of all-graphical
and all-mathematical ordinary Petri net (OPN) tools to facilitate model verification and validation. The proposal presented
here completes these requirements. Educational applications at the USP and UEA (Brazil) and the UO (Cuba), as well as industrial
applications in Brazil and Cuba, have already been carried out with good results.
With the growth of the service economy, an extensive literature has appeared that examines the unique design characteristics of service organizations. It has been suggested that service firms face a higher level of customer contact which requires specific adjustments in organizational design. Economic, technological, and strategic changes, however, have combined to blur this distinction. As a result, the original service/manufacturing dichotomy must be called into question. We suggest that customer-induced uncertainty rather than the service/manufacturing distinction has specific influence on organizational design. Using data from administrative managers, we found that service firms did not exhibit a higher level of customer-induced uncertainty than manufacturing firms and that customer-induced uncertainty, rather than a service/manufacturing distinction, predicted organizational design choices.
Turbulent and volatile markets are becoming the norm as life cycles shorten and global economic and competitive forces create additional uncertainty. The risk attached to lengthy and slow-moving logistics “pipelines” has become unsustainable, forcing organizations to look again at how their supply chains are structured and managed. This paper suggests that the key to survival in these changed conditions is through “agility,” in particular by the creation of responsive supply chains. A distinction is drawn between the philosophies of “leanness” and “agility,” and the appropriate application of these ideas is discussed.
The innovator's dilemma
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Process Oriented Design Service: Case Study for Automated Information System
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