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Interest Matters: The Importance of Promoting Interest in Education

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Abstract

Interest is a powerful motivational process that energizes learning, guides academic and career trajectories, and is essential to academic success. Interest is both a psychological state of attention and affect toward a particular object or topic, and an enduring predisposition to reengage over time. Integrating these two definitions, the four-phase model of interest development guides interventions that promote interest and capitalize on existing interests. Four interest-enhancing interventions seem useful: attention-getting settings, contexts evoking prior individual interest, problem-based learning, and enhancing utility value. Promoting interest can contribute to a more engaged, motivated, learning experience for students.

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... Interest Harackiewicz et al. (2016) define interest as "an individual's momentary experience of being captivated by an object and more lasting feelings that the object is enjoyable and worth further exploration". In the context of learning, Wong and Wong (2019) define interest as the state of engaging students in learning mathematics while enjoying the learning process. ...
... It explored students' psychological state towards their willingness to participate, learn attentively and concentrate on the subject happily. As Harackiewicz et al. (2016) presented, all the four interest-enhancing initiatives, attention-getting settings, contexts evoking prior individual interest, problem-based learning and enhancing utility value, were considered in the KQMI. Again, Singh et al. (2002) reveal that motivation and interests serve the goal of enhancing students' achievement in mathematics. ...
... The model stages are Triggering, Immersing and Extending. According to Harackiewicz et al. (2016), triggering implies catching students' interest through attention-catching situations or environmental stimuli that ignite a reaction or response, while immersing means a maintained response to engage in learning activities/tasks. Harackiewicz et al. further reveal that extending means internalized behaviour of re-engaging in particular learning activities and tasks as the outcome of the former two stages (see Figure 1). ...
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Purpose The study explored the impact of the King and Queen of Mathematics Initiative (KQMI) in promoting students’ interest in learning mathematics and improving their achievement. The specific objectives of the study focused on the impact of the initiative in promoting interest in mathematics, assessing the contribution of the initiative to students’ achievements and investigating challenges encountered by the initiative. Design/methodology/approach The study used a case study design with a mixed-method approach. One ward secondary school was involved. The sample size was N = 79, where 77 were grade three students in a science class and two teachers. Data collection involved documentary review, observation and interviews. Data analysis employed both content analysis and a dependent t -test to determine the effect size of the initiative. Findings The findings revealed that KQMI had a significant impact on improving performance in mathematics among students ( t (71) = −7.917, p < 0.05). The study also showed that male students improved their performance more than their counterparts throughout the KQMI. The mathematics teacher revealed that students still need assistance to solve mathematical questions with different techniques to develop the expected competencies. Research limitations/implications The initiative was conducted only in one school, limiting the findings’ generalization. Also, the innovation faced different challenges, such as accessing adequate resources and students with little knowledge of mathematics, which the initiative aimed to address. Practical implications Pedagogical innovations enhance the promotion of students’ interest in learning mathematics and hence improve their performance. Also, through pedagogical innovations, teachers improve their teaching skills and practices from students’ feedback. Originality/value The KQMI is a new pedagogical innovation modified from the existing innovations such as game-based method, task design, mobile learning and mathematics island.
... interest development, latent change model, lower secondary school, science, teaching quality Promoting student interest is a key challenge in education (Harackiewicz et al., 2016;Krapp et al., 1992). Interest improves the quality of learning and fosters academic success by increasing ...
... It is also positively related to a range of non-cognitive outcomes and even career choices (Eccles, 2009;Hazari et al., 2020;Kang et al., 2019;Potvin & Hasni, 2014;Pugh et al., 2021;Renninger & Hidi, 2016;Schiefele et al., 1992;Wigfield & Cambria, 2010). Increasing or at least maintaining students' interest in school subjects is therefore considered a key educational goal (Harackiewicz et al., 2016;Krapp et al., 1992;Reeve et al., 2015;Renninger & Hidi, 2016). However, there is ample evidence that students' interest and related variables decrease over time in different school subjects, often beginning in lower secondary school (Krapp & Prenzel, 2011;Lazowski & Hulleman, 2016;Renninger & Hidi, 2016). ...
... Interest-driven activities are typically accompanied by positive emotions and increased cognitive functioning (Ainley et al., 2002;Frenzel et al., 2012;Hidi & Renninger, 2006;Krapp & Prenzel, 2011;Schiefele, 1992). A wealth of research has demonstrated that interest is positively related to a range of cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes as well as career choices (e.g., Harackiewicz et al., 2016;Hazari et al., 2020;Kang et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2015;Lazarides et al., 2020;Nugent et al., 2015;Pugh et al., 2021;Renninger & Hidi, 2016). ...
Article
Although promoting student interest is a pivotal educational goal, student interest in science, and particularly in physics, declines substantially during secondary school. This study focused on the long‐term development of interest in physics at the lower secondary level (grades 5–7) and examined the role of teaching and teaching quality on the development. In particular, the study investigated the role of whether or not physics was taught in class and the role of perceived teaching quality for classes' interest trajectories. The results provide evidence of declining interest in physics from Grade 5 to 7, with stronger declines from Grade 5 to 6. Whether classes participated in physics teaching or not neither notably reduced nor increased interest in physics. However, several dimensions of perceived teaching quality (in particular, cognitive activation and cognitive support) mitigated the decline in interest.
... When transitioning to new teaching formats, educators can ensure students continue to perform well academically, by encouraging positive interest in the subject matter. Interest can take many forms when attention is focused on a particular topic over time (Harackiewicz et al., 2016). In this academic context, instructors strive for their students to develop an interest in the subject as this leads to a meaningful and voluntary learning experience (Schiefele, 1991). ...
... In contrast, situational interest is developed through external stimuli sparking an interest in the subject (Schiefele, 1991). Over time, situational interest will then lead to a more sustained, individual interest (Harackiewicz et al., 2016). ...
... Lastly, first year students had significantly higher situational interest than other students. First year students may be exposed to the subject for the first time, increasing their curiosity and willingness to engage in the class which could ultimately lead to situational and individual interest (Harackiewicz et al., 2016). ...
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In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, instructors across the world faced the uncertainty and challenge of retaining student engagement after transitioning from face-to-face to emergency remote instruction. Yet, few studies have evaluated student interest and motivation in the various learning formats during emergency remote learning conditions. The current study examines student situational interest and situational motivation with three emergency remote teaching formats. In Fall 2020, a previously face-to-face introductory animal science course was taught fully-remote. Each week, students participated in a 50-minute synchronous lecture (SLec), 50 minutes of asynchronous lecture (ALec), and a 70-minute synchronous lab (Lab). We assessed situational interest and situational motivation in SLec, Alec, and Lab during weeks 6 and 10. Using linear mixed effects modeling, students demonstrated greater situational interest, attention demand, instant enjoyment, novelty, and total interest in SLec and Lab compared with ALec. Intrinsic motivation was higher and external regulation was lower in Lab and SLec compared with ALec. Students reported greater amotivation and decreased identified regulation with the ALec compared with Lab. Our results, although limited to one course, suggest that synchronous remote formats are associated with greater student interest and intrinsic motivation compared with asynchronous formats.
... Interest focused and maintained attention in the classroom (Ainley et al. 2002, Hidi 2006, Harackiewicz et al. 2016 and was strongly correlated with engagement on topics such as national policies for climate change as well as perceived risks and hazards when people were surveyed (Sjöberg 2007, Smith andLeiserowitz 2014). ...
... Researchers suspect that interest may help people generate new ideas during problem-solving, focus their attention on important tasks, and build a wide range of skills over their lifetimes (Silvia 2008, Campos andKeltner 2014). Scholars in the education field have long studied the role of interest and its connection to learning, and several studies have shown that interest is key to focus and maintaining attention in the classroom (Ainley et al. 2002, Hidi 2006, Harackiewicz et al. 2016. A media study combining lab experiments and records of over 20,000 conversations further found that a piece's interestingness led to more mentions and shares online (Berger and Iyengar 2013). ...
... Previous research has demonstrated various relationships between knowledge and interest [34][35][36]. On the one hand, promoting interest has been shown to contribute to a more engaged and motivated learning experience; namely, interest promotes knowledge [34]. ...
... Previous research has demonstrated various relationships between knowledge and interest [34][35][36]. On the one hand, promoting interest has been shown to contribute to a more engaged and motivated learning experience; namely, interest promotes knowledge [34]. On the other hand, it has been proposed that interest is not the cause but the consequence of a process of learning [35]. ...
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Knowing the importance of mathematics and its relationship with veterinary medicine plays an important role for students. To promote interest in this relationship, we developed the workshop “Math in Nature” that utilizes the surrounding environment for stimulating pattern-recognition and observational skills. It consisted of four sections: A talk by a professional researcher, a question-andanswer section, a mathematical pattern identification session, and a discussion of the ideas proposed by students. The effectiveness of the program to raise interest in mathematics was evaluated using a questionnaire applied before and after the workshop. Following the course, a higher number of students agreed with the fact that biological phenomena can be explained and predicted by applying mathematics, and that it is possible to identify mathematical patterns in living beings. However, the students’ perspectives regarding the importance of mathematics in their careers, as well as their interest in deepening their mathematical knowledge, did not change. Arguably, “Math in Nature” could have exerted a positive effect on the students’ interest in mathematics. We thus recommend the application of similar workshops to improve interests and skills in relevant subjects among undergraduate students.
... Situational interest combines affective (e.g., enthusiasm) and cognitive (e.g., perceived value) qualities produced by the characteristics of the situation (e.g., novelty) [15]. Experiencing situational interest promotes learning by increasing attention and dedication to the subject [16]. If it shifts to a personal interest, it is more likely for the student to dive deeper and become more involved in the topic. ...
... 2022, 12, 598 3 of 21 development [17]. Such a transition from situational to personal interest arises when the assignments are perceived as relevant [14,16]. In this sense, relevance in education is considered to trigger interest as there is usefulness or practicality in preparing people to perform their current or future jobs or tasks competently under certain existing circumstances and requirements [8]. ...
Article
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Biomedical engineering (BME) is one of the fastest-growing engineering fields worldwide. BME professionals are extensively employed in the health technology and healthcare industries. Hence, their education must prepare them to face the challenge of a rapidly evolving technological environment. Biomedical signals and systems analysis is essential to BME undergraduate education. Unfortunately, students often underestimate the importance of their courses as they do not perceive these courses’ practical applications in their future professional practice. In this study, we propose using blended learning spaces to develop new learning experiences in the context of a biomedical signals and systems analysis course to enhance students’ motivation and interest and the relevance of the materials learned. We created a learning experience based on wearable devices and cloud-based collaborative development environments such that the students turned daily-life scenarios into experiential learning spaces. Overall, our results suggest a positive impact on the students’ perceptions of their learning experience concerning relevance, motivation, and interest. Namely, the evidence shows a reduction in the variability of such perceptions. However, further research must confirm this potential impact. This confirmation is required given the monetary and time investment this pedagogical approach would require if it were to be implemented at a larger scale.
... It consists of two related components, namely a cognitive and a positive affective one (Hidi & Renninger, 2006;Renninger & Hidi, 2011;Schiefele, 2009). Interest is considered as a central motivational-emotional variable in psycho-educational research (Daniels, 2008;Harackiewicz et al., 2016;Krapp, 1999Krapp, , 2002aKrapp, , 2018Schiefele & Wild, 2000). It is understood as a facet of intrinsic motivation (Krapp, 1999(Krapp, , 2002bRyan & Deci, 2000Schiefele et al., 2018). ...
... Individual interest is understood as a trait-like preference for a particular subject or topic and is often used to predict (academic) achievement (Krapp, 2018). Furthermore, interests are relevant for the selection of courses of study at school and university as well as for career choice (Harackiewicz et al., 2016;Köller et al., 2006;Taskinen et al., 2013). ...
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Academic interest and academic self-concept are important correlated motivational variables. Their common factorial structure and their shared (confounded) and non-shared (unique) power for predicting subject-tied academic achievement has not yet been satisfactorily investigated. This study investigated 588 Chinese adolescents. Two subject-tied interests and the corresponding subject-tied self-concepts were measured. The associated school marks were collected. The major subject German (first foreign language) was chosen to represent the verbal oriented school subjects, the major subject Maths was chosen to represent the numerical oriented ones. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) evidenced two motivational factors (academic interest and academic self-concept) within each school subject and two subject factors (German and Maths) within each motivational construct. Joined CFAs (which included all interest as well as all self-concept items) revealed four factors (interest German, interest Maths, self-concept German, self-concept Maths). Accordingly, four motivational scales were formed. Each scale consisted of five items. The scales had high reliabilities and displayed good convergent-divergent validities. Both motivational scales together accounted for 41.0 % (German) and 22.3 % (Maths) of the total achievement variance. Of these, the common (fused) shares were 19.8 % (German) and 12.4 % (Maths). The proportions of the total achievement variance that could be explained exclusively by only one of the two motivational variables amounted to 0.3 % (interest) and 20.9 % (self-concept) for German. Theses figures were 0.1 % (interest) and 9.8 % (self-concept) for Maths. The discussion underscores that subject-specific academic interest and subject-specific academic selfconcept, while highly correlated, should still be considered distinct constructs. A subject-tied self-concept remains an important predictor of academic achievement even after controlling for the assigned interest. The situation is different in the case of subject-tied interest. Its predictive power for academic achievement collapses after controlling for the associated selfconcept. -------------------- Schulfachspezifische Interessen und schulfachspezifische Selbstkonzepte: Faktorielle Strukturen und geteilte sowie nicht-geteilte Vorhersagekräfte für Leistungen in zwei schulischen Hauptfächern Zusammenfassung: Akademische Interessen und akademisches Selbstkonzepte sind relevante pädagogisch-psychologische Motivationsvariab-len. Ihre gemeinsame faktorielle Struktur und ihre geteilten (konfundierten) und nicht geteilten (spezifischen) Vorhersagekräfte für schulische Leistungen in unterschiedlichen Schulfächern sind noch nicht zufriedenstellend geklärt. In dieser Studie wurde 588 chinesische Jugendliche unter-sucht. Erhoben wurden das Interesse an zwei Hauptfächern, die entsprechenden Selbstkonzepte sowie die zugehörigen Zensuren. Die Fächer wa-ren Deutsch (erste Fremdsprache) und Mathematik. Konfirmatorische Faktorenanalysen (CFAs) belegten zwei Motivationsfaktoren (akademisches Interesse und akademisches Selbstkonzept) innerhalb eines jeden Schulfachs sowie zwei Fachfaktoren (Deutsch und Mathematik) innerhalb eines jeden Motivationskonstrukts. Eine gemeinsame CFA, die auf allen Interessenitems und allen Selbstkonzeptitems basierte, führte zu vier Faktoren: Interesse Deutsch, Interesse Mathematik, Selbstkonzept Deutsch und Selbstkonzept Mathematik. Entsprechend wurden vier hoch reliable Skalen (pro Skala fünf Items) gebildet, die gute konvergent-divergente Konstruktvaliditäten aufwiesen. Im Fach Deutsch klärten beide motivationalen Ska-len (Interesse, Selbstkonzept) zusammen 41.0 % der totalen Leistungsvarianz auf, im Fach Mathematik 22.3 %. Die geteilten (konfundierten) Antei-le betrugen 19.8 % (Deutsch) und 12.4 % (Mathematik). Die nicht geteilten (also exklusiv nur durch eine der beiden Motivationsvariablen aufklärba-ren) Anteile an Leistungsvarianz, beliefen sich in Deutsch bzw. Mathematik für die Interessen auf 0.3 % bzw. 0.1 % und für die Selbstkonzepten auf 20.9 % bzw. 9.8 %. Die Diskussion betont, dass fachspezifisches akademische Interesse und fachspezifisches akademisches Selbstkonzept unter-schiedliche-wenn auch höher korrelierte-Konstrukte sind und dass das schulfachbezogene Selbstkonzept auch nach Kontrolle des zugeordne-ten schulfachbezogenen Interesses ein wichtiger Prädiktor für akadem ische Leistung bleibt. Anders liegt der Fall beim schulfachbezogenen Inter-esse: Seine Vorhersagekraft für schulische Leistung bricht bei Kontrolle des entsprechenden schulfachbezogenen Selbstkonzepts zusammen.
... At this stage, the participant seeks more avenues to be directly involved in the object of interest, which addresses sustainability challenges and subsequently leads to a defining and self-sustaining career choice and engagement decision. This last stage of the EAID model, parallel to the well-developed interest dimension of the interest development theory, might lead to girls' choice to major in engineering or the decision for further direct involvement or engagement of professionals [43]. This might explain this study participants' drive to be directly involved in developing novel projects that address such issues of interest. ...
... This finding is evident in Hidi and Renninger [41], who suggested that "phases of interest development are subject to reversals if there is no opportunity for repeated engagement or support for this interaction is not present." This means that at the stage where there are no opportunities for the participant to re-engage with related tasks of interest, the interest can "go dormant or even be abandoned" [43]. Following this perspective, this current research finding highlights the importance of the need for engineering educators to continuously engage and involve women in sustainability problem-solving to sustain their interest in studying engineering and practising in the field. ...
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Despite the growing demand for more engineers associated with the profession’s relevance in addressing the world’s most challenging sustainability problems, more young girls are choosing other career paths with similar relevance such as healthcare, compared to engineering. This scenario has been attributed to their lack of understanding of engineering roles in addressing such issues and thus indicates the relevance of research that not only provides such understanding, but also shows how women engineers’ career choice is influenced by sustainability topics. Previous research has only identified such topics that appeal to women’s attraction to engineering. However, knowledge about how this decision is reached is currently lacking. Consequently, this paper aims to uncover the process of how sustainability topics influence women’s choice of engineering using a grounded theory approach to collect and analyse the data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women engineers who were purposively and theoretically sampled. The results show that the link between sustainability topics and women’s choice and engagement in engineering is largely manifested through four primary interrelated factors: exposure, awareness, interest and direct involvement (EAID). The study outcome is a novel EAID process model indicating that women’s interest and direct involvement in engineering could be influenced through two main routes—either by creating exposure or by awareness of engineering roles that cause or address sustainability challenges. It offers practical implications for engineering institutions, which could inform strategies for recruiting and attracting more women to engineering, and possibly enhance gender diversity and sustainability practices in the profession.
... Gieras (2020) asserted that designing engaging instructional videos which encourage interactions and engagement to corroborate students' learning can be a very well effective medium for assisting instruction in remote, hybrid, and flipped or blended learning conditions. Moreover, Harackiewicz, Smith, and Priniski (2018), when students improve their interest in studying mathematics, their motivation in learning is also enhanced. ...
... The supplementary materials were formulated to enhance students' growth mindset in mathematics, as the motivational activities with the integration of the principles of growth mindset are able to make students more engaged in the learning process. Harackiewicz et al. (2018) emphasised that interest is a robust motivational mean which elevates learning and is essential for the educational success. When students develop their interest in studying mathematics due to the motivation, their desire to learn escalates. ...
Article
This paper determined the supplementary materials in ninth-grade mathematics which may be enhanced to integrate growth mindset principles to improve students’ procedural fluency and foster their growth mindset in mathematics. This study employed a descriptive-developmental method by administering a quasi-experimental design and mixed-method research approach to determine the research questions. The respondents in this study were the 60 ninth-grade students at a state secondary high school in the Philippines. The study implemented the validated researcher-made procedural fluency test and growth mindset questionnaire in determining students’ performance in procedural fluency and mindset in mathematics, respectively. Thematic analysis was employed to investigate students’ responses in Focus Group Discussions (FGD), informal interviews and learning journals in scrutinising the learning experiences and mindsets of the students. Findings displayed that the supplementary materials which can be developed in incorporating growth mindset principles were motivational activities, reflection activities, and instructional videos. Utilising the developed supplementary materials elevates students’ procedural fluency. It influences students to shift from fixed mindsets to growth mindsets in mathematics by providing them with significant learning experiences that help students enhance a growth mindset. Furthermore, the implementation group performed better than the comparison group, particularly with developing growth mindsets. The study results are limited to the participants encompassing; similar research employing the developed supplementary materials to other learning areas with a larger sample is recommended for more generalisable results.
... Students' math anxiety experiences may also influence students' success in geoscience classes and their decisions to select and persist in a geoscience major. Understanding math anxiety experiences can help inform intervention tools that may improve student math success in geoscience classes [13]. ...
... High levels of anxiety can be unproductive for students and even influence students' academic interests and choices [19]. Low to non-existent levels of math anxiety are related to increased learning in mathematics [20,21] and in science disciplines [13,22,23]. Low to non-existent levels of math anxiety are also related to students enrolling in elective math courses and selecting math and science majors in college [18,[24][25][26]. ...
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Many factors may contribute to women being underrepresented and marginalized in college-level geoscience majors. Limited research has examined students’ math anxiety as a possible factor. To address the dearth of research, we conducted a qualitative study to explore the math anxiety experiences held by students in college-level geoscience classes. Through analysis of students’ written math narratives, we identified three themes capturing students’ integrated math anxiety experiences (IMAEs), which integrated students’ feelings, physiological reactions, and thoughts. Students with Thriving IMAEs liked math and had positive assessments of themselves in math. Students with Agonizing IMAEs had negative feelings and thoughts about math and experienced negative physiological reactions. Students with Persisting IMAEs had positive and negative feelings and thoughts, but thought that, ultimately, they could persist in math. A higher percentage of women than men held Agonizing IMAEs, and a lower percentage of women than men held Thriving IMAEs. Students in introductory geoscience classes had a range of IMAEs, which may have an important role in their success in class and in their decisions to take additional geoscience classes.
... Teachers' expressed training needs may reflect their interest in the topic. As depicted by Harackiewicz et al. (2016), we consider interest as the reflection of a personal preference to enjoy and value a particular subject, topic, or activity across situations, with an enduring predisposition to re-engage over time. Also, Ainley (2006) regards interest as a cardinal variable in learning motivation, demonstrated by the feelings of arousal, alertness, attention, and concentration in learning a new task. ...
... In this case, the coach provides continuous and consistent follow-up by demonstrations, observations, and conversations with teachers as they implement new climate change topics (Croft et al., 2010). Furthermore, the 21st-century school−university partnerships suggested by Dana (2010) (Ainley, 2006), even when they know much, is instrumental in exposing them to current information, which can engender positive and friendly dispositions, habits, beliefs, or attitudes in learners for the good of our environment (Harackiewicz et al., 2016). Similarly, Holthuis et al. (2018) found that teachers expressed willingness, interest, and enthusiasm to acquire needed climate science skills for implementation within the classroom setting. ...
Article
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The assessment of Nigerian teachers' climate science literacy and training needs on climate change concepts (i.e., causes, impacts, and solutions) are absent. This study relates teachers' climate science literacy and their expressed training needs in other climate change concepts and places teachers in groups. Following a descriptive survey design, 410 teachers were randomly sampled from 8338 public secondary school teachers in Enugu State, southeastern Nigeria. A researcher-developed instrument passing validity and reliability tests was used for this study. We implemented frequencies, mean, t test, ANOVA, k-means cluster analyses, and Pearson's correlation for the analyses of collected data and tested all hypotheses at a p < 0.05 level of significance. Teachers reported low to moderate climate science literacy and expressed high training needs on climate change concepts. Lower climate science literacy was related to higher expressed training needs. Four groups of teachers ensued from our cluster analyses. Sadly, teachers who possess little or less climate science literacy and expressed less or no training needs in climate change causes, impacts, and solutions constitute over half of the respondents of this study (53.90%). These are mostly science teachers. This situation, if unreversed, may lead to the transfer of misconceptions and inaccurate information on climate change to students. Our findings support the prospects of school−university partnerships, coaching, mentoring, study groups, and co-teaching for job-embedded situative approaches to teachers' professional development (PD) to replace an endless wait for inadequate and irregular training opportunities from the government. Questions about the climate science literacy of teacher educators also arise.
... Motivating students to enroll in STEM is important to promote enrollment in science and health science degree programs. Strategies or activities that promote participation in these programs include providing more scholarship opportunities, guidance on academic goals and career pathways, opportunities for exchange/internship programs in the field with various companies and universities, and conducting workshops and competition events (Chet & Un, 2019;Dy & Oladele, 2019;Harackiewicz et al., 2016;Williams et al., 2014). These are discussed below. ...
... Providing academic and career planning guidance. This is important for students to understand their academic journey and navigate their career pathways, including expected requirements, benefits after graduation, and preparation for career competition for better-paying jobs (Harackiewicz et al., 2016). A clear understanding of academic and career pathways in science and health science may encourage more students to pursue their HE in this field. ...
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Education plays an essential role in developed and developing countries, including Cambodia. All higher education (HE) majors are vital to develop a country. However, science and health science majors deserve more interest from students as majors in this field contribute to improving human well-being and scientific advances that are crucial in socioeconomic development. Motivating high school students to pursue HE in science and health science majors remains a challenge for Cambodia that needs to adapt to Industry 4.0. This article discusses issues faced by Cambodian students when choosing majors for HE degrees. It then provides some recommendations to motivate high school students to consider enrolling in the science and health science majors for HE degrees.
... The quantitative results indicate that seventh-grade students' motivation to learn mathematics in the robotics class differed significantly in favor of the robotics class in three constructs: interest, mastery, and self-efficacy, while it did not differ significantly in two constructs: performance and failure. The results concerning interest could be related to the four interest-enhancing interventions described by Harackiewicz et al. (2016): attention-getting settings, contexts evoking interest, problem-based learning, and enhancing utility value. The four interest-enhancing factors seem present in the robotics class. ...
... This points to the need for further research concerning the impact of the robotics context on students' motivation. Harackiewicz et al. (2016) say that to encourage a more engaged, motivated, learning experience for students, their interest needs to be attended to. The results of this study indicate that the robotics class cultivates interest in the mathematics class. ...
Article
The robotics context is suggested as a context that supports the learning of the sciences including mathematics. The present study investigates how the robotics context affects students’ motivation for learning mathematics. Two groups of seventh-grade students participated in the present research: a robotics class (32 students) and a regular class (33 students). Data were collected using two methods: questionnaires and interviews. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS 23.00, while data from the interviews were analyzed using the constant comparison method. The qualitative results showed that the students in the robotics class described their experience with robotics-based learning of the rectangle topic in terms of interest, mastery, and self-efficacy, where they did that far more than students in the regular class. The quantitative results indicated that the seventh-grade students’ motivation to learn mathematics in the robotics class differed significantly, in favor of the robotics class, in three constructs: interest, mastery, and self-efficacy. Moreover, it did not differ significantly in two constructs: performance and failure.
... Motivating students to enroll in STEM is important to promote enrollment in science and health science degree programs. Strategies or activities that promote participation in these programs include providing more scholarship opportunities, guidance on academic goals and career pathways, opportunities for exchange/internship programs in the field with various companies and universities, and conducting workshops and competition events (Chet & Un, 2019;Dy & Oladele, 2019;Harackiewicz et al., 2016;Williams et al., 2014). These are discussed below. ...
... This is important for students to understand their academic journey and navigate their career pathways, including expected requirements, benefits after graduation, and preparation for career competition for better-paying jobs (Harackiewicz et al., 2016). A clear understanding of academic and career pathways in science and health science may encourage more students to pursue their HE in this field. ...
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The Cambodian Journal of Educational Research (CJER) is a peer-reviewed academic journal initiated and managed by the Cambodian Education Forum (CEF). CJER publishes English manuscripts in the field of education, which would be of interest to Cambodian or international readership. All manuscripts must be original and have not been previously published or currently under publication consideration elsewhere. All manuscripts submitted to CJER will go through an initial screening by the CJER editorial team. The editorial team will then decide whether or not to send a manuscript for a blind peer review by two invited reviewers. CJER publishes two issues annually (the first issue will be published in June and the second issue in December). Submissions to CJER can be made throughout the year following the CJER submission guidelines. Accepted manuscripts will be published online first and will later be included in one of the two issues.
... In this sample, students' acceptance of evolution increased with their interest in biological topics. Although it is known that interest can foster the motivation to learn a topic (Harackiewicz et al. 2016;Hidi and Harackiewicz 2000), there is very little research on the interest in evolution (Barnes et al. 2021a;Ha et al. 2012a). In a previously conducted study, Korean and US biology majors and non-majors college students were assessed on acceptance of evolution, knowledge about evolution, interest in evolution, and religiosity (Ha et al. 2012a). ...
... In fact, several studies have attempted to verify this relationship, with [19] noting increased motivation and adherence to cognitive rehabilitation sessions by psychotic patients who underwent an initial motivational interviewing preparation, in addition to predicting number of attended sessions based on assessment of motivational level. In education scenarios the observations are similar, with student interest playing a major role in learning and current schooling approaches shifting more towards fomenting motivation and sparking curiosity [20] rather than incentivizing conventional repetition. ...
Article
Emotionally pleasant experiences trigger repetition in humans whilst their emotional opposite lead to avoidance/refusal of activities. Human interest, a key factor in everyday human life, can be quite useful in the evaluation of participant engagement on activities and their optimization, so as to maximize interest and motivation. A glaring issue however comes from subtle demonstrators associated with human interest, which converge onto its complex assessment/quantization. Yet, there is an inherent correlation between human interest and its provoked emotional response which can be explored in tandem with emotion recognition for the development of an engagement metrics tool. Such a mechanism would be highly beneficial for the improvement of several activities involved with learning and security, by enabling precise control over participant enthusiasm. In this paper we present an interest mapping technique which provides the user with spatio-temporal information extracted from a participant crowd. The technique aims to extract emotional cues from participant facial data, assessing its spatial and temporal distributions over the course of scenarios such as therapy sessions and lectures. The goal is to demonstrate where and when activities must be improved in order to retain attention, maximize efficacy and assure emotional pleasantness in participants. For validation, this study makes use of data collected over a college lecture so as to provide readers with a real demonstration of the technique's advantages.
... Yet, situational interest is often more malleable to educators and researchers because it can be generated by proximal features of the learning environment (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000). On its own, situational interest is associated with positive outcomes like increased attention and engagement, cognitive performance, and learning (Harackiewicz, Smith, & Priniski, 2016;Hidi, 1990;Schraw & Dennison, 1994). Thus, more research is needed to determine if UV interventions work the same for situational interest as they do individual interest. ...
Article
This study examined the effects of a utility value (UV) intervention on students' situational interest and boredom in science using hierarchical linear growth modeling. Data were collected in a diverse sample of 339 students in 13 seventh and ninth grade science classrooms using surveys and end-of-class reports collected on 11 occasions. Results showed no UV intervention effects on students' trajectories of situational boredom. Contrary to expectations , both seventh and ninth graders in classrooms with the UV intervention showed small but significant declines in situational interest over time relative to a writing comparison group. Intervention effects were not moderated by success expectancies. Explanations for these unexpected findings, as well as implications and future directions, are discussed.
... Students do not want to share roles and responsibilities in working on educational projects together. Low motivation and enthusiasm in doing assignments and very poor in giving appreciation for the achievements of peers (Harackiewicz et al., 2017). ...
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Students' collaborative thinking skills in the elementary schools still need attention to be improved. Most elementary school students have difficulty in cultivating this skill. Even though, this skill is one of the 21st century skills, namely 4C (creative thinking skill, critical thinking skill, communication skill and collaborative thinking skill). This study aims to improve the students collaboration thinking skills under the implementation of a cooperative learning type, namely a quantum teaching model. This research was conducted by using quasi experiment in the form of non-equivalent (pre-test and post-test) control group design. The sample in this study were students of the Integrated Islamic Elementary School, Al-Musabbihin, Medan City, totaling 55 students. To test the difference of the students' collaborative thinking skills in the control class and experiment class under the implementation of quantum teaching model, we used statistics analysis tools, namely homogeneity test and independent sample t-test. The results of Levene Statistic for homogeneity test showed a significance value of 0.762 > 0.05, which means the two classes are homogeneous. The independent sample t-test showed that the score is 0.007 < 0.05, which implies the difference between the two classes is significant. It concludes that the implementation of quantum teaching model can improve the students' collaboration thinking skills in Islamic Religious Education Learning. Therefore, increasing the teachers skills in developing quantum teaching learning materials needs to be improved simultaneously through government policy programs or independently through deliberation activities for teachers of Islamic religious education subjects.
... In one study, participants were asked to snap a photo of the environment and reflect on it, henceforth getting them to think about it both visually and personally. In this context, photovoice served as a tool to promote learning, cognitive outcomes and to spark the interests of students (Harackiewicz, Smith, and Priniski 2016). For instance, with appropriate "material", one can give a personal view that is different from the social reality (Patka, Miyakuni, and Robbins 2019). ...
... In other words, the positive attitude that participants maintained over the VR supported instructional approach may as well be due to the fact that they were actively engaged with the experience (Huang et al. 2021). These findings can also be grounded to well-established theoriessuch as the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer 2014) or the interest theory (Harackiewicz, Smith, and Priniski 2016) which distinguish the impact that diverse interactive media have on motivation, engagement, and performance. Elford, Lancaster, and Jones (2021) attribute the added value that VR brings in education to its ludic nature. ...
... The result is consistent with Liedtka's (2018) observation, that is, the clear structure of the EDIPT model provided people confidence in innovative design. In terms of interest, the searching for answers to the design problems stimulated self-generated questions and promoted more profound interest (Harackiewicz et al., 2016). There are several advantages in implementing a cross-curricular STEM curriculum design. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought disruptions and constraints to K-12 STEM education, such as the shortened classroom time and the restrictions on classroom interactions. More empirical evidence is needed to inform educators and practitioners which strategies work and which do not in the pandemic context. In response to the call for more empirical evidence and the need for cultivating responsible and competent 21st century citizens, we designed and implemented a transdisciplinary STEM curriculum during the COVID-19 outbreak. In order to facilitate the smooth delivery of the learning contents and authentically engage learners in the learning process, multi-model video approaches were employed considering the characteristics of three disciplines, STEM, social service, and writing, as well as learner diversity. Pre-and post-test results indicated that students’ transdisciplinary STEM knowledge improved significantly after completing the curriculum. The integration of STEM, social service, and writing disciplines promoted the growth of students’ empathy, interest, and self-efficacy. Consistent with the quantitative results, students responded in the interview that their STEM knowledge and empathy were both enhanced. Some implementation strategies introduced in the current study are also applicable when the standard teaching order is restored in the post-COVID-19 era.
... Research has also shown that students' success in learning English could be influenced by their interest in the topic (Kálmán & Eugenio, 2015), which means a student interested in learning English would tend to have good learning outcomes. Interest can be defined as significant motivational development that strengthens learning, guides educational courses, and is vital to educational success (Harackiewicz et al., 2016;Renninger & Hidi, 2015). Hidi and Anderson (1992) divided interest into situational and individual categories. ...
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This correlation study examined the effect of motivation and interest on students' learning outcomes at the university level. Data were collected from 125 university students through questionnaires and tests, and t-test, ANOVA, and R-Square were used to analyze the data. The results indicated that motivation in learning English did not influence students' learning outcomes, nor did interest. Moreover, there was a negative connection between motivation and interest and students' learning outcomes. This study enriches the research on motivation and interest in English learning outcomes. Furthermore, it reveals an insight that motivation and interest are not the factors that cause students to succeed in English courses. Resumen Este estudio de correlación examinó el efecto de la motivación y el interés en los resultados de aprendizaje de los estudiantes a nivel universitario. Se recopilaron datos de 125 estudiantes universitarios a través de cuestionarios y exámenes, y se utilizaron pruebas t, ANOVA y R-Cuadrado para analizar los datos. Los resultados indicaron que la motivación por aprender inglés no influyó en los resultados de aprendizaje de los estudiantes, y el interés tampoco. Además, hubo una conexión negativa entre la motivación y el interés y los resultados de aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Este estudio enriquece la investigación sobre la motivación y el interés en los resultados del aprendizaje del inglés. Además, revela una idea de que la motivación y el interés no son los factores que hacen que los estudiantes tengan éxito en los cursos de inglés.
... Notably, feedback did not improve motivation nor self-efficacy. One explanation is that motivation also depends on contextual factors, such as interest in the learning topic and the design of the particular course students are studying for (Harackiewicz, Smith, & Priniski, 2016). It may also take more time than just 30 days to increase students' self-efficacy. ...
Article
The goal of this study was to examine the effects of adaptive online feedback on self-regulated learning, motivation , and achievement. University students (N = 257) participated in an experimental field study with an intensive longitudinal design (daily assessment over 30 days). The experiment included a between-subject and a within-subject manipulation. The target of the feedback intervention was varied between subjects: Students either received (1) feedback on metacognitive aspects, (2) feedback on motivational aspects, (3) feedback on metacognitive and motivational aspects, (4) or no feedback. Within the three feedback groups, we additionally varied feedback content from day to day within-subjects. Students either received (1) informative feedback on self-regulated learning (2) directive feedback including only a strategy suggestion, (3) transformative feedback including feedback on self-regulated learning and a strategy suggestion, (4) or-on some days-no feedback. Results revealed that informative, directive, and transformative informative feedback reduced students' procrastination and improved daily self-monitoring, adherence to time schedules, and goal achievement compared to receiving no feedback. Informative and transformative feedback additionally improved planning strategies and concentration. Motivation and self-efficacy were unaffected by any kind of feedback. The positive effects of the intervention were most pronounced when students received feedback on metacognitive and motivational aspects. Moreover, students in the feedback groups achieved better grades in the examinations compared students in the control group. Together, results indicate that the feedback intervention effectively improved stu-dents' self-regulated learning and achievement. We discuss differential effectiveness of the feedback depending on feedback content.
... Interest is a critical motivating factor shaping how children engage with STEM inside and outside of school and across their lives (Harackiewicz et al., 2016;Renninger et al., 2015). Although definitions vary, interest is generally understood to include both the spark of emotion we feel when we are excited or compelled to engage with something in a particular moment, as well as the more enduring motivation to re-engage with an activity or topic that we may begin to associate with who we are as a person (Ainley, 2019;Renninger & Hidi, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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Interest is a critical motivating factor shaping how children engage with STEM inside and outside of school and across their lives. In this paper, we introduce the concept of interest catalyst that emerged from longitudinal research with preschool-age children and their families as critical to the process through which each family developed unique interest pathways through their experience with a family-based informal engineering education program. As defined by the team, an interest catalyst is an instance or moment in which an element of the program (or other learning resource or experience) connects with the prior interests, knowledge, experiences, or values of the family in order to catalyze new, reinforced, or transformed interests or interest-related behaviors. The concept emphasizes that interest development is not a property of only the family or the experience but a unique combination and outcome of the two.
... Meanwhile, students react to learning failures in different ways; some regard them as a challenge, while others remain gloomy [7]. When given ideas on how to enhance their performance, students react differently; some react negatively, displaying sentiments of disdain and perplexity, whereas others use them to flourish [8,9]. What variables play a role in these disparities in attitudes and behaviors? ...
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With the widespread use of digital gaming, there is a growing need to determine how games and its components might be used for learning and teaching. The majority of study in this topic has taken place in more economically established and developed regions, leaving a research void in emerging country situations. To gain a deeper understanding of the learning engagement, it is of significance to examine the gamification perceived ease of use as well as a dive into the learning goal orientation. This study examines the moderating effect of learning goal orientation that influences the relationship between gamification application and learning engagement. The theoretical model was tested in a quantitative study using structural equation modelling based on a PLS-SEM approach, conducted in Jakarta, with actual local college students. The findings of this investigation noted that gamification perceived ease of use was positively related to learning engagement, and learning goal orientation partially mediated this positive relationship. The value of this research may aid educators and practitioners in determining which factors may influence the adoption of gamification in formal higher education.
... e used in the real world." This is something real. It is something that a student can look at and think: I was able to create this because of what I have learned and because of the skills that I have practiced. are, the more they will put an effort to meet the expectations that are expected from them to perform. This is true to the article made by Harackiewicz, et. al. (2016) which is entitled "Interest Matters: The Importance of Promoting Interest in Education". They stated that "Interest is a powerful motivational process that energizes learning, guides academic and career trajectories, and is essential to academic success." Indeed, experiencing situational interest can directly promote learning by increas ...
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This study dealt with the efficacy of the learning space on the learners' writing proficiency. The learning space in terms of parents' involvement, availability of educational toys at home, and learners' interest were the major key factors to look into its effect towards the learners' writing proficiency. In deepening the research for its efficacy, the researcher employed thirty (30) grade 4-6 learners who live in a rural barangay wherein resources are considered scarce in terms of providing educational needs for the learners. Results showed the need to improve their writing proficiency. If only it resulted a high score for each of the factors, an improving results will be achieved. Thus, a continuous deliberate solution about addressing the educational needs at home for our learners is a must to consider in this endeavor. Established home learning spaces hold great promises for a better writing performance. Kurt Lewin's Field Theory cited that an individual creates actions that correspond to his environment. If the necessary things are already available, an improvement to the learner's performance is expected. Overall, results were considered as starting point in continuously making an innovative solution like making a program that will help the learners strengthen their writing proficiency.
... However, building a positive attitude in doing activities through distance learning should also be taught to students to work at their own pace. The students' activities and homework should also be interactive and suited to the learners to catch their interest (Mascreen, Pai, & Pai, 2012;and Harackiewicz, Smith & Priniski, 2016). ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... After the first cycle of the teaching processes clarifies it and places the learner in a more relatable scenario, it is impossible to bring up the subject again. When presented with intriguing problems, students are more motivated to learn, research, and study, which enhances their learning (Harackiewicz et al., 2016). Practicing knowledge research and synthesizing knowledge on their own frequently and continuously. ...
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The purpose of this action research was to improve mathematical problem-solving abilities using the virtual 5E instructional organization for undergraduate math students who required to pass the criteria of 70% of the full score. This study involved thirty undergraduate math students from one university who were enrolled in mathematical problem-solving courses for mathematics teachers during the first semester of academic year 2021. They were randomly chosen using cluster random sampling. There are three types of tools utilized in this research: 1) a plan for mathematical problem-solving abilities, 2) an assessment of problem-solving abilities in mathematics, and 3) a student behavior observation form. The statistics used in the data analysis are descriptive for calculating mean, standard deviation, and percentage. The finding showed that mathematical problem-solving abilities had been achieved. Undergraduate students in mathematics had average scores of 35.00, 46.07, and 50.19 after completing learning activities in the first, second, and third cycle, indicating 58.33%, 76.78%, and 83.65%, respectively. In the second and third cycle, all students achieved 70% of the entire score. The findings shows that experienced undergraduate students can solve mathematical problems as a proportion of the overall score when using the virtual 5E instructional organization.
... Die Idee hinter astro-lab@school ist, wie auch beim ursprünglichen Exoplaneten-Projekt, den Schülerinnen und Schülern ein ganzheitliches Lernarrangement anzubieten, dessen didaktischer und methodischer Zugang zu den Interessen und Vorkenntnissen der Lernenden passt [4]. Beginnend bei der Fragestellung "Wie findet man einen Exoplaneten?" ...
Article
Even though student laboratories have advantages over school-based projects due to their character as extracurricular learning venues, they have the disadvantage that their catchment area is often geographically limited, in addition to scheduling constraints. One example is the exoplanet project in the student laboratory at the University of Cologne, which was developed with the aim of motivating middle school students for physics, promoting experimental skills and bringing the learners into contact with the topics of exoplanets or life in the universe, which are exciting for them. In particular, the students work out in this context the transit method, atmospheric spectroscopy, ways of determining the surface temperature of an exoplanet - also as a dependence on albedo, atmospheric pressure and greenhouse effect. Based on the desire to make the exoplanet project accessible to a larger audience - especially teachers outside North Rhine-Westphalia, as well as interested students - astro-lab@school was developed by the authors of this paper. The transformation from the exoplanet project 1.0 to this digital exoplanet project 2.0 is presented and substantiated in this paper. Spicker, S.J. & Küpper, A (2022). astro-lab@school: ein Schülerlabor 2.0 für den Physik- und Astronomieunterricht. Astronomie + Raumfahrt im Unterricht, 59 (1), pp. 16-21.
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Interest in a subject matter is a powerful motivation in education. Prior knowledge of students’ interests can be helpful in teaching the concept of ecosystem services (ES) and disservices (ED), which is increasingly being used in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, including soil science. Study objectives were to evaluate prior students’ soil science-related interests and use them to expand the learning context of a laboratory exercise on soil reaction (pH) with ES/ED in an online introductory soil science course (FNR 2040: Soil Information Systems) taught at Clemson University. Students from multiple fields of study (environmental and natural resources, forestry, and wildlife biology) completed the laboratory exercise in Fall 2021. This exercise on soil regulating and provisioning ES/ED included a sequence of reusable learning objects (RLOs), which are self-contained online modules frequently used for e-learning. Laboratory activities included calculating the liming replacement cost of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and avoided social cost of carbon (SC-CO2) from soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks in the assigned soil. The laboratory exercise was effective in increasing the familiarity with the concept of ES/ED (+39.4 increase in “extremely familiar” category) and the concept of SIC (+44.7 increase in “moderately familiar” category). The graded online quiz consisted of 9 questions and was taken by 55 students with an average score of 7.0 (out of 9). A post-assessment survey found that the laboratory was an effective way to learn about soil pH, SIC, and their ES/ED. Detailed students’ comments showed learning enjoyment (e.g., calculations, good experience), the value of multimedia (e.g., video, PowerPoint), the learning flexibility (e.g., separate parts), content applicability (e.g., economic values of services), and constructive criticism (e.g., clearer instructions, lots of information). A word cloud based on comments by the students about their soil ES laboratory exercise experience indicated the most common words submitted by students to describe their experience, such as “soil,” “calculations,” “enjoyed”, “learning,” “values,” among others. Applied recommendations are proposed to develop future exercises based on the alignment of students’ interests, STEM subject matter, and ES/ED applications.
Article
Design projects to encourage your students’ self-efficacy and motivate mathematics learning by helping them apply their prior knowledge from real-world experiences.
Article
This study examines how 4–8-year-old Norwegian children's interest in natural elements appears and develops during exploratory activities in various natural outdoor environments, and how teachers can support such interest in these settings. The results indicate that children's interest develops through three phases. Each phase can be recognised by how children relate to the natural element in question. They gain first-hand experience, are receptive to acquiring factual information and reflect on and apply their knowledge. Teachers can support children's interest by showing subject matter expertise and social and cognitive congruence. The significance of these different interactional characteristics varies between the phases.
Article
Flipped classroom teaching (FC), one of the active learning methods, has been shown to be more effective than traditional lecture-based classroom teaching (TC) in a variety of fields. We have previously reported the usefulness of FC in a undergraduate 'Kampo Medicine (traditional Japanese medicine)' mandatory course, conducted in 2015. However, it was a pilot study and the results were based only on students' subjective evaluations. Therefore, in this study, we have developed the FC program, and implemented FC, and compared it with TC. In the annual year 2018 (AY 2018), the common cold class was implemented as FC model and the women's health class as TC; in AY 2019, all classes were implemented as TC. Between the cohorts, we compared subjective outcomes, as well as objective outcomes. Among the subjective evaluations, the explanatory ability of Kampo characteristics, indications and pharmacological effects were significantly higher in the FC than that in TC. Also, the knowledge retention was higher in FC. Objective evaluation showed that both class attendance and exam scores were significantly higher in FC. The FC model developed in this study has been shown to be effective, however, we planned the further study with multiple institutions in near future.
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Assessment on statistical reasoning is an area of academic interest in statistics education research in tandem with attitudes and anxiety towards statistics, since many studies report students are likely to encounter problems with statistics due to these two non-cognitive factors. In this study, 320 Tenth Grade science stream students from Sabah, Malaysia were tested using the Statistical Reasoning Test Survey (SRTS), the Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS), and the Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), which assessed their statistical reasoning, attitude, and anxiety, respectively. Generally, the findings revealed the students held i) a quantitative level in statistical reasoning, ii) a positive attitude towards statistics, and iii) a moderate level of statistics anxiety. A positive relationship between attitudes towards statistics and statistical reasoning, and a negative relationship between statistics anxiety and statistical reasoning were also observed. The Value, Interest, and Interpretation Anxiety components were predictor variables for statistical reasoning.
Article
Previous research on teaching and learning of literature has called for empirical investigations on classroom practice concerning literary history. As an answer to this call, the study aims to develop knowledge about what sparks students’ interest in the teaching of literary history in upper secondary school. In relation to the introductory lesson in literary history, students’ attitudes were collected through questionnaires and interviews. 286 students from ten classes in five different schools participated, all from various university preparation programmes. Thematic analysis was applied to analyse students’ responses. The analysis showed that themes of (1) content and (2) teachers’ ways of leading and organising the teaching, contributed to spark students’ interest in literary history in various ways. In relation to content, the students’ foregrounded students’ experiences; intertextuality; similarities and differences between different periods; epochs, authors and works; and aesthetic elements. Regarding teachers’ ways of leading and organising the teaching, the students emphasised passion and engagement, content legitimation, interaction and participation, variety, structure and delimitation and grades or de-emphasis on performance. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of interest and teaching.
Chapter
Digital media technologies have been gradually integrated into teaching activities over the past few years, providing teachers with more possibilities for teaching. This study examines the teaching effects of an interactive AI based image-processing platform in assisting as a teaching aid for children painting education. In this study, we compared the learning interest, learning attitude, and continuous learning intention of 96 children aged 5 to 13 in the process of painting education. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental group used AI image processing for painting education, and the control group utilized traditional teaching methods for painting learning. Results showed that the use of AI image-processing tools in painting education reduces girls’ learning attitudes and continuous learning intention, while stimulating boys’ learning interest.
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There are several elements that impact individuals' college program selection. Most students choose their college program based on parental influence, often overlooking some aspects such as whether they are fit or interested in the programs. This research focused on finding if there’s a significant relationship between the alignment of students’ programs with their interests and skills to their academic performance. The test was conducted on the 3rd-year students of Holy Cross College enrolled in the year 2021-2022. The researchers conducted the survey on the selected programs of Holy Cross College which is from the Education, Computer Science, Business Management, and Hospitality Management. This study used a quantitative, non-experimental design using a correlational approach. Spearman Rank Correlation, a non-parametric test was used to find the relationships between the alignment of the students and their academic performance. In testing the alignment of the students, the researchers used the Holland Theory. The data show that the obtained value is rs = -0.004 and the critical value is set at 0.206. Failure to pass certain criteria we fail to reject our null hypothesis (rs = -0.004, ρ>0.05). Therefore, we can say that there is no significant relationship between the alignment of students’ programs with their skills and interests, and performance. Whether the student’s programs are aligned or not aligned with their interest and skills they can still have good performance in their chosen programs. Although from the data obtained we can notice that students aligned with their programs have better performance academically
Article
Purpose Previous research shows that identity formation is a crucial bridge between higher education and future employment. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding and knowledge of food technology students' prior interests, their perceived identity formation, perceptions of food technology and the profession of food technologist. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative study was conducted and the data consisted of audio recordings of 10 semi structured group interviews of first-, second- and third-year students, as well as alumni, at work. The interviews were transcribed and analysed by conventional content analysis, here following an inductive approach. Findings Most students had previous general culinary interest, an interest in the science behind or an interest in contemporary food-related issues. Regardless of the year group and prior interest, most felt that graduation was the stage at which they could identify themselves as food technologists. They evolved from having a rather diffuse understanding of food technology and what is a food technologist before they started to have an increased awareness in their second and third years. Originality/value The research findings inform higher education food technology programmes aiming to promote the development of food technology students' professional identity. The study suggests that a holistic approach to teaching, as well as context-based and professional activities at an early stage might help students in their identity formation.
Article
Although English-medium instruction (EMI) has been implemented and developed rapidly in higher education, little is known about its learning process and effects. This study employed a systematic approach to explore how diverse factors affect student performance in English and disciplinary learning. We conducted a survey to collect students’ self-report of their learning in the EMI programmes and used partial least square structural equation modelling in evaluation. The findings demonstrate three personal factors (prior knowledge, effort, and interest) and three environmental factors (course, teacher, and resource) have effects on student performance. We find that effort has the strongest direct impact on learning outcomes, prior knowledge the second, while course factor the least. Interest has an indirect effect on outcomes through the mediating effect of effort, and teacher and resource factors have indirect effects on outcomes mediated by course. In addition, prior knowledge has a larger impact on English performance than on subject achievement. The present study theoretically and methodologically contributes to the research field of EMI by systematically examining the learning process of EMI and constructing a structural model of complex relationships of multiple factors affecting student performance in EMI programmes. This study also provides implications for EMI practice.
Article
Goals: The hypotheses that supervised trainees would provide a more favorable assessment of the learning experience and could achieve superior results with water exchange (WE) compared with air insufflation were tested. Background: WE decreased pain, increased cecal intubation rate (CIR), and polyp detection rate (PDR). Study: In a prospective pilot observational study, the trainees were taught WE in unsedated and WE and air insufflation in alternating order in sedated veterans. Trainee scores and procedural outcomes were tracked. Results: 83 air insufflation and 119 WE cases were included. Trainee evaluations of the respective methods were scored based on a 5-point scale [1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree, with lower scores being more favorable]. Evaluation scores [mean (SD)] were as follows: my colonoscopy experience was better than expected: WE 2.02 (1.00) versus air insufflation 2.43 (1.19), P=0.0087; I was confident with my technical skills using this method: WE 2.76 (0.91) versus air insufflation 2.85 (0.87), P=0.4822. Insertion time was 40 (21) min for WE and 30 (20) min for air insufflation (P=0.0008). CIR were 95% (WE, unsedated); 99% (WE, overall), and 89% (air insufflation, overall). WE showed significantly higher CIR (99% vs. 89%, P=0.0031) and PDR (54% vs. 32%, P=0.0447). Conclusions: The long air insufflation insertion time indicated the trainees were inexperienced. The significantly longer WE insertion time confirmed that learning WE required extra time. This pilot study revealed that supervised trainees reported more favorable learning experience with WE and equivalent confidence in technical skills scores. They completed both unsedated and sedated colonoscopy in over 89% of cases achieved significantly higher CIR and PDR with WE than air insufflation. It appeared that trainee education in WE might be an acceptable alternative to augment air insufflation to meet the challenges of training posed by traditional air insufflation colonoscopy.
Article
Learning about evolution is a foundational part of biology education, but most current studies that explore college student evolution education are conducted at universities. However, community college students tend to be more diverse in characteristics shown to be related to evolution education outcomes. To explore how studies involving university students may generalize to community college students, we surveyed students from seven community college (n = 202) and nine university (n = 2288) classes. We measured students' evolution interest, acceptance, and understanding, and for religious students, we measured their perceived conflict between their religions and evolution. Controlling for state and major, we found that community college students had similar levels of evolution interest as university students but perceived greater conflict between their religions and evolution. Further, community college students had lower evolution understanding and acceptance compared with university students. Religiosity was a strong factor predicting community college and university students' evolution acceptance. However, unique to community college students, evolution understanding was not related to their macroevolution or human evolution acceptance. This indicates that, although some results between community college and university students are similar, there are differences that have implications for evolution instruction that warrant the need for more evolution education research at community colleges.
Article
Interest is a critical motivating factor shaping how children and youth engage with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) inside and outside of school and to what extent they continue to be STEM learners throughout their lives. Emerging evidence over the last several decades indicates that the foundation of STEM‐related interests develops in early childhood, even before children enter the formal education system. Although researchers have documented the emergence of these early interests and their implications for long‐term learning outcomes, there is still much that is not understood about how and why these interests develop, including the role of parents and caregivers in supporting interest development at this age. To explore the processes of early STEM‐related interest development, we recruited 18 low‐income Spanish‐ and English‐speaking parents who had completed an informal engineering education program for preschool‐age children and their families 1–2 years previously. Participants engaged in an in‐depth home‐based interview about their program experience and the subsequent impacts on their children's and families' interests. Using a family systems perspective, we analyzed the ways these families described how their interests related to the program had evolved over the years and the factors that had shaped that process. Findings highlight the diversity of interests that emerge from this type of experience and the ways that family values, parent roles, and life challenges shape the unique interest development patterns of each family.
Article
A student's expectation for a positive outcome for their future career development is referred to as career optimism. Career Services, a common university department, utilizes the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to understand how students form career interests and make educational and vocational choices. Then Career Services can assist students in finding a career that matches their interests. We hypothesize that students' perception of the assistance provided by the Career Services department when the SCCT is applied, impacts the student's career optimism. In addition, we hypothesize, and results support, that different factors, such as a student's chosen major, impact student perception of Career Services and career optimism. El optimismo profesional se define como la expectativa positiva de un estudiante para su futuro desarrollo profesional. En las universidades, los departamentos de servicios profesionales utilizan la teoría cognitiva social de la carrera (SCCT, por sus siglas en inglés) para comprender cómo los estudiantes forman intereses profesionales y toman decisiones educativas y vocacionales. Luego, cada departamento de servicios profesionales puede ayudar a los estudiantes encontrar una carrera que coincida con sus intereses. Nuestra hipótesis es que la percepción de los estudiantes sobre la asistencia brindada por el departamento de Servicios Profesionales cuando se aplica el SCCT, impacta el optimismo profesional del estudiante. Además plantéamos — y los resultados respaldan — que diferentes factores, como la especialización elegida por cada estudiante, afecta la percepción del mismo sobre el departamento y su optimismo profesional.
Purpose As sustainability teaching and learning rises in importance, an increasing number of higher education institutions (HEIs) are assessing the effectiveness of their approach to sustainability education. However, most assessments fall short in determining the impacts of curriculum plans on learning outcomes. Therefore, this study aims to assess the impact of curricula on undergraduate sustainability knowledge and assess opportunities for improving sustainability education in HEIs. Design/methodology/approach A campus-wide survey deployed at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, (Cal Poly) solicited data identifying students’ sustainability knowledge score (SKS). The survey collected responses from undergraduate student groups enrolled in different curriculum plans under different academic settings. Findings This study reveals that Cal Poly honors students enrolled in a structured sustainability curriculum have significantly higher SKS than general students (i.e. nonhonors students) enrolled in random sustainability courses. Further, taking at least three sustainability-related courses significantly distinguishes SKS for general students. The results also show that SKS does not significantly differ across colleges, suggesting that additional sustainability education can benefit all students. Originality/value Findings of this study provide statistical evidence to justify institutional efforts to integrate sustainability into existing courses, with the minimum requirement of three sustainability-related courses to make an impact on SKS for the general student population. Such efforts could represent the first steps toward developing sustainability education at a HEI and improving sustainability learning outcomes.
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During high school, developing competence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is critically important as preparation to pursue STEM careers, yet students in the United States lag behind other countries, ranking 35th in mathematics and 27th in science achievement internationally. Given the importance of STEM careers as drivers of modern economies, this deficiency in preparation for STEM careers threatens the United States' continued economic progress. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term effects of a theory-based intervention designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and science courses to their high-school-aged children. A prior report on this intervention showed that it promoted STEM course-taking in high school; in the current follow-up study, we found that the intervention improved mathematics and science standardized test scores on a college preparatory examination (ACT) for adolescents by 12 percentile points. Greater high-school STEM preparation (STEM course-taking and ACT scores) was associated with increased STEM career pursuit (i.e., STEM career interest, the number of college STEM courses, and students' attitudes toward STEM) 5 y after the intervention. These results suggest that the intervention can affect STEM career pursuit indirectly by increasing high-school STEM preparation. This finding underscores the importance of targeting high-school STEM preparation to increase STEM career pursuit. Overall, these findings demonstrate that a motivational intervention with parents can have important effects on STEM preparation in high school, as well as downstream effects on STEM career pursuit 5 y later.
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Although most individuals pass through adolescence without excessively high levels of "storm and stress," many do experience difficulty. Why? Is there something unique about this developmental period that puts adolescents at risk for difficulty? This article focuses on this question and advances the hypothesis that some of the negative psychological changes associated with adolescent development result from a mismatch between the needs of developing adolescents and the opportunities afforded them by their social environments. It provides examples of how this mismatch develops in the school and in the home and how it is linked to negative age-related changes in early adolescents' motivation and self-perceptions. Ways in which more developmentally appropriate social environments can be created are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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There are many promising psychological interventions on the horizon, but there is no clear methodology for preparing them to be scaled up. Drawing on design thinking, the present research formalizes a methodology for redesigning and tailoring initial interventions. We test the methodology using the case of fixed versus growth mindsets during the transition to high school. Qualitative inquiry and rapid, iterative, randomized “A/B” experiments were conducted with ~3,000 participants to inform intervention revisions for this population. Next, two experimental evaluations showed that the revised growth mindset intervention was an improvement over previous versions in terms of short-term proxy outcomes (Study 1, N=7,501), and it improved 9th grade core-course GPA and reduced D/F GPAs for lower achieving students when delivered via the Internet under routine conditions with ~95% of students at 10 schools (Study 2, N=3,676). Although the intervention could still be improved even further, the current research provides a model for how to improve and scale interventions that begin to address pressing educational problems. It also provides insight into how to teach a growth mindset more effectively.
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In the context of concerns about American youths' failure to take advanced math and science (MS) courses in high school, we examined mothers' communication with their adolescent about taking MS courses. At ninth grade, U.S. mothers (n = 130) were interviewed about their responses to hypothetical questions from their adolescent about the usefulness of algebra, geometry, calculus, biology, chemistry, and physics. Responses were coded for elaboration and making personal connections to the adolescent. The number of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses taken in 12th grade was obtained from school records. Mothers' use of personal connections predicted adolescents' MS interest and utility value, as well as actual MS course-taking. Parents can play an important role in motivating their adolescent to take MS courses.
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PurposeWe review the interventions that promote motivation in academic contexts, with a focus on two primary questions: How can we motivate students to take more STEM courses? Once in those STEM courses, how can we keep students motivated and promote their academic achievement? Design/methodology/approachWe have approached these two motivational questions from several perspectives, examining the theoretical issues with basic laboratory research, conducting longitudinal questionnaire studies in classrooms, and developing interventions implemented in different STEM contexts. Our research is grounded in three theories that we believe are complementary: expectancy-value theory (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002), interest theory (Hidi & Renninger, 2006), and self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988). As social psychologists, we have focused on motivational theory and used experimental methods, with an emphasis on values – students’ perceptions of the value of academic tasks and students’ personal values that shape their experiences in academic contexts. FindingsWe review the experimental field studies in high-school science and college psychology classes, in which utility-value interventions promoted interest and performance for high-school students in science classes and for undergraduate students in psychology courses. We also review a randomized intervention in which parents received information about the utility value of math and science for their teens in high school; this intervention led students to take nearly one semester more of science and mathematics, compared with the control group. Finally, we review an experimental study of values affirmation in a college biology course and found that the intervention improved performance and retention for first-generation college students, closing the social-class achievement gap by 50%. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms through which these interventions work. Originality/valueThese interventions are exciting for their broad applicability in improving students’ academic choices and performance, they are also exciting regarding their potential for contributions to basic science. The combination of laboratory experiments and field experiments is advancing our understanding of the motivational principles and almost certainly will continue to do so. At the same time, interventions may benefit from becoming increasingly targeted at specific motivational processes that are effective with particular groups or in particular contexts.
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Many college students abandon their goal of completing a degree in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) when confronted with challenging introductory-level science courses. In the U.S., this trend is more pronounced for underrepresented minority (URM) and first-generation (FG) students, and contributes to persisting racial and social-class achievement gaps in higher education. Previous intervention studies have focused exclusively on race or social class, but have not examined how the 2 may be confounded and interact. This research therefore investigates the independent and interactive effects of race and social class as moderators of an intervention designed to promote performance, measured by grade in the course. In a double-blind randomized experiment conducted over 4 semesters of an introductory biology course (N = 1,040), we tested the effectiveness of a utility-value intervention in which students wrote about the personal relevance of course material. The utility-value intervention was successful in reducing the achievement gap for FG-URM students by 61%: the performance gap for FG-URM students, relative to continuing generation (CG)-Majority students, was large in the control condition, .84 grade points (d = .98), and the treatment effect for FG-URM students was .51 grade points (d = 0.55). The UV intervention helped students from all groups find utility value in the course content, and mediation analyses showed that the process of writing about utility value was particularly powerful for FG-URM students. Results highlight the importance of intersectionality in examining the independent and interactive effects of race and social class when evaluating interventions to close achievement gaps and the mechanisms through which they may operate. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Social-psychological interventions in education have used a variety of "self-persuasion" or "saying-is-believing" techniques to encourage students to articulate key intervention messages. These techniques are used in combination with more overt strategies, such as the direct communication of messages in order to promote attitude change. However, these different strategies have rarely been systematically compared, particularly in controlled laboratory settings. We focus on one intervention based in expectancy-value theory designed to promote perceptions of utility value in the classroom and test different intervention techniques to promote interest and performance. Across three laboratory studies, we used a mental math learning paradigm in which we varied whether students wrote about utility value for themselves or received different forms of directly-communicated information about the utility value of a novel mental math technique. In Study 1, we examined the difference between directly-communicated and self-generated utility-value information and found that directly-communicated utility-value information undermined performance and interest for individuals who lacked confidence, but that self-generated utility had positive effects. However, Study 2 suggests that these negative effects of directly-communicated utility value can be ameliorated when participants are also given the chance to generate their own examples of utility value, revealing a synergistic effect of directly-communicated and self-generated utility value. In Study 3, we found that individuals who lacked confidence benefited more when everyday examples of utility value were communicated, rather than career and school examples.
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This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.
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The worry or concern over confirming negative gender group stereotypes, called stereotype threat, is one explanation for women’s worldwide underrepresentation in undergraduate science classes and majors. But how does stereotype threat translate into fewer women motivated for science? In this quantitative study with a sample from the US, we use Expectancy Value Theory to examine whether and how stereotype threat concerns might influence women’s science identification. To do this, we collected survey data from 388 women enrolled in introductory physics (male-dominated) and biology (female-dominated) undergraduate laboratory classes at three universities. We examined multiple indirect effect paths through which stereotype threat could be associated with science identity and the associated future motivation to engage in scientific research. In addition to replicating established expectancy-value theory motivational findings, results support the novel prediction that one route through which stereotype threat negatively impacts women’s science identity is via effects on perceptions about the communal utility value of science. Especially among women in physics who expressed greater stereotype threat concerns than women in biology, science identification was lower to the extent that stereotype threat reduced how useful science was seen for helping other people and society. Implications for ways to create an inclusive learning context that combats stereotype threat concerns and broadens undergraduate women’s participation in science are discussed.
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Understanding how cultural values influence undergraduate students’ science research experiences and career interest is important in efforts to broaden participation and to diversify the biomedical research workforce. The results from our prospective longitudinal study demonstrated that underrepresented minority student (URM) research assistants who see the altruistic value of conducting biomedical research feel more psychologically involved with their research over time, which, in turn, enhances their interest in pursuing a scientific research career. These altruistic motives are uniquely influential to URM students and appear to play an important role in influencing their interest in scientific research careers. Furthermore, seeing how research can potentially affect society and help one's community does not replace typical motives for scientific discovery (e.g., passion, curiosity, achievement), which are important for all students. These findings point to simple strategies for educators, training directors, and faculty mentors to improve retention among undergraduate URM students in biomedicine and the related sciences.
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Two studies tested how the effects of a utility value manipulation on interest and performance were moderated by expectations for success. College students learned a new technique for mentally solving multiplication problems with instructions containing task utility information or not. In Study 1 (N = 62), the effect of the utility value information was positive for individuals with high success expectancies, but negative for individuals with low success expectancies. Study 2 (N = 148) examined the causal role of success expectancies by manipulating whether participants received an expectancy boost before receiving the utility manipulation. The results showed further support for the importance of success expectancies in moderating the effect of directly-communicated utility value. The results are discussed in relation to other research on utility value, interest, and expectancy–value models of achievement behavior.
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This chapter reviews accumulating research showing how individual differences shape learners’ responses to instructional enhancements designed to promote interest in mathematics and science. We describe research showing that the effectiveness of these instructional enhancements for secondary and postsecondary learners depends on students’ levels of individual interest and self-concept of ability. The data reveal that interest is triggered by different factors for different people, and the emerging pattern of results suggests that interest in mathematics and science activities is shaped by both features of the person and features of the situation. For example, individuals with low individual interest in mathematics find mathematics activities more interesting when the activity is enhanced with superficial features designed to trigger attention. However, these same features tend to undermine interest for those with high individual interest in mathematics. Beyond catching attention, some enhancements are designed to instill a sense of utility or purpose for learning. The effects of these utility value enhancements vary depending on individuals’ existing levels of self-concept of ability in the domain. We consider how these complex research findings fit within existing frameworks of task motivation and self-regulation, and how they might help explain and illuminate these emerging patterns.
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The world of education is currently undergoing a massive transformation as a result of the digital revolution. This transformation is similar to the transition from apprenticeship to universal schooling that occurred in the 19 th century as a result of the industrial revolution. In the apprenticeship era, most of what people learned occurred outside of school. Universal schooling led people to identify learning with school, but now the identification of the two is unraveling. All around us people are learning with the aid of new technologies: children are playing complex video games, workers are interacting with simulations that put them in challenging situations, students are taking courses at online high schools and colleges, and adults are consulting Wikipedia. New technologies create learning opportunities that challenge traditional schools and colleges. These new learning niches enable people of all ages to pursue learning on their own terms. People around the world are taking their education out of school into homes, libraries, Internet cafes, and workplaces, where they can decide what they want to learn, when they want to learn, and how they want to learn. Who will benefit ultimately from this revolution? In America there is a commercial push to sell educational products to consumers who are looking for an edge up in the race for success. This means that technological products and services are popping up all over the American landscape. Education, once viewed as a public good with equal access for all, is now up for sale to those who can afford specialized services and computer programs.
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Adaptive learning technologies are emerging in educational settings as a means to customize instruction to learners’ background, experiences, and prior knowledge. Here, a technology-based personalization intervention within an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for secondary mathematics was used to adapt instruction to students’ personal interests. We conducted a learning experiment where 145 ninth-grade Algebra I students were randomly assigned to 2 conditions in the Cognitive Tutor Algebra ITS. For 1 instructional unit, half of the students received normal algebra story problems, and half received matched problems personalized to their out-of-school interests in areas such as sports, music, and movies. Results showed that students in the personalization condition solved problems faster and more accurately within the modified unit. The impact of personalization was most pronounced for 1 skill in particular—writing symbolic equations from story scenarios—and for 1 group of students in particular—students who were struggling to learn within the tutoring environment. Once the treatment had been removed, students who had received personalization continued to write symbolic equations for normal story problems with increasingly complex structures more accurately and with greater efficiency. Thus, we provide evidence that interest-based interventions can promote robust learning outcomes—such as transfer and accelerated future learning—in secondary mathematics. These interest-based connections may allow for abstract ideas to become perceptually grounded in students’ experiences such that they become easier to grasp. Adaptive learning technologies that utilize interest may be a powerful way to support learners in gaining fluency with abstract representational systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes-although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.
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A problematic, yet common, assumption among educational researchers is that when teachers provide authentic, problem-based experiences, students will automatically be engaged. Evidence indicates that this is often not the case. In this article, we discuss (a) problems with ignoring motivation in the design of learning environments, (b) problem-based learning and scaffolding as one way to help, (c) how scaffolding has strayed from what was originally equal parts motivational and cognitive support, and (d) a conceptual framework for the design of scaffolds that can enhance motivation as well as cognitive outcomes. We propose guidelines for the design of computer-based scaffolds to promote motivation and engagement while students are solving authentic problems. Remaining questions and suggestions for future research are then discussed.
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Interest is a positive emotion associated with increased approach motivation, effort, attention, and persistence. Although experiencing interest promotes behaviors that demand cognitive resources, interest is as a coping resource in frustrating learning situations and is central to self-regulation and sustained motivation. Positive affect, in general, tends to replenish resources, but based on the functions of interest and what interest promotes we suggest that interest, in particular, promotes greater resource replenishment. Across three experiments, experiencing interest during activity engagement (Studies 1 and 2), even when interest is activated via priming (Study 3), caused greater effort and persistence in subsequent tasks than did positive affect. This effect occurred only when participants' psychological resources were previously depleted (Study 1). Paradoxically, engaging an interesting task replenished resources (vs. positive and neutral tasks) even though the interesting task was more complex and required more effort.
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The research presented in this article integrates 3 theoretical perspectives in the field of motivation: expectancy-value, achievement goals, and interest. The authors examined the antecedents (initial interest, achievement goals) and consequences (interest, performance) of task value judgments in 2 learning contexts: a college classroom and a high school sports camp. The pattern of findings was consistent across both learning contexts. Initial interest and mastery goals predicted subsequent interest, and task values mediated these relationships. Performance-approach goals and utility value predicted actual performance as indexed by final course grade (classroom) and coach ratings of performance (sports camp). Implications for theories of motivation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We tested whether a utility value intervention (via manipulated relevance) influenced interest and performance on a task and whether this intervention had different effects depending on an individual's performance expectations or prior performance. Interest was defined as triggered situational interest (i.e., affective and emotional task reactions) and maintained situational interest (i.e., inclination to engage in the task in the future). In 2 randomized experiments, 1 conducted in the laboratory and the other in a college classroom, utility value was manipulated through a writing task in which participants were asked to explain how the material they were learning (math or psychology) was relevant to their lives (or not). The intervention increased perceptions of utility value and interest, especially for students who were low in expected (laboratory) or actual (classroom) performance. Mediation analyses revealed that perceptions of utility value explained the effects of the intervention on interest and predicted performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The dynamics of individual and situational interest and academic performance were examined in the college classroom and 7 semesters later in conjunction with achievement goals. At the beginning of an introductory psychology course, participants reported their initial interest in psychology, achievement goals, and situational interest in course lectures. At the end of the semester, participants (N = 858) reported their situational interest in course lectures and psychology. In the short term, relationships emerged among initial interest, achievement goals, situational interest, and class performance. Longitudinally, situational interest during the introductory course, independent of initial interest, predicted subsequent course choices. Results are discussed in terms of S. Hidi and K. A. Renninger's (2006) 4-phase model of interest development and the multiple goals model (J. M. Harackiewicz, K. E. Barron, P. R. Pintrich, A. J. Elliot, & T. M. Thrash, 2002). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This experiment examined the effects on the learning process of 3 complementary strategies—contextualization, personalization, and provision of choices—for enhancing students' intrinsic motivation. Elementary school children in 1 control and 4 experimental conditions worked with educational computer activities designed to teach arithmetical order of operations rules. In the control condition, this material was presented abstractly. In the experimental conditions, identical material was presented in meaningful and appealing learning contexts, in either generic or individually personalized form. Half of the students in each group were also offered choices concerning instructionally incidental aspects of the learning contexts; the remainder were not. Contextualization, personalization, and choice all produced dramatic increases, not only in students' motivation but also in their depth of engagement in learning, the amount they learned in a fixed time period, and their perceived competence and levels of aspiration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Typically, models of self-regulation include motivation in terms of goals. Motivation is proposed to fluctuate according to how much individuals value goals and expect to attain them. Missing from these models is the motivation that arises from the process of goal-pursuit. We suggest that an important aspect of self-regulation is monitoring and regulating our motivation, not just our progress toward goals. Although we can regulate motivation by enhancing the value or expectancy of attaining the outcome, we suggest that regulating the interest experience can be just as, if not more, powerful. We first present our model, which integrates self-regulation of interest within the goal-striving process. We then briefly review existing evidence, distinguishing between two broad classes of potential interest-enhancing strategies: intrapersonal and interpersonal. For each class of strategies we note what is known about developmental and individual differences in whether and how these kinds of strategies are used. We also discuss implications, including the potential trade-offs between regulating interest and performance, and how recognizing the role of the interest experience may shed new light on earlier research in domains such as close relationships, psychiatric disorders, and females' choice to drop out of math and science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We review studies that document the role of interest in promoting academic achievement, course choices, and career decisions, and discuss the process of interest development. In particular, we focus on the role of achievement goals in promoting the perception of task values and subsequent interest, and review randomized field trials in which we tested an experimental utility value intervention designed to promote interest in educational contexts. We discuss the implications for educational policy and theory development.
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The pipeline toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) begins to leak in high school, when some students choose not to take advanced mathematics and science courses. We conducted a field experiment testing whether a theory-based intervention that was designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and science courses to their high school-aged children would lead them to take more mathematics and science courses in high school. The three-part intervention consisted of two brochures mailed to parents and a Web site, all highlighting the usefulness of STEM courses. This relatively simple intervention led students whose parents were in the experimental group to take, on average, nearly one semester more of science and mathematics in the last 2 years of high school, compared with the control group. Parents are an untapped resource for increasing STEM motivation in adolescents, and the results demonstrate that motivational theory can be applied to this important pipeline problem.
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The self-regulation of motivation model suggests that under certain circumstances, people will strategically vary a boring task to enhance their motivational experience. In three experiments we tested whether the likelihood of this task variation depends on a person’s orientation to promote success or prevent failure. Across studies, all participants engaged in a boring letter-copying task which was coded for task variation. Results showed that a promotion focus led to greater task variation, whereas a prevention focus led to lesser task variation. Furthermore, for those people who varied the task under a promotion focus, greater intrinsic motivation (defined as intent for future task-related behavior and as self-reported immediate task interest) was observed. Results were evident when the foci were induced below conscious awareness (Experiment 1), subtly (Experiment 2), and overtly (Experiment 3). Implications for academic and work-related tasks are discussed.
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We tested whether classroom activities that encourage students to connect course materials to their lives will increase student motivation and learning. We hypothesized that this effect will be stronger for students who have low expectations of success. In a randomized field experiment with high school students, we found that a relevance intervention, which encouraged students to make connections between their lives and what they were learning in their science courses, increased interest in science and course grades for students with low success expectations. The results have implications for the development of science curricula and theories of motivation.
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Problem based learning (PBL) in its most current form originated in Medical Education but has since been used in a variety of disciplines (Savery & Duffy, 1995) at a variety of educational levels (Savery, 2006). Although recent meta analyses have been conducted (Dochy, Segers, Van den Bossche, & Gijbels, 2003; Gijbels, Dochy, Van den Bossche, & Segers, 2005) that attempted to go beyond medical education, they found only one study in economics and were unable to explain large portions of the variance across results. This work builds upon their efforts as a meta-analysis that crosses disciplines as well as categorizes the types of problems used (Jonassen, 2000), the PBL approach employed (Barrows, 1986), and the level of assessment (Gijbels et al., 2005; Sugrue, 1993, 1995). Across 82 studies and 201 outcomes the findings favor PBL (d = 0.13, +/- .025) with a lack of homogeneity (Q = 954.27) that warrants a closer examination of moderating factors.
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A code of ethics is used by individuals to justify their actions within an environment. Medical professionals require a keen understanding of specific ethical codes due to the potential consequences of their actions. Over the past thirty years there has been an increase in the scope and depth of ethics instruction in the medical profession; however the teaching of these codes is still highly variable. This inconsistency in implementation is problematic both for the medical practitioner and for the patient; without standardized training, neither party can be assured of the practitioner's overall depth of knowledge. Within the field of ethics certain principles have reached a consensus of importance. Incorporation of these concepts in meaningful ways via a consistent curriculum would provide students with an appropriate skill set for navigating their ethical environment. Moreover, this curriculum should also be extended to residents and professionals who may have missed formal ethical training. This would provide a consistent framework of knowledge for practitioners, creating a basis for clear judgment of complex issues.
Book
The Power of Interest for Motivation and Engagement describes the benefits of interest for people of all ages. Using case material as illustrations, the volume explains that interest can be supported to develop, and that the development of a person’s interest is always motivating and results in meaningful engagement. This volume is written for people who would like to know more about the power of their interests and how they could develop them: students who want to be engaged, educators and parents wondering about how to facilitate motivation, business people focusing on ways in which they could engage their employees and associates, policy-makers whose recognition of the power of interest may lead to changes resulting in a new focus supporting interest development for schools, out of school activity, industry, and business, and researchers studying learning and motivation. It draws on research in cognitive, developmental, educational, and social psychology, as well as in the learning sciences, and neuroscience to demonstrate that there is power for everyone in leveraging interest for motivation and engagement.
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Motivating students to pursue science careers is a top priority among many science educators. We add to the growing literature by examining the impact of a utility value intervention to enhance student’s perceptions that biomedical science affords important utility work values. Using an expectancy-value perspective, we identified and tested 2 types of utility value: communal (other-oriented) and agentic (self-oriented). The culture of science is replete with examples emphasizing high levels of agentic value, but communal values are often (stereotyped as) absent from science. However, people in general want an occupation that had communal utility. We predicted and found that an intervention emphasizing the communal utility value of biomedical research increased students’ motivation for biomedical science (Studies 1–3). We refined whether different types of communal utility value (i.e., working with, helping, and forming relationships with others) might be more or less important, demonstrating that helping others was an especially important predictor of student motivation (Study 2). Adding agentic utility value to biomedical research did not further increase student motivation (Study 3). Furthermore, the communal value intervention indirectly impacted students’ motivation because students believed that biomedical research was communal and thus subsequently more important (Studies 1–3). This is key, because enhancing student communal value beliefs about biomedical research (Studies 1–3) and science (Study 4) was associated both with momentary increases in motivation in experimental settings (Studies 1–3) and increased motivation over time among students highly identified with biomedicine (Study 4). We discuss recommendations for science educators, practitioners, and faculty mentors who want to broaden participation in science.
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Summary We, as one of the sports consultants commissioned by the Singapore National Olympic Council, will be presenting our Training Program to plan to nurture Singaporeans in the field of Swimming (100m Freestyle). In this proposal, we will include the physics behind the sports, recommended diet, some forms of physical aids as well as an estimation of the cost of the entire Training Program.