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The Impact of Principal Movement and School Achievement on Principal Salaries

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Abstract

This study examines whether principals’ movements and school achievement are associated with their salaries. Predictors of principal salaries were examined using three years of panel data. Results from a fixed-effects regression analysis suggest that principals who moved to school leadership positions in other districts leveraged higher salaries (b = 3,187.42, p = 03), but those who moved to other schools within their district did not. School reading performance was found to be positively associated with higher salaries, but there is an increased likelihood this finding was a result of chance (b = 58.10, p = .08). We also conducted sub-analyses to provide further depth to our results.

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... The research of Buckman et al. (2017) indicates that internal applicants are in a better position for advancement within their school or district than external applicants. This study of principals in the state of Georgia concluded many factors give a hiring advantage to internal candidates including the knowledge and experience specific to district protocols, culture, vision, and goals (Buckman et al., 2017). ...
... The research of Buckman et al. (2017) indicates that internal applicants are in a better position for advancement within their school or district than external applicants. This study of principals in the state of Georgia concluded many factors give a hiring advantage to internal candidates including the knowledge and experience specific to district protocols, culture, vision, and goals (Buckman et al., 2017). As a functional and more efficient practice, the identification of internal candidates can establish a better fit for the school district and be of particular use for those school systems in rural areas or with high needs students which often lack the financial resources needed to attract quality external candidates (Cruzeiro & Boone, 2009;Gronn, 2003;Stark-Price et al., 2006;Winter & Morgenthal, 2002). ...
... Some studies corroborate this connection between principal experience and retention. Tran and Buckman (2017) investigated principals in Wisconsin documenting that high school principals with more experience were less likely to change schools. Correspondingly, more experienced principals in three Midwestern states (i.e., Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin),were slightly less likely to move within the states on an annual basis (Podgursky et al., 2016) and principals with experience demonstrated decreased intentions of changing schools (Tekleselassie & Villarreal, 2011). ...
Article
School principals’ have a significant impact on student achievement and positive educational outcomes (Beteille et al., 2012; Branch et al., 2013; Miller, 2009; Miller, 2013; Supovitz et al., 2010). There are concerns regarding the high turnover rate and shortage of applicants for school leadership positions currently within the United States (Beteille et al., 2012; Burkhauser et al., 2012; Burkhauser, 2015; Jensen, 2014; Whitaker, 2003). According to research, high poverty schools are significantly impacted by this current state of affairs (Beteille et al., 2012; Miller, 2013). This quantitative research study aimed to contribute to the body of literature regarding principal retention and investigate whether there is a significant relationship between hiring type (i.e., internal or external promotion) and principal retention in the state of Georgia when controlling for potential covariates. Using information obtained through the Georgia Department of Education, insight is provided into identifying leadership candidates, the hiring process, and increasing principal retention rates despite the demands of the job. This knowledge could significantly impact the hiring practices for school districts in addition to the development of leadership programs in the educational community.
... Within this review of literature, it has been documented that principal turnover influences student achievement (Azaiez & Slate, 2017;Brockmeier, Starr, Green, Pate, & Leech, 2013), but it also influences a host of mediating factors as well. When reviewing factors beyond student achievement, principal turnover has been linked to the loss of promising leaders, loss of teachers, and increases in employee replacement costs (Tran, McCormick & Nguyen, 2017;Tran & Buckman, 2017;Trevor, Gerhart, & Boudreau, 1997). As a result, many school districts have become strategic by developing recruitment and training strategies that can assuage the negative impact of principal turnover and better prepare schools through succession planning. ...
... In Tran and Buckman's (2017) study of elementary school principals, they found a positive association between elementary schools reading achievement scores and principals who were internally hired. This study, however, did not indicate if the principals were recently promoted to this role or if the school was high performing prior to the principal's tenure. ...
... This is the only study in the education setting that incorporates internal and external hiring of principals as variables and analyzes its relationship with student achievement. The aforementioned limitations concerning promotion and the achievement was not within the scope of Tran and Buckman's (2017) study, but these questions do impose the need for more literature to address these inquiries. ...
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Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether there exists a relationship between selection practices of school districts (i.e., whether the principal was hired from within the district as an internal hire or hired from outside the district as an external hire) and changes in minimal proficiency in school math and reading achievement. More pointedly, we examined whether the hiring type of principals bears any association with the percentage of low performers at the school. The units of analyses were all newly appointed elementary principals in the state of Wisconsin in 2010, who consecutively led a school in a principal role for five years (2010-2014). Based on results obtained from the five-year panel regression analysis, hiring type was not found to be statistically significant. However, descriptive examination of trends indicate the performance of schools led by internal hires fare worse than those led by external hires and that the relationship between hiring type and minimal reading proficiency appears to change across time. Results are discussed.
... When interpreted with findings from past studies, there are several important implications of this study for educational managers at the school district level. First, past study findings have considered salary as one of the key underlying factors for principal retention (Tran, 2017;Tran and Buckman, 2017). Tran (2017) found that California high school principals' degree of satisfaction with pay was negatively related to their desires to leave their jobs. ...
... other high school principals in different school districts). Similarly, Tran and Buckman (2017) examined the relationship between high school principals' movement and salaries in Wisconsin with three years of data. They found that principals who moved to leadership positions in other districts earned higher salaries than those who did not move. ...
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Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the costs of replacing high school principals. The technique for cost estimation used is the ‘ingredients method’ and is based on the economic principle of opportunity cost. It is the recommended form of cost analysis by experts in the field. Within this study, the ingredients method systematically identifies all the resources required to replace high school principals, and attaches prices to each of those ingredients. The systematic nature of the method allows for costs to be measured and compared across studies. Data were obtained from executive-level human resource management across six South Carolina public school districts. Costs of high school replacement varied by district (ranging from $10,413.03 to $51,659.27), with the sample average equating to $23,974.29. The methodology used in this study can be replicated across the globe to estimate the cost of replacing school leaders. Link to full article: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0892020617747609
... Various studies have focussed on analysing what influence salary might have on the job of principal. Tran and Buckman (2016), for example, analyse how principals' mobility may be influenced by pay and whether they receive financial rewards for higher school achievement. Tran (2016) comes to the conclusion that they may or may not be satisfied with their pay depending on the salaries their peers receive, and that those principals who are least satisfied are more likely to resign. ...
... Nevertheless, participants did not emphasise this aspect to the same degree as their claims for greater support from the LEA or more autonomy, which indicates that they are more interested in improvements inherent to the role and the service provided by the LEA than in external incentives. In fact, there appear to be few studies carried out in this area and therefore it is difficult to state categorically that salary might lead more people to apply to be principals (Tran and Buckman, 2016). Moreover, authors such as Allegretto et al. (2011) andSpringer et al. (2010) stress that money does not tend to motivate the work of education professionals. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to seek insights into the demands and challenges faced by school principals in Spain, especially in their dealings with local education authorities. Design/methodology/approach In all, 100 principals from public infant, primary and secondary schools in Alicante (Spain) participated in the study, which was carried out from a qualitative research perspective using deductive content analysis. Findings Most participants noted the need to improve channels of communication with, and support from, the local education authority. They also stressed the desirability of increasing their autonomy, reducing bureaucratic tasks and improving working conditions, which is in line with the international framework. Their narratives make it clear that they remain tied to a management leadership model but actually aspire to an instructive leadership. Research limitations/implications An absence of triangulation and the use of a single data collection technique are the limitations of this paper. Practical implications These participants are practising professionals who are proposing ways to improve aspects of their working lives based on actual experience. Acknowledging their voices could inspire the design of policies aimed at improving the principal’s role in Spain. Originality/value Knowledge is contributed to the area of study into proposals for improving the role of the principal, but with new and contextualised insights.
... Promoting academic achievement in adolescence is important, as struggling in this domain has been related to immediate mental health concerns, such as lower self-esteem/ self-concept (Cvencek et al. 2018), as well as increased prevalence of internalizing and externalizing problems (Van der Ende et al., 2016). Conversely, attaining higher academic achievement has been related to positive outcomes such as decreased school dropout rates (Wood et al., 2017), long-term benefits including significantly higher salary wages (Tran & Buckman, 2017), and lower mortality rates (Acacio-Claro et al., 2017). In light of these findings and to promote wellness among adolescents, it is important to identify factors with potential to foster academic achievement in late adolescence. ...
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Article
Background As adolescents prioritize friendship in developing their norms and values, it is important that we understand how peer influences drive positive and negative outcomes, particularly academic achievement. For example, adolescents develop perceived norms based on how they believe their peers value school, socializing, working, and volunteering. Objective This study uses multilevel modeling to explore how these peer norms relate to adolescent academic achievement outcomes. Method This study analyzed a large, nationally representative sample from the Educational Longitudinal Study. Results Findings indicated adolescent academic achievement significantly related to peer norms that valued doing well in school, socializing, working, and volunteering; even after controlling for student-level (sex, family socioeconomic status [SES], race/ethnicity, special education eligibility status) and school-level (school type and urbanicity) characteristics. Peer norms that interacted with family SES, student sex, urbanicity, and school type also demonstrated statistical significance in predicting academic achievement. These findings indicate that peer norms relate to high school academic achievement beyond other ecological factors. Conclusions This study conducts a focused exploration on adolescents specific peer norms of valuing working, academics, being social, and volunteering, and highlights the influence perceived peer norms can have in facilitating or inhibiting academic achievement. These findings inform our awareness of the influence perceived peer norms may have on adolescent achievement and may inform future investigations that seek to incorporate perceived peer norms as intervention components aimed at promoting proximal learning opportunities for students.
... For example, principals with experience leading higher-achieving schools were both more stable and more mobile. While research has repeatedly shown that principals in high achieving schools are generally more stable and less likely to leave a position (e.g., Tran & Buckman, 2017), our findings also suggest that when a principal with such experience does go on the market, they are more likely to be selected for hire. This supports research emphasizing that student achievement is highly important in both recruitment and hiring (Bass et al., 2006;Hancock et al., 2006;Winter & Morgenthal, 2002). ...
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Preprint
Utilizing a dataset that includes more than 17,000 principals over 17 years, we employ discrete time hazard modeling and heckit regressions to identify characteristics that simultaneously explain principal turnover and selection. We then construct a framework comparing the two dimensions of stability and mobility to identify how features such as race and student achievement can help explain sites of frequent principal turnover risk. We find certain characteristics—such as experience with low performing schools—combine to increase the likelihood of both turnover and selection, while other characteristics—such as salary—increase stability but reduce mobility. Results demonstrate which combinations of features may explain higher likelihood of frequent turnover, and further help to identify systematic trends in principal hiring to better understand where policy interventions may be leveraged.
... 25). However, uncertainty persists about whether the improvements identified in those studieswhich are largely measured by student academic achievementmay be attributed to principal improvement over time or the possibility that those who do not improve leave (Tran and Buckman, 2017). For those who stay, principals need five to seven years in one school to establish the trust necessary to drive these meaningful improvements (Mascall and Leithwood, 2010;Tran et al., 2018). ...
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Article
Purpose Hiring teachers is among principals' most critical work but what remains uncertain is the relationship between a principal's tenure in a school and the rate at which they hire teachers who will stay. Teacher retention and principal experience are key predictors of school stability. This study therefore investigates the influence of principal tenure on the retention rates of teachers they hire over time. Design/methodology/approach The authors followed 11,717 Texas principals from 1999 to 2017, and tracked the teachers they hired in each year of their tenure in a school to see if principals became more effective at hiring teachers who stay over time. The authors use regression with fixed effects and find that the longer a principal stayed in a school, the more effective they were at hiring teachers who stay to both three- and five-year benchmarks. Findings Principals hire significantly more teachers who persist after they have led their first school for five or more years; however, the average principal in Texas leaves a school after four years thus never realizing those gains. The authors' second main finding indicates that principals who enter an unstable school (less than 69% retention in the two years prior to the principal's arrival) and stay at least five consecutive years, can counteract prior instability. Originality/value This study provides initial evidence that principals establish a great deal of building-specific situational expertise that is not easily portable or applicable in a subsequent school placement.
... The findings indicated that the percentage of returning teachers increased as the same principals remained in the school, and there were higher percentages of returning teachers each year when there was no principal turnover. In their principal movement study, Tran and Buckman (2017) highlight that principals often leave for higher salaries; however, school districts in high poverty areas often cannot pay principals the same as more affluent districts. Therefore, we see the revolving door of the principalship begin the turnover sequence that trickles down to teachers. ...
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Article
This article investigates the critical influence principals have on mitigating or exacerbating teacher turnover. Both South Carolina Department of Education (SCDE) data and National Center of Education Statistics (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD) from Academic Years 2016 to 2020 were used to analyze the research question. A Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) mixed-effects multiple regression model determined that there was a statistically significant relationship between principal turnover and teacher turnover (p ≤ 0.01; b=-1.079) as well as Principal retention and teacher turnover (p≤ 0.001; b=0.169). The article provides evidence that retaining principals and reducing principal turnover can significantly reduce teacher turnover.
... However, nine studies were excluded because reported data were coming from districts rather than schools (e.g. Baker et al., 2010;Mascall and Leithwood, 2010;Tekleselassie and Villarreal, 2010;Tran and Buckman, 2017). Regarding the time period of the review, the first empirical study after 1991 identified in these journals was in 2003. ...
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Article
Principal succession is an inevitable phenomenon in school systems. Given the relevance of principal succession for leadership quality and school improvement, there has been a lack of research in recent decades that has synthesized principal succession. This study aims to review the literature from 2003 to 2019 on principal succession in schools. Using a systematic review as the methodological approach, the eight core educational management and administration leadership journals were selected to collect the sources. Among this corpus of data, four main topics emerged: (a) factors affecting principal succession; (b) the dilemma between change and continuity; (c) the impact of principal succession on teachers; and (d) the evaluation of succession programs. We found that the volume of evidence on principal succession in K-12 schools is low and narrow, even with the importance of the topic. Given the increasingly common pattern of principal movements across the school system, it is urgent to research principal succession in greater detail. Otherwise, the association between principal succession and school failure will be maintained.
... • State-developed guidelines on performance incentives and clear processes for districts to participate • Alignment with school/district improvement plans • Multiple principal and leadership effectiveness measures that correlate with college and career readiness state standards • Measures of principal performance such as self-assessments, documentation of instructional leadership, central office and teacher evaluation, and teacher retention rates Given that it is often difficult to recruit principals to serve in low-performing schools in high-poverty areas, many researchers recommend that states and districts develop training and placement strategies of better prepared and/or more experienced principals in these schools to both increase achievement and prevent excessive turnover (Burkhauser et al., 2012;Grissom & Bartanen, 2019a, 2019bTran & Buckman, 2017). To this end, a review of state Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) plans suggests that a number of states have developed principal learning programs and incorporated incentives and supports to attract and retain highly effective principals in high-need schools (Levin & Bradley, 2019). ...
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Preprint
Principals are critical to determining teaching quality, and in turn, student learning and achievement; retaining effective principals therefore is paramount, particularly in schools striving for rapid improvement. Principal turnover is higher in public charter than traditional public schools, in part because many charter schools are located in economically disadvantaged areas which have higher turnover rates generally. Less effective principals are more likely to leave their schools, which may imply the chance for improved school outcomes if they are replaced by more effective principals; however, research has yet to explore the extent to which this occurs. Working conditions found to influence principal turnover include negative disciplinary environments, lack of autonomy in decision-making regarding personnel and finances, and salary, whose impact is moderated by job benefits and other nonmonetary working conditions. District and policy characteristics such as tenure/union membership and policies intended to reduce teacher turnover also reduce the likelihood of principal turnover, as do high-quality professional development and support programs. Principal turnover incurs significant financial costs, and often leads to increased teacher turnover and decreased student achievement, unless a ready supply of more effective principals is available to replace low-performing ones. Evidence-based strategies to improve principal retention include coaching, mentoring and leadership supports tailored to a principal’s school context, and pipeline initiatives designed to increase the supply of high-quality candidates through recruitment, preparation, and ongoing development and support. Targeted financial incentives to work in high-needs schools coupled with improvements to principals’ working conditions can enhance retention, as can principal accountability systems that given principals increased autonomy but that also focus on ensuring they can build teacher capacity for the use of evidence-based instructional strategies.
... To emphasize the presence of human capital variables in the education field, Tran and Buckman (2016) purported that public school teachers' variation in salary is determined mostly by human capital in the form of teachers' years of experience and education level. Likewise, Liang (2000) asserted that the variation in educator salaries in Latin American countries is due to education level and years of experience. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine selection practices of school districts by capturing the promotion of teachers to assistant principal positions to determine if: there is a relationship between employability and assistant principal promotion (within-school, within-district, and external); and if the state-specific educational leadership policy directly impacts the employability of assistant principal candidates. Design/methodology/approach Principals in the state of Georgia were the unit of analysis, and data collected included personal characteristics of each participant when entering their first assistant principal position, school characteristics of the place of promotion, and type of promotion (internally within-school, internally within-district, and externally). Both descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were utilized to examine the impact of type of promotion as well as the state-specific educational leadership policy on participant employability at the time of promotion. Findings This study found a significant positive relationship between internal promotion (within-school) and employability as well as a negative association between participant employability and Georgia state-specific policy. Additional findings indicate a positive relationship between combination schools (i.e. grades K-8; 6-12) and participant employability. Originality/value This study advances the HRM literature concerning employee selection by expanding the scope of hiring practices outside of the private sector and provides focus on the public sector, specifically, the public school environment. In addition, the focal position (public school administrators in the state of Georgia) has yet to be utilized in employee selection research in the areas of internal and external promotion. Previous researchers have studied the probability of internal and external promotion based on demographic factors such as race and gender, however, this specific study uses distinctive predictor variables backed by literature to evaluate applicant employability
... Resources, manipulative, and technology are important, but they should be chosen based on academic needs and demands. Many studies stress the importance of keeping a balance between all tasks to establish a high level of high school leadership performance (Tran and Buckman 2017;Kelechukwu 2011;Oluwadre 2011;Sanzo, Sherman, and Clayton 2011). ...
Article
Purpose In response to the proliferation of neoliberal reforms and a “new professionalism” (Evetts, 2009, 2011), researchers argue that school leaders, like teachers, have experienced a form of “de-professionalization” (Keddie, 2017) and that the principalship may even be an “emergent profession” (Stone-Johnson and Weiner, 2020). Such framing assumes school leaders are indeed part of a profession. And yet, while research abounds regarding teaching as a profession (Ingersoll and Collins, 2018; Sachs, 2016; Torres and Weiner, 2018), no parallel literature exists about school leaders. Such information is critical to ensure educators receive the appropriate professional development and support (Sachs, 2016) and move the field forward and thus motivated the authors to ask how principals view their work and whether it can be seen as part of a discrete profession. Design/methodology/approach The authors utilized an interpretative phenomenological approach (IPA) drawing on qualitative interviews with sixteen elementary school principals in two US states. Findings The authors find administration, and specifically the principalship, exists adjacent to, but distinct from, teaching. Additionally, the authors find school leadership is an “emergent” profession, with aspects of the work that indicate leadership is a profession but others that do not. Originality/value This study extends early work (Stone-Johnson and Weiner, 2020) on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on principals' professionalism to shed light on the larger and more long-standing features of principals' work that support and hinder its development as a profession and the implications of such designation on attracting and retaining school leaders, as well as underscoring that because school leadership and teaching can be considered discrete professions, teachers need not leave their classroom to be true professionals.
Article
We investigate the male–female gap in principal compensation in state and national data: detailed longitudinal personnel records from Missouri and repeated cross-sections from the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). In both data sets, we estimate substantively important compensation gaps for school leaders. In Missouri, female principals make approximately $1,450 less annually than their male colleagues with similar characteristics, including experience level and degree attainment, leading the same school in different years. Gaps are present in both base salary and extra duty salary, and are only partially explained by career paths or workplace sorting. SASS analyses show that women make about $1,000 less than men nationally, on average, a gap that even grows larger once accounting for individual and workplace characteristics, teacher-supplied effectiveness ratings, and reported hours worked. The presence of these residual gaps after accounting for many supply-side explanations may signal gender discrimination in school principal compensation.
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Among the many challenges facing public schools are high levels of principal turnover. Given the important role that principals play and are expected to play in the improvement process, concerns about principal turnover have resulted in a growing body of research on its causes and consequences. The purpose of this review is to take stock of what we have learned about the sources and consequences of principal turnover, and to identify what gaps remain. The final review included 36 empirical studies. It discusses and categorizes findings relating to the determinants and consequences of principal turnover. The review concludes with a discussion about the implications of those findings and the areas and kinds of research still needed.
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This study seeks to address whether past performance influences how districts pay principals in California and whether that relationship changes after accounting for wages of the principals’ regional labor market. Evidence from this study provided affirmations to both questions. Using multiple regression analysis on principal salaries, I found a positive relationship between principal salaries and past performance (b = -51, p < .001); furthermore, the salary premium falls when wages of the regional labor market for principals is accounted for. The coefficients for both past performance and the regional labor market wage remain significant after accounting for several control variables. This supports the theory that past performance and the regional labor market wages both have influences on principal salaries. Furthermore, the coefficient for past performance remains a significant predictor of salaries when additional prior years of performance are accounted for, suggesting the existence of a salary premium for not only performance level but growth as well. Recommendation for future research is provided.
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Purpose This article aims to examine factors associated with new employee turnover in US state governments, where turnover is often highest in organizations. Building on existing studies of high performance work systems (HPWS) turnover, this article develops a set of hypotheses to explain new hire turnover. Design/methodology/approach The proposed model has been analyzed with a sample of 42 of the 50 US state governments. Findings Practices associated with HPWS influence turnover of new hires. State governments that operate centralized college recruiting programs, pay higher salaries, offer pay for performance incentives, award group bonuses, invest more in training, and allow job rotation lose significantly fewer new hires. Research limitations/implications This study is limited to specific variables collected in an online survey of states' central human resource departments. Future research may want to focus on other levels of government, include additional practices associated with HPWS, and examine measures of government performance. Practical implications This study stresses the importance of HPWS and how HRM practices impact new employees' decisions to stay or leave an organization. This information will provide an opportunity for actionable knowledge to be created that may help practitioners design and administer programs to reduce new hire turnover. Originality/value This study has extended a well‐developed body of knowledge on HPWS to government. Since most HPWS and turnover studies focus on turnover more broadly and since turnover is often highest among new hires, this research extends the HPWS framework to an important outcome, new hire quit rates.
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Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigate and characterize principals’ backgrounds, individual and school level factors associated with leadership stability, and principal career paths and exit behaviors in Missouri. Method: In this study, the authors construct two data sets of practicing school principals in the state of Missouri: (a) one consisting of approximately 2,700 school principals across grade levels for each year from 1999 to 2006, and (b) one consisting of three cohorts of principals who were new to a given school in 1999, 2000, and 2001. With the first data set, the authors construct “stability” ratios identifying the amount of time a principal spent in any given school as a percentage of the total time that principal was in the data set. With the second data set, the authors create indicators of the time period at which a cohort member (a) left the principalship altogether (in Missouri), (b) made a first move to another school, or (c) made a second move to another school. Using the first data set, the authors estimate truncated regression models to identify the relationship between principal characteristics, school context, and principal stability. Using the second data set, they estimate Cox Proportional Hazard models to determine the relationship between principal characteristics, school context, and exit or move behavior. Findings: The authors find that a principal’s relative salary, compared to peers in the same labor market, exerts a consistent influence on stability— the higher the salary, the more likely a principal is stable and less likely he or she is to move to another school. Principals were able to leverage school-to-school moves for an average change in relative salary of about +5%. The authors also find that school racial composition—specifically percentage of students who are Black—may lead to instability and greater likelihood of a second move and that middle school principals are less stable.
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This article examines the salary trajectory of teachers as they move up the career ladder into leadership positions. The issue of compensation is set in the context of a principal shortage that has been widely reported and discussed in the literature. Urban schools are shown to experience the principal shortage differently from rural schools. District size and school type show significant differences in the additional compensation offered for moving from teaching to various leadership positions. The influence of salary is discussed in concert with the changing role of the principalship and candidate’s concerns about increasingly less desirable working conditions for school leaders.
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Background: ‘Push’ and ‘pull’ factors motivate Filipino registered nurses (RNs) to leave for employment in foreign countries making the Philippines the leading source country for nurses overseas. Objective: To assess the current RN-staffing situation in Philippine hospitals. Design: A self-administered survey was mailed to a sample of 200 Philippine hospital chiefs of nurses. Results: According to respondents, the majority of RNs in their hospitals (73%) were aged 40 years and younger and female (85%); government hospital RNs earned higher wages than private hospital RNs; and on average, RN vacancy rates and RN turnover rates were lower in government hospitals than private hospitals. All respondents reported no difficulty recruiting RNs with less than 12 months of work experience. However, recruitment of more experienced RNs was somewhat or very difficult for private hospitals compared with government hospitals. Higher salaries, better benefits and good career opportunities were identified as most effective incentives for both recruitment and retention. Conclusions: RN staffing in government hospitals is more favourable than in private hospitals as measured by employment tenure, vacancy rates, turnover rates and ability to recruit and retain more experienced RNs. On average, respondents reported over half (59%) of total RN turnover was the result of nurse migration overseas.
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School principals are responsible for managing teachers, curricula and budgets. Despite the importance of prin-cipals, little is known about how principal turnover affects school quality. Using twelve years of administrative data from North Carolina public schools, I find that principal departures typically follow a downturn in school perfor-mance. The two years following a departure are marked by high teacher turnover and a dip in school performance, consistent with a small negative effect of principal turnover. Schools subsequently improve, returning to pre-turnover levels.
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This paper studies efficiency wages in the presence of heterogeneous workers and asymmetric information. It includes an incentive compatibility constraint (ICC) in the efficiency wage model with heterogeneous workers to show that the implementation of efficiency wages in the presence of heterogeneity faces the problem of adverse selection. Employees with a smaller effort aversion supply a smaller level of effort than what is optimal under perfect information due to hidden information. In this vein only a second best solution is obtained.
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The authors of this paper find that principal behavior and attributes significantly influence individual student achievement. Effective principal activities include instructional leadership (setting clear priorities and evaluating instructional programs, and organizing and participating in staff development programs) and conflict resolution (establishing a consensus on objectives and methods, maintaining effective discipline, and mediating personal disputes). These results, based upon data from a nationally representative sample of over 14,000 elementary school students, provide strong confirmation of the major conclusions from recent case studies, which arc characterized by very limited samples and weak controls for individual student and teacher attributes. In addition, the finding that principals make a difference to student achievement adds further evidence to the debate over whether schools make a difference.
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This study examines the magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover. The data are from the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey. Over the past two decades, rates of mathematics and science teacher turnover have increased but, contrary to conventional wisdom, have not been consistently different than those of other teachers. Also, contrary to conventional wisdom, mathematics and science teachers were also no more likely than other teachers to take noneducation jobs, such as in technological fields or to be working for private business or industry. The data also show there are large school-to-school differences in mathematics and science turnover; high-poverty, high-minority, and urban public schools have among the highest rates. In the case of cross-school migration, the data show there is an annual asymmetric reshuffling of a significant portion of the mathematics and science teaching force from poor to not-poor schools, from high-minority to low-minority schools, and from urban to suburban schools. A number of key organizational characteristics and conditions of schools accounted for these school differences. The strongest factor for mathematics teachers was the degree of individual classroom autonomy held by teachers. Net of other factors such as salaries, schools with less classroom autonomy lose math teachers at a far higher rate than other teachers. In contrast, for science teachers salary was the strongest factor, while classroom autonomy was not strongly related to their turnover.
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In this study we investigated the relation between job performance and voluntary employee turnover for 5,143 exempt employees in a single firm in the petroleum industry. As hypothesized, we found support for Jackofsky's (1984) curvilinear hypothesis as turnover was higher for low and high performers than it was for average performers. Three potential moderators of this curvilinearity were examined in an attempt to explain conflicting results in the performance turnover literature and contradictory predictions from turnover models. As predicted, pay growth, promotions, and labor demand each differentially influenced the turnover patterns of low, average, and high performers. Most notably, paying high performers according to their performance predicted substantial decrements in turnover. A utility analysis indicated that the benefits of paying high performers according to their performance more than offset the costs and that such an approach was a superior strategy when compared to a more egalitarian pay growth policy.
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[Excerpt] The relationship between job performance and voluntary employee turnover was investigated for 5,143 exempt employees in a single firm. As hypothesized, support was found for E. F Jackofsky's (1984) curvilinear hypothesis, as turnover was higher for low and high performers than it was for average performers. Two potential moderators of the curvilinearity were examined in an attempt to explain conflicting results in the performance-turnover literature. As predicted, low salary growth and high promotions each produced a more pronounced curvilinear performance-turnover relationship. Most notably, salary growth effects on turnover were greatest for high performers, with high salary growth predicting rather low turnover for these employees, whereas low salary growth predicted extremely high turnover. Additionally, once salary growth was controlled, promotions positively predicted turnover; with poor performer turnover most strongly affected.
Article
This article examines the effects of transformational leadership of supervisors and the sense of calling on job burnout among special education teachers. A total of 256 special education teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and rated their supervisors on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results reveal that transformational leadership was negatively related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and positively related to personal accomplishment. Moreover, the present study indicates that the relationship between transformational leadership and teachers’ burnout was mediated by the sense of calling. This finding suggests that transformational leadership indirectly affects job burnout by developing a sense of calling in followers or helping them find meaning and purpose in their experiences through transformational leadership behaviors, which can ultimately protect followers from being exposed to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and enhance the feeling of personal accomplishment.
In recent years, a principal supply shortage crisis has emerged in the USA. This problem has been exacerbated by an increase in principal departures, which has been found to be negatively related to school outcomes. While research exists on several determinants of principal turnover, any examination of the relationship between principals’ affective reaction to pay relative to their intent to leave their position at a particular school is missing from the literature. This research seeks to fill this void by examining the association between California (USA) high school principals’ pay satisfaction and turnover intentions (n=156). The importance of potential referent sources (i.e., teachers within the school districts, other high school principals within the school district, and other high school principals in different school districts) for pay satisfaction and the relationship between achievement and turnover intentions were also examined. This study uses a two-stage structural equation modelling approach and finds evidence to suggest that high school principals’ pay satisfaction is influenced by the salaries of comparative peers and is negatively associated with principals’ intention to turnover. Achievement was not found to be related to turnover intentions. Policy implications and future research recommendations are discussed. For article see: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1741143216636115
Article
This study examines the magnitude, destinations, and determinants of the departures of mathematics and science teachers from public schools. The data are from the National Center for Education Statistics’ nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey and its longitudinal supplement, the Teacher Follow-up Survey. Our analyses show that rates of mathematics and science teacher turnover, both those moving between schools and those leaving teaching altogether, have increased over the past two decades, but have not been consistently different than those of non-mathematics/science teachers. Mathematics and science teachers who left teaching were also no more likely than other teachers to take non-education jobs, such as in technological fields, or to be working for private business or industry. The data also show that, like other teachers, there are large school-to-school differences in mathematics and science turnover. High poverty, high minority, and urban public schools have among the highest mathematics and science turnover levels. In the case of cross-school migration, the data show there is an annual asymmetric reshuffling of a significant portion of the mathematics and science teaching force from poor to not poor schools, from high-minority to low-minority schools, and from urban to suburban schools. However, our multivariate analyses showed that a number of key organizational characteristics and conditions of schools accounted for these school differences in turnover. The strongest factors for mathematics teachers were the degree of individual classroom autonomy held by teachers, the provision of useful professional development , and the degree of student discipline problems. For science teachers, the strongest factors were the maximum potential salary offered by school districts, the degree of student discipline problems in schools, and useful professional development.
Article
This study examines the extent to which perceived organizational support, employee exhaustion, job satisfaction, and affective commitment are related to the turnover intention and job hopping behaviour of music teachers. Results from a primary survey of 93 music teachers from private music schools around the Klang Valley in Malaysia showed that they were less likely to leave when they perceive their music schools supported them, and when they are job satisfied, and not emotionally exhausted from the pressures of teaching. Unlike their job hopping behaviour, the relationships between each of the three antecedents and the turnover intention of music teachers were mediated by their affective commitment to music schools. The music teachers were also not likely to job hop when they have a low perception of organizational support. Instead, they would job hop if they experience emotional exhaustion and are not job satisfied. This article also discusses some practical implications for owners and principals of music schools. It also reports the research limitations and provides suggestions for future research.
Article
Praise for the Second Edition. "All statistics students and teachers will find in this book a friendly and intelligentguide to ... applied statistics in practice." -Journal of Applied Statistics "... a very engaging and valuable book for all who use statistics in any setting." -CHOICE" ... a concise guide to the basics of statistics, replete with examples ... a valuablereference for more advanced statisticians as well." -MAA Reviews. Now in its Third Edition, the highly readable Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them) continues to serve as a thorough and straightforward discussion of basic statistical methods, presentations, approaches, and modeling techniques. Further enriched with new examples and counterexamples from the latest research as well as added coverage of relevant topics, this new edition of the benchmark book addresses popular mistakes often made in data collection and provides an indispensable guide to accurate statistical analysis and reporting. The authors' emphasis on careful practice, combined with a focus on the development of solutions, reveals the true value of statistics when applied correctly in any area of research. The Third Edition has been considerably expanded and revised to include: A new chapter on data quality assessment. A new chapter on correlated data. An expanded chapter on data analysis covering categorical and ordinal data, continuous measurements, and time-to-event data, including sections on factorial and crossover designs. Revamped exercises with a stronger emphasis on solutions. An extended chapter on report preparation. New sections on factor analysis as well as Poisson and negative binomial regression. Providing valuable, up-to-date information in the same user-friendly format as its predecessor, Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them), Third Edition is an excellent book for students and professionals in industry, government, medicine, and the social sciences.
Article
Principals have important management roles, including responsibilities for teachers, curricula and budgets. Schools change principals frequently; about 20% of public school principals in the United States leave their positions each year. Despite the significance of principals and the regularity of principal departures, little is known about how turnover affects schools. Using twelve years of administrative data from North Carolina public schools, this paper explores the relationship between principal turnover and student achievement. Principal departures follow a downturn in student performance. Achievement continues to fall in the two years following the installation of a new principal and then rises over the next three years. Five years after a new principal is installed, average academic performance is no different than it was five years before the new principal took over. Increases in student achievement following a principal transition may reflect mean reversion rather than a positive effect of principal turnover.
Article
This article focuses on an overlooked factor in the unequal sorting of teachers across schools: the geographic preferences of teachers. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, the author examines the patterns of geographic mobility of new teachers and compares them to the patterns of other college graduates. Specifically, the author demonstrates that teachers’ preference for working close to where they grew up is a distinct characteristic of teachers, and the author further explores the implications of those preferences for schools facing chronic shortages of teachers. The author finds that the local nature of the labor force and the differential rates of graduation and production of teachers from traditionally hard-to-staff schools are reinforcing existing deficits of local teacher labor supply.
Article
Background: Studies addressing pay discrimination for females in education have relied on main effect regression models, mostly examining amount (intercept values) rather than rate of pay (slope coefficients). Purpose: The purpose is to determine if organizational characteristics and human capital endowments purported to influence pay are facially neutral (amount of pay) or have a disproportional impact (rate of pay) for female middle school principals. Setting: The population is all California public middle school principals, who are stratified by sex and randomly selected through a sampling process that includes only a single principal from any school district. Research Design: A hierarchical regression design is used to assess main effects for organizational characteristics and human capital variables (amount) and interaction effects (rate) of these variables and a residual effect for sex. Data Collection: Organizational characteristics for school districts and school buildings were obtained from a state database, and human capital endowments and information for pay were assessed via survey self-reports of principals. Findings: Organizational and human capital variables are facially neutral and account for substantial variance in pay amount ( R2 = .44, p ≤ .01). None of the interaction terms (ΔR2 = .02, p ≥ .05) reflect a disproportional impact (rate of pay) for females, and the residual sex coefficient is nonsignificant (ΔR2 = .00, p ≥ .05). Conclusions: These findings differ from existing research suggesting pay discrimination on the basis of sex at the school building level but may do so because of methodological advancements and/or a temporal effect.
Article
Numerous attempts have been made to explain the processes leading to the decision to change jobs, but such efforts generally have not given attention to the possible influence of job performance on these processes. Presented here are a model and several hypotheses/propositions that suggest how job performance may relate (1) directly to various forms of employee turnover and (2) to precursors of turnover. The potential theoretical and applied relevance of the work is discussed.
Article
This study uses multivariate analysis of a large panel dataset to examine the determinants of principal retention (and, thus, the determinants of attracting a principal away from her current position). The empirical model incorporates measures of a principal's traits and of the organizational structure, culture, and situational context within a school. The discussion focuses on (1) the impact of salary, school characteristics, and principal traits and on (2) their associated policy implications. Evidence from the study suggests that schools with higher proportions of at-risk students and less-qualified teachers are disadvantaged with respect to their ability to retain (and attract) principals. At the same time, the evidence suggests that higher salaries can be used to compensate for these disparities.
Article
This article examines the effectiveness of observ- able and quantifiable traits in and approaches of school principals in enhancing student achieve- ment. Data were gathered on 2,048 fourth-grade students in 96 public primary schools in Leon, Mexico; Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Santiago, Chile. The UNESCO/ ORELAC (United Nations Education and Social Council/Regional Education Office for Latin America and the Caribbean) language and math examinations were administered to each student in the sample, and school-level data were collected from principals, teachers, and the par- ents/community. Variables included the princi- pal's education, experience, priorities, leader- ship style, and relationships with teachers. I estimated equations using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that both commu- nity environment and instructional roles for principals were associated with increased stu- dent achievement. Important variables related to higher student language and math scores in- cluded the principal being at a school more years, emphasizing student evaluation, creating a better work environment for teachers, and spending more time promoting community events with an academic orientation. Variables negatively related to student achievement in- cluded a lack of parent participation, high teacher turnover, and principals focusing on student discipline.
Article
This article presents an overview of the changing role of principals and head teachers from an international perspective. The role changes of local site management, increased accountability, the tension between management and leadership, altered relationships with community, and dilemmas related to school choice are described. The article makes a connection between principal role changes and difficulties in recruitment and retention of principals internationally. Data are presented on principal shortages in several countries. The article concludes with several recommendations to address principal recruitment and retention issues.
Article
The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent variables as predictors of principal turnover frequency. The study reported here focused on the frequency of principal turnover. The term "principal turnover frequency" refers to the frequency with which principals in Ohio public schools were replaced over a seven-year time span. A multiple stepwise regression equation was used to predict principal turnover frequency from the eight contextual variables and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested the statistical significance of the variance accounted for in principal turnover by these variables. Seven years of school data from FY1997 to FY2003 were analyzed. Findings indicated that the only predictor variable that was statistically significant in predicting principal turnover was student achievement test scores on Ohio reading and math achievement tests (formerly called proficiency tests) in fourth grade. As the percentage of students who passed fourth grade Ohio reading and math achievement tests increased, the frequency of principal turnover decreased. (Contains 1 figure and 6 tables.)
Article
Discusses several reasons many teachers are unwilling to apply for the principalship: Too little pay, costly and irrelevant requirements, too many pressures, too many hats to wear, not enough time, too little authority. Suggests several changes in principal's role, compensation, training, and recruitment to attract more qualified teachers for the principalship. (Contains 10 references.) (PKP)
Article
In this paper, we report the results of a pilot study of the cost of teacher turnover in five school districts. We examine the rate of turnover, the relationship between turnover and teacher and school characteristics, and the costs associated with recruiting, hiring, and training replacement teachers. We find evidence that turnover costs, although difficult to quantify, are significant at both the district and the school level. We also find that teachers left high minority and low performing schools at significantly higher rates. This has implications for the differential impact of the costs of teacher turnover on high-need schools. The relationship between teacher turnover and other school and teacher characteristics varied across the five school districts. (Contains 46 tables, 20 figures, and 38 footnotes.)
Article
Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints imposed on elementary schools. To assess this potential, 480 elementary school buildings were sampled at random, and achievement scores were regressed on these potential moderators. Results indicate that achievement scores are influenced by the socioeconomic status of students, the percentage of English-language learners, building enrollment, and per-pupil expenditure. These findings are discussed from a school public relations perspective as well as from a human resources perspective. (Contains 3 tables.)
Article
The shortage of school leaders, mainly caused by the growing complexity of the job is steadily growing in recent years. This study reports on the results of a comparative empirical study into the causes of premature departure for male and female principals in primary and secondary education. Principals who have experienced premature departure themselves served as respondents. The risk factors for premature departure were researched in four areas: the school organization, the working environment including the school culture, the selection procedure and the principal him or herself. The results showed that the causes of premature departure are a combination of factors that are embedded in the context in which the leadership is performed and personal characteristics of the principal.
Article
More than one out of every five principals leaves their school each year. In some cases, these career changes are driven by the choices of district leadership. In other cases, principals initiate the move, often demonstrating preferences to work in schools with higher achieving students from more advantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. Principals often use schools with many poor or low-achieving students as stepping stones to what they view as more desirable assignments. We use longitudinal data from one large urban school district to study the relationship between principal turnover and school outcomes. We find that principal turnover is, on average, detrimental to school performance. Frequent turnover of school leadership results in lower teacher retention and lower student achievement gains. Leadership changes are particularly harmful for high poverty schools, low-achieving schools, and schools with many inexperienced teachers. These schools not only suffer from high rates of principal turnover but are also unable to attract experienced successors. The negative effect of leadership changes can be mitigated when vacancies are filled by individuals with prior experience leading other schools. However, the majority of new principals in high poverty and low-performing schools lack prior leadership experience and leave when more attractive positions become available in other schools.
Article
Compensation of K-12 school principals, and the effect that it has on the performance of the schools they lead, has become a relevant policy debate in recent years. This study examines the relationship between principal salaries and student performance on Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP) tests by using multivariate quintile regressions on data from the 2002-2005 school years. Controlling for differences in cost of living across districts, a positive correlation between principal salaries and student CSAP scores was found, particularly in the mathematics section of the test. However, the percentage of a school’s students on free and reduced lunch and teacher salaries were found to have a larger impact on student performance.
Article
This paper presents an empirical analysis of the effects of principals on public high school students' academic achievement, using High School and Beyond. Despite policy relevance, previous qualitative and quantitative research provides little systematic evidence on principal effects, at least for high schools. Principal characteristics and variables designed to capture less tangible aspects of the principal's role are included in educational production functions. The results suggest principals do have a measurable impact on student achievement, through the selection of teachers and setting of academically oriented school goals.
The teaching penalty: An update through 2010. Economic Policy Institute, policy brief 298
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The cost of teacher turnover in five school districts: A pilot study. National Commission on Teaching and America's Future
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Implicit performance awards: An empirical analysis of the labor market for public school administrators
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The revolving door of principalship: Implications from UCEA
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Principal compensation. More research needed on a promising reform
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