Conference Paper

MC: Maximum Coverage Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

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Abstract

Deployment of sensor nodes in underwater wireless sensor networks with a goal of maximum network field coverage is very difficult. Moreover, to access the information from sensor nodes efficiently in aquatic environment is very unpredictable. In our scheme sensor nodes are randomly deployed in the network filed. We have cover the maximum network field through constant mobility of two sinks. Due to consistent movement of mobile sinks every time maximum number of sensor nodes transmit their data packets to the respective mobile sink in their transmission range. Mobility of sinks increases the throughput with balanced energy consumption. Simulation results show that, MC protocol perform better in terms of network lifetime, throughput and energy consumption.

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... In [28], the authors have proposed a protocol for maximum network coverage. The protocol uses two mobile sinks to collect data from the sensor nodes. ...
Article
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Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) have become among the most interesting research areas, since they open the door wide to researchers to conduct research in this field. There are so many issues in underwater sensor networks. The most serious issue is the void region that degrades the performance of networks. It is an issue, where a node doesn’t have any forwarder node to forward the packets to another node. Here, the objective of this work is to avoid the void region. For the same purpose, this work proposes an algorithm named “An Energy-Efficient Quality of Service (QoS) Based Void Avoidance Routing Technique”. The proposed work uses two-hop node information to avoid the problem of void region. This approach uses depth information, distance to next, holding time and residual energy as Quality of Service (QoS) parameters in order to find the best forwarder node to forward the data packets to their destination. The proposed algorithm has been implemented in MATLAB. Results show a better performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, energy tax and number of dead nodes as compared to Energy-Efficient Void Avoidance Routing Scheme for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (E2RV)
... To overcome this issue, nodes' energy needs to be efficiently utilised to improve network life time. The routing protocols play an important role in reserving nodes' energy, however, the development of energy-aware routing protocols for UWSNs is a challenging task [16]- [20]. ...
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Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) serve as a proficient source to monitor aquatic environment. However, data communications and information routing within these systems offer many challenges. To ensure sufficient network lifetime, energy efficiency in routing protocols serve as a major concern in UWSNs. This paper presents an energy competent cooperative routing scheme known as Region Based Courier-nodes Mobility with Incremental Cooperative (RBCMIC) routing. The proposed scheme uses broadcast nature of wireless nodes and performs an incremental cooperative routing. A rigorous evaluation and verification of the proposed scheme with current state-of-the-art yield improved energy efficiency, resulting in extended network lifetime. The results show that an overall improvement of 20% is witnessed in energy usage, whereas a notable 89% improvement is achieved in end-to-end delay in comparison to DEADS protocol.
... Due to waiting for stable network, the routing protocol ends with higher delay. For balanced energy consumption, authors in [57], [58] and [59] introduce two MSs in a network. These MSs regularly get the data from all nodes by moving on a random and predefined circular trajectory. ...
Thesis
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Energy is a valuable resource for underwater sensor nodes which plays an important role to prolong the lifespan of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs). Existing protocol is known for balancing energy consumption in order to maximize network lifetime in data-gathering sensor networks (EBDG). This routing protocol performs hybrid data transmission at different radii of network. Nodes of large radii die earlier which affect network life. It restricts EDBG to small networks. While, in UASNs, direct transmission from farthest place and high burden on closer vicinity nodes reduce the lifetime of nodes. As a result, EBDG is limited to a small scale network in terms of radius. However, our proposed routing protocol enhanced EBDG (EEBDG), identifies this limitation and solves it by optimum transmission range (𝑅𝑜𝑝𝑡). According to our proposed routing protocol, mixed transmission is used within the 𝑅𝑜𝑝𝑡 and then multi-hop transmission is used. Moreover, a mobile sink is also introduced in both routing protocols known as (EBDG-MS) and (EEBDG-MS) to enhance the performance of them. As, EBDG and EEBDG with mobile sink (EBDGMS and EEBDG-MS) are conventional routing protocols. Therefore, these protocols are highly dependent on the architecture of a network. Due to this dependency, they use high energy consumption. Hence, UASNs need self-configuring, adaptive and energy-efficient routing protocols. Thus, a Q-learning based efficient and balanced energy consumption data gathering routing protocol (QL-EEBDG) and with moblie sink (QL EEBDG-MS) are presented. These routing protocols set an optimal next hop forwarder for each node to transmit its sensed data. However, QL-EEBDG and QL-EEBDG-MS deplete more energy than EEBDG and EEBDG-MS. Because it uses a static reward throughout the network to find the neighbor nodes on the basis of minimum distance to the destination. This static reward leads to the shortest paths. These paths fail to achieve minimum energy consumption and increase the network stability period. Consequently, we incorporate this Q-learning in EBDG (Q-EBDG) and EEBDG (Q-EEBDG) with the dynamic factors to enhance the performance. In Q-EBDG and Q-EEBDG, for each node, we select an appropriate forwarder node on the bases of residual energy of source node and the cumulative energy of neighbor nodes. Thus, an energy efficient path is formed between source node and sink which helps in balancing energy consumption among the network nodes. Furthermore, due to topological changes, the void hole may occur in network which affects the network lifetime and network stability period. In order to cope with this limitation, we have proposed Q-EBDG and Q-EEBDG with adjacent nodes (Q-EEBDG-ADN) and (QEBDG-ADN). Simulations are carried out to validate the proposed work in real time scenario. Results for the legitimacy of our work are evaluated in consideration to the following parameters: energy tax, network lifetime, network stability period and throughput.
... The protocol in [33] achieves the maximum coverage (MC) of the network in terms of data gathering from the sensor nodes using two mobile sinks. The mobility of the sinks in a circular fashion ensures the consumption of the energy of nodes in a balanced manner and also reduces packet loss. ...
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Recent research in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has gained the attention of researchers in academia and industry for a number of applications. They include disaster and earthquake prediction, water quality and environment monitoring, leakage and mine detection, military surveillance and underwater navigation. However, the aquatic medium is associated with a number of limitations and challenges: long multipath delay, high interference and noise, harsh environment, low bandwidth and limited battery life of the sensor nodes. These challenges demand research techniques and strategies to be overcome in an efficient and effective fashion. The design of routing protocols for UWSNs is one of the promising solutions to cope with these challenges. This paper presents a survey of the routing protocols for UWSNs. For the ease of description, the addressed routing protocols are classified into two groups: localization-based and localization-free protocols. These groups are further subdivided according to the problems they address or the major parameters they consider during routing. Unlike the existing surveys, this survey considers only the latest and state-of-the-art routing protocols. In addition, every protocol is described in terms of its routing strategy and the problem it addresses and solves. The merit(s) of each protocol is (are) highlighted along with the cost. A description of the protocols in this fashion has a number of advantages for researchers, as compared to the existing surveys. Firstly, the description of the routing strategy of each protocol makes its routing operation easily understandable. Secondly, the demerit(s) of a protocol provides (provide) insight into overcoming its flaw(s) in future investigation. This, in turn, leads to the foundation of new protocols that are more intelligent, robust and efficient with respect to the desired parameters. Thirdly, a protocol can be selected for the appropriate application based on its described merit(s). Finally, open challenges and research directions are presented for future investigation.
... In clustering based protocol, network is stabilized but propagation delay is increased. Maximum coverage (MC) is mobility based routing protocol to minimise the packet drop ratio and increase throughput [16]. However, nodes consume more energy to locate the mobile sinks, and, also comparing the distance of both sinks from sensor nodes. ...
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Mobicast routing protocol for underwater sensor networks
  • Chen
  • Yun-Wei Yuh-Shyan
  • Lin
Chen, Yuh-Shyan, and Yun-Wei Lin. "Mobicast routing protocol for underwater sensor networks." Sensors Journal, IEEE 13, no. 2 (2013): 737-749.