Conference Paper

BEEC: Balanced Energy Efficient Circular Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Design of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) is difficult because of limited battery energy of sensor nodes. Low bandwidth and energy consumption are major problems that we face in UWSNs, due to dynamic behavior of water in underwater environment. In our scheme, circular field is divided into ten sub-regions and each region is divided into eight sectors. Two mobile sinks move to cover the maximum area of the network field. Mobile Sink1 (M s1) covered the first five regions of the network and remaining covered by Mobile Sink2 (M s2). Both mobile sinks move sector wise in clockwise direction. Due to the mobility of the sinks. We have verify the better performance through simulation results of Network lifetime, Stability and Instability period, Energy consumption and Throughput.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Furthermore, data forwarding in a cooperative manner leads to an increase in the energy cost of the network. The algorithms presented in [29][30][31] has no wait and data holding mechanism, and the data are dropped when an MS is not in the coverage of the node. ...
... Another idea that uses two MSs is presented in [29]. The circular regions are defined in the network. ...
Article
Full-text available
An efficient algorithm for the persistence operation of data routing is crucial due to the uniqueness and challenges of the aqueous medium of the underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UA-WSNs). The existing multi-hop algorithms have a high energy cost, data loss, and less stability due to many forwarders for a single-packet delivery. In order to tackle these constraints and limitations, two algorithms using sink mobility and cooperative technique for UA-WSNs are devised. The first one is sink mobility for reliable and persistence operation (SiM-RPO) in UA-WSNs, and the second is the enhanced version of the SiM-RPO named CoSiM-RPO, which utilizes the cooperative technique for better exchanging of the information and minimizes data loss probability. To cover all of the network through mobile sinks (MSs), the division of the network into small portions is accomplished. The path pattern is determined for MSs in a manner to receive data even from a single node in the network. The MSs pick the data directly from the nodes and check them for the errors. When erroneous data are received at the MS, then the relay cooperates to receive correct data. The proposed algorithm boosts the network lifespan, throughput, delay, and stability more than the existing counterpart schemes.
... The protocol enhances the energy efficiency and network throughput through power monitoring solutions. In BEEC [6] routing protocol, a circular field is divided into ten sub regions and each region is further divided into eight sectors. The data is collected from the sectors using two mobile sinks, moving in circular patterns where each covers five different sectors in sequence. ...
... However, in a clustering approach, the failure of a master node disconnects an entire cluster from the network. SOSRP is a hop-to-hop based communication protocol where nodes relay messages to the sink, whereas in Reference [6] Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) are required as mobile sinks to collect the data from the deployed nodes. Therefore, extra resources to control the AUVs are needed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASN) have two important limitations: a very aggressive (marine) environment, and the use of acoustic signals. This means that the techniques for terrestrial wireless sensor networks (WSN) are not applicable. This paper proposes a routing protocol called “Self-Organizing and Scalable Routing Protocol” (SOSRP) which is decentralized and based on tables residing in each node. A combination of the hop value to the collector node and the distance is used as a criterion to create routes leading to the sink node. The expected functions of the protocol include self-organization of the routes, tolerance to failures and detection of isolated nodes. Through the implementation of SOSRP in Matlab and a model of propagation and energy being appropriate for marine environment, performance results are obtained in different scenarios (varying both nodes and transmission range) that include parameters such as end-to-end packet delay, consumption of energy or length of the created routes (with and without failure). The results obtained show a stable, reliable and suitable operation for the deployment and operation of nodes in UASN networks.
... Another protocol as discussed in [22] is Balanced Energy Efficient Circular routing protocol (BEEC) in which the deployment area is assumed to be circular and is divided into ten sub-circular regions which in turn are divided into eight sectors. The transmission of information occurs between the member nodes in each sector and their respective mobile CHs based on their minimum distance from each other. ...
Article
Full-text available
A majority of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) research at present is focussed on the problems of limited energy supply and its impact on network lifetime. Nevertheless, the plethora of applications conceivable with the help of WSNs often demand for MOO (Multi-Objective Optimization) formulations, where several design goals contend together for the best trade-off solution among them. Therefore, research investigators must also regard other miscellaneous issues in addition to energy efficiency for applicability of WSNs in practical scenarios like Internet of Things. DREAM (Delay-sensitive, Reliable, Energy-Efficient, Adaptive and Mobility-Aware) routing protocol is proposed in the present work, that ameliorates network lifetime (in terms of First Node Death and Last Node Death), throughput (in terms of number of packets sent to Base Station) and latency (average end-to-end delay in seconds) in the network along with enhancing the reliability (in terms of percentage packet loss) of delivered data. The proposed protocol also integrates mobility and heterogeneity of the nodes to cater to the needs of an application-independent general purpose WSN routing protocol, which can be used commercially. Comparative analysis with existing protocols establishes the superiority of the proposed protocol, which is capable of improving the network lifetime by about 3.54% and simultaneously lowering the delay by 35.5%, along with the amelioration of other parameters.
... The techniques [13]- [19] are also developed for the energy management in different perspectives. By following all the aforementioned techniques, we have proposed a new technique in order to overcome their trade-offs. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
High price fluctuations have a direct impact on electricity market. Thus, accurate and plausible price forecasts have been implemented to mitigate the consequences of price dynamics. This paper proposes two techniques to deal with the Electricity Price Forecasting (EPF) problem. Firstly, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model is used to predict the EPF. Secondly, a principle component analysis model is used for the feature extraction. We have conducted simulations to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which show that CNN based approach outperforms the multilayer perceptron model.
... In [27], the authors have proposed a balanced energy-efficient routing protocol based on circular network. This circular network is divided into ten circular regions known as sectors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) have become among the most interesting research areas, since they open the door wide to researchers to conduct research in this field. There are so many issues in underwater sensor networks. The most serious issue is the void region that degrades the performance of networks. It is an issue, where a node doesn’t have any forwarder node to forward the packets to another node. Here, the objective of this work is to avoid the void region. For the same purpose, this work proposes an algorithm named “An Energy-Efficient Quality of Service (QoS) Based Void Avoidance Routing Technique”. The proposed work uses two-hop node information to avoid the problem of void region. This approach uses depth information, distance to next, holding time and residual energy as Quality of Service (QoS) parameters in order to find the best forwarder node to forward the data packets to their destination. The proposed algorithm has been implemented in MATLAB. Results show a better performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, energy tax and number of dead nodes as compared to Energy-Efficient Void Avoidance Routing Scheme for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (E2RV)
... A sensor node consists of transmission, data processing, a power source, and multiple sensor units [1]. The WSN perceives and interacts with the physical world by revolutionizing the ways in application domains including environmental sensing, health, military defense, and habitat monitoring [2][3][4][5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A wireless sensor network (WSN) has achieved significant importance in tracking different physical or environmental conditions using wireless sensor nodes. Such types of networks are used in various applications including smart cities, smart building, military target tracking and surveillance, natural disaster relief, and smart homes. However, the limited power capacity of sensor nodes is considered a major issue that hampers the performance of a WSN. A plethora of research has been conducted to reduce the energy consumption of sensor nodes in traditional WSN, however the limited functional capability of such networks is the main constraint in designing sophisticated and dynamic solutions. Given this, software defined networking (SDN) has revolutionized traditional networks by providing a programmable and flexible framework. Therefore, SDN concepts can be utilized in designing energy-efficient WSN solutions. In this paper, we exploit SDN capabilities to conserve energy consumption in a traditional WSN. To achieve this, an energy-aware multihop routing protocol (named EASDN) is proposed for software defined wireless sensor network (SDWSN). The proposed protocol is evaluated in a real environment. For this purpose, a test bed is developed using Raspberry Pi. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm exhibits promising results in terms of network lifetime, average energy consumption, the packet delivery ratio, and average delay in comparison to an existing energy efficient routing protocol for SDWSN and a traditional source routing algorithm.
... Due to waiting for stable network, the routing protocol ends with higher delay. For balanced energy consumption, authors in [57], [58] and [59] introduce two MSs in a network. These MSs regularly get the data from all nodes by moving on a random and predefined circular trajectory. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Energy is a valuable resource for underwater sensor nodes which plays an important role to prolong the lifespan of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs). Existing protocol is known for balancing energy consumption in order to maximize network lifetime in data-gathering sensor networks (EBDG). This routing protocol performs hybrid data transmission at different radii of network. Nodes of large radii die earlier which affect network life. It restricts EDBG to small networks. While, in UASNs, direct transmission from farthest place and high burden on closer vicinity nodes reduce the lifetime of nodes. As a result, EBDG is limited to a small scale network in terms of radius. However, our proposed routing protocol enhanced EBDG (EEBDG), identifies this limitation and solves it by optimum transmission range (𝑅𝑜𝑝𝑡). According to our proposed routing protocol, mixed transmission is used within the 𝑅𝑜𝑝𝑡 and then multi-hop transmission is used. Moreover, a mobile sink is also introduced in both routing protocols known as (EBDG-MS) and (EEBDG-MS) to enhance the performance of them. As, EBDG and EEBDG with mobile sink (EBDGMS and EEBDG-MS) are conventional routing protocols. Therefore, these protocols are highly dependent on the architecture of a network. Due to this dependency, they use high energy consumption. Hence, UASNs need self-configuring, adaptive and energy-efficient routing protocols. Thus, a Q-learning based efficient and balanced energy consumption data gathering routing protocol (QL-EEBDG) and with moblie sink (QL EEBDG-MS) are presented. These routing protocols set an optimal next hop forwarder for each node to transmit its sensed data. However, QL-EEBDG and QL-EEBDG-MS deplete more energy than EEBDG and EEBDG-MS. Because it uses a static reward throughout the network to find the neighbor nodes on the basis of minimum distance to the destination. This static reward leads to the shortest paths. These paths fail to achieve minimum energy consumption and increase the network stability period. Consequently, we incorporate this Q-learning in EBDG (Q-EBDG) and EEBDG (Q-EEBDG) with the dynamic factors to enhance the performance. In Q-EBDG and Q-EEBDG, for each node, we select an appropriate forwarder node on the bases of residual energy of source node and the cumulative energy of neighbor nodes. Thus, an energy efficient path is formed between source node and sink which helps in balancing energy consumption among the network nodes. Furthermore, due to topological changes, the void hole may occur in network which affects the network lifetime and network stability period. In order to cope with this limitation, we have proposed Q-EBDG and Q-EEBDG with adjacent nodes (Q-EEBDG-ADN) and (QEBDG-ADN). Simulations are carried out to validate the proposed work in real time scenario. Results for the legitimacy of our work are evaluated in consideration to the following parameters: energy tax, network lifetime, network stability period and throughput.
... A chain is constructed for each cluster, leader being the CH or the SCH, chosen on the basis of highest residual energy and minimum distance between the node and the BS. Another protocol as discussed in [8] is balanced energy efficient circular routing protocol (BEEC) in which the deployment area is assumed to be circular and is divided into ten sub-circular regions which in turn are divided into eight sectors. The transmission of information occurs between the member nodes in each sector and their respective mobile CHs based on their minimum distance from each other. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Wireless sensor networks have lately come out as a crucial computing platform. Since a WSN is composed of numerous low power, battery operated sensor nodes leading to constant energy dissipation in the network, researchers have worked on clustering techniques which tend to cope with these sensor deficiencies. In this paper, we attempt to ameliorate the lifetime, stability and throughput of the network through a new convention named Energy Efficient Sector based Clustering Protocol for heterogeneous network. In the proposed algorithm, the area of deployment is split into various sectors. The election of Cluster Head is based on maximum remaining energies of the sensors. The outcomes of the simulations establish that our proposed protocol outperforms SEP in terms of network lifetime as well as throughput by a significant amount.
... The balanced energy-efficient circular (BEEC) routing protocol [34] considers a circular network divided into ten circular regions called sectors. Two mobile sinks collect data from these sectors; one sink for five different sectors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has gained the attention of researchers in academia and industry for a number of applications. They include disaster and earthquake prediction, water quality and environment monitoring, leakage and mine detection, military surveillance and underwater navigation. However, the aquatic medium is associated with a number of limitations and challenges: long multipath delay, high interference and noise, harsh environment, low bandwidth and limited battery life of the sensor nodes. These challenges demand research techniques and strategies to be overcome in an efficient and effective fashion. The design of routing protocols for UWSNs is one of the promising solutions to cope with these challenges. This paper presents a survey of the routing protocols for UWSNs. For the ease of description, the addressed routing protocols are classified into two groups: localization-based and localization-free protocols. These groups are further subdivided according to the problems they address or the major parameters they consider during routing. Unlike the existing surveys, this survey considers only the latest and state-of-the-art routing protocols. In addition, every protocol is described in terms of its routing strategy and the problem it addresses and solves. The merit(s) of each protocol is (are) highlighted along with the cost. A description of the protocols in this fashion has a number of advantages for researchers, as compared to the existing surveys. Firstly, the description of the routing strategy of each protocol makes its routing operation easily understandable. Secondly, the demerit(s) of a protocol provides (provide) insight into overcoming its flaw(s) in future investigation. This, in turn, leads to the foundation of new protocols that are more intelligent, robust and efficient with respect to the desired parameters. Thirdly, a protocol can be selected for the appropriate application based on its described merit(s). Finally, open challenges and research directions are presented for future investigation.
Chapter
High price fluctuations have a direct impact on electricity market. Thus, accurate and plausible price forecasts have been implemented to mitigate the consequences of price dynamics. This paper proposes two techniques to deal with the Electricity Price Forecasting (EPF) problem. Firstly, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model is used to predict the EPF. Secondly, a principle component analysis model is used for the feature extraction. We have conducted simulations to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which show that CNN based approach outperforms the multilayer perceptron model.
Article
Distribution of nodes in different depths leads unbalanced energy consumption in underwater wireless sensor networks. This issue is one of the most important challenges in routing protocols based on depth because nodes with larger depth rely on smaller depth nodes to send their data to the sink through multi-hop communications. This situation applies high load on nodes with small depth as they die faster than other nodes. Besides, low bandwidth and speed of acoustic channels in the underwater environment result in increase of the probability of collision especially when several nodes send their data simultaneously and increase of delay in sending and collecting data. The aim of the proposed protocol which is called energy-efficient data gathering scheme (EEDG) is to relatively fix the aforementioned problems in three steps. Firstly, the balance of energy consumption is achieved by grouping nodes into smaller sets that are managed by temporary forwarder nodes. Forwarder nodes are responsible for gathering data from their subset nodes in one-hop communication in each round. Secondly, collision rates and packet loss are improved using the proposed MAC protocol by which ordinary nodes send their data to their forwarder nodes only at dedicated time slots. Finally, delay in data collection process from the whole network is decreased using the proposed graph structure, that is, forwarder nodes are met by the mobile sink according to the specified degree for them in the graph. Simulation results using NS2 show efficiency of the EEDG in terms of energy consumption, end-to-end delay, and throughput.
Article
Full-text available
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) serve as a proficient source to monitor aquatic environment. However, data communications and information routing within these systems offer many challenges. To ensure sufficient network lifetime, energy efficiency in routing protocols serve as a major concern in UWSNs. This paper presents an energy competent cooperative routing scheme known as Region Based Courier-nodes Mobility with Incremental Cooperative (RBCMIC) routing. The proposed scheme uses broadcast nature of wireless nodes and performs an incremental cooperative routing. A rigorous evaluation and verification of the proposed scheme with current state-of-the-art yield improved energy efficiency, resulting in extended network lifetime. The results show that an overall improvement of 20% is witnessed in energy usage, whereas a notable 89% improvement is achieved in end-to-end delay in comparison to DEADS protocol.
Article
Full-text available
Existing methods for tracking mobile sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) often incur considerable energy consumption and overhead. To address this issue, we propose a Detour-Aware Mobile Sink Tracking (DAMST) method via analysis of movement angle changes of mobile sinks, for collecting data in a low-overhead and energy efficient way. In the proposed method, while a mobile sink passes through a region, it appoints a specific node as a region agent to collect information of the whole region, and records nodes near or on its trajectory as footprints. If it needs information from the region agent in a future time it will construct an energy efficient path from the region agent to itself by calculating its own movement angles according to the footprints, as well as getting rid of detours by analyzing these movement angles. Finally, the performance of the tracking method is evaluated systematically under different trajectory patterns and footprint appointment intervals. The simulation results consolidate that DAMST has advantages in reducing energy consumption and data overhead.
Article
Full-text available
Due to the unpleasant and unpredictable underwater environment, designing an energy-efficient routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demands more accuracy and extra computations. In the proposed scheme, we introduce a mobile sink (MS), i.e., an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and also courier nodes (CNs), to minimize the energy consumption of nodes. MS and CNs stop at specific stops for data gathering; later on, CNs forward the received data to the MS for further transmission. By the mobility of CNs and MS, the overall energy consumption of nodes is minimized. We perform simulations to investigate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it to preexisting techniques. Simulation results are compared in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss, transmission loss and packet drop ratio. The results show that the proposed technique performs better in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss and scalability.
Article
Full-text available
Due to their special environment, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are usually deployed over a large sea area and the nodes are usually floating. This results in a lower beacon node distribution density, a longer time for localization, and more energy consumption. Currently most of the localization algorithms in this field do not pay enough consideration on the mobility of the nodes. In this paper, by analyzing the mobility patterns of water near the seashore, a localization method for UWSNs based on a Mobility Prediction and a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (MP-PSO) is proposed. In this method, the range-based PSO algorithm is used to locate the beacon nodes, and their velocities can be calculated. The velocity of an unknown node is calculated by using the spatial correlation of underwater object’s mobility, and then their locations can be predicted. The range-based PSO algorithm may cause considerable energy consumption and its computation complexity is a little bit high, nevertheless the number of beacon nodes is relatively smaller, so the calculation for the large number of unknown nodes is succinct, and this method can obviously decrease the energy consumption and time cost of localizing these mobile nodes. The simulation results indicate that this method has higher localization accuracy and better localization coverage rate compared with some other widely used localization methods in this field.
Article
Full-text available
Multihop communication in wireless sensor network (WSN) brings new challenges in reliable data transmission. Recent work shows that data collection from sensor nodes using mobile sink minimizes multihop data transmission and improves energy efficiency. However, due to continuous movements, mobile sink has limited communication time to collect data from sensor nodes, which results in rapid depletion of node’s energy. Therefore, we propose a data transmission scheme that addresses the aforementioned constraints. The proposed scheme first finds out the group based region on the basis of localization information of the sensor nodes and predefined trajectory information of a mobile sink. After determining the group region in the network, selection of master nodes is made. The master nodes directly transmit their data to the mobile sink upon its arrival at their group region through restricted flooding scheme. In addition, the agent node concept is introduced for swapping of the role of the master nodes in each group region. The master node when consuming energy up to a certain threshold, neighboring node with second highest residual energy is selected as an agent node. The mathematical analysis shows that the selection of agent node maximizes the throughput while minimizing transmission delay in the network.
Article
Full-text available
Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) is a particular kind of sensor networks which is characterized by using acoustic channels for communication. UWSN is challenged by great issues specially the energy supply of sensor node which can be wasted rapidly by several factors. The most proposed routing protocols for terrestrial sensor networks are not adequate for UWSN, thus new design of routing protocols must be adapted to this constrain. In this paper we propose two new clustering algorithms based on Fuzzy C-Means mechanisms. In the first proposition, the cluster head is elected initially based on the closeness to the center of the cluster, then the node having the higher residual energy elects itself as a cluster head. All non-cluster head nodes transmit sensed data to the cluster head. This latter performs data aggregation and transmits the data directly to the base station. The second algorithm uses the same principle in forming clusters and electing cluster heads but operates in multi-hop mode to forward data from cluster heads to the underwater sink (uw-sink). Furthermore the two proposed algorithms are tested for static and dynamic deployment. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms resulting in an extension of the network lifetime.
Article
Full-text available
The sensor nodes near to the fixed sink node suffer from the quickly exhausted energy. For this, many methods have been researched to distribute the energy consumption into all wireless sensor nodes using a mobile sink. Since the mobile sink changes its location in the network continuously, it has limited time to communicate with the sensor nodes and needs the time to move to each sensor node. Therefore, before the mobile sink approaches the sensor node, the node can collect huge data by event occurrence. It causes the memory overflow of the sensor node and then the data loss. We propose a novel data gathering method based on a mobile sink considering the data loss in wireless sensor networks. The proposed scheme actively sends the stored data to the mobile sink by considering the amount of collected data in the cluster header and the mobile patterns of the sink node. By doing so, it minimizes the data loss of each sensor node. To show the superiority, we compare it with the existing scheme. Our experimental results show that our proposed scheme minimizes the data loss and has similar network lifetime over the existing scheme based on a mobile sink.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we tackle one fundamental problem in Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs): robust, scalable and energy efficient routing. UWSNs are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks in the following aspects: low bandwidth, high latency, node float mobility (resulting in high network dynamics), high error probability, and 3-dimensional space. These new features bring many challenges to the network protocol design of UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a novel routing protocol, called vector-based forwarding (VBF), to provide robust, scalable and energy efficient routing. VBF is essentially a position-based routing approach: nodes close to the “vector” from the source to the destination will forward the message. In this way, only a small fraction of the nodes are involved in routing. VBF also adopts a localized and distributed self-adaptation algorithm which allows nodes to weigh the benefit of forwarding packets and thus reduce energy consumption by discarding the low benefit packets. Through simulation experiments, we show the promising performance of VBF.
Article
Full-text available
Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Network lifetime is crucial to 3D Under Water Sensor Networks (UWSNs) because it decreases more seriously than in 2D scenarios as the radius of the monitored region grows. We utilize sink mobility to solve the problem intuitively because the sink deployed in a vehicle is controllable while sensors are hard to be retrieved and recharged. It is hard to extend the results in 2D scenarios, i.e., a circular motion, to 3D UWSNs directly because there are more factors influencing network lifetime. However there is little literature on utilizing and analyzing sink mobility in 3D UWSNs. To simplify 3D sink mobility, we convert any motion to a combination of circular motions through mapping. After discussing the characteristics of circular motions, we propose MOSS, an optimal MObile Sink Strategy, to maximize the network lifetime in 3D UWSNs. Simulation results show that MOSS outperforms other motion strategies and improves the network lifetime at least in the order of 800% when R ≥ 5r, where R is the network radius and r is the transmission range of sensors.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate a mobicast, also called a mobile geocast, problem in three-dimensional (3-D) underwater sensor networks (USNs), which aims to overcome the hole problem and minimizes the energy consumption of the sensor nodes while maximizing the data collection. In this paper, all underwater sensor nodes are randomly distributed in a 3-D underwater environment in the sea to form a 3-D USN. Considered a mobile sink or an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), all possible sensor nodes near the AUV form a 3-D geographic zone called a 3-D zone of reference (3-D ZOR). The AUV travels a user-defined route and continuously collects data from sensor nodes within a series of 3-D ZORs at different times. The main problem is how to efficiently collect data from sensor nodes within a 3-D ZOR while those sensor nodes are usually in sleep mode for a long period. The routing protocol relies on two phases: the first phase consists of collecting data within a 3-D ZOR, and the second phase consists of waking up those sensor nodes in the next 3-D ZOR to be queried while trying to avoid topology holes. To save power, only sensor nodes in a 3-D ZOR are notified to enter the active mode in order to deliver sensed results to the AUV. The specific characteristics of USNs, including low communication bandwidth, large propagation delay, and ocean current, are significantly different from wireless sensor networks. To consider the characteristics of USNs, a new mobicast routing protocol is developed in 3-D USNs. The key design challenge is to develop a power-saving mobicast protocol in 3-D USNs to overcome the unpredictable 3-D hole problem. To solve the hole problem, an “apple slice” technique is used to build multiple segments to surround the hole and to assure routing path continuity. Finally, performance analysis is derived, and simulation results illustrate the performance improvement in successful delivery rate, power consumption, and message overhead.
Conference Paper
Many routing protocols are proposed regarding energy efficiency in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). We propose sparsity-aware energy efficient clustering (SEEC) protocol for UWSNs. SEEC specially search sparse regions of the network. We divide the network region into subregions of equal size and search sparse and dense regions of the network field with the help of sparsity search algorithm (SSA) and density search algorithm (DSA). SEEC improves network lifetime through sink mobility in sparse regions and clustering in dense regions of the network. SEEC also achieves network stability with optimal number of clusters formation in dense regions of the network where each dense region logically represents a static cluster. The division of the network region into subregions control routing hole problem in the UWSNs. SEEC minimizes network energy consumption with balanced scheme operations. Effectiveness of our proposed protocol is verified by simulation results.
Article
The design of routing protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) poses many challenges due to long propagation, high mobility, limited bandwidth, multi-path and Doppler effect. Because of the void-hole caused by the uneven distribution of nodes and sparse deployment, the selection of next hop forwarding nodes only based on the state of current node may result in the failure of forwarding in the local sparse region. In order to reduce the probability of encountering void holes in the sparse networks, in this paper we present weighting depth and forwarding area division DBR routing protocol, called WDFAD-DBR. The novelties of WDFAD-DBR lie in: firstly, next forwarding nodes are selected according to the weighting sum of depth difference of two hops, which considers not only the current depth but also the depth of expected next hop. In this way, the probability of meeting void holes is effectively reduced. Secondly, the mechanisms for forwarding area division and neighbor node prediction are designed to reduce the energy consumption caused by duplicated packets and neighbors' requests, respectively. Thirdly, we make theoretical analyses on routing performance in case of considering channel contending with respect to delivery ratio, energy consumption and average end-to-end delay. Finally we conduct extensive simulations using NS-3 simulator to verify the effectiveness and validity of WDFAD-DBR.
Article
Efficient management of energy resources is a challenging research area in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Recent studies have revealed that clustering is an efficient topology control approach for organizing a network into a connected hierarchy which balances the traffic load of the sensor nodes and improves the overall scalability and the lifetime of WSNs. Inspired by the advantages of clustering techniques, we have three main contributions in this paper. First, we propose an energy efficient cluster formation algorithm called Active Node Cluster Formation (ANCF). The core aim to propose ANCF algorithm is to distribute heavy data traffic and high energy consumption load evenly in the network by offering unequal size of clusters in the network. The developed scheme appoints each cluster head (CH) near to the sink and sensing event while the remaining set of the cluster heads (CHs) are appointed in the middle of each cluster to achieve the highest level of energy efficiency in dense deployment. Second, we propose a lightweight sensing mechanism called Active Node Sensing Algorithm (ANSA). The key aim to propose the ANSA algorithm is to avoid high sensing overlapping data redundancy by appointing a set of active nodes in each cluster with satisfy coverage near to the event. Third, we propose an Active Node Routing Algorithm (ANRA) to address complex inter and intra cluster routing issues in highly dense deployment based on the node dominating values. Extensive experimental studies conducted through network simulator NCTUNs 6.0 reveal that our proposed scheme outperforms existing routing techniques in terms of energy efficiency, end-to-end delay and data redundancy, congestion management and setup robustness.
Conference Paper
Network efficiency and reliability in terms of high throughput, energy conservation, low bit error rate (BER) and reduced delay are pre-requisites for many applications in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). However, distinctive features of UWSNs like low available bandwidth, large propagation delay, highly dynamic network topology, and high error probability pose many challenges for devising efficient and reliable communication protocols. In this paper, we therefore propose a protocol that focuses on enhancing network reliability and efficiency using cooperative routing and sink mobility. Many cooperative communication protocols have been developed which investigate the physical and MAC layer aspects to improve link efficiency in harsh underwater environment, however, at network layer, it is still unexplored. Similarly, cooperative routing is not yet collaborated with sink mobility. In this paper, Cooperative routing is implemented at network layer along with sink mobility. Potential relay and destination nodes for cooperative routing are selected on the basis of their depth as well as residual energy information. Data from source node is forwarded towards the destination node via relay nodes in a cooperative manner. Sink mobility further improves the results by directly gathering data from nodes. Based on the comprehensive simulations imple-mented in MATLAB, we observe that our scheme improves the performance in terms of network lifetime, energy efficiency and throughput along with reducing delay and BER. I. RELATED WORK Taking advantage of the broadcast nature of wireless transmission, cooperative communication has been proposed as a powerful alternative to reduce fading and other link impairments, where transmitted signal can be overheard by many unintended sensor nodes [1], [2]. Some related work presented in this domain is presented here An innovative physical layer solution involving cooperative communication is given in [2], where outage probability and capacity expressions are derived for cooperative multicarrier UAC systems with AF and DF relaying. Further, they pro-pose a receiver design to mitigate the degrading Doppler effects. In [3], Cooperative UnderWater Acoustic Multiple Input Single Output (CUWA-MISO) using DF is proposed where each node of network uses nearest adjacent node as a virtual antenna in a cooperative manner. It improves the system performance with the help of spatial diversity. Luo et al. [4], explored cooperation at MAC layer and proposed a distributed MAC protocol, that is, Coordinated Transmission MAC (CT-MAC) for underwater MIMO based network uplink communication. The scheme also addresses long propagation delay and collision among control packets in UAC. Authors in [5] suggested that channel efficiency is improved by applying asynchronous cooperative transmission for three dimensional UWSNs. Two typical forwarding schemes: AF and DF are implemented, analyzed and compared. In COoperative Best Relay Assessment (COBRA) [6], a relay selection criterion for underwater cooperative acoustic networks is developed. COBRA minimizes the One-way Packet Transmission (OPT) time. The best relay selection algorithm is used here. In [7], authors consider cooperative scheme with a design aspect from the physical layer to the network layer, leading to the efficient operation and reduced transceiver's complexity. It enhances the reliability by providing diversity gains through intermediate relay nodes.
Networking technologies, services, and protocols; performance of computer and communication networks; mobile and wireless communications systems
  • Peng Xie
  • Jun-Hong Cui
  • Li Lao
Xie, Peng, Jun-Hong Cui, and Li Lao. "VBF: vector-based forwarding protocol for underwater sensor networks." In Networking 2006. Networking technologies, services, and protocols; performance of computer and communication networks; mobile and wireless communications systems, pp. 1216-1221. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006.
Mobicast routing protocol for underwater sensor networks
  • Chen
  • Yun-Wei Yuh-Shyan
  • Lin
Chen, Yuh-Shyan, and Yun-Wei Lin. "Mobicast routing protocol for underwater sensor networks." Sensors Journal, IEEE 13, no. 2 (2013): 737-749.