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Physical activity among older people who are deaf and hard of hearing: perceived barriers and facilitators

Authors:
  • Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the ways in which participation in physical activity is prevented or facilitated among older adults who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Interviews were conducted with 8 individuals who are D/HH aged 50+ years (4 females and 4 males). The sample was created by asking key people in local organisations who they would recommend. Participants were recruited in an effort to have a cross-section of different hearing loss view-related experiences. Data was analysed using a thematic analysis. The analysis revealed four themes that helped to explain why physical activity was perceived as being either prevented or facilitated among older adults who are D/HH: communication strategies; visual and technical support; environment; physical activity participation. Appropriate physical activities can help to reduce personal and family stress and facilitate bringing about new long-term friendships, as well as help the individuals to take their minds off the hectic course of life. Various communication strategies can be used effectively in during leisure time physical activities with people who are D/HH. The main challenge for any specialist in physical activities (educator, coach or physiotherapist) is to pinpoint the most effective method for a particular individual who is D/HH and then become proficient in it. Our study confirmed that participation in physical activities is very important for all older adults who are D/HH in order to build connections with existing mainstream community activities.
Physical Activity Review vol. 4, 2016 Original Articles
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.16926/par.2016.04.09
Physical activity among older people who are deaf and hard of
hearing: perceived barriers and facilitators
Authors' Contribution:
A – Study Design
B – Data Collection
C – Statistical Analysis
D – Manuscript Preparation
E – Funds Collection
Petra Kurková
Palacký University Olomouc, Faculty of Education, Czech Republic
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the ways in which participation in physical activity is prevented or
facilitated among older adults who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Interviews were conducted with 8
individuals who are D/HH aged 50+ years (4 females and 4 males). The sample was created by asking key people
in local organisations who they would recommend. Participants were recruited in an effort to have a cross-section
of different hearing loss view-related experiences. Data was analysed using a thematic analysis. The analysis
revealed four themes that helped to explain why physical activity was perceived as being either prevented or
facilitated among older adults who are D/HH: communication strategies; visual and technical support;
environment; physical activity participation. Appropriate physical activities can help to reduce personal and
family stress and facilitate bringing about new long-term friendships, as well as help the individuals to take their
minds off the hectic course of life. Various communication strategies can be used effectively in during leisure time
physical activities with people who are D/HH. The main challenge for any specialist in physical activities
(educator, coach or physiotherapist) is to pinpoint the most effective method for a particular individual who is
D/HH and then become proficient in it. Our study confirmed that participation in physical activities is very
important for all older adults who are D/HH in order to build connections with existing mainstream community
activities.
Keywords: communication strategies; visual and technical support; environment; participation
INTRODUCTION
Being physically active can help to improve one’s health and wellbeing and prevent
secondary medical conditions. For instance, children in kindergarten are more physically active
than teenagers and young adults and seem to satisfy the criteria for health benefits [1 ]. With
increasing age, people seem to engage less and less in physical activities. However, physically
older adults are at lower risk of disease and have higher levels of physical and cognitive
function, psychosocial well-being and independence than inactive older adults [2].
For individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH), the level of physical fitness
might be lower than that of people without any disability. The reasons for this difference might
be due to a lack of auditive information or communication problems and a lack of auditive
information during physical activity [3-7].
72 Physical Activity Review|Volume 4 | 2016
Regular physical activity and physical fitness are especially important in maintaining the
health and well-being of people of all ages not excepting of older age population [8, 9]. It is
particularly important that people who are D/HH and are usually physically inactive devote
some time to physical activity since it significantly helps to improve their quality of life [10, 11].
The deaf and hard of hearing population is a heterogeneous group that includes persons who
have varying degrees of hearing loss, use multiple languages and belong to different cultures.
Factors that must be considered with this population include the degree of hearing loss, the age
of onset of loss, the preferred language including supportive communication modes and
psychological issues. Individuals who are D/HH may be disadvantaged in terms of health and
participation in beneficial physical activities compared to the majority of society due to their
information deficit and limited auditory perception [12-14].
The European Disability Strategy 2010–2020 [15] focuses on eliminating all barriers faced
by more than 80 million Europeans that often prevent them from fully taking part in society
(e.g. sports, leisure, cultural and recreational organizations, events, venues, etc.) and the
economy. Rimmer et al. [16] points out that the degree of participation in physical activity
among people with disabilities is affected by a multifactorial set of barriers (architectural, social,
policy and attitudinal) and facilitators that are unique to this population. Despite having
general awareness of the important benefits of physical activity, the rate of participation in
leisure time physical activity by people with disabilities is low [17-19]. At present, there is very
little understanding of the constraints on the leisure time physical activity among people who
are D/HH. To promote an active and healthy lifestyle amongst individuals who are D/HH, it is
necessary to understand the factors that prevent or facilitate their participation in physical
activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ways in which participation in
physical activity is either prevented or facilitated among older adults who are D/HH.
METHODS
Participants
After gaining faculty ethical approval for the study, participants were recruited using a
purposive sampling strategy [20]. The criteria for selection were: (a) hearing loss of a minimum
of 55 dB in the better ear (in three frequencies of pure tones of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz); (b) active
participation in physical activities in the past five years; (c) age 50+. The participants in this
study were 8 older adults who are D/HH (4 females and 4 males). The group of participants
who are D/HH was comprised of deaf persons who use Czech sign language (n=2); persons
who are hard of hearing and speak spoken Czech (n=2); persons with practical deafness who
speak spoken Czech with the support of lip reading (n=2); and persons with a Cochlear Implant
(n=2) (Table 1). Not counting one participant who reported having an additional visual
impairment, the participants had no other additional disabilities.
Data collection and analysis
The sample was created by asking key people in local organisations to identify potential
participants. Individuals who might have different perspectives on the study topics were
recruited in an effort to obtain a cross-section of different hearing loss view-related experiences.
After being selected, participants were given written and oral or signed information about the
study and they were asked to sign a Written Informed Consent Statement. Sociodemographic
data were also collected (Table 1). The interview was conducted in a private, quiet and light
location with easy access. The discussion were recorded and later fully transcribed verbatim.
The Principal Investigator had prior ‘interview’ experience and was assisted by an interpreter
from/into Czech Sign Language (CSL). An interview guide was used to help facilitate the
Physical Activity Review|Volume 4 | 2016 73
discussion. Questions included in the guide were, ‘Why did you decide to be physically
active?’, ‘What are some barriers to your physical activity?’, ‘How does being active impact
your wellbeing?’ and ‘How have you remained active?’ Clarification, elaboration, and detail
orientated probes, that is, curiosity-driven follow-up questions, were used throughout to elicit
richer data [21].
In the present study, analysis was performed by: (a) independent and exhaustive
reading of the transcribed material by two independent evaluators; (b) identification of
themes/topics (also called ‘units of meaning’ orrecord units’); (c) review and examination of
these units to define categories that synthesized the material; (d) reconciliation and comparison
of each group’s results.
RESULTS
The analysis revealed several themes that helped to explain why physical activity was
perceived as being either prevented or facilitated among older adults who are D/HH. Each
theme often captured both a barrier and facilitator to physical activity. The following themes
that were identified through the analysis will be discussed in turn: communication strategies;
visual and technical support; environment; physical activity participation.
Communication strategies
Participants in the study communicated using speech as well as lip reading and written
texts. Both deaf individuals without cochlear implants communicated primarily through sign
language; they regarded any written information as being difficult to understand. Only four of
eight participants who are D/HH mentioned that they did not have difficulties in
communication. Others stated that the hearing population is uninformed or indifferent.
To put this in context, audiologists categorize hearing based on pure-tone frequencies of 500 to
4000 Hz and as: no hearing loss 0–25 dB, no or very slight hearing problems, able to hear
whispers; slight hearing loss 26–40 dB, able to hear and repeat words spoken in a normal voice
at a distance of 1 metre; moderate hearing loss 41–60 dB, able to hear and repeat words spoken
in raised voice at distances over 1 metre; severe hearing loss 61–80 dB, able to hear some words
when shouted into the better ear; and profound hearing loss including deafness of 81 dB or
greater, unable to hear and understand even a shouted voice [22].
Participants in this study had profound hearing loss or deafness; six of them used a
hearing aid or CI (Table 1). The hearing aids users reported that the hearing aid helped him/her
to communicate more easily and to control their surroundings. Users of cochlear implants also
indicated that the CI helped them to better understand speech. However, problems arise when
they could not have their CI (e.g. during swimming, sauna, in a storm). One of the CI users
mentioned that, in such situations, he communicates using sign language that he mastered in
childhood. CI users communicate in sign language with hearing as well as deaf persons in
acoustically hostile environments when wanting to be sure that they understand each other
well.
Older adults who are D/HH try to resolve failures of the auditory analyzer through an
agreement in advance and thus avoid misunderstandings in communication. All of them
assume a specific attitude with regard to their communication skills and the skills of the
counterparties with whom they communicate. Users of hearing aids or CI eliminate common
problems with comprehension in noisy environments in various ways: “After years of living
with hearing loss and possible communication pitfalls, I already know what to do. Usually, I tell
the person in advance what I need for smooth communication, or I resolve the situation at the
first sign of trouble” (P3, 56 years old).
74 Physical Activity Review|Volume 4 | 2016
Table 1. Participants characteristic
Participants
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
Age
52
67
56
64
64
58
72
64
Gender
Female
+
+
+
+
Male
+
+
+
+
Onset of hearing loss
Years of age
FB
FB
5
13
2
5
18
36
Type of hearing loss
Sensorineural
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Degree of hearing loss
Deafness
+
+
+
+
Profound hearing loss
+
+
Moderate hearing loss
+
+
Use of hearing aid or CI
Yes
+
+
+
+
CI
CI
No
+
+
Primary mode of communication
Czech sign language
+
+
+
Czech language (spoken speech)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Difficulties in communicating
I have no problem
+
+
+
+
Uninformed
+
+
Indifferent
+
+
+
+
+
Hearing state of parents
Both parents hearing
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Hearing state of siblings
Hearing siblings
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Education
Regular school
+
+
+
+
+
Leaving examination
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
University degree
+
+
+
+
Note. FB = from birth; CI = cochlear implant
Physical Activity Review|Volume 4 | 2016 75
Visual and technical support
Sign languages are common in all settings; therefore, it is highly recommended that they
be used, because these signs can become generalized to other settings and individuals, leading
to increased effective communication in other environments [23]. If an individual who is D/HH
does not know signs but is able to read lips, it is important for the coach or instructor to face
him or her when giving directions, feedback and/or instructional cues. If it is not possible to
use communication with the support of sound amplification (hearing aid, CI) and we want to
attract the attention of deaf people, it is necessary to touch their upper arm or use gestures in
their field of vision, or barring that, vibrations (foot stamping on the floor). A participant with
residual hearing appreciated the following sensitive approach taken by their Pilates instructor:
“Because I need to see the instructor, I have to watch the demonstration and know her exercise
technique we just have to adapt to each other …. I cannot constantly pay for individual
lessons. Well, I also have to explain to others in the group why I have to see the instructor and
therefore choose a suitable place” (P3, 56 years old).
If individuals who are D/HH can hear some sounds, but they are not recognizable (e.g.,
high tones or changes from one word to another), instructors should modify their instructions.
The suitability of this simple solution was mentioned by a participant in the Pilates group: “Our
passionate trainer even uses graphic cards with simple labels and pictures to lead the exercise”
(P3, 56 years old). This creative approach taken by the Pilates instructor was further highlighted
by her friend who also attends the lessons: “The longer I attend the group training, the more I
enjoy it, the more I am confident in including new and unknown combinations and exercises. It
is a challenge for me as I can train my head and stretch my body” (P7, 72 years old).
These modifications are often very helpful to the hearing exercisers in the gym as well.
In addition to his/her own visual demonstration of the exercise, the instructor or trainer can
also use posters, smart boards, video presentations with closed or opened captions or English
subtitles and handouts. If possible, the instructor should maintain eye contact with others and
thus keep control over the correctness of the conducted exercises.
Environment
When providing information during physical activities, it is necessary to take into
account the current environmental lighting conditions. A deaf individual who uses a hearing
aid, said: “Look, although I cannot hear and although I can read lips excellently, it may happen
that I understand the information completely wrong due to fatigue or poor lighting conditions.
Therefore, don’t be afraid and warn me about the fact that I have misunderstood you, and be
patient with me” (P2, 67 years old).
A participant with profound hearing loss complained about the possible risk of injury
during hiking: “I sprained my ankle several times during a conversation with my hearing
girlfriend during Nordic walking. I just suddenly stepped into a hole that I did not see as I was
watching her mouth” (P3, 56 years old).
“Regarding orientation in an unfamiliar sporting environment, such as water parks or
multifunctional halls, visual signs are typically located everywhere. Previously, I used a guide
for easier orientation; a resort employee acquainted me with the environment, showing me
what to do. I must say that it is much better (awareness, the approach taken by employees
toward deaf persons) than thirty years ago. At that time, people perceived persons using sign
language as exotics communicating among themselves through strange gestures (P2, 67 years
old).
76 Physical Activity Review|Volume 4 | 2016
Physical activity participation
When leading physical activities, it is important that the trainers, instructors and other
staff know what hearing aids or CIs can do and what limits these devices have. There are some
instances during physical activity when is necessary to remove CIs or hearing aids, e. g.
excessive sweating, aquatic activities and contact sports. “In group physical activities, a
demonstration really helps me. I do not register many of the verbal commands given by our
yoga instructor. I would get nothing out of our yoga class without her cooperation and initial
explanation of my needs… I also appreciate videos that I can comfortably watch at home and
that tell me what we will do in the next lesson” (P2, 67 years old).
“If I go somewhere to regularly exercise, people already know me and understand how
to communicate with me. They are not afraid to use the basic signs that I have taught them…
We all are then sure that we understand each other” (P8, 64 years old). A participant who is HH
summarized his problem as follows: “Whenever I spoil a dance, cannot understand how to
properly execute the moves or I get out of rhythm with the music, which happens quite often,
we all laugh together”. The hearing colleagues who exercise with me know that I am not doing
it on purpose. And those who are slower and physically less fit at least see that they are not the
only ones who make mistakes” (P5, 64 years old). Another participant with profound hearing
loss summed it up in the following way: “Given the fact that I have been practically deaf for
years, I have got accustomed to this in everyday life as well as during sports [volleyball,
Frisbee]. People react differently to my deafness. I deal with the situation by informing people
about my condition. You know I hear poorly, do not be angry if I respond differently. When
seeing repeated negative reactions from people, I give it up and change both where I am and
the people I associate with” (P4, 64 years old).
Despite these problems during exercise, all the participants expressed the belief that
regular physical activity releases them from their daily routine and helps to keep them in good
mental and physical condition. The contribution of daily activities (walking the dog) and taking
joint trips with friends in nature were described by a deaf participant with CI as follows: “I feel
safe during these joint walks with the dog and this activity has allowed me to make new social
contacts and discover new interests. It helped me overcome bad periods in my life. I feel I live a
full life because of the dog, even though I'm already retired… My dog is a great companion and
psychological support” (P7, 72 years old).
DISCUSION
A targeted support of communication and a mutual collaborative environment where
physical activities are provided may alleviate or eliminate any possible feelings of social
exclusion among those who are D/HH. On the contrary, an example of an inappropriate
approach taken by professionals is the situation where they verbally explain everything in great
detail to the hearing persons, but very often provide only rather simple instructions to
individuals who are D/HH, or who rely primarily on gestures when communicating with
people who are D/HH. Similar findings have been published in other studies that were focused
on the special needs of people who are D/HH [3, 5]. Drawbacks in communication may, for
people with varying degrees of hearing loss, result in insufficient development of their verbal or
sign vocabulary. Consequently, they are often not afforded enough opportunities during
physical activities to engage in social interaction with mainstream society, and through it, to
develop new skills and interpersonal relationships.
The main factors impeding the involvement of people who are D/HH in leisure time
physical activities include a feeling of indifference or uncertainty from the majority of society,
Physical Activity Review|Volume 4 | 2016 77
as well as a lack of available information [24]. Appropriate physical activities can help to reduce
personal and family stress and facilitate bringing about new long-term friendships into their
lives, as well as help the individuals to take their minds off the hectic course of life. It also helps
them to overcome critical periods in their lives. Those findings have also been confirmed in the
other studies [25, 26].
Therefore, if we want to offer appropriate physical activities, we must take into account
the specific conditions foe persons who are D/HH: (a) the general needs of people who are
D/HH (the basic needs of persons); (b) the special needs of given individuals based on their
skills and abilities. We agree with Reich & Lavay [27], Schultz et al. [28] and Zaccagnini [29],
who stated that there are numerous physical activities that individuals who are D/HH could
take part in, although they must have the opportunity and know how to access them.
Professionals delivering these services need to have appropriate training, including knowledge
and skills related to the special needs of people who are D/HH, especially appropriate
communication skills and practical experience with that group.
CONCLUSION
In the present study, older adults who are D/HH were interviewed so that they could
describe their participation in leisure time physical activities. By using qualitative methods, ways
that prevented or facilitated physical activity participation among older adults who are D/HH were
investigated.
Physical activity providers or other professionals delivering these services could benefit
from training how to best facilitate physical activity for older people who are D/HH. Also,
opportunities to participate in different forms and levels of physical activity that include provisions
for a smooth transition between responsible parties when they leave are essential. Information and
guidelines are needed that inform people how, why, where, and when to be physically active with
respect to their special needs. As a part of this, promoting positive messages that incorporate the
multiple reasons for being physically active, such as physical, mental, and emotional rewards, is
required. Close cooperation between relevant service providers and local organisations for people
who are D/HH is the best choice to build connections with existing mainstream community
activities.
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Physical Activity Review|Volume 4 | 2016 79
Address for correspondence:
Petra Kurková, Palacký University Olomouc, Faculty of Education, Department of Anthropology and Health
Education, Žižkovo nám. 5, 771 40 Olomouc, Czech Republic, email: petra.kurkova@upol.cz
Recevied: 25.04.2016; Accepted: 14.06.2016; Published online: 27.06.2016
80 Physical Activity Review|Volume 4 | 2016
... The deaf and hearing impaired (D/HI) can enjoy physical activity but it has been reported that they are not particularly active (Ellis et al., 2014;Gispen et al., 2014;Kurková, 2016;Martin et al., 2013;Pelton, 2013). From the studies reviewed D/HI individuals can be categorized according to age levels, because the risk factors and measurement test parameters vary for different ages, for example, the physical activity levels differ from one age to another. ...
... The physical fitness level for deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH), might be lower than that of other people who have no disabilities. The problem of different levels of physical fitness might be due to lack of hearing ability and communication problems in the physical activity (Kurková, 2016). Adults who are deaf may have certain health issues as well as a problem with physical inactivity (Pelton, 2013). ...
... Decreased levels of physical activity have been associated with moderate or severe hearing impairment for older adults independent of other risk factors such as demographic and cardiovascular (Gispen et al., 2014). Therefore, there is need to seek new mechanisms for hearing impairments that can help to increase participation in physical activity (Gispen et al., 2014;Kurková, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Physical activity refers to habitual activities that can be determined by frequency, for example, the number of times per week. Low physical activity is associated with health risk. Individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH), face a lower level of physical activity than other people. A reason might be the lack of auditive information during the physical activity and a communication problem. Therefore, this study focuses on a review of the literature in order to identify the issues and measurement approaches of physical activity for individuals who are hearing impaired and deaf, and thus meet the inclusion criteria. The researchers identified 26 articles; but only 11 met the selection criteria. Findings revealed that a questionnaire was the most preferred approach for measuring the physical activity of deaf and hearing-impaired individuals of different ages. From the literature review, Cronbach’s alphas coefficient was found to be widely used to test reliability, while one study used test-retest. Among these studies reporting validity evidence commonly used comparisons with normal hearing people. However, a number of methodological limitations relative to validity were observed. Given the importance of using multiple physical activity measures, only five (0.45) studies reported the use of multiple measures, and five (0.45) used a questionnaire. The findings are discussed relative to conducting future physical activity research on individuals who are deaf or hearing impaired.
... In articles investigating the realities older people with impairments face in terms of participation, the importance of incorporating the personal and environmental factors of participatory dynamics is frequently mentioned. For example, regarding environmental factors, both social and physical, it appears that fellow members' attitudes toward a person's impairments can affect that person's participation (Kurková, 2016;Raymond & Lantagne Lopez, 2019). In their interactions with participative settings, older people with impairments often experience situations where they feel misunderstood, mistreated, or despised, which can cause them to end their involvement (Barclay, McDonald, Lentin, & Bourke-Taylor, 2016). ...
... As for representations of older people with impairments, most people "without impairments" seem to lack knowledge of disability situations, which leads them to believe that activity and impairments are incompatible (Ingvaldsen & Balandin, 2011;Lund & Engelsrud, 2008). In terms of physical environment, most studies confirm that a lack of universal accessibility or convenient transportation is a critical impediment to the participation of older people with impairments (Balbale, Lones, Hill, & LaVela, 2017;Barclay et al., 2016;Kurková, 2016;Laliberté Rudman et al., 2016;van Schijndel-Speet, Evenhuis, van Wijck, van Empelen, & Echteld, 2014). ...
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Background and objectives: While older adults' social participation has attracted sustained attention, the realities faced by seniors with impairments in this area are still understudied. Social representations are formed from socially constructed opinions regarding a given object and have four functions (knowledge, identity, orientation, justification). The purpose of this article is to document the social representations that exist within seniors' organizations regarding participation by older people with impairments. Research design and methods: In this mixed-methods study, an exploratory sequential design was applied. First, a qualitative phase involved meetings with five focus groups to explore how participants would manage difficult situations in which the inclusion of an older person with impairments must be addressed. Second, a quantitative phase consisted of a questionnaire administered to 86 respondents to examine the components of social representations about the participation of older people with impairments. Results: Results show that, although research participants acknowledge that all seniors have the right to participate, this right confronts a collective identity infused with aging model that demands a youthful, "un-disabled" appearance and activities. In terms of the orientation function, making participation a reality is seen as relying on the efforts of people with impairments, but when there is a failure of inclusiveness, the reasons offered to justify it concern the resources available, rather than possible prejudices. Discussion and implications: Interpretation of the results leads to recommendations for both implementing an inclusion philosophy and practices in seniors' organizations and revisiting the view of impairment in old age as otherness.
... However, when talking about students with disabilities, studies in inclusive education have demonstrated that physical education (PE) teachers present negative attitudes toward their inclusion, driven by a poor SE in meeting students' needs (Hodge and Elliott, 2013;Beamer and Yun, 2014;Reina et al., 2019a). This lack or poor professional preparation for facing the specific demands of people with disabilities has been identified as a barrier for promoting participation in physical activity and sports activities, including those with intellectual (Bodde and Seo, 2009;van Schijndel-Speet et al., 2014;Taliaferro and Hammond, 2016), physical (Buffart et al., 2009;Williams et al., 2014), visual (Jaarsma et al., 2014;Griffin et al., 2016), and hearing (Kurková, 2016) disabilities. ...
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Due to the lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, e-learning suddenly spread to different levels of education, including university. In Spain, students of sports sciences are prepared during a 4-year study program to work in different areas (including physical education) and with different populations (including people with disabilities). The aims of this study were (1) to assess the effect of pandemic-driven online teaching on self-efficacy (SE) for the inclusion of people with disabilities in a group of university students enrolled in a compulsory course on adapted physical activity (APA); (2) compare the gains from SE before and after the APA course with a sample of students who followed the same course before the pandemic; and (3) explore the influence on SE scores according to three demographic variables: gender, previous SE training, and previous experience with people with disabilities. The study involved a sample of 124 university students (22.1 ± 2.6 years), distributed into two groups: prepandemic (n = 86) and pandemic (n = 38). They voluntarily completed the Spanish version of the Scale of Self-Efficacy of Physical Education Teachers of Physical Education toward Children with Disabilities, obtaining pre- and postcourse measurements. Due to the sudden lockdown, two-thirds of the pandemic course was taught online, and changes in the teaching strategies and tasks had to be made. Similar gains were obtained in both groups for the three subscales of the SE scale (p < 0.001, large effect sizes): intellectual, physical, and visual disability. No significant differences were found for comparisons between groups and the interaction effect of the course taught, nor for the three demographic co-variables. This study shows that teaching strategies that encourage student participation and reflections on learning increase student SE, regardless of the teaching format (i.e., face-to-face vs. online teaching). Moreover, the gains in SE are invariable to demographic co-variables.
... They felt, that they are a people of worth, at least on an equal level as the others as they are able to do things as well as most other people. Individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing may be disadvantaged in terms of health and participation in beneficial physical activities compared to the majority of society due to their information deficit and limited auditory perception (Kurková, 2016). Nemček (2017b) investigated SWB in the group of population with physical disabilities preferring sedentary leisure activities (n = 98). ...
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The objective of this study was to analyse the level of subjective well-being (SWB) through five SWB dimensions and compare it between healthy male and healthy female high school students preferring sedentary leisure time activities. The research sample comprised of 90 male high school students (mean age 16.72 ± 1.33) and 126 female high school students (mean age 16.71 ± 1.36) who preferred sedentary types of leisure time activities with self-reported good health status. A standardized The Bern Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire for Adolescents (BFW) was used as a primary research method. We found significantly higher level of positive SWB dimension (U = 4281, p = 0.002, r = 172) and significantly lower level of negative SWB dimension (U = 2835, p = 0.000, r = 424) in the group of male high school students with self-reported good health status in comparison to female high school students. Parents should be involved in the selection of their children's leisure time activities, so it should not have only the sedentary character but also sport leisure time activities, mainly among young girls.
... For instance, within an organization of older people, the onset of ill health could mark the transition from a "friend" to a "sick person" for the individual concerned (Wilińska, 2012). Most studies examine participatory issues associated with specific impairments, such as vision loss (Cimarolli et al., 2017;Laliberté Rudman et al., 2016), deafness and hearing loss (Kurková, 2016), complex communication needs (Balandin, 2011), andintellectual disability (Van Schijndel-Speet, Evenhuis, van Wijck, van Empelen, &Echteld, 2014). Other studies show how individual cognitive, sensory and physical limitations affect older people's social participation (Anaby et al., 2009;Tang, 2009) and how those results could guide appropriate interventions by rehabilitation specialists at the personal level. ...
Article
The intersection of disability and aging often presents obstacles and discomfort for older people with disabilities keen to access mainstream opportunities for social participation. Besides individual situations and preferences - disability-based or not - environmental and social factors may limit full access to participation for older people with disabilities. Although ageist and ableist trends of contemporary ideas of aging have been documented, few studies have examined how those discourses are enacted in the field. In the context of participatory action research carried out since 2014 in a seniors' leisure club, we conducted 14 individual interviews with volunteers and seven focus groups with 45 members in order to explore their personal experiences with impairments and disability within the club, whether members who develop impairments can continue to participate and whether prospective new members with different types of impairments would be welcomed. We used an interactionist framework inspired by Goffman's work and based on the concept of stigma to analyze participants' narratives. Results indicate that participation by members with disabilities is seen as unusual, disconcerting and disjunctive. Evidence exposes the stigmatizing practices, encompassing labeling, stereotyping, setting apart and discrimination against members with impairments. Their participation may be acceptable if it does not affect the normal course of activities; otherwise, stigmatizing discourses relegate them to the margins. Because stigma can have an overwhelming impact on the lives and social participation of older people with impairments, stakeholders' awareness should be raised so they can understand it and intervene more effectively.
... Les écrits disponibles sur la participation sociale des aînés ayant des incapacités se concentrent toutefois sur les premiers facteurs personnels relatifs aux déficits et incapacités, reléguant les facteurs environnementaux à l'arrière-plan. Ainsi, la majorité des études font valoir l'influence de limitations spécifiques comme les déficiences visuelles, auditives, langagières et intellectuelles sur la participation sociale (Balandin, 2011;Bigby et Balandin, 2005;Cimarolli et al., 2017;Ingvaldsen et Balandin, 2011;Kurková, 2016;Laliberte Rudman, et al. 2016;Van Schijndel-Speet, Evenhuis, van Wijck, van Empelen, et Echteld, 2014). D'autres recherches suggèrent que les professionnels de la réadaptation pourraient soutenir la participation sociale des aînés ayant des limitations cognitives, sensorielles ou physiques à l'échelle individuelle (Anaby, Miller, Eng, Jarus, et Noreau, 2009;Paillard-Borg, Wang, Winblad, et Fratiglioni, 2009;Tang, 2009). ...
Article
The article describes the process of developing a practical guide rooted in a participatory action study conducted at the Compagnie des jeunes retraités du Plateau to promote the inclusion of members with disabilities. The four phases were carried out by a committee made up of members of the organizations as well as researchers: (1) documentation of personal and environmental factors that may affect the participation of seniors with disabilities; (2) the design of inclusive measures concerning orientations, awareness, reception, and organization of activities; (3) conducting pilot projects to test these inclusive measures; and (4) the development of a practical handbook. The result combines knowledge, know-how, and skills to equip leaders and members of organizations that deal with seniors so that they may work toward the full participation of not only people with disabilities, but also those who are likely to be ostracized for other reasons.
... Having social support, PE teachers' and instructors' support, motivation from friends, and providing assistive equipment were considered as facilitators (Clemente, 2017). However, previous literature suggested physical activity as a facilitator that can help individuals with disabilities take their minds off the hectic course of life (Petra, 2016). ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the various barriers and facilitators allied with participation in physical activity programs among youth with visual and hearing impartments. The research sites included Vocationalstructured interviews using three-point interview guides were used to understand the barriers and facilitators. Focus group sessions were digitally audio-recorded along with note taking. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing the interview data. Thematic content analysis of tape recordings revealed facilitators and barriers. The following themes were identified: 1. Favourite physical activity and sports included jogging, dancing, soccer, rope skipping, and weight lifting. 2. Individuals with disabilities were motivated to engage in physical activity because it kept them fit, gave them joy, and tended to make them forget their worries. 3. PA makes individuals with disabilities avoid living sedentary lifestyle. 4. Barriers related to stigma, restrictive environment, lack of facilities especially for those interested in cycling, lack of soccer with bells, lack of musical instruments for dancing, lack of support from the government and individuals, absence of adapted physical activity experts, no adaptive equipment for PA and sports. Involvement of individuals with disabilities in physical activity is affected by several barriers and facilitators that are peculiar to their environment. It is recommended that future research should utilize this information to develop intervention strategies that have potential for creating opportunities to participate in physical activities by the youth with visual and hearing impairments.
... Parental concerns about their safety or the fact that they have few friends who know sign language could significantly reduce their experience with environmental constructs (Martin et al., 2013). Barriers of the living environment for people with D/HI can reduce their participation in daily PA such us to walk or jog in the neighborhood due to road traffic, sidewalks and the like (Kurková, 2016). Busy urban areas with the presence of bikes and cars represent a hazardous environment for D/HI people as they are unable to rely on their hearing but to depend on sight. ...
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It is universally known that physical activity can be beneficial for physical and mental health. Several studies have indicated that children with hearing impairments possess diminished motor ability and motor skills in comparison with normal hearing children, which may lead to less Physical Activity (PA). Therefore, it is necessary to identify the needs and current levels of activity to assess the effectiveness of intervention programs in order to increase physical activity. The main purpose of this article is to identify the factors that could have an effect on Physical Activity (PA) among children and adolescents with deafness/hearing impairments (D/HI). The method used was a review of current studies of physical activity in order to collect the factors that have impact on children and adolescents with D/HI. The result showed that social and environmental factors, physical fitness, and psychological factors can lead to an increase in PA. In addition, the literature provided a few studies about physical activity specifically for those with D/HI. From this study, we can conclude that a combination of these factors has been rarely considered in the previous research. Therefore, there is a need to fill this gap in the literature in order to provide decision makers with in-depth understanding of the current needs of children and adolescents with D/HI for the purpose of assessing their needs in different aspects.
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Adolescents with hearing impairments have decreased motor skills and motor ability in comparison with normal hearing Adolescents that may lead to less Physical Activity (PA). Hearing impairments might have lower levels of self-efficacy for health behaviors compared to other groups. These issues may prevent them from building a strong social network outside of their own family, which the developing feeling of self-efficacy is particularly complicated for hearing impairments adolescents. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the questionnaire related for physical activity factors. Thirty-six participants from Iraqi schools for deaf adolescent girls participated in this study. To verify that the questionnaire was reliable and without errors, two verification steps were implemented. First, a validation phase was conducted by using experts in related fields to check the questionnaire. All their recommendations were comments obtained was followed before the second step. Secondly, a pilot study was performed to examine the reliability of the instrument. The collected data was analyzed using the Cronbach’s alpha Coefficient reliability test found in the SPSS 21 software package. The results showed that all factors were reliable as they obtained a value of 0.7 or above.
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Adolescents with hearing impairments have decreased motor skills and motor ability in comparison with normal hearing Adolescents that may lead to less Physical Activity (PA). Hearing impairments might have lower levels of self-efficacy for health behaviors compared to other groups. These issues may prevent them from building a strong social network outside of their own family, which the developing feeling of self-efficacy is particularly complicated for hearing impairments adolescents. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the questionnaire related for physical activity factors. Thirty-six participants from Iraqi schools for deaf adolescent girls participated in this study. To verify that the questionnaire was reliable and without errors, two verification steps were implemented. First, a validation phase was conducted by using experts in related fields to check the questionnaire. All their recommendations were comments obtained was followed before the second step. Secondly, a pilot study was performed to examine the reliability of the instrument. The collected data was analyzed using the Cronbach's alpha Coefficient reliability test found in the SPSS 21 software package. The results showed that all factors were reliable as they obtained a value of 0.7 or above.
Conference Paper
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In the article we use scientific observation to assess the subjective satisfaction with health of people with hearing impairment. The research sample consisted from 152 participants with hearing impairment where 28.3 % were physically active in their leisure time, while 71.7 % led sedentary behaviour. By SQUALA questionnaire we differentiated the results according to the participation on physical activity in leisure time and evaluated the significance of the difference. We found out, that physically active individuals with hearing impairment show significantly higher satisfaction with physical and mental health than sedentary living deaf individuals. It is obvious, that regular physical activity significantly participates on the increase of subjective satisfaction with health of people with hearing impairment. Therefore, the individuals, for whom sport is not the part of healthy lifestyle, should realise, that this phenomenon is important mean of health build up and overall satisfaction with it.
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Communication access is a key component of 504, IDEA and Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A November 2014 policy guidance from the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Justice clarified that, under Title II of the ADA, schools are required to ensure that students with disabilities receive communication with others through the provision of appropriate auxiliary aids and services. In other words, they are responsible for ensuring that communication access is as effective for children with hearing loss as it is for their typically hearing peers. Hearing loss is invisible and the impact is often mistaken for a learning disorder rather than performance issues secondary to decreased access to communication. Information in this article is presented to assist the educational audiologist, teacher of the deaf/hard of hearing, or speech-language pathologist in demonstrating the impact of hearing loss on access to classroom communication so that the question “Does this student have effective access to communication in school?” can be answered in an evidence-based manner.
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A significant role in kinesiology classes involving students suffering from hearing impairments is played by communication with these students. The aim is to improve their communication skills, encouraging them to use the best mode of communication, creating the opportunities for socialization and for the integration process (games, physical therapy lesson, and others). The role of the teacher is to transmit knowledge to pupils in a specific language. Due to the particularities of the pupils, the verbal communication in class may be accompanied by nonverbal communication, visual and symbols.
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Background: Hearing, a strong line of communication that enables individuals to learn about the world around them, is a major factor contributing to the psychomotor development of every individual. Hearing loss can also affect the conception and perception of sounds and rhythm. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the benefits of Square and Round dancing for persons with hearing loss. Methods: The present study is an analytic-descriptive qualitative research. The sample was constituted non-probabilistically based on the following features: a) a participant had to have hearing problems (hearing loss) and b) had to have participated regularly in Square dance for at least two years. Each participant was asked to name possible people to be interviewed (snowball technique). We analysed the data of 7 individuals (6 males and 1 female) with hearing loss. The mean age of the dancers with hearing loss was 51.3 years. The participants had no cochlear implants or any other physical or vision related impairments. Results: The present findings constitute the first published survey regarding Czech Square dancers' status, their family's hearing status, hearing aid use, communication preference, education in integrated or segregated settings, the influence of family background on dance initiation, coach preference (hearing or deaf), and the environment for participation in Square dance as a mode of physical activity with regular dancers and with dancers with hearing loss as well. In the present sample of dancers with hearing loss, most were from hearing families and had hearing siblings. The degree to which individuals with hearing loss feel comfortable with the hearing world appears to influence their later preference for participating in regular, as opposed to segregated, physical activities. More than half of the dancers with hearing loss who participated in this research study would like to meet with the deaf minority. One of the main reasons for this is to get to know new people and to share experiences with those who have the same problems with hearing. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes the need for the additional support and promotion of the accessibility to their chosen physical activities for individuals with hearing loss. This will be best accomplished if both the deaf and hearing communities work together.
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Approximately 85% of all deaf and hard-of-hearing students in the United States are educated in public school programs. This high percentage makes it very likely that physical educators will at some point have to teach a student who is deaf or hard-of-hearing. It is considered best practice for all educators to be aware of Deaf culture, students' communication needs, and the modifications that will ensure the success of all students. Teachers may need to make some basic modifications to their inclusion strategies, visual instruction, communication styles, peer tutoring, and socialization techniques to help these students reach their full potential. This article intends to help general physical educators to ensure the success for their deaf students.
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This study examined gender, disability type, age, and specific diagnostic category in relation to habitual physical activity levels (HPA), perceived fitness (PF), and perceived participation limitations (PPL) of youths, ages 6 to 20 years, in Ontario, Canada. Data collected through a mailed survey (Longmuir and Bar-Or, 1994) were reanalyzed using ANOVA and chi square statistics to provide new information. The 458 girls and 499 boys were classified by disability type: physical, chronic medical, visual, and hearing. Significant differences (p < .01) were between (a) HPA and disability type, specific diagnostic category, and age; (b) PF and disability type; and (c) PPL and disability type. Gender did not influence the results. Youths with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and visual impairment had the most sedentary lifestyles.