The sociologist Anthony Giddens has written that the era of late modernity in which we live is characterized by a focus on and anxiety about identity. ‘What to do? How to act? Who to be? These are focal questions for everyone living in circumstances of late modernity — and ones which, on some level or another, all of us answer, either discursively or through day-to-day social behaviour’ (Giddens, 1991, p. 70). Our aim in this chapter is to explore this notion in the Japanese context by examining concepts of identity that are expressed by curriculum planners, teachers and students concerning the role of English language teaching in the processes of globalization at a Japanese university.