Article

The ecological economics of land degradation: Impacts on ecosystem service values

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

We use two datasets to characterize impacts on ecosystem services. The first is a spatially explicit measure of the impact of human consumption or 'demand' on ecosystem services as measured by the human appropriation of net primary productivity (HANPP) derived from population distributions and aggregate national statistics. The second is an actual measure of loss of productivity or a proxy measure of 'supply' of ecosystem services derived from biophysical models, agricultural census data, and other empirical measures. This proxy measure of land degradation is the ratio of actual NPP to potential NPP. The HANPP dataset suggests that current 'demand' for NPP exceeds 'supply' at a corresponding ecosystem service value of $10.5 trillion per year. The land degradation measure suggests that we have lost $6.3 trillion per year of ecosystem service value to impaired ecosystem function. Agriculture amounts to 2.8% of global GDP. With global GDP standing at $63 trillion in 2010, all of agriculture represents $1.7 Trillion of the world's GDP. Our estimate of lost ecosystem services represent a significantly larger fraction (~ 10%) of global GDP. This is one reason the economics of land degradation is about a lot more than the market value of agricultural products alone.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Human beings directly or indirectly depend on ecosystems and their services [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Several factors affect the healthiness of ecosystems globally. ...
... Several factors affect the healthiness of ecosystems globally. To Sutton et al. [2], the potential services that ecosystems provide to living things are limited by management and natural factors. LULC change due to anthropogenic activities and natural events is among the factors that bring changes in ecosystem services [6]. ...
... The concern towards LULC change increases following the effect of these changes on biodiversity loss, soil degradation and the shrinkage of the role of the landscape to sustainably provide natural resources and ecosystem services [8]. The need to sustainably benefit from ecosystems and their services has captured the attention of researchers towards understanding the change in the value of ecosystem services through time [1,2,5,[9][10][11][12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Humans worldwide depend on ecosystems and the services they provide. Land use and land cover change increasingly, influencing ecosystem values to the extent that the rate and direction of change occurred. The objective of this study was to review the link between changes in Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) and Ecosystem Service Value (ESV), with emphasis on mountainous landscapes in Ethiopia. The reviewers used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline in the reviewing process. Area-specific and country-level studies showed that the ESV changed as the result of the LULC changes in the country. The change in land use in Ethiopia resulted not only in the loss of ESVs but also in the gain of ESVs depending on the type of man’s activity. Negative change in LULC—especially the deterioration of land cover types such as forest land, shrub land and grass land—resulted in the loss of ESVs, whereas positive LULC change increased the value of ESVs. In Ethiopia, there is a loss of about USD 85 billion per year from the loss of ecosystem services. To save, improve and promote ESVs, land restoration and rehabilitation activities are important. The review provides insights into the need for and focus of future studies on LULC changes and the valuing of ESVs to understand the impact of changes in LULC on ESVs, considering existing and forecasted population increase in rapidly urbanizing areas.
... Human actions are not only accountable for the LD but also imperative for the enhancement of land via monitoring, restoration, prevention, and management [19], which in this context is termed "LR." Such human actions are shifting cultivation, steep slope farming, deforestation, overgrazing, forest resources [19,25,26], and application of computer devices [27,28], such as the utilization of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of ings (IoT), in the arrangement, monitoring, control, restoration, prevention, and management, together with other processes involved in LD as well as its reclamation processes [29,30], the use of chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers [31], and so on. ...
... Albeit, LR can be seen as a precise technological means to sustain favourable circumstances on land as well as other natural resources that are critical to agricultural as well as environmental, economic, social, and human development. It indicates the fundamental change (enhancement and improvement) of land as a result of some measures [25,26]. ...
... Nevertheless, the right responses have been alleged to vary with time and space, considering the fundamental socioeconomic background and the precise environmental circumstances. erefore, there is a need to broaden the existing processes of LR to mitigate and manage these challenging issues ensuing from the LD to further enhance AES [16,25,26]. Due to the aforementioned, there is a need to develop, explore, and advance innovative processes such as the utilization of some eco-friendly state-of-the-art technologies like nanotechnology (NTech) or bionanotechnology (BNTech) machinery together with the use of AI and IoT for the monitoring and management of the emergence and challenges of LR processes. ...
Article
Full-text available
The issues of land degradation are directly or indirectly influenced by human and/or natural actions, and it is one of the most challenging issues confronting several regions of the world, especially developing nations. Notwithstanding the importance of land, its degradation consequences, possibly as a result of the various biological, physical, and chemical processes caused by some activities (both natural and man-induced) that diminish viable yield, result in a long-term, enduring devaluation of land. Hence, this present review study is dedicated to some of the most emerging and challenging issues in monitoring, rehabilitation, prevention, and management of land (land reclamation) drawn from existing publications. Also, the description of some of the most extreme procedures of land reclamation in some natural environments with distinct consideration to their positive features is discussed. Some illustrations and instances of the emergence and challenging issues in land reclamation and nature protection, as well as the possibilities and prospects of their resolutions, are discussed and presented.
... L and degradation due to anthropogenic land-use practices and climate change is a pressing concern that has led to continued, long-lasting and economically quantifiable reductions in land productivity [1][2][3] . Such problems, although ubiquitous, disproportionately affect rural populations in developing countries, threatening the livelihoods of communities most of which are already trapped in low-return, low weather-shock-resilient agricultural livelihoods [4][5][6] . ...
... We next use event-study analysis (equation (1) in Methods) to verify that the parallel-trends assumption holds for the pre-intervention interval. Fig. 3 depicts the average differences in land productivity between treatment and control locations for each period after controlling for fixed effects and confounding factors (complete regression results in Supplementary Table 1). ...
... Following an unpublished working paper (D. L. Miller, manuscript in preparation), we impose the constraint ∑ n<0 ϑ n = 0 instead of the commonly used constraint ϑ −1 = 0 in estimating equation (1) to improve the precision of our event-study coefficients. We cluster the standard errors at the pixel level for all analyses in this paper. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic land degradation, exacerbated by more frequent and intense weather shocks due to climate change, threatens the livelihoods of rural populations in developing economies. Development agencies have invested heavily in sustainable land management projects to overturn land productivity losses, but efforts to assess project impacts have been hampered by operational issues and by the high costs of gathering on-ground data. This study combines satellite observations (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer-based Enhanced Vegetation Index and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2-derived solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence-based gross primary production) with quasi-experimental impact evaluation methods to examine the impacts of the Sustainable Land Management Project in Ethiopia, one of the world’s most ambitious restoration efforts to date. We find that over a five-year effective implementation period, gross primary production in treated locations grew by 13.5% on average in areas affected by severe droughts (those with a standard precipitation index lower than –2) and by 3.1% in areas that did not experience droughts, suggesting important drought-buffering effects. We provide empirical evidence about the effectiveness of sustainable land management projects in restoring land productivity and resilience to weather shocks, and show that remote-sensing technologies can be incorporated into impact evaluation models to assess ecosystem restoration programmes.
... The shrink in ES globally affects more than 3 billion people (Nkonya et al. 2016) and comes at a degradation cost of 60% of the ES (WHO 2005). Moreover, the land degradation and subsequently diminishing ES have now become a global issue, which is highlighted regularly by various researchers across the world under different timelines (Gonzalez-Redin et al. 2019;Nkonya et al. 2016;Sutton et al. 2016;Gibbs and Salmon 2015;Gisladottir and Stocking 2005;Oldeman et al. 1990). Although different restoration measures were adopted to overcome these issues, there is still a need to assess land degradation thoroughly and monitor the adopted restoration practices. ...
... However, the remaining 54% is carried by the off-farm consumers of ES (Nkonya et al. 2016). Furthermore, land degradation resulted in the loss of around US$6.3 trillion year −1 of ES, representing around a 9.2% weighted average decrease in the global annual value of ES (Sutton et al. 2016). Moreover, the degradation of productive land undermines well-being through under-nutrition and malnutrition . ...
... Therefore, assessing the trend and the extent of land degradation is highly needed in different regions of the world. It could be addressed by the systematic classification and prediction of the degraded lands as previously done by various researchers (Nkonya et al. 2016;Sutton et al. 2016;Gibbs and Salmon 2015). Moreover, it is necessary to adopt ecosystem-based on-site land restoration to mitigate land degradation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Restoring degraded land is essential for regaining ecosystem services (ES) and attaining the UN-Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. Unfortunately, 24% of the global lands are degraded, significantly affecting the lives of 3.2 billion people worldwide. Therefore, innovative restoration practices are vital during 'UN-Decade on Ecosystem Restoration.' A meta-analysis of 2093 documents on land degradation and restoration was conducted in this context, and 117 empirical studies were analyzed in detail. These studies were based on the different drivers of land degradation as per the criteria of IPBES and IPCC, respectively. Results suggested that woodland encroachment (18.25%), cropland expansion (18.11%), species loss/ compositional shifts (16.06%), climatic factors (14.96%), infrastructure development/urbanization (14.17%), water erosion (13.87%), wind erosion (9.49%) and other demographic pressures (8.66%) were the significant drivers of land degradation. Interestingly, there was a continent-wide change in the critical drivers of land degradation and depleting ES. The infrastructure development/urbanization, demography, and economic attributes were the essential drivers in Asia-Pacific and African regions. In contrast, the fire-regime shift and invasiveness were the significant drivers in Europe, and the climatic attribute was the crucial driver in the Americas. Out of the 117 studies selected worldwide, some ongoing restoration efforts had little emphasis on research-driven on-site restoration for improving different ES. Furthermore, some restoration projects lack proper stakeholder involvement thereby, fail to attract large-scale public acceptance. Moreover, only 12.8% of the studies focused on improving the ES in highly degraded lands. Therefore, this meta-analysis suggests that site-specific, research-driven, and on-site restoration strategies coupled with proper stakeholder engagement are imperative for regaining the ES and functions of the degraded landscape to attain UN-SDG.
... Land degradation is the reduction or loss of biological, economic productivity, and ecosystem services of land resources (Hugo, 2006). Globally, $6.3 trillion worth of ecosystem services per annual is lost due to land degradation (Sutton et al., 2016). Approximately, 30% of the global land area and 40% of land in developing countries is degraded, disturbing the life of 3.2 billion people globally (Global Environmental Facility [GEF], 2019;Nkony et al., 2016). ...
... Ethiopia is among the countries that highly affected by the problem of land degradation where 23% of the land area in the country is degraded and 17.7% harshly degraded (Gebreselassie et al., 2016;Sutton et al., 2016). In Ethiopia, since 85% of the population principally rely on agriculture (land) as a means of survival (Alemu et al., 2002), studies revealed that land degradation is markedly caused due to land-use changes particularly agricultural activities undertaken by human being (IPPC, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Ethiopia, agriculture plays a lions' share in leading the economic growth of the country. The crippling nature of small-scale farming system pushed the government to commence large-scale farming system so as to ensure food security and promote agricultural commodity export. Therefore, the country hosted domestic and foreign investors who engage in large-scale agricultural investment. Following this, this paper aimed to review the provisional change occurred to natural resources viz water, forest and land due to the expansion of large-scale agricultural investment. The result of the review revealed that large scale agricultural investment has been affecting directly natural resources and in the long run, being scared to cause physically irreversible alterations in the natural resources in the near future. Therefore, it is highly recommended to rehabilitate the existing natural resources and confront future devastation of natural resources in the country.
... As humans appropriate more NPP, flows of trophic energy (e.g. food) available to other species are reduced, with consequences on biodiversity (Haberl et al., 2005;Cusens et al., 2012), the water cycle, the carbon balance of ecosystems, and other ecosystem functions (Haberl, Erb, and Krausmann 2014;Sutton et al. 2016;Zhang et al. 2021). The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production (HANPP) offers a framework for quantifying the impact of land use on flows of NPP in ecosystems. ...
... Furthermore, increasing the HANPP affects other ecosystem functions such as carbon storage, water availability, or wind erosion regulation Sutton et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
The global livestock system puts increasing pressures on ecosystems. Studies analyzing the ecological impacts of livestock supply chains often explain this pressure by the increasing demand for animal products. Food regime theory proposes a more nuanced perspective: it explains livestock-related pressures on ecosystems by systemic changes along the supply chains of feed and animal products, notably the liberalization of agricultural trade. This study proposes a framework supporting empirical analyses of such claims by differentiating several steps of livestock supply chains. We reconstructed “trilateral” livestock supply chains linking feed production, livestock farming, and final consumption, based on the global flows of 161 feed and 13 animal products between 222 countries from 1986 to 2013. We used the embodied Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production (eHANPP) indicator to quantify pressures on ecosystems linked to these trilateral livestock supply chains. We find that livestock induced 65 % of agriculture's pressure on ecosystems, mostly through cattle grazing. Between 1986 and 2013, the fraction of livestock-related eHANPP that was traded internationally doubled from 7.1 % to 15.6 %. eHANPP related to the trade of feed was mostly linked to soybean imported for pig meat production, whereas eHANPP associated to traded animal products was mostly linked to cattle meat. eHANPP of traded animal products was lower but increased faster than eHANPP of feed trade. eHANPP was highest at the feed production level in South and North America, and at the consumption level in Eastern Asia. In Northern Asia and Eastern Europe, eHANPP was lowest at the animal products production level. In Western Europe, the eHANPP was equal at the animal products production and consumption levels. Our findings suggest that options to reduce livestock's pressures on ecosystems exist at all levels of the supply chain, especially by reducing the production and consumption in high-consuming countries and regulating international supply chains.
... Nevertheless, the environmental and economic impacts that result from land use and land degradation affect the wellbeing and the quality of life of others, sustainable land use planning becomes necessary [2]. Land degradation is understood as the loss of environmental and productive capacity of land and results from inadequate land use and management [3]. It has consequences for farmers (i.e., loss of productivity and lower income) and for society (i.e., loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity). ...
... Agronomic techniques for land conservation are widely known by policymakers, however, most of policies aimed for land conservation are not aligned with a broader push program for sustainable land use and they usually becoming generally one-off policies with a local focus. The lack of land use planning policies is explained because of the diffuse nature of the impacts resulting from land degradation and, as a consequence, the low perception of the problem by the agents directly involved in the resource use and management or by other social stakeholders [3] [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Establishing a sustainable scale in natural resources management enables effective economic and ecological policies and guarantees the long-term sustainability of economic production. In agriculture, land evaluations determine the land use sus-tainable scales, that is, those that avoid land degradation and allow the provision of food, wood, energy, and ecosystem services over time. The paper assessed São Paulo State’s agricultural sustainability by analyzing the current land use adequa-cy to the land use capability map that follows FAO 1976 “guide for land evalua-tion” and was applied to São Paulo by the State Agricultural Secretariat. Results indicate inefficiencies in land use at the state level, where more than one-third of agricultural lands do not satisfy technical land capability indications. According to technical land use capability, more than 4.5 million hectares are being un-derused (economic inefficiency) and another 2.2 million hectares are being over-used (environmental inefficiency). Pasturelands represent the most unsustainable land use, where 3.7 million hectares are allocated in high quality lands with high agricultural production potential, and another 0.7 million hectares are allocated in lands with very low quality for agriculture, most of than within poor extensive management. To achieve sustainability, lands with high agricultural production potential should be used to improve agriculture and food production and, on the other hand, lands with very low agricultural production potential should be used for wood production, agroforestry, ecotourism and natural ecosystems conserva-tion. Our results provide a framework for improving land use policies in São Paulo State and highlight an opportunity to achieve land use sustainability.
... The research conducted on the influencing factors of ecosystem services can help to accurately simulate future ecosystem service scenarios, and then serve the scientific formulation of strategies for improving the supply capacity of ecological products. To this end, many scholars have explored the effects of natural factors (climate change, soil, topography, vegetation) [72][73][74], socioeconomic factors (population, GDP, income, education, policy) [75,76] and human activities (land use, urbanization, ecological construction) [77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91] on ecosystem services. Land-use change can affect ecosystem service changes. ...
... On the one hand, climate change affects the supply level of ecosystem services, such as water supply, carbon sink, food supply, net primary productivity, vegetation coverage and biological distribution, by directly changing precipitation and temperature levels [94][95][96]. On the other hand, climate change affects the supply level of ecosystem services by changing land use/cover, ecosystem structure and composition, and resource-use intensity [87]. Topographic factors control the distribution of spatial hydrothermal resources, which affect many environmental conditions and ecological processes, such as actual solar radiation, temperature, soil mineralization rate and vegetation distribution, and directly determine the supply and maintenance of ecosystem services [92,97]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological assets refer to natural resource assets that can provide ecological products and services for human beings. Researching ecological assets and the supply of ecological products contributes to the sustainable development of natural–social–economic complex systems. This study conducts a literature search and statistical analysis based on the Web of Science, CNKI and Foreign Journal Resource Service System of Guizhou Normal University Library literature databases. We review 117 publications on the studies of ecological assets and ecological products supply. Based on summarizing the landmark results, the key scientific issues that need to be solved are proposed, and their implications for karst rocky desertification control are discussed. The results show that: (1) the number of publications each year from 2001 to 2020 shows a fluctuating growth trend. (2) The research concentrates on four dimensions: theoretical, evaluation, mechanism, and strategies research. Among them, evaluation research is the focus and hotspot of the research. (3) It is necessary to expand the research on the definition and distinction of ecological assets, services and products; the evaluation system of ecological products; the supply mechanism of ecological products from the perspective of resource endowment and the research of ecosystem coherence at different scales. (4) The karst rocky desertification control should focus on ecological assets’ management to promote the supply capacity of ecological products, pay attention to the quality assessment of ecological assets, explore the influencing mechanism of ecological assets and its optimization and promotion paths and strengthen the research on village ecosystems under karst rocky desertification control.
... Results demonstrate that forest areas are 'water sinks', leading to a locally-closed water cycle. Detrimental impacts of landscape degradation (excessive temperatures, water transfer away from the surface, soil nutrient losses, loss of agricultural income) have been reported in other studies (Burek et al. 2012;Mchunu and Chaplot, 2012;Salvati and Carlucci, 2013;Montanarella, 2015;Sutton et al. 2016;Prăvălie, 2021). Rejuvenation of the landscape through the implementation of WRMs can counter-act this effect, especially when done alongside other nature-based regeneration methods (e.g. ...
... This cooling, leading to less water being transported from surfaces (cf.Lewis et al. 2015; De Frenne et al., 2021;Seják et al. 2022), can contribute to lower crop water requirements, and can lead to lower air conditioning requirements in urban areas. Additionally, WRMs can improve local biodiversity, especially in urban areas(Zeleňáková et al. 2017), and other ecosystem services including controlling soil and nutrient runoff (cf.Sutton et al. 2016;van den Heuvel et al. 2020;Prăvălie, 2021). This study offers further support for the costeffectiveness, as well as the wider beneficial impacts of NBS, and in particular, water-retention measures. ...
Article
Full-text available
In eastern Germany, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, historic policies led to large, monocropped agricultural landscapes resulting in degradation of traditional landscapes. In the last 20 years, the expansion of urban and industrial areas has added to this degradation. The growing interest in nature‐based solutions, including water‐retention measures, is a response to reversing landscape degradation, rejuvenating ecosystem services, and mitigating the impacts of large‐scale commercial agriculture and climate change. In this study, the costs and benefits of water‐retention measures in east Germany, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia are assessed. Results indicate that water‐retention measures offer increased water availability over all land use classes assessed, help increase crop productivity, and aid in landscape cooling. Croplands are suggested as being the best value for money, offering the greatest volume potentials (mean = 88 million m3), cooling effects (mean = ‐1.6°C), and productivity gains (mean = €66 million yr‐1), while also being the cheapest to implement per unit area. Differing policies in the three states will likely result in non‐uniform selection or implementation of measures. Future work should focus on local‐level studies offering greater practical messages beyond the regional‐level analysis conducted here. This work contributes to the growing body of literature assessing the costs and benefits of water‐retention measures, including the potential for landscape cooling, lowering temperature gradients, and ecosystem restoration. As the world urbanises, and as more land is converted to homogeneous cropland, such measures may prove critical in mitigating climate change, landscape drying, flood runoff, and soil and nutrient loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Many regions of Africa especially, eastern part are facing rapid and profound economic, social, and environmental transformations (Babalola and Borokini, 1988). As a result, the greatest areas of the continent are experiencing persistent ecosystem degradation at the expense of future generations' well-being Kubiszewski et al., 2017), which is especially true for Ethiopia, which lost roughly 17.7% of ESVs owing to LULC changes (Sutton et al., 2016). ...
... The four basic categories of ecosystem services provided by a certain geographical area are provisioning, regulatory, supporting, and cultural services Kindu et al., 2016;Costanza et al., 2017;Marzec, 2018). However, LULC changes are tightly tied to each ecosystem service, and they change across time and space (Costanza et al., 2014;Sutton et al., 2016;Schirpke et al., 2017;Xu et al., 2018). For example, studies show that the conversion of forest to cropland increases food production while it reduces the regulating services supplied by the forest (Fedele et al., 2018;Foley et al., 2005;Rodríguez et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to assess the impacts of land use/land cover (LULC) changes on ecosystem service values (ESVs) in the Rib watershed of the Upper Blue Nile Basin between 2000 and 2020 periods. Image classifications were carried out using Landsat 5 TM for 2000 and 2010, and Landsat 8 OLI_TIRS for 2020 periods following the supervised classification technique with a Maximum Likelihood Algorithm (MLA) in ERDAS Imagine 2014. The study estimated the effects of LULC changes on ESVs using the modified ecosystem service value coefficients. The result indicated that a reduction of forest (46%), shrubland (44%), grassland (42%), and an increase of cultivated land (23%), settlement (137%), and waterbody (80%) during 2000 and 2020 periods. The total ESVs of the watershed were estimated about US$ 68.6 million in 2000, US$ 59.4 million in 2010, and US$ 59.3 million in 2020. The ESVs lost between 2000 and 2020 periods was about US$ 9.3 million (13.5%). The observed LULC changes during this period have also affected the individual ecosystem services. The reduction of ESVs through 2000 to 2020 periods indicates the effects of LULC changes on ecological degradation. Hence, the authors suggested the use of LULC change and ESVs together during land management decision-making processes.
... In drylands, 73% of the rangelands are affected by degradation (Sombroek and Sene, 1993). Globally, $6.3 trillion worth of ecosystem services per year is lost due to land degradation (Sutton et al., 2016). ...
... Land degradation is a serious global problem affecting livelihoods and sustainable development and has received attention globally. The Rio Summit in 1992 (UNCED, 1992) Land degradation is an acute problem in Ethiopia (Bielli et al., 2001); 23% of the land area in Ethiopia is degraded and 17.7% is severely degraded (Gebreselassie et al., 2016;Sutton et al., 2016). Land degradation is of much concern as 85% of Ethiopians primarily depend on land (agriculture and pastoralism) for their livelihoods (Alemu et al., 2002) and a quarter of the population lives below the national poverty line (WDI, 2019). ...
... Ethiopia is one of the countries with a diverse range of native flora species (Tewolde, 1991;Getahun, 2018). However, the biodiversity of the forest is being reduced by the sharp decline in its resources (Crespin and Simonetti, 2016;Sutton et al., 2016). Large-scale species extinctions and excessive use of the planet's natural resources lead to ecological injustice (Barlow et al., 2007;Meseret, 2016;Chazdon, 2018). ...
Article
For their livelihoods, many people rely on the services offered by forest ecosystems. Nevertheless, forests are being lost and degraded on a global scale, endangering the delivery of important services. This is the situation in Ethiopia, a nation where land degradation and deforestation pose a threat to the majority of forest ecosystems. Studies in North Wollo are very scarce and limited despite the present growth in evidence bases measuring environmental services and risks across the globe. The traditional knowledge and attitudes of the locals concerning trends in forest management, conservation, and ecosystem services were investigated in this study. We used many approaches for gathering data. The quantitative data were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, multiple linear regression, and general linear regression models. The main threats to forest ecosystems in North Wollo included deforestation for the production of firewood and charcoal, increased population growth and agricultural needs, environmental pollution, the allelopathic influence of exotic species, and loss of soil fertility. These dangers cause instability and a decline in the range of ecological services provided by forests. Regarding this, the customary rules, social exclusion, and indigenous beliefs were utilized as a conservation technique to maintain and protect the remaining natural resources. In addition, the community uses terracing, gully prevention, and hillside planting with native trees to restore the ecology that has been damaged. As a result, efforts should be made to solve the current difficulties and dangers since local people, the government and non-governmental organizations have an interest in preserving forest ecosystems. In general, encouraging the direct involvement of locals in decision-making and equitable distribution of the benefits resulting from the ecosystems could aid in addressing the difficulties and risks to the ecosystems.
... Parallel to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), IPBES was established to facilitate the connection between science and policy around the topics of biodiversity and ecosystem services. IPBES noted an accelerating decline of biodiversity and ecosystem services (Costanza et al., 2014;Sutton et al., 2016;Ruckelshaus et al., 2020). This, and other work, shows the importance of the connection between science, policy, and business in integrating ecosystem services and natural capital into mainstream economic policy (Costanza et al., 2017;Kubiszewski et al., 2022). ...
Article
Full-text available
A large network of researchers and practitioners have been working on ecosystem services (ES) for decades. In the inaugural issue of this journal, in 2012, we analysed the authorship structure, citations, topics, and journals publishing on ES. Here we update and expand that analysis and compare results with those we found in our previous analysis. We also analyse the influence that the journal Ecosystem Services has had on these variables over its first 10 years. We look at which articles have had the most influence on the field (as measured by the number of citations in Ecosystem Services) and on the broader scientific literature (as measured by total citations). We also look at how authorship networks, topics through keywords, and the types of journals publishing on the topic have changed. Results show that between the two time periods (before and after the establishment of the journal Ecosystem Services in 2012) there has been significant growth in the number of authors (12,795 to 91,051) and number of articles published (4,948 to 33,973) on ES. Authorship networks have also expanded significantly, and the patterns of co-authorship have evolved in interesting ways. The journal Ecosystem Services is now the most prolific publisher of articles on ES among the 4,286 journals that have published in the area. There is a cluster of 9 top journals that cite, and are cited by each other, within this rapidly expanding policy-relevant research area.
... The agricultural sector in Ukraine transitioned from public to private ownership after the fall of the Soviet Union at the turn of the last decade of the 20th century. Accelerated soil degradation followed [79], and degradation of land was a consequence of improper management of natural capital, including soil and water [80]. As soils are a conditionally renewable resource, they need to be managed in a way that maintains soil fertility to foster sustainable agricultural development, which has implications for both the national economy, as well as the natural environment [81]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The phrase ‘sunshine is the best disinfectant’ is commonly used to suggest that transparency can counter corruption and ensure accountability. In the policy world, several analytical tools have been developed to obtain information on what policy decision would bring about the biggest positive effect for the least amount of effort. There is a tendency to view transparency as the silver bullet in that respect. This paper aimed to shed light on how measures of transparency can serve as a leverage point for sustainable resource management. We begin by analysing the concept of transparency and then draw from Donella Meadows’ work on leverage points to analyse the transformative potential of increasing transparency towards sustainable resource management. We then demonstrate the use of this analytical approach by applying it to three case studies on resource management systems in Ukraine, Romania, and Iceland. The results suggested that transparency in resource management needs to be accompanied by widely accepted standards and accountability mechanisms for it to serve as an effective leverage point. If these factors are neglected, the credibility of transparency can be undermined. Prioritising transparency as a policy intervention to alleviate corruption risks, in the absence of accountability mechanisms and clear rules, might be misplaced, and require deeper leverage points.
... It is the closest link between people and nature and is closely related to the achievement of sustainable development goals [9]. Humans can alter the structure and patterns of LULC through high-intensity land use activities, resulting in rapid urban expansion, heightened tensions between humans and the environment, and impacts on natural ecosystems [10][11][12]. Therefore, LULC is the main ...
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystem services are closely related to human well-being and are vulnerable to high-intensity human land-use activities. Understanding the evolution of land use and land cover (LULC) changes and quantifying ecosystem service value (ESV) are significant for sustainable development. In this study, we used land use and land cover data and other data from 2000 to 2020 to analyze the evolution of land use and land cover and ESV in Tongliao, China. With the goal of exploring the characteristics of different cellular automata (CA)-based models, CA-Markov, Future Land Use Simulation (FLUS), and Patch-generating Land Use Simulation (PLUS) models were used to simulate future land use and land cover, and the results were verified and compared. Considering the impacts of policies for capital farmland (CF) and ecological protection red line (EPRL) in the context of territorial spatial planning, four scenarios (inertial development, S1; CF, S2; EPRL, S3; EPRL and CF, S4) were set. The results showed that from 2000 to 2020, farmland and built-up land increased the most (341.18 km2 and 220.56 km2), while grassland had the largest decrease (380.08 km2). The main mutual transitions were from grassland and farmland. The total ESV showed a decreasing trend (from 52,364.56 million yuan to 51,620.62 million yuan). The simulation results for 2035 under four scenarios were similar, where farmland would decrease the most (96.81 km2). The ESV in 2035 would decrease from 51,620.62 million yuan to 51,541.12 million. In addition, under scenarios for the impact of policy, the land showed a trend of scattered expansion. This study provides a scientific basis for making regional sustainable development policy decisions and implementing ecological environmental protection measures.
... ESV is directly driven by land use changes caused by human activities [4]. The area of each type of land use, land uses, and patterns of spatial variation could affect ecological processes such as material cycle, energy conversion, biological production, and biodiversity, thereby affecting ESV changes [5][6][7][8]. Resource-based heavy industrial cities are areas where economic and environmental conflicts gather, and how to take into account the protection of the ecological environment while the urban economy is sustainable is one of the important issues to be considered in this region. Strong human activities like open-pit mining, land reclamation, and the construction of domestic and industrial infrastructure could directly change the surface through land occupation and geological disasters, leading to problems such as water and soil loss, vegetation degradation, and biodiversity loss [9][10][11][12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystem services value (ESV) has been one index of quantitative evaluation for the ecological livability of heavy industry cities in the new era, which is intimately relevant to patterns of spatio-temporal changes in land use. This study aims to reveal the response of ecosystem service value in heavy industrial cities to the spatial-temporal evolution structure of land use and to analyze the cold and hot spots and sensitivity. In this study, Taiyuan was taken as an example, and Landsat images were adopted as the basic data. This study used intensity analysis, revised ESV, fishing nets, sensitivity analysis, and the methods of hotspot analysis and spatial overlay. The results showed as follows, (1) The characteristics of land use structure evolution mainly focus on the increase of construction land in the early and the rapid development stage of heavy industry cities. All land use types were partly transferred to construction land, but farmland was the main source, with the largest change intensity in the rapid development stage in Taiyuan; (2) The low-value zones of ESV were mostly distributed in the main urban area for construction and farmland, while the high-value zones were primarily distributed in the forestland and grassland. They were distributed in the Fenhe River valley, western and northern mountainous and hilly areas of Taiyuan. The total ESV continued to decline from 2003 to 2018, with a loss amount of RMB 29 million; (3) The patches of land use change were more and more broken, and the spatial distribution of the cold and hot spots was more and more dispersed. The cold and hot spots of ESV were concentrated in the eastern main urban area and its surrounding areas and expanded to the north and south; (4) The forestland was the most sensitive land factor of ESV. The study provides a theoretical method for land use planning, environmental governance, and ecological restoration in heavy industry cities in the new era.
... Since the beginning of the Anthropocene, human efforts to increase food supply have intensified sharply, leading to degradation of ES capacity, represented by regulating services (Baude et al., 2019). Lost ES value due to impaired ecosystem function more than outweighs the value of agricultural production (Sutton et al., 2016). Understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of ES is a key premise for land-use planning to protect natural capital and harmonize human development goals (Goldstein et al., 2012). ...
Article
Understanding the spatiotemporal pattern and interaction among regulating ecosystem services (RES) is essential for human well-being in and outside mountains. However, spatial differentiation of the relationships among multiple mountain RES is poorly understood. Accordingly, we investigated the spatiotemporal distribution and correlation of five RES in the Qilian Mountains from the perspectives of nonlinearity and vertical zonation. Our results showed that RES were spatially clustered and RES distribution was constrained by hydrothermal conditions. Positive trends in RES were widespread from 2000 to 2020, with small patches of decreasing water conservation and purification in woodlands and grasslands at middle altitudes. Interactions among RES overall showed spatial and temporal consistency. The nonlinear and synergistic relationship between paired RES was dominant, and conflicts in RES were manifested by decreasing water conservation and purification with increasing vegetation biomass and soil retention, especially in forests. The trade-off relationship was also detected in alpine sparse vegetation, where the biodiversity index decreased in spite of increasing water conservation and purification. In most cases, the magnitude of RES interactions followed the Exponential or Gauss function with increasing elevation. The synergistic relationship was strongest in alpine meadows among biomes, while the trade-off was prominent at an altitude of 2250–3850 m and 4800–5400 m. According to our findings, recommendations for land management are stand density control on the hillside and an establishment of riparian forests in valleys. Meanwhile, protective measures should be considered to mitigate landscape fragmentation in alpine meadows and cold deserts to conserve biodiversity, such as enclosure and grazing prohibition.
... Ecosystem restoration can also improve the provision of clean water (SDG 6) and food (SDG 2) (IUCN 2019). Yet, despite the potential contributions of ecosystem restoration to sustainable development, its implementation at scale is inherently complex (Sutton et al. 2016;Cengiz et al. 2019;Mansourian & Parrotta 2019). The UNDER strategy aims at addressing such complexity by outlining six barriers and three related pathways for action (linked to "action lines") for overcoming the barriers (Table 1) with the overall goal of upscaling implementation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The strategy of the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration identifies three pathways for action for overcoming six global barriers thought to hamper upscaling. We evaluated 6,023 peer-reviewed and gray literature papers published over the last two decades to map the information landscape underlying the barriers and associated pathways for action across world regions, terrestrial ecosystem types, restorative interventions and their outcomes. Overall, the literature addressed more the financial and legislative barriers than the technical and research-related ones, supporting the view that social, economic and political factors hamper scaling up ecosystem restoration. Latin America, Africa, and North America were the most prominent regions in the literature, yet differed in the number of publications addressing each barrier. An overwhelming number of publications focused on forests (78%), while grasslands (6%), drylands (3%), and mangroves (2%) received less attention. Across the three pathways for action, the action lines on (1) promoting long-term ecosystem restoration actions and monitoring and (2) education on restoration were the most underrepresented in the literature. In general, restorative interventions assessed rendered positive outcomes except those of a political, legislative or financial nature which reported negative or inconclusive outcomes. Our indicative assessment reveals critical information gaps on barriers, pathways, and types of restorative interventions across world regions, particularly related to specific social issues such as education for ecosystem restoration. Finally, we call for refining "strength of evidence" assessment frameworks that can systematically appraise, synthesize and integrate information on traditional and practitioner knowledge as two essential components for improving decision-making in ecosystem restoration.
... This is mostly realized through the intermediary of land use change (Delphin et al., 2016;Meacham et al., 2016), e.g., the shrinking of arable land due to urban expansion, degradation of grasslands caused by overgrazing, and disappearance of tropical rainforests from excessive deforestation. Land use changes result from social-economic development correspondingly, thereby leading to ES changes ( Sutton et al., 2016). Socioeconomic factors are complex and multidimensional; as such, they are adaptive to ecosystems and do not drive ES in a linear or homogeneous manner. ...
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing the structure, process, and function of ecosystems, ecosystem services (ES) closely impacts human well-being. It is significant to reveal the complex pathways of factors driving ES based on the supply–demand framework to supplement knowledge about ES change. Therefore, A conceptual framework of ES change from the supply–demand perspective was constructed first. Then, the structural equation model (SEM) method was employed to reveal the mechanism of ES changes driven by socioeconomic and natural ecological factors and to measure their direct and indirect effects. The main findings are: The social and economic factors indirectly affect ES, with effects of −0.549 and −0.154, respectively, from the demand side. Natural conditions, as the supply-side factors, directly and indirectly affect ES, with effects of 4.342 and −1.721. Land use directly acts on ES from the supply side as an intermediary that links the socioeconomic factors and natural conditions, with a direct effect of −2.735. The effect sizes of drivers on different ES are different, however generally conform to the proposed mechanism framework. This study follows the theory of Coupled Human and Natural Systems and contributes to the construction of resilient social-ecological system.
... Since the 1990s, many studies have been conducted to explore ecosystem service values, including in areas such as biological resources, biodiversity conversion, and the management of tropical forests, nature reserves, and endangered species [6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. Despite the incredible contribution of ecosystem services to natural functions in addition to mankind's sustainable well-being and survival, these have been significantly degraded over time and space globally [13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Over the past 50 years, human beings have caused changes in ecosystem services much faster and more widely than in any other period in human history [20]. ...
Land resources are foundational for human survival and development. In contrast, land use/land cover (LULC) dynamics drive considerable changes in ecosystem services. Recently, China witnessed a new stage of rapid urbanization. Therefore, investigating the relationships between ecosystem services value (ESV) and LULC in these areas is highly relevant. Based on the data of land use and socioeconomic development in Shanghai from 2000 to 2020, we adopted a land use/land cover dynamics analysis method and established the ESV per unit area at the city scale, discussed the impact of LULC on ESV spatially and quantitatively, and tested the research process based on the sensitivity analysis of the ESV coefficient. The results show that from 2000 to 2020, the LULC pattern in Shanghai rapidly changed. In particular, the area of cultivated land has shrunk by 123.96 thousand hm2, while the construction land has expanded by 141.26 thousand hm2, which has led to a decline in ESV of the entire city (especially regarding hydrological adjustment and biodiversity). Nevertheless, although the area of trench and lakes only occupies 1.67-3.16% of the total area of land, its ecological value accounts for an astonishing 23.80-50.70% of the total ESV. At the district level, the primary decline in eco-system services value was noted in the Chongming District in the north and Pudong New Area in the east of Shanghai. However, due to the overall planning of the city and the advantages of its resource endowment, Qingpu District and its surrounding areas in western Shanghai have witnessed improvements in terms of the values of hydrological adjustment, water supply, and environmental purification. This study presents a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of issues regarding ESV in rapidly urbanized areas, thereby providing an important reference for decision-makers regarding the rational layout of cities, sustainable use of land, and management of natural ecosystems.
... It is hoped that the findings of the study will inform FLR practitioners in other countries on the practical use of FLR principles in assessing the impacts of FLR initiatives. KEYWORDS participatory forest management, area exclosures, governance, sustainable land management, tree planting, FLR Background A decline in ecosystem services due to deforestation and degradation (D&D) is costing the world over USD 6.3 trillion, equivalent to 8.3% of global GDP in 2016 (Sutton et al., 2016). Large areas of agricultural lands and forests in developing countries are facing high rates of degradation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The government of Ethiopia has made an ambitious plan of building a carbon-neutral and middle-income economy by 2030. In 2016, the country pledged to restore 15 million hectares of degraded landscapes as part of the African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative (AFR 100). A total of three major forest landscape restoration (FLR) initiatives have been used to achieve this target: participatory forest management (PFM) to engage communities in sustainably managing natural forests; area enclosures/exclosures (AEs) to socially fence hillsides and degraded communal lands and allow these areas regain their productive potential; and sustainable land management program and the Green Legacy Initiative (SLM-GLI) that aim at conserving soil and water resources and planting seedlings to increase forest cover. After describing these FLR initiatives, this study evaluated their impacts on land use land cover change over time and assessed them against the six FLR principles by selecting nationally relevant criteria under each principle. The results showed that the FLR initiatives were rated rather low in terms of focusing on and managing landscapes for multiple benefits, in participation and benefits of stakeholders, in ownership and use rights, in employing approaches tailored to the local context, and in managing adaptively for long-term resilience. Concerning impacts, varying trends were observed for different areas, time periods, and restoration types. Recognizing and mitigating the limitations of these initiatives together with addressing site-specific drivers will improve the conservation and livelihood outcomes of FLR initiatives in Ethiopia. It is hoped that the findings of the study will inform FLR practitioners in other countries on the practical use of FLR principles in assessing the impacts of FLR initiatives.
... Today, around one-quarter of land around the globe is degraded. It is estimated that each year around 24 billion tons of fertile farmland are lost and the global cost of land degradation is between 6.3-10.6 trillion USD (Sutton et al., 2016). Land degradation as a major environmental threat to food security is mostly caused by inappropriate land management (Etter, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to identify the factors affecting farmers’ adoption of sustainable land management (SLM) practices to combat land degradation in Vietnam. Based on the survey data from 826 farmers in three representative regions, the study showed that the SLM model and SLM adoption rate were quite varied due to differences of natural and socio-economic conditions. The results of logistic regression showed that household income and access to loans had positive impacts on SLM adoption with statistical significance in all the regions surveyed. More extension visits in the upland and coastal regions, and more agricultural laborers in farm households in the coastal and Mekong delta regions were found to increase the probability of SLM adoption. Meanwhile, the number of plots and number of members in households were found to have negative impacts on adoption. Providing training courses for farmers, building SLM demonstrations, and providing financial support for farmers through credit programs should be enhanced for better SLM adoption in farm households.
... Effective restoration has been identified as a major land management action to reduce risks associated with land degradation and meet conservation and climate change adaptation targets (Jung et al., 2021;Mappin et al., 2019;Strassburg et al., 2020). Estimates suggest that up to 20% of Earth's surface is considered degraded (Sutton et al., 2016), costing US$231 billion per year in economic losses (Nkonya et al., 2016) ...
Article
Full-text available
Mixed species plantings present an attractive alternative to monoculture reforestation through their added benefits to biodiversity. Yet there is ambiguity in the use of the term ‘biodiversity’ in carbon and biodiversity markets, which may create perverse outcomes when designing schemes and projects. Here, we review how the concept of biodiversity is defined and applied in reforestation projects, and restoration more broadly. Improved transparency around the use of the term biodiversity is urgently needed to provide rigour in emerging market mechanisms, which seek to benefit the environment and people. Reforestation to capture and store atmospheric carbon is increasingly championed as a climate change mitigation policy response. Reforestation plantings have the potential to provide conservation co‐benefits when diverse mixtures of native species are planted, and there are growing attempts to monetise biodiversity benefits from carbon reforestation projects, particularly within emerging carbon markets. But what is meant by ‘biodiverse’ across different stakeholders and groups implementing and overseeing these projects and how do these perceptions compare with long‐standing scientific definitions? Here, we discuss approaches to, and definitions of, biodiversity in the context of reforestation for carbon sequestration. Our aim is to review how the concept of biodiversity is defined and applied among stakeholders (e.g., governments, carbon certifiers and farmers) and rights holders (i.e., First Nations people) engaging in reforestation, and to identify best‐practice methods for restoring biodiversity in these projects. We find that some stakeholders have a vague understanding of diversity across varying levels of biological organisation (genes to ecosystems). While most understand that biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services, many stakeholders may not appreciate the difficulties of restoring biodiversity akin to reference ecosystems. Consequently, biodiversity goals are rarely explicit, and project goals may never be achieved because the levels of restored biodiversity are inadequate to support functional ecosystems and desired ecosystem services. We suggest there is significant value in integrating biodiversity objectives into reforestation projects and setting specific restoration goals with transparent reporting outcomes will pave the way for ensuring reforestation projects have meaningful outcomes for biodiversity, and legitimate incentive payments for biodiversity and natural capital accounting. Las repoblaciones forestales con especies mixtas presentan una alternativa atractiva a las repoblaciones monoespecíficas para el secuestro de carbono con beneficios adicionales para la biodiversidad. Sin embargo, la ambigüedad en el uso del término “biodiversidad” entre las diferentes partes interesadas y la falta de conocimiento y comprensión de los complejos ecosistemas forestales pueden impedir que estas iniciativas alcancen los resultados deseados. El objetivo de nuestra investigación es identificar las principales áreas de mejora en los futuros programas de reforestación. La mejora en la definición de objetivos y la transparencia de los informes técnicos ayudarán a identificar los puntos de activación, con el fin incentivar la biodiversidad en los proyectos de repoblaciones forestales que tienen como objetivo el aumento del secuestro y fijación de carbono. Con ello, nuestro reto es también incentivar la inversión en futuros programas de reforestación y, a su vez, aumentar el beneficio de estas repoblaciones sobre la biodiversidad, el secuestro de carbono y los medios de vida de las partes interesadas. Mixed species plantings present an attractive alternative to monoculture reforestation through their added benefits to biodiversity. Yet there is ambiguity in the use of the term ‘biodiversity’ in carbon and biodiversity markets, which may create perverse outcomes when designing schemes and projects. Here, we review how the concept of biodiversity is defined and applied in reforestation projects, and restoration more broadly. Improved transparency around the use of the term biodiversity is urgently needed to provide rigour in emerging market mechanisms, which seek to benefit the environment and people.
... Moreover, it would speed-up loss of agricultural land productivity and requires higher doses of nutrients. This is economically not sustainable (Nkonya et al. 2016;Sutton et al. 2016). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is a general belief that agricultural area, particularly in developing countries, is decreasing with rapid urbanization. This is an important phenomenon in the form of land use land cover change (LULCC) as these countries depend on agriculture to a great extent for food and economic growth. Using Landsat data our investigation in the rural area of Varanasi district revealed that agricultural area, which constituted about 50% of land cover, increased by 37% in the 1993-2013 period and built area increased by 236%. A Relative Rural Development Index (RRDI) was formulated to find out the comparative development in rural blocks of the district. RRDI was based on built, green and agriculture land use, and the number of agricultural workers, LAC and LCR. Kashi Vidyapeeth (KV) and Chiragaon (CG) rural blocks present in close proximity of the urban core had the highest RRDI score and change in Land Absorption Coefficient (LAC) and Land Consumption Ratio (LCR). Proximity to the urban area influenced rural development in the form of agricultural and built area increase. The study can be helpful for focussing development and policymaking efforts to a rural area according to its RRDI score.
... Ethiopia is one of the countries with a diverse range of native flora species (Tewolde, 1991;Getahun, 2018). However, the biodiversity of the forest is being reduced by the sharp decline in its resources (Crespin and Simonetti, 2016;Sutton et al., 2016). Large-scale species extinctions and excessive use of the planet's natural resources lead to ecological injustice (Barlow et al., 2007;Meseret, 2016;Chazdon, 2018). ...
... Costanza et al. [5] proposed an ecosystem service value evaluation method that has been widely used in different countries [88][89][90][91][92], but the method has shortcomings when directly applied in China [93]. The first version of the equivalent factor method based on the unit area value proposed by Xie et al. [93] was used to evaluate the ecosystem service values of six land types. ...
Article
Full-text available
In fragile and impoverished areas, identifying the interrelationship between livelihoods and ecosystem services can help protect the ecological environment and improve human well-being. This study selected the “One River and Two Tributaries” region (ORTTR) in Tibet with a fragile, sensitive ecological environment as the study area. With the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 as the research time points, a coupled evaluation model of residents’ livelihood and land ecosystem services was constructed to study the relationship between the two. Results showed that from 2000 to 2020, the coupling degree and coupling coordination degree between the two continued to increase because of the improvement in residents’ livelihood and ecosystem services. The level of coupling coordination gradually changed from a reluctant coordination stage to a moderate coordination stage. The coupling coordination degree showed more revealing results than the coupling degree in time scale. The relative development type between the two was mainly of the type lagging residents’ livelihood. By considering the physical geography and socio-economic characteristics and the relative development types, the counties and districts in the ORTTR are divided into ecological conservation areas, ecological restoration areas, and ecological reconstruction areas. The coupled model can evaluate the relationship between livelihoods and ecosystem services from a systematic integration perspective and provide scientific support for the improvement of regional human well-being.
... These environmental resources also maintain the biogeochemical and hydrological cycles in nature and help sustain species and genetic diversity. They also purify the environment and maintain the balance and stability of atmospheric chemistry [59]. In the process of close interaction between humans and nature, changes in land use patterns have accelerated changes in ecosystem services [60]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explains the fiscal ecological costs of land in China by dividing them into three periods: early ecological cost refers to loss of ecosystem service value after the conversion of agricultural land, mid-term ecological cost refers to land development in urban built-up areas, and later ecological cost refers to the investment cost of increasing the fiscal ecological service function of the land. Using data for 31 Chinese provinces from 2003 to 2017, we perform a “link between groups” cluster analysis with SPSS 22.0 statistical software. Squared Euclidean distance is used to analyze land in these provinces. Ecological cost in the early, middle, and late stages is clustered, and the provinces are divided into five areas according to the ecological cost of each stage in absolute terms and as a proportion of land fiscal revenue. The research shows that: (1) the fiscal ecological cost of land in China presents a spatial pattern of “higher in the east than in the west, higher in the south than in the north,” and (2) the cost is highest in the early stage, second highest in the late stage, and lowest in the middle stage. The findings yield differentiated policy recommendations for reducing the fiscal ecological cost of land in different areas.
... Academics have begun researching and investigating land scientific appraisal methodologies: land risk assessment (Travis and Morris 2010), identification of ecological security risk warning (Shepherd et al. 2015), landscape ecological security (Yu 1996), LES assessment (Feng et al. 2018), construction and optimization of LES patterns (Wang et al. 2014), ecological service value accounting, and so on (Sutton et al. 2016). The research area of assessing LES has expanded in recent years and has involved cities (Zhao et al. 2014), urban agglomerations (Yang and Cai 2020), and watersheds (Shen et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The land is both a cornerstone of socio-economic growth and an integral member of the ecological system since it is a resource essential to human life and development. Based on land use change, land ecological sensitivity, and socio-economic impact elements, we provide a comprehensive urban land ecological security (ULES) assessment system. Land use types, topography, and ecological sensitivity of the study area were analyzed first using remote sensing data and geographic information system (GIS) technology, followed by the development of a DPSIRM model framework to evaluate indicators using an entropy-variable-weight integrated weighting method for the analysis of land ecological security (LES) in Hefei. Among the study’s findings are the following: (1) Between 2000 and 2020, Hefei City’s land use changed dramatically, with an increase in the amount of construction land, most of which came from cultivated land, woods, and water bodies. (2) According to the ecological sensitivity study, Hefei’s land ecology level is largely moderately sensitive and lowly sensitive. (3) Human activity factors have a greater impact on land ecology than natural variables. In order to increase the ecological safety coefficient of the land, it is necessary to limit human activities that cause anthropogenic disturbances. The study’s findings may serve as a guide for the evaluation.
... To realize the dynamic change of ecosystem service values, a dynamic equivalent factor combined with remote sensing was proposed [8]. At present, the ecosystem adjustment coefficient is generally determined by incorporating vegetation coverage [16,17], net primary productivity [18][19][20][21], and normalized vegetation index [22,23], and the calculated ESVs have qualified spatial-temporal resolution and high degree of credibility. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sichuan Province is an important ecological barrier in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the temporal and spatial changes, as well as the driving factors, of ecosystem service values (ESVs) in Sichuan Province. This paper used land use data from 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 to quantify the spatiotemporal changes in the ESVs in Sichuan Province. Correlation coefficients and bivariate spatial autocorrelation methods were used to analyze the trade-offs and synergies of ESVs in the city (autonomous prefecture) and grid scales. At the same time, we used a Geographical Detector model (GDM) to explore the synergies between nine factors and ESVs. The results revealed that: (1) In Sichuan Province, the ESVs increased by 0.77% from 729.26 × 109 CNY in 2000 to 741.69 × 109 CNY in 2020 (unit: CNY = Chinese Yuan). Furthermore, ecosystem services had a dynamic degree of 0.13%. Among them, the ESVs of forestland were the highest, accounting for about 60.59% of the total value. Among the individual ecosystem services, only food production, environmental purification, and soil conservation decreased in value, while the values of other ecosystem services increased. (2) The ESVs increased with elevation, showing a spatial distribution pattern of first rising and then decreasing. The high-value areas of ESVs per unit area were primarily distributed in the forestland of the transition area between the basin and plateau; The low-value areas were distributed in the northwest, or the urban areas with frequent human activities in the Sichuan Basin. (3) The tradeoffs and synergies between multi-scale ecosystems showed that ecosystem services were synergies-dominated. As the scale of research increased, the tradeoffs between ecosystems gradually transformed into synergies. (4) The main driving factors for the spatial differentiation of ESVs in Sichuan Province were average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, and gross domestic product (GDP); the interaction between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and GDP had the strongest driving effect on ESVs, generally up to 30%. As a result, the distribution of ESVs in Sichuan Province was influenced by both the natural environment and the social economy. The present study not only identified the temporal and spatial variation characteristics and driving factors of ESVs in Sichuan Province, but also provided a reference for the establishment of land use planning and ecological environmental protection mechanisms in this region.
... Vietnam has 13,048 km 2 of degraded land, occupying 4% of the total farm area; and another 24,043 km 2 showing signs of degradation (LDN, 2018). As a result, the value of total ecosystem services of the sloping land area of Vietnam has decreased from US $162.6-132.9 billion (Sutton et al., 2016). Land degradation and the resulting soil infertility comprise a major constraint to agricultural productivity (Beedy et al., 2010). ...
Article
Land management is vital for agricultural production and ecosystem service maintenance to mitigate the effects of climate change. This is particularly important in regions with higher proportions of sloping land, where degradation is more prevalent. The mountainous northwest of Vietnam provides a salient example of an area with sloping and highly degraded soils. This article employed data envelopment analysis to investigate the effect of sustainable land management practices on efficiency and yield in the cultivation of oranges. Determinants of production efficiency and the interaction between efficiency and yield were also analyzed. Results indicate that 130 out of the studied 174 groves are not operating at optimal efficiency levels and that most producers would benefit by increasing their scale of production. Furthermore, the adoption of sustainable land management was found to improve production efficiency and yield both positively and significantly. Finally, the production efficiency of orange groves is positively affected by the ethnicity of the head of the farming household, access to extension services, and the degree of sustainable land management adoption. Farming households headed by members with higher levels of education and more farming experience were also found to significantly contribute to scale efficiency.
... Provisional, regulatory, and cultural services have a direct impact on human well-being in the short term, and supportive services have an indirect impact on human well-being in the long term by maintaining the production of other services (Costanza et al., 2014;TEEB, 2018). The immense contribution of ecosystem services to natural functions and sustainable livelihoods has been significantly reduced in time and space by anthropogenic activities that promote land-use/ cover changes (Costanza et al., 2017;Sutton et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Plantation of Eucalyptus and Acacia species emerges as a promising alternative in the tropics in a scenario of high demand for provisional and regulating ecosystem services. The research aimed to characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of ecosystem service values in response to planting practices of Eucalyptus and Acacia species in the Gilgel Abay watershed, Northwest Ethiopia. The threshold values of NDVI were employed to classify land-use/covers using cloud-free satellite imagery data in 1984, 1998, 2013, and 2021. The benefit transfer method of modified value coefficient was used to estimate ecosystem service values (ESVs) of the study watershed. Total ESV decreased from 1984 to 1998 due to the expansion of cultivated land at the expense of natural forests, shrubs, and grasslands. As food production increased, performance levels of climate regulation, erosion control, and nutrient cycle declined. In contrast, the service values of erosion control, climate regulation, and nutrient cycles were the major contributors to the overall increase in ESV from 1998 to 2021. This was caused by expanding Acacia and Eucalyptus species plantation at the expense of cultivated land in the watershed. The research revealed a trade-off relationship between provisional and other ecosystem services, such as regulating and supporting ecosystem service values in response to land-use system transformation. As a result, it is suggested that synergistic interactions between regulating, provisional, and supporting ecosystem service values be developed by merging plantation and cultivated land. Maintaining the right proportions of degraded plantations, protected natural forests, farmlands, and wetland ecosystems can be the most effective way to provide optimal multiple ecosystem services.
... Desertification has hit part of the continent with one-fifth of the irrigated cropland, three-fifths of the rain-fed cropland, and three-fourths of the rangeland all hit by the effect. Land degradation affects and contributes to changes in climate and has negative impacts on people and ecosystems (Sutton, 2016). The definition of land degradation relates to both natural and manmade factors. ...
Chapter
Built on the notion of 'cities as forces for good' (CFG), the purpose of this chapter is to dissect the problematique of reclaiming and greening degraded spaces in Africa's drylands for urban development. The focus of the chapter is on the Sahara and the Kalahari deserts. The chapter adopts a critical literature review anchored in case study analysis and reflexive methodology. These methodologies are critical for constructing and reconstructing reality in a way that speaks to pragmatism. Literature reviews point to the visioning of the future Sahara and Kalahari deserts in which complexes of regional cities arise. The cities become endogenous attractors of populations and pose newer solutions to the challenges that existing cities have today, of pollution, congestion, sprawling, and shrinking job markets. Indeed, the next desert complexes will act as paragons of cities as forces for good. Decentralized mechanisms for energy, water, food production, and waste management are proposed.
... Approximately 25 percent of the Earth's land was considered degraded by 2016; 95 percent of Earth's land mass could be degraded by 2050 (Sutton et al., 2016). Current estimates value lost ecosystem services from land and forest degradation between $6.3-10.6 trillion/year (Kaija, 2021;ELD, 2015). ...
... NPP is the organic matter produced by green plants in unit area and unit time, is an important indicator to evaluate the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystems (Z. J. Liu et al. 2021;Sutton et al. 2016), and natural environmental resources are the basis for ecosystem development, so the existing level of NPP evaluation of natural resources has been added to this research index system. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle is an important center for promoting economic growth in the western region. Clarifying the driving force and restrictive factors of the urbanization development in Chengdu-Chongqing area is conducive to the further development of the region. Firstly, this study uses geospatial information to describe the resource consumption characteristics of the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle. Then, Moran index has been used to test the spatial agglomeration relationship. Finally, the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle is classified according to the characteristics of natural resource utilization and spatial relations. The results show that (1) the relationship between the comprehensive utilization of natural resources and urbanization in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle is high in the east and low in the west, and the two places jointly drive the development of the north and the south. (2) From 2015 to 2020, the comprehensive utilization capacity of natural resources in the core area on the west side decrease, and the core area on the east side increase. Urbanization in the north and south is slow, and the direct utilization capacity of natural resources needs to be improved. (3) The city with the best coordination relationship between comprehensive utilization of natural resources and urbanization is on the periphery of the core cities of the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle, and the protection and management measures of the core cities for natural resources do not match their urbanization level.
... For instance, despite lacking extreme climate conditions, the Mediterranean area is particularly exposed to land degradation as seasonal droughts regularly hit the region [19]. However, human causes of land degradation have had a strong impact on soil quality here [20]. Soil degradation in the Mediterranean region affects extensive areas already vulnerable to the exploitation of natural resources, to the point that the implementation of specific soil conservation actions is required as a necessity [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present contribution discusses recent findings in environmental issues dealing with desertification risk and regional disparities in the Mediterranean basin. By focusing on key socioeconomic factors underlying land and soil degradation (population growth, urban sprawl, coastalization, agricultural intensification, and land abandonment), this commentary highlights the intimate linkage between socioeconomic processes, rural poverty, and territorial disparities based on complex dynamics of demographic and economic factors. The increasing complexity in the spatial distribution of land vulnerable to degradation has also been pointed out with special reference to post-war Italy, a Mediterranean country considered as particularly affected in the UNCCD Annex IV, as the results of non-linear biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics. The lack in multi-target and multi-scale policies approaching land degradation and territorial disparities together is finally discussed as an original contribution to the study of Mediterranean desertification.
... Ecosystem services (ESs) are the outcome of ecological processes provided by natural systems (Kadykalo et al., 2020;Leemans and Groot, 2003). While the recognition of the existence and importance of ESs is not very old (Daily, 1997), nowadays it is universally accepted that they are indispensable for human societies (Clinton et al., 2018;Sutton et al., 2016). Processes leading to ESs such as biological control and pollination are particularly valuable in agro-ecosystems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring ecosystem processes resulting in ecosystem services (ESs) and disservices (EDs) is crucial in agricultural ecosystems. Traditionally, ESs/EDs provided by arthropods have been estimated indirectly by measuring arthropod abundance and diversity, overlooking the recognised limitations of such approach. Using a consistent methodology based on the sentinel approach, we quantified the intensity of five ecological processes leading to four ESs and two EDs in vineyards and citrus orchards on Terceira Island, Azores. We assessed herbivory rates on lettuce plants (ED), predation rates on green plasticine caterpillars by vertebrates and invertebrates (ES), the intensity of insect pollination on strawberry plants (ES), the rates of predation on wheat and dandelion seeds (ED and ES, respectively) by rodents and invertebrates, and decomposition rates using tea and rooibos leaves (ES). Herbivory rates after 2 weeks were significantly lower in vineyards (mean ± SD; 0.5 ± 0.6%) than in citrus orchards (3.6 ± 2.9%). Vertebrate predation rates in vineyards (4.0 ± 13.6% d⁻¹) were significantly higher than in citrus orchards (2.4 ± 10.7% d⁻¹), while no differences were observed for overall and invertebrate predation rates. Pollination efficiency in vineyards (214.5 ± 23.9 seeds/fruit) was significantly higher than in citrus orchards (162.0 ± 14.7 seeds/fruit). Seed predation rates were higher, although not significantly so, in citrus orchards (2.0 ± 5.8% d⁻¹) than in vineyards (0.3 ± 0.8% d⁻¹). Decomposition was significantly higher on tea than on rooibos leaves, both in vineyards (1.15 ± 0.11 g vs. 0.72 ± 0.16 g) and citrus orchards (1.34 ± 0.06 g vs. 0.78 ± 0.13 g); no differences between mass loss in the two habitats were observed. Our results demonstrated the suitability of simple, direct monitoring tools for a quantitative comparison of agricultural habitats, confirm that landscape complexity does not always support ESs, and that the same agro-ecosystem characteristics that support ESs could occasionally also favour EDs.
... Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is a highly recommended mechanism to conserve ecosystem while using it with satisfactory economic benefits (Greiber 2009;Sutton et al. 2016). PES is the voluntary transaction between consumers of any ecosystem service and the providers, who are responsible to manage the availability and access of benefits of such resources to the consumers on the basis of agreed rules of payment for generating offsite services (Wunder et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Payment for ecosystem services (PES), a voluntary transaction for the optimum use of scarce natural resources, are highly recommended for conservation of forests and watershed. Despite multiple recommendations, there has not been enough studies regarding PES in Nepal, except for limited areas like hydropower plants and community forests. Every PES scheme is unique, depending upon the conditions prevalent in its site therefore more studies are required to understand appropriateness of PES mechanism. Taking drinking water scheme in Sundarijal watershed as a case, this study assessed drinking water supply scheme prevalent in the site, and prioritized its problems, and expectations, from stakeholders’ perspectives. A phenomenological cross-sectional research approach was used and data were collected through in-depth interviews with major stakeholders. The result transcripts were analyzed in Atlasti version 7 and prioritized based on their frequency. The proper buying and selling mechanisms were not found in the current drinking water supply scheme in Sundarijal. The poor economic condition of users, inadequate funds in water users committee, and inadequate water collection for sales were determined as primary obstacles associated with PES establishment at the study site. Since the area has immense potential for PES, building additional water collection tanks with filter plants, a collaboration of multiple local organizations in the preparation of baseline document, identification of additional water sources, and adequate funding are perquisite to establish proper payment mechanism.
Article
Water redistribution profoundly affects the dryland ecosystem’s function. Biological soil crusts (BSCs or biocrusts), which cover a large part of soil surface in arid land, significantly affect the water redistribution, but the results are conflicting at regional scale. In this study, the effects of different biocrusts on soil hydraulic properties, including soil water retention curve, soil water sorptivity, soil hydrophobicity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, were clarified in Tengger Desert. The results showed that the presence of BSCs significantly changed soil hydraulic properties. Compared to sand, BSCs increased water holding capacity and soil hydrophobicity, and decreased soil water sorptivity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The enrichment of fine particles during the change from the less to the more developed BSCs contributed to the enhancement of water holding capacity, but this effect was mainly limited at 3-cm layer of soil underneath the ground surface. Soil hydrophobicity decreased with crust development, which contributed to the increase of soil water sorptivity. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity decreased during the change from the less to the more developed BSCs, which exerted some negative effect on water infiltration. Our results highlight the important role of BSCs in hydraulic properties, and consideration of biocrusts and its hydrological behavior could help us better understand the distribution, movement and retention of soil water in this area.
Article
Natural and anthropogenic processes are primary drivers for soil degradations in the Gangetic plain of India. Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) data was used to assess soil degradations and study spatial changes comparing with the legacy datasets. Based on the nature, extent, and degrees of limitations, these soils were evaluated to suggest suitable reclamation and management options. Typical strong signature (white tones) from a barren highly salinized soil (P3, P6, P9, P11, and P15) and higher energy absorption (blue-black tones) from a permanent waterlogged surface (P13, P14, P10) in the irrigated areas have favored delineation of salt-affected, strong, and permanent waterlogged areas. Moderate and slightly salt-affected soils (P1, P2, P4, P5, P7, P8, and P12) and the areas with high water table depths (P13 and P14) have shown mixed spectral signatures for associations of soil, water, and crops and were mapped using ground truth and soil chemical analysis data. Irrigation with poor quality ground water (RSC: 1.2 to 12.3 me L−1) has prompted developing salinity and sodicity in P2, P5, and P11, while irrigation in poorly drained areas caused appearance of waterlogging (WTD < 1.5 m) and salinization (P3, P5, P7, P9, P13, P14). The gypsum application and sub-surface drainage (SSD) techniques have enhanced soil reclamation by (i) neutralizing CO32 − and HCO3 − in P12 (pH 9.2, ESP 24) and (ii) controlling soil salinity (EC 3.0 dS m−1) and waterlogging (WTD > 1.5 m) in P14. Soils with CaCO3 layers at shallow depth in P3 (0.7–4.2%), P6 (1.2–7.1%), P9 (8–16%), P11 (4–15%), and P13 (0.9–9.4%) were managed using forest plantations. Ground water with high SAR in T1 to T7 can be applied for agriculture using mixing or cyclic mode. Water with high RSC in T4, T5, T7, T8, T9, and T10 needs treatment with gypsum. A significant area (~ 24.87%) of salt-affected soils was reclaimed since 1971. Prominent changes (3.27 to 17.71%) were shown in Panipat and Karnal districts. Small areas of brick kiln (P11), industrial effluent (P10), riverine sand, partially stabilized dunes, and mining have appeared due to anthropogenic activities.
Preprint
Full-text available
Stagnant wetlands have a vast natural ecosystem of different sizes, provide vital ecosystem services to humans, but are not well detailed. The study investigates the association of the Stagnant wetland’s size versus the ecological condition (EC), ecosystem service (ES), and their Shifts in land use / land cover (LULC) in the Agro-climatic a location of Namakkal district. Twenty-one chosen wetlands are hydrologically isolated, few semi-parched in summer, surveyed by the range of methods. The Wetland sizes had categorized into small wetlands (SW), medium wetlands (MW), and large wetlands (LW) which, are less than 10 acres, 11 to 100, and above 100 acres, respectively. Our results showed that ES of entire wetlands degraded by human anthropogenic activities and degradation factors differ in the wetland kinds. Also, ecosystem services such as livestock rearing and agronomy are vital income sources. Overall, the hypothesis results show that wetland size is not associated with ecological status and ecosystem services. However, the LULC changes had analyzed from 2010 to 2019. The data corroborate that the increase in constructing the property and extensive changes in agricultural areas are a deep concern for wetland size reduction. Finally, wetlands conservation activities priorities given to are wetlands size-based seems not the best practice.
Article
Land degradation directly affects global and regional economic, social development, and food security, which has become a hot and challenging issue in the global ecological field. A successful response to land degradation requires understanding its causes, impacts, and extent. It is also essential to recognize the effects of climate, soil, water, land cover, and socioeconomic factors on land degradation. Therefore, assessing land degradation risk can help prevent and reverse land degradation trends, especially for the main grain production area. The Environmental Sensitivity Area Index (ESAI) was used to identify land degradation sensitive areas in the North China Plain and combined with a random forest model to determine the main drivers affecting land degradation and predict future land degradation sensitive areas. The results show decreasing land degradation risk in the North China Plain. In 2015, the sensitivity of land degradation in the North China Plain had improved. The proportion of land area with high sensitivity to land degradation reduced to 0.02%. Combining the spatial and temporal distribution of ESAI and the prediction results of the random forest model, we know that socio-economic factors have the most significant impact on land degradation sensitivity. Although the risk of land degradation is decreasing, it is still necessary to pay attention to the possible future land degradation risk to stabilize food production. Assessing land degradation risk in North China Plain provides important decision information for rational and sustainable land management and has more vital practical significance.
Chapter
Soil erosion is a relevant menace to soil sustainability and the inappropriate agricultural practices generate high rates (75 billion tons year–1) that provoke a decrease its productivity and a decline in the ecosystem services provided by the soil, which equates to an estimated financial loss of US$ 400 billion year–1. The adoption of soil conservation systems is essential to ensure the economic and environmental sustainability of agricultural systems. Keeping the soil protected from the impact of wind and rain by plant cover is one of the main soil conservation strategies. In the short term, vegetation cover controls erosion mainly by preserving the soil surface to the strength of wind and/or raindrops, and in the long term, the vegetation reduces erosion by the improvement of soil quality properties. The usage of leguminous species for soil fertility-building is wide spread and included mainly in cover-cropping systems for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) besides the soil protection. Legumes can not only be established as monocultures but are also included in mixtures of other species in grasslands, green manure, intercropping, cover crops, agroforestry, shelterbelt, etc. These systems use eco-functional intensification for improving land and resource use efficiency; therefore, the legumes can boost the resistance of soils to ecosystem disturbances. This chapter analyses the role of legumes in soil protection against erosion and its implications for the conservation of ecosystem services.
Article
Full-text available
The growing competition for finite land and water resources and the need to feed an ever-growing population require new techniques to monitor the performance of irrigation schemes and improve land and water productivity. Datasets from FAO's portal to monitor Water Productivity through Open access Remotely sensed derived data (WaPOR) are increasingly applied as a cost-effective means to support irrigation performance assessment and identify possible pathways for improvement. This study presents a framework that applies WaPOR data to assess irrigation performance indicators, including uniformity, equity, adequacy, and land and water productivity differentiated by irrigation method (furrow, sprinkler, and centre pivot) at the Xinavane sugarcane estate, Mozambique. The WaPOR data on water, land, and climate are in near-real time and spatially distributed, with the finest spatial resolution in the area of 100 m. The WaPOR data were first validated agronomically by examining the biomass response to water, and then the data were used to systematically analyse seasonal indicators for the period 2015 to 2018 on ∼8000 ha. The WaPOR-based yield estimates were found to be comparable to the estate-measured yields with ±20 % difference, a root mean square error of 19±2.5 t ha−1 and a mean absolute error of 15±1.6 t ha−1. A climate normalization factor that enables the spatial and temporal comparison of performance indicators are applied. The assessment highlights that in Xinavane no single irrigation method performs the best across all performance indicators. Centre pivot compared to sprinkler and furrow irrigation shows higher adequacy, equity, and land productivity but lower water productivity. The three irrigation methods have excellent uniformity (∼94 %) in the four seasons and acceptable adequacy for most periods of the season except in 2016, when a drought was observed. While this study is done for sugarcane in one irrigation scheme, the approach can be broadened to compare other crops across fields or irrigation schemes across Africa with diverse management units in the different agroclimatic zones within FAO WaPOR coverage. We conclude that the framework is useful for assessing irrigation performance using the WaPOR dataset.
Preprint
Full-text available
Ecological impacts associated with agricultural land use change are evident via the direct replacement of natural communities with managed production systems. These impacts are extensively studied, but the implications for soil biology and belowground diversity remain poorly understood. Due to their contribution to soil systems and ability to survive under harsh and changing conditions, soil bacteria are a good candidate to highlight belowground ecological community dynamics. Here, we use soil physicochemical assessment and 16S rDNA sequencing to investigate soil bacterial community assemblage across an agricultural intensity gradient in a semi-arid mixed-use agricultural landscape. We collected and assessed soil samples from distinct land use systems including remnant vegetation, old pasture, recently established vineyards and old vineyards and recently revegetated areas. We found that land use systems differed in soil physicochemical characteristics (specifically nitrogen and phosphorus) likely influenced by agricultural inputs and plant functional diversity. Land use and management practises were also linked to a shift in the soil microbiome, such that distinct bacterial communities were associated with specific land use systems. Counter to expectations, highest bacterial diversity was observed in the most intensively modified agricultural systems (vineyards). These systems were also broadly linked with a beneficial bacterial community shift (in the context of soil and plant health). The community composition of recently revegeted areas was also more similar to remnant habitat suggesting that bacterial community composition can respond quickly to above ground changes. Collectively, results suggest that while vineyard agriculture may reduce aboveground plant diversity, it can increase belowground bacterial diversity. We propose that this is in-part due to disturbance associated with the vineyard agricultural systems. These findings highlight the need to further explore practices influencing soil biological components in agricultural systems, and the potential to develop microbiome-based strategies to enhance soil health and agricultural productivity.
Article
The ecosystem of inland river basin is of great significance to the socio-economic stability in arid area. Therefore, to evaluate the ecosystem service values (ESVs) is necessary for monitor ecosystem changes. In this paper, the response of land use/land cover (LULC) during 1990 to 2020 in Aksu River Basin (ARB) to ESV was explored. The advanced equivalent factor which modified by biomass factor and socio-economic was used to evaluate the ESVs of the ARB. A patch-generating land use simulation (PLUS) was used to simulate the ESV spatial distribution considering the influences of temperature (TEM), precipitation (PRE), NDVI, DEM, Soil organic matter content (SOMC) and Human Activity Intensity of Land Surface (HAILS) of the ARB in 2030. The results show that the total ESV in the study area showed an increasing trend (1.63 × 10¹⁰ yuan to 5.64 × 10¹⁰ yuan) from 1990 to 2020. The grassland had the highest ESV, accounting for nearly 50% of the total ESV for the ARB. The factor detection results showed that q value had the following explanatory power to ESV: HAILS (0.332) > NDVI (0.126) > TEM (0.125) > PRE (0.108) > DEM(0.096) > SOMC(0.089)and the interaction between HAILS and PRE had an effect of 0.493 on ESV. The shape index (SI) was negatively correlated with the ESV, and the correlation coefficient was −0.794. The aggregation index (AI) and Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI) were positively correlated with the ESV, and the correlation coefficients were 0.872 and 0.878, respectively. The simulation results showed a rapid increase in ESVs in 2030, the ESV of grassland would still be the largest, and the per unit ESV of plowland, forestland, unused land and water area would be 20131.07 yuan/km², 64743.29 yuan/km², 3054.21 yuan/km², 41398.54 yuan/km², respectively. This paper can help decision-makers achieve sustainable ecosystem service management and develop land-use strategies in inland river basins in arid oases.
Article
Ecosystem service (ES) supply and demand assessment is essential for understanding the inner relationships between ecosystems and humans and is useful when formulating future ecological policies. This study analyses the spatial and temporal variations in key ESs in the Yangtze River Middle Reaches Urban Agglomeration to understand the relationship with human demand. First, the InVEST model is used to quantify the spatial and temporal changes in the key ESs from 2000 to 2019, and a supply–demand index is used to explore the supply–demand relationship at the county scale. Second, ES bundle is applied to analyse the relationships among ESs in different supply–demand balance areas. Finally, different ecological protection scenarios are proposed to simulate the supply–demand relationship in 2040. The results show that (1) the impacts of ecological factors on the ES supply are greater than socioeconomic factors, especially the precipitation and distance from the Yangtze River. (2) Regions of supply–demand imbalance are mainly concentrated in provincial centres and the surrounding cities, especially in the Wuhan city circle. (3) Each ES in regions of balanced supply and demand is well-balanced, and ESs in regions of supply-demand imbalance are dominated by one service. (4) Among the simulated scenarios, the climate regulation protection scenario in 2040 yields the optimal supply–demand result. This study can contribute to future management decision-making regarding the balance between the supply and demand of ecosystem services.
Article
Full-text available
O presente estudo objetivou identificar áreas de conflitos em Áreas de Proteção Permanente (APP) e Áreas de Uso Restrito (AUR) no Parque Estadual do Rio Preto (PERP) e sua Zona de Amortecimento (ZA). O trabalho parte das evidências de entender o estado de conservação no PERP e sua ZA aplicando as diretrizes de APP e AUR apresentados no Código Florestal Brasileiro vigente. Empregando recursos disponíveis em ambiente SIG (sistema de informações geográficas), delimitou-se e mapeou-se classes de uso da terra e as APP de nascentes e cursos d’água; bordas de tabuleiros ou chapadas; áreas com declividade superior a 45º; áreas com altitude superior a 1800 m; e AUR com base nos parâmetros, definições e limites estabelecidos pela Lei nº 12.651. A partir da sobreposição destes mapas analisou-se a ocorrência de conflito de uso na área. As classes de uso da terra foram: Afloramento Rochoso (49,70%), Formação Campestre (28,34%), Agropecuária (2,70%), Solo Exposto (4,62%) e Água (0,29%) Dentre as categorias de APP observamos maior ocorrência das APP nascentes (8,41%) e cursos d’água (54,24%). As APP declividade > 45° (0,58%) e altitude superior a 1800 m (0,03%) apresentaram menor ocorrência. Os usos da terra em APP do tipo nascente e cursos d’água e AUR foram mais expressivos nas classes de Afloramento Rochoso, Formação Florestal e Formação Campestre. As classes de Agropecuária e Solo Exposto apresentaram baixa incidência no conflito de uso em todas as APP e AUR analisadas. Porém, ao analisar sua ocorrência entre as categorias de APP verificou-se maior ocorrência de uso indevido nas APP nascentes e cursos d’água. Com base nos resultados observamos a eficiência do uso das ferramentas nos SIG, confirmando a potencialidade deste como subsídio nas políticas públicas e gestão eficiente do uso da terra.
Article
Full-text available
O presente estudo objetivou identificar áreas de conflitos em Áreas de Proteção Permanente (APP) e Áreas de Uso Restrito (AUR) no Parque Estadual do Rio Preto (PERP) e sua Zona de Amortecimento (ZA). O trabalho parte das evidências de entender o estado de conservação no PERP e sua ZA aplicando as diretrizes de APP e AUR apresentados no Código Florestal Brasileiro vigente. Empregando recursos disponíveis em ambiente SIG (sistema de informações geográficas), delimitou-se e mapeou-se classes de uso da terra e as APP de nascentes e cursos d’água; bordas de tabuleiros ou chapadas; áreas com declividade superior a 45º; áreas com altitude superior a 1800 m; e AUR com base nos parâmetros, definições e limites estabelecidos pela Lei nº 12.651. A partir da sobreposição destes mapas analisou-se a ocorrência de conflito de uso na área. As classes de uso da terra foram: Afloramento Rochoso (49,70%), Formação Campestre (28,34%), Agropecuária (2,70%), Solo Exposto (4,62%) e Água (0,29%) Dentre as categorias de APP observamos maior ocorrência das APP nascentes (8,41%) e cursos d’água (54,24%). As APP declividade > 45° (0,58%) e altitude superior a 1800 m (0,03%) apresentaram menor ocorrência. Os usos da terra em APP do tipo nascente e cursos d’água e AUR foram mais expressivos nas classes de Afloramento Rochoso, Formação Florestal e Formação Campestre. As classes de Agropecuária e Solo Exposto apresentaram baixa incidência no conflito de uso em todas as APP e AUR analisadas. Porém, ao analisar sua ocorrência entre as categorias de APP verificou-se maior ocorrência de uso indevido nas APP nascentes e cursos d’água. Com base nos resultados observamos a eficiência do uso das ferramentas nos SIG, confirmando a potencialidade deste como subsídio nas políticas públicas e gestão eficiente do uso da terra.
Chapter
Issues of resource use and misuse provide serious concerns in both developed and developing economies. In order to provide a structure for safer development and provide solutions rectifying irrational resource use, electronic or e-commerce is discussed as a sustainable way of transacting and growing an economy. E-commerce is used to implement green concepts within market development of a range of products and is effective in curbing greenhouse gases. The activation of resource efficiency by the use of an e-commerce platform enables the use of a paperless system. Minimal capital and monthly expenses are required, while the community may be engaged to enable the success of the project. Hence commercial and economic development is linked via a loop with direct integration with the community. The use of e-commerce platforms and big data benefits are expatiated in this chapter. Zimbabwe is still in its infancy in e-commerce use. A case study of “Blue Chip” was used to relate the use of green concepts to the modern-day world in Zimbabwe in an intelligent, sustainable loop. Enhanced resource efficiency and its management through big data platforms will guide development of Zimbabwe for generations to come.KeywordsE-commerceSustainabilityBig dataResource efficiencyCommunity inclusivityLow emissions
Article
Full-text available
Growing demand of resources increases pressure on ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity. Monetary valuation of ES is frequently seen as a decision-support tool by providing explicit values for unconsidered, non-market goods and services. Here we present global value transfer functions by using a meta-analytic framework for the synthesis of 194 case studies capturing 839 monetary values of ES. For 12 ES the variance of monetary values could be explained with a subset of 93 study- and site-specific variables by utilizing boosted regression trees. This provides the first global quantification of uncertainties and transferability of monetary valuations. Models explain from 18% (water provision) to 44% (food provision) of variance and provide statistically reliable extrapolations for 70% (water provision) to 91% (food provision) of the terrestrial earth surface. Although the application of different valuation methods is a source of uncertainty, we found evidence that assuming homogeneity of ecosystems is a major error in value transfer function models. Food provision is positively correlated with better life domains and variables indicating positive conditions for human well-being. Water provision and recreation service show that weak ownerships affect valuation of other common goods negatively (e.g. non-privately owned forests). Furthermore, we found support for the shifting baseline hypothesis in valuing climate regulation. Ecological conditions and societal vulnerability determine valuation of extreme event prevention. Valuation of habitat services is negatively correlated with indicators characterizing less favorable areas. Our analysis represents a stepping stone to establish a standardized integration of and reporting on uncertainties for reliable and valid benefit transfer as an important component for decision support.
Article
Full-text available
Small and medium enterprises have difficulties keeping up-to-date and developing and commercialising innovations. To reduce the risk and the cost of this process and strengthen firms' innovation capacity, inter-organisational collaboration is being encouraged by incubators and science and technology parks. Here, we consider tenants from incubators and science parks in an emerging country and analyse specific attributes of collaboration such as goal congruency, governance and knowledge complementarity and their relationship to collaborative R&D project results. The objective of this article is to analyse the influence of these R&D collaboration attributes on the results of R&D projects. Our theoretical framework was empirically tested through a quantitative survey conducted among 119 Brazilian tenants, whose data were analysed using structural equation modelling. We found that some collaborative attributes are significantly related to innovative project results. These results yield interesting implications and insights regarding inter-organisational collaboration and innovation within incubators and science parks, stimulating the debate among scholars and practitioners.C. (2016) 'Collaborative R&D and project results within Brazilian incubators and science parks', Int.
Article
Full-text available
The comparison of the Ecological Footprint and its counterpart (i.e. biocapacity) allow for a classification of the world's countries as ecological creditors (Ecological Footprint lower than biocapacity) or debtors (Ecological Footprint higher than biocapacity). This classification is a national scale assessment on an annual time scale that provides a view of the ecological assets appropriated by the local population versus the natural ecological endowment of a country. We show that GDP per capita over a certain threshold is related with the worsening of the footprint balance in countries classified as ecological debtors. On the other hand, this correlation is lost when ecological creditor nations are considered. There is evidence that governments and investors from high GDP countries are playing a crucial role in impacting the environment at the global scale which is significantly affecting the geography of sustainability and preventing equal opportunities for development. In particular, international market dynamics and the concentration of economic power facilitate the transfer of biocapacity related to “land grabbing”, i.e. large scale acquisition of agricultural land. This transfer mainly occurs from low to high GDP countries, regardless of the actual need of foreign biocapacity, as expressed by the national footprint balance. A first estimation of the amount of biocapacity involved in this phenomenon is provided in this paper in order to better understand its implications on global sustainability and national and international land use policy.
Article
Full-text available
Degraded lands have often been suggested as a solution to issues of land scarcity and as an ideal way to meet mounting global demands for agricultural goods, but their locations and conditions are not well known. Four approaches have been used to assess degraded lands at the global scale: expert opinion, satellite observation, biophysical models, and taking inventory of abandoned agricultural lands. We review prominent databases and methodologies used to estimate the area of degraded land, translate these data into a common framework for comparison, and highlight reasons for discrepancies between the numbers. Global estimates of total degraded area vary from less than 1 billion ha to over 6 billion ha, with equally wide disagreement in their spatial distribution. The risk of overestimating the availability and productive potential of these areas is severe, as it may divert attention from efforts to reduce food and agricultural waste or the demand for land-intensive commodities.
Article
Full-text available
Soil, an important component of land, has numerous functions and ecosystem services essential to all terrestrial life. Soil degradation, decline in its capacity to support functions and provide ecosystem services, is caused by accelerated erosion, salinization, elemental imbalance, acidification, depletion of soil organic carbon (SOC), reduction in soil biodiversity, and decline in soil structure and tilth. Desertification, a sub-set of degradation, specifically refers to decline in soil quality and functions in arid climates. Climate change affects and is affected by soil degradation through a positive feed back due to increase in mineralization of SOC pool and the radiative forcing. Desertification may lead to a net increase in temperature despite change in albedo of the denuded surface. Feedbacks and threshold amplify the risks of degradation, and the projected climate change may exacerbate all four types of drought (i.e., meteorological, hydrological, pedagogical, and ecological). The mutually reinforcing positive feedbacks between soil degradation and climate change are strongly influenced by social, economic, political, and cultural factors. There exists a strong link between poverty, desperateness, and societal collapse on soil degradation and climate change. Restoration of degraded and desertified soils, converting marginal agricultural areas to rangeland and forest land, and adoption of recommended management practices have a large technical potential to sequester carbon and off-set anthropogenic emissions, improve the environment, and enhance and sustain agronomic productivity. Important among recommended management practices are using conservation agriculture and mulch farming, establishing cover crops, adopting strategies of integrated nutrient management, and those which create positive C and nutrient budgets and soil/water conservation within a watershed. Long-term research is needed which is hypothesis-driven, uses modern innovative research and modeling tools, is based on community involvement, and provides decision support systems to policy makers and land managers.
Article
Full-text available
The global change research community needs to renew its social contract with society by moving beyond a focus on biophysical limits and toward solution-oriented research to provide realistic, context-specific pathways to a sustainable future. A focus on planetary opportunities is based on the premise that societies adapt to change and have historically implemented solutions—for example, to protect watersheds, improve food security, and reduce harmful atmospheric emissions. Daunting social and biophysical challenges for achieving a sustainable future demand that the global change research community work to provide underpinnings for workable solutions at multiple scales of governance. Global change research must reorient itself from a focus on biophysically oriented, global-scale analysis of humanity's negative impact on the Earth system to consider the needs of decisionmakers from household to global scales.
Article
Full-text available
A unique combination of satellite and socioeconomic data were used to explore the relationship between human consumption and the carbon cycle. The amount of Earth's net primary production (NPP) required to support human activities is a powerful measure of the aggregate impact on the biosphere and indicator of societal vulnerability to climate change. Biophysical models were applied to consumption data to estimate the annual amount of Earth's terrestrial net primary production humans require for food, fiber (including fabrication) and fuel using the same modeling architecture as satellite-supported NPP measurements. The amount of NPP required was calculated on a per capita basis and projected onto a global map of population to create a spatially explicit map of NPP-carbon ``demand'' in units of elemental carbon. NPP demand was compared to a map of Earth's average annual net primary production or ``supply'' created using 17 years (1982-1998) of AVHRR vegetation index to produce a geographically accurate balance sheet of NPP-carbon ``supply'' and ``demand'' for the globe. Globally, humans consume 20% of Earth's total net primary production on land. Regionally, the NPP-carbon balance percentage varies from 6% to over 70% and locally from near 0% to over 30,000% in major urban areas. Scenarios modeling the impact of per capita consumption, population growth, and technology suggest that NPP demand is likely to increase substantially in the next 40 years despite better harvesting and processing efficiencies.
Article
Full-text available
Landscapes generate a wide range of valuable ecosystem services, yet land-use decisions often ignore the value of these services. Using the example of the United Kingdom, we show the significance of land-use change not only for agricultural production but also for emissions and sequestration of greenhouse gases, open-access recreational visits, urban green space, and wild-species diversity. We use spatially explicit models in conjunction with valuation methods to estimate comparable economic values for these services, taking account of climate change impacts. We show that, although decisions that focus solely on agriculture reduce overall ecosystem service values, highly significant value increases can be obtained from targeted planning by incorporating all potential services and their values and that this approach also conserves wild-species diversity.
Article
Full-text available
The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocksthat produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth’s life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet.We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of which is outside the market) is estimated to be in the range of US$16–54 trillion (1012) per year, with an average of US$33trillion per year. Because of the nature of the uncertainties, thismust be considered a minimum estimate. Global gross national product total is around US$18 trillion per year.
Article
Full-text available
Aim To map and characterize anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere before and during the Industrial Revolution, from 1700 to 2000.Location Global.Methods Anthropogenic biomes (anthromes) were mapped for 1700, 1800, 1900 and 2000 using a rule-based anthrome classification model applied to gridded global data for human population density and land use. Anthropogenic transformation of terrestrial biomes was then characterized by map comparisons at century intervals.Results In 1700, nearly half of the terrestrial biosphere was wild, without human settlements or substantial land use. Most of the remainder was in a seminatural state (45%) having only minor use for agriculture and settlements. By 2000, the opposite was true, with the majority of the biosphere in agricultural and settled anthromes, less than 20% seminatural and only a quarter left wild. Anthropogenic transformation of the biosphere during the Industrial Revolution resulted about equally from land-use expansion into wildlands and intensification of land use within seminatural anthromes. Transformation pathways differed strongly between biomes and regions, with some remaining mostly wild but with the majority almost completely transformed into rangelands, croplands and villages. In the process of transforming almost 39% of earth's total ice-free surface into agricultural land and settlements, an additional 37% of global land without such use has become embedded within agricultural and settled anthromes.Main conclusions Between 1700 and 2000, the terrestrial biosphere made the critical transition from mostly wild to mostly anthropogenic, passing the 50% mark early in the 20th century. At present, and ever more in the future, the form and process of terrestrial ecosystems in most biomes will be predominantly anthropogenic, the product of land use and other direct human interactions with ecosystems. Ecological research and conservation efforts in all but a few biomes would benefit from a primary focus on the novel remnant, recovering and managed ecosystems embedded within used lands.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a modeling approach aimed at seasonal resolution of global climatic and edaphic controls on patterns of terrestrial ecosystem production and soil microbial respiration. We use satellite imagery (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project solar radiation), along with historical climate (monthly temperature and precipitation) and soil attributes (texture, C and N contents) from global (1°) data sets as model inputs. The Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA) Biosphere model runs on a monthly time interval to simulate seasonal patterns in net plant carbon fixation, biomass and nutrient allocation, litterfall, soil nitrogen mineralization, and microbial CO2 production. The model estimate of global terrestrial net primary production is 48 Pg C yr-1 with a maximum light use efficiency of 0.39 g C MJ-1 PAR. Over 70% of terrestrial net production takes place between 30°N and 30°S latitude. Seasonal variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations from three stations in the Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change Flask Sampling Network correlate significantly with estimated net ecosystem production values by latitude. -from Authors
Article
Full-text available
Increasing population and consumption are placing unprecedented demands on agriculture and natural resources. Today, approximately a billion people are chronically malnourished while our agricultural systems are concurrently degrading land, water, biodiversity and climate on a global scale. To meet the world's future food security and sustainability needs, food production must grow substantially while, at the same time, agriculture's environmental footprint must shrink dramatically. Here we analyse solutions to this dilemma, showing that tremendous progress could be made by halting agricultural expansion, closing 'yield gaps' on underperforming lands, increasing cropping efficiency, shifting diets and reducing waste. Together, these strategies could double food production while greatly reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture.
Article
Full-text available
"Approaches to natural resource management are often based on a presumed ability to predict probabilistic responses to management and external drivers such as climate. They also tend to assume that the manager is outside the system being managed. However, where the objectives include long-term sustainability, linked social-ecological systems (SESs) behave as complex adaptive systems, with the managers as integral components of the system. Moreover, uncertainties are large and it may be difficult to reduce them as fast as the system changes. Sustainability involves maintaining the functionality of a system when it is perturbed, or maintaining the elements needed to renew or reorganize if a large perturbation radically alters structure and function. The ability to do this is termed 'resilience.' This paper presents an evolving approach to analyzing resilience in SESs, as a basis for managing resilience. We propose a framework with four steps, involving close involvement of SES stakeholders. It begins with a stakeholder-led development of a conceptual model of the system, including its historical profile (how it got to be what it is) and preliminary assessments of the drivers of the supply of key ecosystem goods and services. Step 2 deals with identifying the range of unpredictable and uncontrollable drivers, stakeholder visions for the future, and contrasting possible future policies, weaving these three factors into a limited set of future scenarios. Step 3 uses the outputs from steps 1 and 2 to explore the SES for resilience in an iterative way. It generally includes the development of simple models of the system's dynamics for exploring attributes that affect resilience. Step 4 is a stakeholder evaluation of the process and outcomes in terms of policy and management implications. This approach to resilience analysis is illustrated using two stylized examples."
Article
Full-text available
The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 18 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of which in outside the market) in estimated to be in the range of US$16-54 trillion (1012) per year, with in average of US$33 trillion per year. Because of the nature of the uncertainties, thin must be considered a minimum estimate. Global gross national product total is around US$18 trillion per year.
Article
Full-text available
Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries that must not be transgressed could help prevent human activities from causing unacceptable environmental change, argue Johan Rockström and colleagues.
Article
Full-text available
Debate on global soil degradation, its extent and agronomic impact, can only be resolved through understanding of the processes and factors leading to establishment of the cause-effect relationships for major soils, ecoregions, and land uses. Systematic evaluation through long-term experimentation is needed for establishing quantitative criteria of (i) soil quality in relation to specific functions; (ii) soil degradation in relation to critical limits of key soil properties and processes; and (iii) soil resilience in relation to the ease of restoration through judicious management and discriminate use of essential input. Quantitative assessment of soil degradation can be obtained by evaluating its impact on productivity for different land uses and management systems. Interdisciplinary research is needed to quantify soil degradation effects on decrease in productivity, reduction in biomass, and decline in environment quality throught pollution and eutrophication of natural waters and emission of radiatively-active gases from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Data from long-term field experiments in principal ecoregions are specifically needed to (i) establish relationships between soil quality versus soil degradation and soil quality versus soil resilience; (ii) identify indicators of soil quality and soil resilience; and (iii) establish critical limits of important properties for soil degradation and soil resilience. There is a need to develop and standardize techniques for measuring soil resilience.
Article
Full-text available
Previous global estimates of the human impact on terrestrial photosynthesis products depended heavily on extrapolation from plot-scale measurements. Here, we estimated this impact with the use of recent data, many of which were collected at global and continental scales. Monte Carlo techniques that incorporate known and estimated error in our parameters provided estimates of uncertainty. We estimate that humans appropriate 10 to 55% of terrestrial photosynthesis products. This broad range reflects uncertainty in key parameters and makes it difficult to ascertain whether we are approaching crisis levels in our use of the planet's resources. Improved estimates will require high-resolution global measures within agricultural lands and tropical forests.
Article
Full-text available
Sustainability requires living within the regenerative capacity of the biosphere. In an attempt to measure the extent to which humanity satisfies this requirement, we use existing data to translate human demand on the environment into the area required for the production of food and other goods, together with the absorption of wastes. Our accounts indicate that human demand may well have exceeded the biosphere's regenerative capacity since the 1980s. According to this preliminary and exploratory assessment, humanity's load corresponded to 70% of the capacity of the global biosphere in 1961, and grew to 120% in 1999.
Article
Full-text available
The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production--the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis--can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production 'supply' and 'demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production 'imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.
Article
Full-text available
Human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP), the aggregate impact of land use on biomass available each year in ecosystems, is a prominent measure of the human domination of the biosphere. We present a comprehensive assessment of global HANPP based on vegetation modeling, agricultural and forestry statistics, and geographical information systems data on land use, land cover, and soil degradation that localizes human impact on ecosystems. We found an aggregate global HANPP value of 15.6 Pg C/yr or 23.8% of potential net primary productivity, of which 53% was contributed by harvest, 40% by land-use-induced productivity changes, and 7% by human-induced fires. This is a remarkable impact on the biosphere caused by just one species. We present maps quantifying human-induced changes in trophic energy flows in ecosystems that illustrate spatial patterns in the human domination of ecosystems, thus emphasizing land use as a pervasive factor of global importance. Land use transforms earth's terrestrial surface, resulting in changes in biogeochemical cycles and in the ability of ecosystems to deliver services critical to human well being. The results suggest that large-scale schemes to substitute biomass for fossil fuels should be viewed cautiously because massive additional pressures on ecosystems might result from increased biomass harvest. • biomass • global environmental change • human impact • biosphere • land use