Article

Green infrastructure for urban climate adaptation: How do residents' views on climate impacts and green infrastructure shape adaptation preferences?

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Abstract

Cities are particularly prone to the effects of climate change. One way for cities to adapt is by enhancing their green infrastructure (GI) to mitigate the impacts of heat waves and flooding. While alternative GI design options exist, there are many unknowns regarding public support for the various options. This study aims to fill this gap by performing a socio-cultural valuation of urban GI for climate adaptation that encompasses multiple dimensions: people’s notion of and concerns about climate impacts, the degree to which people acknowledge the benefits of GI to alleviate such impacts, and people’s preferences for different GI measures, including their willingness to pay (WTP). Data were collected through photo-assisted face-to-face surveys (n = 200) with residents in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and linked to GI GIS data. Respondents had a notion of and concerns about climate impacts, but did not necessarily acknowledge that GI may help tackle these issues. Yet, when residents were informed about the adaptation capacity of different GI measures, their preferences shifted towards the most effective options. There was no information effect, however, on people’s WTP for GI, which was mostly related to income and ethnicity. Our study shows that economic valuation alone would miss nuances that socio-cultural valuation as applied in this paper can reveal. The method revealed preferences for particular adaptation designs, and assists in detecting why policy for climate adaptation may be hampered. Understanding people’s views on climate impacts and adaptation options is crucial for prioritizing effective policy responses in the face of climate change.

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... Green infrastructure (GI) are physical infrastructure systems that integrate natural elements to solve environmental problems (Derkzen et al., 2017). Some examples include rain gardens to control stormwater flows and urban trees to reduce urban heat (Drescher and Sinasac, 2021), which also provide multiple co-benefits for people (Hartig et al., 2014;Bratman et al., 2019). ...
... Some examples include rain gardens to control stormwater flows and urban trees to reduce urban heat (Drescher and Sinasac, 2021), which also provide multiple co-benefits for people (Hartig et al., 2014;Bratman et al., 2019). As such, GI is an integral part of sustainable cities, with many world cities planning to increase the presence of such systems to address climate resilience, urban liveability, and human health and wellbeing goals (Derkzen et al., 2017;Matsler et al., 2021). ...
... However, most research on people's relationship with GI focuses on people's positive attitude towards GI in public spaces, such as roadside bioswales or street trees (Greene et al., 2011;Baptiste et al., 2015;Derkzen et al., 2017;Everett et al., 2018;Venkataramanan et al., 2020). Less attention has been paid to people's intended behavior concerning the installation of GI features in private residential outdoor space (Mason et al., 2019;Drescher and Sinasac, 2021;Meerow et al., 2021). ...
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Green infrastructure (GI) features in private residential outdoor space play a key role in expanding GI networks in cities and provide multiple co-benefits to people. However, little is known about residents’ intended behavior concerning GI in private spaces. Resident homeowners in Toronto (Ontario, Canada) voluntarily participated in an anonymous postal survey (n=533) containing questions related to likelihood to install additional GI features in their private outdoor space; experiences with this space, such as types of uses; and environmental concerns and knowledge. We describe the association between these factors and people’s intention to install GI in private residential outdoor space. Factors such as environmental concerns and knowledge did not influence likelihood to install GI. However, experiences with private residential outdoor space, such as nature uses of this space, level of self-maintenance of this space, and previously installed GI features, were significant influences on the likelihood to install GI. These findings have important implications for managing GI initiatives and the adoption of GI in private residential spaces, such as orienting communication materials around uses of and experiences with outdoor space, having programs that generate direct experiences with GI features, and considering environmental equity in such programs.
... Many studies have examined people's preferences for urban greenery and water bodies, but they have produced inconsistent results regarding which form of GBI is best preferred. Whether a discrete choice experiment (e.g., Bullock, 2008) or other methods were used (e.g., Daniels et al., 2018;Derkzen et al., 2017), current knowledge of GBI remains insufficient and therefore more research is required to determine whether nature-based or semi-natural GBI is preferred in specific areas along with preferences on the optimal quality and quantity of recreational facilities. ...
... According to Klemm et al. (2015) and Derkzen et al. (2017), public preferences relate to the current state of GBI in the neighbourhood. The results of their analysis showed that residents preferred mostly adding no more of the same form of an existing element in an area. ...
... Although the study did not evaluate urban parks, the stated WTP for nature-based streams of 22 EUR per weekend-long trip can be used as a comparison for this study. Derkzen et al. (2017) found differences in residents' preferences regarding GBI of two neighbourhoods in Rotterdam. The general WTP for GBI differed significantly between the neighbourhoods, indicating the importance of SDC. ...
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Green and blue urban infrastructure (GBI) has many positive functions often not recognised by residents (e.g. microclimate regulation, water retention, etc.). The question for urban planners who are aware of these functions when planning new GBI elements or revitalising existing GBI is how much they need to account for the preference heterogeneity of locals, who typically consider only aesthetic and recreational value. This study uses data from a discrete choice experiment among residents of the medium-sized Czech city of Liberec to reveal which combinations of nature-based or semi-natural GBI and recreational facilities respondents prefer and how strong their preferences are in terms of their willingness to pay. Overall, study respondents preferred nature-based GBI to semi-natural ones. A mixed-latent class model identified two groups of respondents who differ in preferences, trade-offs, and socio-demographic characteristics: (i) mostly older educated women who prefer nature-based elements and enjoy park infrastructure; (ii) mostly less educated men who dislike urban gardens and semi-natural streams and do not value park infrastructure. Based on the results, we recommend that spatial planners and green space managers design and implement more nature-based elements in Liberec, which are in line with the respondents’ preferences.
... We hypothesized that the attributes that respondents would use most frequently would have the most utility, and the results appears to support this. Improving air quality may have high utility because of the rising importance of clean air, especially in urban areas (Derkzen et al. 2017). Further, past studies have found that air purification generally enjoys higher preference and willingness to pay (Derkzen et al. 2017;Lera-Lopez et al. 2012). ...
... Improving air quality may have high utility because of the rising importance of clean air, especially in urban areas (Derkzen et al. 2017). Further, past studies have found that air purification generally enjoys higher preference and willingness to pay (Derkzen et al. 2017;Lera-Lopez et al. 2012). Increased water supply may appeal to homeowners that may see easy applications for retained water in irrigation for their property, as respondents in past studies have placed higher values on GI that can provide water (Miller and Montalto 2019). ...
... Habitat creation and reduced energy use had considerably lower coefficients when compared to improved air quality and improved water supply. This may be because these attributes do not provide a high level of personal benefit, as ecosystem services that provide more direct benefits to health and well-being tend to be rated more highly (Derkzen et al. 2017). Further, it could also be a symptom of low levels of familiarity or understanding of GI, which have been observed in the literature (Barnhill and Smardon 2012;Shandas 2015). ...
Article
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Significant water pollution caused by flooding due to heavy precipitation and extreme weather events has become a considerable problem in urbanized areas such as in Northern New Jersey. These cities experience heavy downpour-related contamination and water pollution when stormwater and untreated sewage are diverted through combined sewer overflow drainage systems to adjacent water bodies. Green infrastructure has proven a successful intervention method for mitigating these unintended environmental consequences. However, while the effects of CSOs and the ability of GI to reduce them are well documented, there has been considerably less study addressing public preferences and willingness to pay for GI-based solutions. As such, this study seeks to understand these facets of GI management in urbanized areas of New Jersey, focusing on Newark, Paterson, and Elizabeth townships. A discrete choice experiment method was used to analyze the willingness of residents to pay for additional CSO infrastructure through the installation of GI options such as bioretention gardens, rain barrels, and green roofs. Furthermore, study identified attributes such as secondary benefits, proximity, and water retention that respondents found the most utility in when choosing GI stormwater management interventions. We found that several attributes, including improved air quality ($58.60), increased water supply ($49.71), and closer proximity ($110.01–$125.97) had the highest utility and similarly were associated with a higher willingness to pay than other tested attributes. These findings are important in assessing the overall attitude toward these fixtures, and may be critical in crafting local policy and development, especially to address environmental equity.
... Their number in public settings is rapidly growing, and the appearance of neighborhoods is thus shifting. The resulting "eco-surfaces" offer a perfect opportunity for facilitating biodiverse vegetation, whose importance in cities is being recognized, both from the perspective of Emilia Danuta Lausen emze@ign.ku.dk intention of the project and direct experience with the site (Lindemann-Matthies et al. 2010;Schwartz 2012;Derkzen et al. 2017;Southon et al. 2017) ; (3) symbolic meanings ascribed to vegetation (Loder 2014), while low preference or dislike seem to relate to the idea of nature that participants have and whether it (4) fits into the urban setting Loder 2014;Weber et al. 2014). Similarly, Nassauer (2002) argues that people's preferences of vegetation are based in their personal notion of nature, which they contrast with 'civilized' urban spaces. ...
... Although, like others (Venkataramanan et al. 2020), we observed that respondent perceptions of vegetation aesthetics correlated positively with respondent awareness of element's environmental value (Table 3), only half of the interviewees demonstrated such awareness. Prior studies on environmental benefits of green infrastructure have indicated that even though people can be aware of climate change problems, they do not see how green infrastructure can help to ameliorate them (Derkzen et al. 2017). Our respondents who mentioned benefits typically focused on health or safety aspects, such as air filtration or reduction in stormwater runoff, rather than the projects' deeper environmental goals. ...
... People who mentioned stormwater management as a reason for project implementation either had been directly informed by the municipality about the intention behind LSM or had personally observed the influence of the LSM on the area. This supports the results of Derkzen et al. (2017): public education about green infrastructure benefits might increase public support for those measures. Interestingly, even broad, general knowledge of the environmental benefits (such as cliché "green is good for humans") seem to influence perceptions of specific projects. ...
Article
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The popularity and use of green infrastructure measures such as green roofs, green walls, and curb extensions is growing, especially in dense urban areas. At the same time, from an ecosystem services perspective, interest in urban nature and reconciliation ecology is underlined. Attempts to introduce more biodiverse vegetation in cities can conflict with the responses of some urbanites to the appearance of “wild” vegetation. Through semi-structured interviews with 47 randomly picked bypassers in Copenhagen, Denmark, this study explored urbanites’ aesthetical perceptions of wild vegetation, especially of three green infrastructure types employed in landscape-based stormwater management: green roofs, green walls and curb extensions. The results confirm the importance of the physical plant properties, especially the color of plants and the presence of flowers; they point also to the strong influence of cultural factors, especially familiarity with a site or a similar project, and knowledge of the project’s environmental value. Interestingly, the results indicate that cultural factors might be capable of garnering support for a project among people whose initial impression of its appearance was negative. Additionally, affective and emotive responses were found to be of significance. Compared to other studies, perceptions of wild vegetation in green infrastructure elements prove to be perceived more positively than reported previously.
... However, most of these studies have only considered a small part of these relationships (e. g. between NBS and their benefits). The interconnections between the challenges of climate change, policy priorities, the selection of appropriate NBS and the identification of their benefits have only been studied by Giannakis et al. (2016) and Derkzen et al. (2017) through residents' surveys. This work aims to fill this gap in the literature by focusing on stakeholders' perceptions and NBS preferences for urban challenges posed by climate change. ...
... The use of this method introduces an innovation in the study of stakeholders' engagement in the definition of urban policies by considering the segmentation process of their choices, interactions which are not captured by other methods, such as those relying on logistic regression models (e.g. Arnberger et al., 2017;Derkzen et al., 2017;Duan et al., 2018) or means comparisons to identify statistically significant differences in attitudes among survey participants (e.g. Conedera et al., 2015;Ostoić et al., 2017;Rupprecht et al., 2015). ...
... Stakeholders have frequently identified heatwaves and temperature rise as the main urban challenges posed by climate change (Arnberger et al., 2017;Giannakis et al., 2016;Guenat et al., 2019). Some researchers have also found stakeholders to be alarmed by flooding events (Derkzen et al., 2017;Krkoška Lorencová et al., 2021). However, few studies involving urban stakeholders have focused on droughts (Hargrove and Heyman, 2020). ...
Article
Climate change is affecting cities worldwide. Accordingly, cities are required to find sustainable solutions to tackle climate change’s effects, designing bottom-up policies to enhance their success. The involvement of stakeholders plays a central role in the definition of appropriate policies to tackle the challenges posed to cities by climate change. Nature-based solutions (NBS) are increasingly proposed to adapt to and mitigate the adverse effects of climate change. This study aims to assess the coherence of the policies emerging from stakeholders’ perceptions of urban climate challenges and their preferred NBS to tackle them. Indeed, it considers whether departing from different urban climate challenges, stakeholders’ choices present a coherent articulation between priority interventions, proposed solutions and expected benefits. Using a survey applied to two Portuguese cities and the chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) algorithm, we analyse the answers provided by stakeholders. The stakeholders’ perceptions and preferences were not significantly influenced by their hierarchical position in their institutions, their city’s location and socioeconomic setting. Heatwaves and temperature rise together with drought and water scarcity are identified as future urban challenges in Portugal. Priority interventions, as well as preferred NBS and their expected benefits, are addressed. The results show that stakeholders may make decisions that form a coherent policy, in which acknowledgment of climate change’s effects interconnects with related priority interventions, suitable NBS and their benefits.
... Many willingness-to-pay studies focus on homeowners as their target stakeholder group and collect other demographic information, which has been used to characterize respondents but not to explore differences among demographic groups (Ando et al. 2020;Kaplowitz and Lupi 2012;Londoño Cadavid and Ando 2013;Shin and Mccann 2018). Studies that are more demographically thorough find that preferences vary by education level (Brent et al. 2017), income, and ethnicity (Derkzen et al. 2017;Larson et al. 2019). However, collection of demographic data types is not standardized between studies and collected demographic data are not always compared to wider demographic trends of the study area (Ando et al. 2020;Brent et al. 2017). ...
... Distilling different environmental, ecological, and social outcomes into a single monetary metric does not acknowledge the "multiple and often conflicting valuation languages" associated with co-benefits (Gómez-Baggethun and Barton 2013). Assessing the acceptability of GI and co-benefits from a strictly economic perspective does not incorporate the nuances related to community acceptance or validate the appropriateness of the intervention (Derkzen et al. 2017). We advocate for a value-pluralism approach, previously outlined by Pascual et al. (2017), that "acknowledges [that] the diversity of worldviews and values may lead to a different iterative approach" for identifying stormwater priorities and feasible SCM interventions. ...
Article
Green stormwater infrastructure mirrors natural hydrologic processes and is presented as an alternative or complement to traditional gray stormwater infrastructure, which uses concrete channels and pipes to convey flows away from neighborhoods. To encourage green infrastructure installation, practitioners promote co-benefits, also called ancillary social, ecological, and environmental benefits. Co-benefits are accrued at the neighborhood-scale, yet the public is not often asked to weigh in on its preferred outcomes. This study surveys the public with a goal to move beyond economic valuation to obtain a better understanding of preference for green infrastructure and how respondents value co-benefits. A representative sample of residents in three US cities (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Denver, Colorado; and Seattle, Washington) were presented informational material and then queried for their preference for different infrastructure types and 16 co-benefits. Results show that preferences for stormwater infrastructure, as well as value assigned to associated co-benefits, vary across cities and different demographic groups. Of the three cities in this study, Philadelphia residents had a higher preference for gray infrastructure to handle stormwater in their neighborhood. As the level of survey respondent's educational attainment increased, so did their preference for new installations of green infrastructure. Perceived value of co-benefits was generally high but varied across different co-benefit/demographic group pairings. The value of community amenity benefits (e.g., increased recreational opportunities) was found to vary between study cities. Public attitudes toward increased property values varied by age and race; attitudes toward community gardens varied by economic security; and attitudes towards improved water quality varied by race. Study results show that stormwater infrastructure and co-benefits are not valued uniformly across demographic groups and vary regionally. We advocate that practitioners engage a representative subset of the population within the appropriate area, especially where infrastructure is planned, to ensure stormwater solutions promote social and environmental equity.
... However, increasing awareness of the benefits of GSI among practitioners has not necessarily translated into awareness or interest in those benefits among the public. For example, a study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, showed that while GI was being implemented as part of a long-term climate change strategy, residents did not necessarily perceive a direct connection between GI and climate mitigation [36]. In general, the survey showed that residents were much more cognizant of direct benefits such as recreation and aesthetics than indirect benefits such as temperature reduction and carbon storage. ...
... Our participants acknowledged the physiological value and health benefits of GSI projects in the same way as participants in other studies recognized the broader benefits of biophilic design concepts [9,12]. Our findings also aligned with those of other studies demonstrating that public perceptions of or preference for GSI projects more heavily relied on direct benefits (e.g., appearance, visual appeal, recreation) than indirect benefits (e.g., carbon sequestration, heat island mitigation) [36]. Our participants expressed a greater number of positive attachments to GSI projects with vegetation (e.g., rain gardens) but reported that the same projects could provoke negative emotions in light of improper maintenance, again consistent with prior research [38,56]. ...
Article
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The concept of biophilic urban planning has inspired neighborhood greening projects in many older urban communities in the USA and beyond. The strengths (e.g., environmental management, biodiversity, heat island mitigation) and challenges (e.g., greenwashing, green gentrification) of such projects are well-documented. Additional research on the relationship between these projects and various social factors (e.g., public perceptions, feelings, and mental health and well-being) is necessary to better understand how people adapt to said projects while struggling to navigate other more pressing socioeconomic issues, especially in communities facing environmental injustice and health inequity. In this article, we focus on one aspect of biophilic urban planning—green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) (e.g., rain gardens, bio-swales, pervious pavements, and wildflower meadows)—in Waterfront South, a post-industrial neighborhood in Camden, NJ, USA, where residents have faced environmental injustices for decades. Our qualitative analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews of sixteen residents offered a thorough insight into their perceptions and emotions regarding different types of urban GSI projects. Residents acknowledge the many benefits that GSI offers to combat the neighborhood’s social and environmental injustices, but they are cautious about the possibility of some projects prompting new issues and concerns within the community. Our findings reveal potential implications in GSI planning, research, and practice in this neighborhood and similar urban places elsewhere that have yet to undergo gentrification.
... This study addresses a critical and universal gap in understanding the co-benefits provided by GSI beyond managing stormwater (Elliott et al. 2020;Miller and Montalto 2019;Prudencio and Null 2018;Veerkamp et al. 2021;Wong and Montalto 2020). While it has been increasingly recognized that GSI produces a broad range of added ecosystem benefits such as climate change mitigation, habitat creation, public education, aesthetic value, and recreation (Demuzere et al. 2014), to what degree does the public perceive multiple benefits, what benefits people prefer and expect, and what factors influence people's perceptions remain under-investigated (Derkzen et al. 2017). To date, such studies in the context of SCD are nearly unobtainable (Nguyen et al. 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Sponge City Development (SCD) concept was initiated in 2012 to address severe urban flooding and water quality challenges in China. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) such as rain gardens have been adopted as critical stormwater management tools. Existing GSI research has focused primarily on their environmental performance, overlooking the human dimensions. The co-benefits of GSI have been particularly underinvestigated. We used social surveys (n = 607) and expert interviews (n = 11) to explore public perception of SCD and GSI in four pilot sponge cities, examining flood experience, stormwater concerns, GSI familiarity, institutional trust, and GSI benefit perception. The survey found high exposure to flooding, medium GSI familiarity, and strong institutional trust. The public showed greater concern on stormwater impacts on their quality-of-life than the water environment, rating the less-intended aesthetic and health values as the best-perceived benefits. Experience, familiarity, concern, trust, age, and city significantly affected GSI benefit perception. In contrast, the experts spoke more positively about the environmental benefits while indicating the inadequacy of public participation. The case of GSI in SCD offers broad implications for environmental governance and expert-public relationships in an era of rapid social, technological, and environmental change. Refining policies and regulations to incorporate social goals, bringing the public into the SCD process, and building up the GSI industry’s capacity in planning, design, construction, and maintenance are critical to enhancing GSI benefits provision. Adopting the co-benefits approach will be essential to utilizing GSI as a place-making tool to create more sustainable and livable communities.
... NBSs fall into three categories: (1) NBSs related to green infrastructure [26,29]; (2) NBSs related to climate change mitigation and adaptation [30]; and (3) NBSs related to ecosystem services [26,27]. These human health studies related to NBSs share one thing: they are all superficial. ...
Article
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Our research framework in this paper investigated natural-based solutions (NBSs) at green hotels. We employed attention restoration theory (ART) to test the mediating effect of perceived stress (PS), psychological wellness (PW), satisfaction (SA), and the moderating effect of health consciousness (HC) on re-patronage intentions (RI). Data were collected through a survey of 544 customers who frequently visited green hotels in Korea, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. The findings generally supported the hypothesized associations of the study variables within our proposed theoretical framework (PS, PW, SF) in order of the mediating effect on RI and confirmed the moderating effect of HC. In addition, the study’s results have important theoretical and practical implications for the environment. In the former case, our results demonstrate the application of ART and NBS by explaining the effect of the relationship among PS, PW, and SF on RI and confirm the mediating effect of the ART (PS, PW, SF) on RI, as demonstrated in previous studies. Moreover, in the latter case our results may encourage green hotels to participate in the prevention of environmental problems.
... In foreign countries, research was actively conducted to secure green areas such as land and forests and to establish spaces for ecological diversity, and many studies were conducted on ecosystem services (ESs), ecosystem-based adaptations (EbAs), frameworks [15,[51][52][53][54][55][56][57], and nature-based solutions (NbSs) [58][59][60][61], plans for securing green space and ecological diversity and policies [62][63][64][65][66], street trees, agricultural environment, and the effects provided by natural capital [67,68]. In addition, plans and models for adaptation to climate change [69][70][71][72][73], urban heat island mitigation [74][75][76][77], and green infrastructure utilization plans for air pollution reduction [78][79][80] were studied. In contrast to Korea, water resource management was partially studied in relation to water management for sustainability [81,82] and low-impact development [83]. ...
Article
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Government-level ESG (environmental, social, and governance) institutionalization and active ESG activation in the private sector are being discussed for the first time this year in Korea, spurred by increased national interest since the COVID-19 pandemic crisis and the declaration of a carbon-neutral society by 2050, and ESG discussion in many fields is spreading rapidly. In addition, global awareness of the crisis caused by environmental pollution and natural disasters has highlighted the importance of green infrastructure (GI) as a new conceptual alternative to improve public value. Based on sustainability, which is a common goal of ESG and green infrastructure, this study aimed to examine the research targets and techniques of green infrastructure from the perspective of ESG. This study selected and analyzed 98 domestic and international academic journal papers published over the past 10 years in the Web of Science academic journal database literature collection. Focusing on the research subjects, the focus on green infrastructure, and research keywords, we examined the aspects of the green infrastructure plan that have been focused on from the ESG perspective and compared domestic and international research trends. In addition, implications for how each research topic is connected to the concept of ESG according to its function and purpose were derived. By examining the domestic and international research trends of green infrastructure from the ESG perspective, we identified the need for a wider range of research on the diversity and relationship between humans and the ecological environment; policies and systems; and technical research that does not focus only on a specific field. In this regard, we intend to increase the contribution to ESG management in the public sector through the establishment of green infrastructure plans and policies in the future, as they account for a large portion of public capital.
... Successful and just urban climate adaptation policies and actions are urgently required to alleviate rising heat stress (Perks, 2011;Mahlkow and Donner, 2017). Policies to achieve climate-proof cities often incorporate nature-based solutions and green infrastructures (Derkzen et al., 2017;Matthews et al., 2015;Frantzeskaki, 2019) or use cooling technologies for buildings and paving materials to improve the microclimate of urban areas and reduce climate vulnerabilities (Santamouris et al., 2012;Souayfane et al., 2016). While there is innovation in the development of climate change adaptation strategies and plans, more attention must be given to justice considerations in urban climate adaptation planning and actions, especially as the location and distribution of trees and parks is affected by legacies of redlining in urban planning and race-based housing segregation (Schell et al., 2020;Locke et al., 2021;Grove et al., 2018). ...
Article
Public policy in the US is partially influenced by public opinion. Studies that focus on the factors that predict urban populations' strong supports for local climate adaptation policies are still lacking. Engaging environmental and public policy behavior and recognition justice approaches, we argue people's support for urban climate policies reveal certain vulnerable communities' lack of recognition in local adaptation decision-making processes. Using the 2011 Phoenix Area Social Survey, we focus on two climate adaptation policies: 1) increasing the number of trees planted along public streets, a nature-based solution; 2) engineering new paving materials that absorb less heat”, a technology-oriented infrastructure configuration to deal with rising temperatures in the Phoenix Metro Area, Arizona. We found climate change beliefs and acknowledging climate change as a threat to people's households and ways of life are the strongest predictors supporting the two suggested local climate policies. While individuals other than non-Hispanic White background and who identify themselves as liberal strongly support a nature-based solution, people who are 41 to 56 years of age support a technology-oriented infrastructure configuration. Further studies must focus on the persistent power asymmetries and divergence in regulations spurred from the state and local governments that inhibit further climate actions through urban planning and design.
... The concept of urban greening is embedded within the network of natural and designed vegetation and plantations within cities [33,34]. In order to delineate the specifics of urban greening, we can narrow the meaning to storm water management [35][36][37], air quality control [38][39][40], biodiversity preservation [41][42][43], urban heat-island mitigation [44][45][46], flood proofing [47][48][49], and climate-change adaptation [32,50]. ...
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The nature-based solutions of slumdwellers are paramount to the ongoing integrity of major cities in the global South. The paper investigates the urban-greening decision-making of slum citizens whose civic participation finds support in shared governance initiatives: non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs). The background informing the conceptual framework guiding this research derives from socio-technical transitions scholarship on critical niches in grassroots innovations. The objective of this research is to examine how slum dwellers are implementing urban greening in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The research considers how slum dwellers manage a governance vacuum through civic participation with NGOs and CBOs. The methods in this study comprise qualitative fieldwork in Dhaka and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and citizens. The research findings show that a governance vacuum requires an adjustment to the perspective on grassroots innovations to endure in the global South in contexts where there is limited opportunity locally for intermediaries to achieve scale. There is a limit to the extent that the critical niches perspective applies to grassroots innovations in greening Dhaka’s slums; therefore, we contribute nuance as a refinement to the approach. The study offers a complementary explanatory framework for how NGOs, CBOs and other intermediaries at the grassroots contend with, and even thrive within, a vacuum of governance in the enactment of urban greening in Dhaka’s slum settlements.
... The questionnaire survey was carried out using the face-to-face interview method with trained interviewers recording answers using tablets. The participation rate was 29%, as 877 people were asked to participate, but only 256 agreed to do so, which is a rather low outcome [40,41], but it could be considered a standard outcome in comparison with other studies [42]. Interviews lasted between 10 and 15 minutes in most cases. ...
... Most research on urban forests and climate change focuses on selecting the correct tree species, planting good quality tree stock, and planting trees in environments where they are most likely to thrive (i.e., optimal soil volume and quality; optimal irrigation; damage reduction). However, since decisions about urban forests are connected to city planning, many social processes can also determine successful adaptation to climate change in urban forestry, such as coordination and communication between decisionmakers, funding, staffing, regulatory frameworks, and community support, among others (Ordóñez and Duinker, 2015;Živojinović and Wolfslehner, 2015;Brandt et al., 2016;Derkzen et al., 2017;Lo et al., 2017). ...
... For example, Peng [30] and Kuang [31] showed that the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) of green space increased, and the land surface temperature (LST) decreased. Besides, shape indicators also play a role in the cooling effect, but it is still controversial [32,33]. According to the study by Yu [32], circular or square green spaces had stronger cooling capacity. ...
Article
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The urban heat island (UHI) effect will persist for a long time and influence human health, energy consumption, and future urban planning. Understanding the cooling effect of water bodies and green spaces can help alleviate the frequency of extreme climate, especially during torridity seasons. In this study, correlation and regression analysis were used to measure the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) or cooling indicators and landscape factors. In addition, the cooling intensity, distance, and threshold value of efficiency (TVoE) of water bodies and green spaces were detected. The results confirmed that: first, the cooling effect of water bodies were stronger than that of vegetation in most cases and more water bodies’ layout in the region was advocated; second, increasing vegetation coverage within 27% of the region can effectively and economically alleviate the thermal environment; and third, the green samples with an area of 0.57 ha and a high vegetation index had a higher cost performance ratio. The results provided quantitative guidance for urban public service spatial planning of water bodies and green spaces to prevent the continuous increase of urban background temperature.
... ;Amati and Taylor, (2010);Ayodele and Oludaisi, (2015);Derkzen, van Teeffelen, and Verburg, (2017);Firehock and Firehock, (2016);Meerow & Newell, (2017) and thatof Mell, (2018) demonstrated how the social benefits of green spaces is fast developing as shown by the rising numbers of studies and reviews that have been commissioned in the past few years. Most of the available literature focuses on green space as opposed to green infrastructure. ...
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Green infrastructure has been identified as one of the key approaches in mitigating the built environments' consequences of urbanization, industrialization, climate change and other environmental degradations. This paper assesses the economic, social and environmental importance of green infrastructure as a tool for achieving sustainable cities in Nigeria. This paper reviewed important literatures and evaluated the available evidences on the concept, classification and significance of green infrastructure in the context of emerging nation like Nigeria. The study observed that the green infrastructural planning if properly developed and implemented in Nigeria will go a long way in ensuring the realization of sustainable cities in the country. It recommended policies and more programmes for green infrastructure planning and implementation in Nigeria cities by the government and other stakeholders. There is the need for more stringent measures by the government to checkmate illicit activities that destroy urban greenery such as parks, walkways, street trees among others to encourage the protection of available green spaces in the cities. More so, more awareness campaign is needed for the citizens to imbibe the culture of planting trees, green roof, green building as well as discouraging the development of grey infrastructure at the expense of green infrastructure.
... In contrast, studies in the Global South do not locate GI as a recreational amenity. These tend to view GI as a source of livelihood, or where people work and find resources (Derkzen et al., 2017;Sultana et al., 2020), as a hazard-mitigation opportunity where people live (e.g., Li et al., 2017), or as a way to stop the accelerated and uncontrolled urban sprawl in megacities (e.g., Anguelovski et al., 2019), and as the privatization of the public realm (e.g., Xiao et al., 2019). Ascribing the issue to a lack of city planning and resources, and struggles with urban poverty and marginalization (Fernández and Wu, 2018;Fernández-Álvarez, 2017;Lindley et al., 2018), studies find that GI justice issues in the Global South are more pronounced. ...
Article
Many cities are turning to greening efforts to increase resilience, but such efforts often favor privileged groups, thereby resulting in injustices. In this systematic review, we analyze 71 place-based studies of green infrastructure (GI) justice in cities worldwide. We draw from environmental justice scholarship, as well as climate and water justice literature to assess the state-of-the-art knowledge of urban GI justice. We examine the way GI is researched to improve our understanding of the types of injustices that exist in GI planning, siting, and implementation, providing rich insights into why injustices exist and pathways to address GI injustice. We find that research on GI justice in cities is growing and expanding its scope in terms of both the types of justice issues analyzed, and the groups of people excluded from the benefits of GI. We find that GI injustice stems from a history of unequal investment and non-participatory decision-making processes, where the unequal distribution of GI is only the “tip of the iceberg”. To address GI injustice around distribution, cities would have to offset a decades-long lack of investment and inclusivity in decision-making processes. Pathways to achieve GI justice point to assessing unbalanced power structures, directing continuous funding to community engagement programs and greening efforts, leveraging existing infrastructure through the multifunctionality of GI, and dedicating funding mechanisms for safety and maintenance. Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research is needed to integrate the different dimensions of GI that are tailored to the community on the ground, and to monitor progress toward justice.
... To reveal the trade-offs that take place within local authorities (LA), a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was initiated. DCEs have been conducted in previous research related willingness-to-pay for green space (Bronnmann et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2020) While several papers have approached urban green infrastructure (UGI) to assess added value by interviewing local residents, tourists or other users of UGI (Derkzen et al., 2017;Shr et al., 2019), this research empirically studies experiences and perspectives with the intended target users of ESV: local authorities (McKenzie et al., 2014). Until now, studies on LAs' behaviour are limited to identifying barriers to uptake of UGI at differing institutional levels (Matthews et al., 2015;O'Donnell et al., 2017;Thorne et al., 2018;Wihlborg et al., 2019) and determinants of adoption (Carlet, 2015). ...
Article
Being confronted with increasing and expanding urbanisation and the loss of natural green spaces, our living environment is threatened more and more by the effects of global climate change. Green infrastructure is often thought of as the solution to increase climate resilience and reinforce the quality of the lived environment simultaneously. While the benefits, or ecosystem services, that are generated through green infrastructure have been studied intensively, forces that influence green infrastructure decision-making have been far less subjected to thorough research. In this study a discrete choice experiment was conducted with local decision makers in Flemish municipalities to reveal crucial factors in the decision process applied to green infrastructure projects. Flanders is one of the most densely built regions in Europe, stressing the urgency to understand local spatial decision factors to guarantee green space. 568 decision makers active in the local administration of 235 Flemish municipalities participated in the experiment, set in a hypothetical neighbourhood park. Every choice alternative exists of five attributes: investment cost, maintenance cost, deferred investment, recreational value, and climate impact. We find that barriers hampering Flemish munipalities' GI implementation, differ over size of the municipality: smallers municipalities are more affected by knowledge gaps, while larger municipalities are experiencing prioritization issues. Results from hierarchical Bayes choice models indicate that municipal decisions on green infrastructure are highly – almost solely - cost-driven, rarely consider the full range of benefits, and centre around short-term and immediate arguments. Moreover, interaction models reveal that a municipalities' financial result is a key determinant of its willingness to invest in public greening and consider long term benefits, suggesting that GI is a luxury good. The results expose some of the heuristics in GI decision making and can be used to inform higher authorities on ways to overcome barriers towards informed decision-making and to facilitate GI investment.
... Concerning Nodality, bottom-up approaches based on knowledge sharing among actors are central in order to overcome institutional silos that split climate change knowledge, measures and responses into isolated and ineffective policies. They include participatory approaches through workshops and forums like in Quebec City (Cloutier et al. 2014), social networks for engaging local communities in climate adaptation policy like in Australia (Cunningham et al. 2016), questionnaires and interviews gather perceptions of decision makers or residents on climate impacts in cities like in Graz, Austria (Reischl et al. 2018) or in Rotterdam, Netherlands (Derkzen et al. 2017), and boundary organizations. ...
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Recent years have been marked by a strong popular and political mobilization around climate change. However, to what extent does this mobilization lead to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or the vulnerability of our society to the effects of climate change? This question is at the heart of the research presented, which sought to identify the barriers and levers to the integration of climate issues into urban planning of Swiss cities. The literature review first situates the integration of climate change in Swiss cities in relation to the evolution of practices at the international level. It emerged that Swiss cities have generally been late in integrating climate issues into their public policies. Practices still focus strongly on energy policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but adaptation measures in urban planning are poorly implemented. In order to better understand the reasons for this slow and late integration of climate change into urban planning of Swiss cities, a survey was conducted among more than 200 professionals. It showed that the evolution of practices is generally driven by “pioneering” actors who are strongly mobilized by personal values and who use specialized and scientific sources of information. Finally, two focus groups with representative professionals were organized in order to deepen the barriers and levers observed and to formulate sound recommendations for integrating the climate issue into urban planning. Two lines of action emerged: prioritization (strengthening legal frameworks and organizational structures) and support (training and involvement of climate experts at all stages of urban planning).
... While it was highlighted that GI can be effective in climate change adaptation; mitigation of environmental changes and environmental pollution as well as disaster risks (e.g. Matthews et al. 2015;Sussams et al. 2015;Derkzen et al. 2017), discussions concerning these matters were found to be limited in the EIAs. The 'urban ecosystem' was only mentioned in the Bangkok Comprehensive Plan B.E. 2556 (2013), but in none of the other EIAs, suggesting a gap between plan and project levels. ...
Article
Impact assessment (IA) processes can potentially play important roles in driving green infrastructure (GI) planning and design, as well as establishing how GI can contribute to environmental planning objectives. In this paper, we explore how IA (strategic environmental assessment-SEA and environmental impact assessment-EIA) can support the development of GI in Thailand. A framework is designed which is used to reflect on how IA addresses and integrates GI in development at strategic and project levels. Based on a review of 18 EIAs and 4 SEAs from Thailand, it is established that whilst the consideration of GI in SEA (which is not yet compulsory in Thailand) has remained limited, consideration of green spaces for mitigating negative impacts in statutory EIA has been happening frequently. An important reason for this is that regulatory requirements imply that EIA should consider GI (referred to as 'green spaces').
... UGI [11,12] with its accompanying diverse ecosystem services-together with climatic, ecological, and economic benefits-contributes to a better quality of life in cities [2,13,14]. Urban green infrastructure provides an area with multiple services which aid in transcending the current challenges of urban planning [15,16]. ...
Article
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Adapting spatial development to the challenges of climate change is a major task facing cities. In particular, urban heat islands caused by increasing average temperatures and urban growth are a challenge for cities. The use of climate simulations to assess current and future urban heat stress is a helpful approach for supporting this transition. In particular, green and blue infrastructure helps to reduce the urban heat island effect. These cooling effects can be analysed using simulations. However, a central challenge is that urban adaptation to heat needs to be implemented consistently at different planning levels. A second major challenge in adaption is identifying the amount of urban green infrastructure required in order to achieve a specific cooling benefit and establishing this by means of planning instruments. This article presents two case studies in the city of Vienna to demonstrate how climate simulation tools can be used across different planning levels if they are standardized. When combined with a green and open space factor as a steering instrument, the necessary amount of greening for subsequent planning processes can be secured. The result is a multi-scale toolset consisting of three climate simulation models and a green and open space factor, coordinated, and standardised for use at different levels of planning.
... For example, green roofs have the advantages of reducing stormwater flows and improving water quality during larger rainfall events [22]. Apart from reducing heat and flooding, green infrastructures are also beneficial for climate adaption [23] and maintaining biodiversity long-term through offering functional networks of habitats and ecosystems [24]. ...
Article
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For urban waterlogging alleviation, green infrastructures have been widely concerned. How to carry out scientific green infrastructure planning becomes an important issue in flood control and disaster relief. Based on historical media records of urban waterlogging from 2017 to 2020 and combined with variables about topography, land cover and socioeconomics, we used the Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) to conduct urban waterlogging susceptibility assessment and simulate the risk of waterlogging in different scenarios of green land configuration in Shenzhen. The results showed that: (1) high proportions of impervious surface and population could increase the risks in Luohu and Futian districts, followed by Nanshan and Baoan districts, while high proportions of green space could effectively reduce the risks in southeastern Shenzhen; (2) urban waterlogging in Luohu and Futian districts can be alleviated by strengthening green infrastructure construction while Longgang and Longhua districts should make comprehensive use of other flood prevention methods; (3) turning existing urban green space into impervious surfaces would increase the risks of waterlogging, which is more evident in places with high proportions of green space such as Dapeng and Yantian districts. The effectiveness of green infrastructures varies in different spatial locations. Therefore, more attention should be paid to protecting existing green spaces than cultivating more green infrastructures in urban waterlogging alleviation.
... We can further use the analysis to derive reasonable value ranges that are not normally presented. We focus on the recreational value as this is deemed one of the most important benefits of using NBS in urban areas (Derkzen et al., 2017;Hermes et al., 2018;Skrydstrup et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Nature-based solutions may actively reduce hydro-meteorological risks in urban areas as a part of climate change adaptation. However, the main reason for the increasing uptake of this type of solution is their many benefits for the local inhabitants, including recreational value. Previous studies on recreational value focus on studies of existing nature sites that are often much larger than what is considered as new NBS for flood adaptation studies in urban areas. We thus prioritized studies with smaller areas and nature types suitable for urban flood adaptation and divided them into four common nature types for urban flood adaptation: sustainable urban drainage systems, city parks, nature areas and rivers. We identified 23 primary valuation studies, including both stated and revealed preference studies, and derived two value transfer functions based on meta-regression analysis on existing areas. We investigated trends between values and variables and found that for the purpose of planning of new NBS the size of NBS and population density were determining factors of recreational value. For existing NBS the maximum travelling distance may be included as well. We find that existing state-of-the-art studies overestimate the recreational with more than a factor of 4 for NBS sizes below 5 ha. Our results are valid in a European context for nature-based solutions below 250 ha and can be applied across different NBS types and sizes.
... UES can be divided into four categories according to the Millennium ecosystem assessment [48]: provisioning services (materials obtained from ecosystems), regulating services (benefits obtained from the regulation by ecosystem process), habitat or supporting services (essentials to produce all ES) and cultural services (non-material benefits obtained from ecosystems). Research suggests that small-scale green infrastructure can moderate the negative environmental impacts of rapid urbanization and climate change by contributing to recreation, mitigating air pollution, cooling surface, and air temperatures, and retaining stormwater run-off [49]. For example, green roofs and walls may improve air quality and flood control management or street trees can reduce exposure to pollution in urban areas [14,50,51]. ...
Article
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As cities are facing environmental and societal challenges, including climate change, rapid urbanization, and the COVID-19 pandemic, scholars and policymakers have recognized the potential of small-scale urban green infrastructures (UGI), such as rain gardens and street trees, to support important ecosystem services (ES) during periods of crisis and change. While there has been considerable research on the design, planning, engineering, and ecology of small-scale UGI, the governance modes of such spaces to support ES and manage ecosystem disservices (EDS) have received significantly less research attention. In this article, we provide a systematic review to evaluate how different modes of governance support different ES in small-scale green infrastructure. We evaluated governance in six types of small-scale green infrastructure: small parks, community gardens, vacant lands, rain gardens, green roofs, and street trees. Our review examines the different characteristics of four new governance approaches, including adaptive, network, mosaic, and transformative to understand their bottom-up nature and applicability in governing ES/disservices of small-scale UGI. Each governance mode can be effective for managing the ES of certain small-scale UGI, given their associations with principles such as resilience thinking, connectivity, and active citizenship. Our synthesis highlights knowledge gaps at the intersection between governance arrangements and ES in small-scale UGI. We conclude with a call for further research on the environmental and contextual factors that moderate the linkages between governance modes and ES/EDS in different types of UGI.
... In order to build a framework for the socio-cultural valuation of NBS, ref. [87] gathered information from 200 citizens in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. This study analyzed concerns about climate consequences, their acceptance of NBS, and their choice of varied NBS measures, including their willingness to pay (WTP). ...
Article
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Climate change leads to an unequivocal rise in the intensity and frequency of natural disasters. This necessitates mainstreaming of climate adaptation strategies in the global movement on climate action. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EBA) has become popular as an effective means of climate adaptation, which can be resilient and flexible compared to hard engineering-based measures. However, ecosystem-based approaches in disaster risk reduction still remain under-researched despite their growing popularity. This study delves into the utility of EBA in the context of the living lab, using a PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) based Systematic Literature Review. A living lab (LL) is a participatory tool invented to foster innovation through real-life testing environments, such as individual cities. This study focuses on European coastal regions, as these are both highly populated and vulnerable to climate change impacts such as sea-level rise, storms, flooding and erosion. This study identified multiple synergies between the EBA concepts, living lab and disaster-risk reduction and concludes that EBA schemes can be highly effective in the living lab set-up. It also demonstrates that increased stakeholder engagement and the consideration of socio-economic co-benefits as part of the EBA-LL model can lead to successful disaster risk reduction.
... Understanding the myriad perceptions that professional city stakeholders hold towards different types of BGI in the public realm is fundamental in addressing the socio-political barriers to their implementation and ultimately delivering BGI projects that are accepted, supported, and desired (Suppakittpaisarn et al. 2019. Previous research into the perceptions of BGI has focused on residents and communities living alongside blue-green assets, and typically report stated preferences based on explicit, or self-reported measures such as questionnaires, interviews, and Likert-scale tests (e.g., Hayden et al. 2015, Derkzen et al. 2017, Wang et al. 2017, Everett et al. 2018, Williams et al. 2019. It is essential to supplement knowledge of public perceptions with an understanding of the attitudes of professionals working with blue-green and grey infrastructure, in order to understand challenges and opportunities, and to identify where changes in research foci, policy, and practice are needed for increased implementation of multifunctional BGI. ...
Article
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Blue-Green Infrastructure (BGI, including swales, green roofs, and wetlands) plays an important role in reducing vulnerability to climate change risks such as flooding, heat stress, and water shortages, while enhancing urban environments and quality of life for citizens. Understanding the perceptions that professional stakeholders have of BGI is fundamental in addressing barriers to implementation. A novel application of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) is developed to investigate and compare implicit (unconscious) perceptions of blue-green and grey infrastructure with explicit (conscious) attitudes. This is the first time an IAT about BGI has focused on professional stakeholders. Blue-green and grey infrastructure are perceived positively by the sample population. Overall, respondents implicitly and explicitly prefer BGI to grey infrastructure, and regard it as safer, tidier, more attractive, useful, valuable, and necessary. The individual positive explicit perceptions of grey infrastructure, nonetheless, suggest that integrated blue-green and grey systems may be preferable for professional stakeholders to incorporate into water management and climate change adaptation strategies.
... An important element influencing the aesthetics of urban spaces are green areas [34]. Although the strength of the correlation between satisfaction with the amount of green areas and quality of life found in the study was low, statistically significant differences were found in the assessment of satisfaction with the amount of green areas for people with low and high quality of life in the physical, social and environmental domains This multidirectional impact of urban greenery is confirmed in other research, which highlight the positive effects of greenery on health [24]; the environment [29][30][31], social relations [32,33] and the economy [35]. ...
Article
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The increased migration of people from rural areas to cities has prompted researchers to take an interest in the problem of the quality of life (QOL) of the urban population in different contexts. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the level of satisfaction of Warsaw residents with urban infrastructure (SUI) and their QOL, the impact of the SUI on the perception of a neighborhood as an ideal place to live and the relationship between the amount of green areas and and the SUI of Warsaw residents and their QOL. The quantitative survey was conducted using the CAWI method on a sample of 381 adults. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to measure QOL, the scale used in earlier surveys was used to assess SUI, areas of of Warsaw with different amounts of green space were distinguished using cluster analysis. The study showed a relationship between the SUI declared by residents and their QOL, mainly in the environmental domain. The discriminant analysis showed that satisfaction with greenery is one of the most important determinants of the subjective perception of a neighborhood as an ideal place to live. There was no direct effect of the amount of green areas in objective terms on the QOL of Warsawians, but a relationship was noted between the amount of green areas and SUI, with the highest level of satisfaction noted for the Green-balanced Cluster, characterized by the most favorable combination of quality and utility of urban area.
... GI research typically focuses on the two most challenging issues that cities encounter in the face of climate change and extreme weather-related events: heat and flooding (Derkzen et al. 2017). In urban areas, due to the clustering of people combined with densely built-up structures and sealed surfaces, the impact of heatwaves and heavy rainfall events is magnified, so that the investigation of GI benefits has become increasingly important. ...
Chapter
Green infrastructure is an emerging approach to make cities sustainable, healthy and more liveable. Based on a strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas in urban, peri-urban and rural landscapes, green infrastructure aims to provide sustainable urban development and to link green and blue spaces at both urban and regional scales. In this study, a green infrastructure design system is anticipated for the city of Antalya. A set of green infrastructure components are identifed and used to delin�eate a system which could take into consideration connections between actual eco�logical hubs, people and nature and past and present. The results show that hubs and lines created by overlapped green infrastructure typologies potentially provide connectivity between city and ecology as well as between people and nature in the city of Antalya, Turkey. Antalya and its urban landscapes have a high potential for a green infrastructure design, but in order to integrate the green infrastructure application into urban planning, a holistic approach will be needed involving municipal, regional and state authorities, local stakehold�ers as well as citizens.
... The creation of green surfaces even the establishment of pocket parks can also reduce the surface of asphalt concrete areas, which contributes the most to the rise in temperature in the urban environment (Mohajerani et al., 2017). In the case of greening, not only the cooling efficacy or the political and economic interests are decisive, but such socio-cultural factors as the attractiveness of the desired green infrastructure designs among the local societies are also important (Derkzen et al., 2017). It also should not be forgotten that water surfaces can also reduce the urban heat island effect at the local level (Depietri and McPhearson, 2017). ...
Article
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Climate change can cause multiply potential health issues in urban areas, which is the most susceptible environment in terms of the presently increasing climate volatility. Urban greening strategies make an important part of the adaptation strategies which can ameliorate the negative impacts of climate change. It was aimed to study the potential impacts of different kinds of greenings against the adverse effects of climate change, including waterborne, vector-borne diseases, heat-related mortality, and surface ozone concentration in a medium-sized Hungarian city. As greening strategies, large and pocket parks were considered, based on our novel location identifier algorithm for climate risk minimization. A method based on publicly available data sources including satellite pictures, climate scenarios and urban macrostructure has been developed to evaluate the health-related indicator patterns in cities. The modelled future- and current patterns of the indicators have been compared. The results can help the understanding of the possible future state of the studied indicators and the development of adequate greening strategies. Another outcome of the study is that it is not the type of health indicator but its climate sensitivity that determines the extent to which it responds to temperature rises and how effective greening strategies are in addressing the expected problem posed by the factor.
Article
This paper sets out the results of a study exploring, and ranking in order of perceived significance, the priorities and obstacles faced by smaller cities when implementing green infrastructure (GI) projects. The study captured the views of 49 municipal officers and elected representatives in cities of less than 500,000 population across four countries in northwest Europe, using a closed card sorting methodology as part of a semi-structured interview format. The results show a clear hierarchy in priorities, with particular attention paid to anthropocentric benefits to residents, especially the importance of aesthetics and liveability as a key objective in GI delivery, and the desirability of securing visible benefit to residents within the electoral cycle; longer-term objectives linked to environmental and economic challenges, although acknowledged in corporate policies, attract a lower priority when it comes to delivery, and may encounter trade-offs against other desired benefits. The greatest obstacle to GI delivery is not funding, as found in other studies, although this remains significant; rather, it is difficulty of collaborations and fragmentation within the city organisation which participants attributed to a lack of leadership and prioritisation of green initiatives. Capacity is also a clear issue, and the results highlight a lack of resources (including funding) but also skills in assembling evidence in support of projects, and staff time to bid for and deliver new GI proposals. When comparing these findings to others from larger cities, particularly those with a population over 1 million, the results suggest differences in prioritisation, critical mass, resources and capabilities and capacities influencing GI implementation, these are important to consider as they may prevent transferability of GI best practices from larger cities, who tend to be more active and innovative, to smaller scale cities. Co-production of knowledge, could offer considerable potential to improve GI implementation, but the design of any such schemes should recognise the issue of capacity by providing resources to allow participation of practitioners in smaller municipalities. Finally, respondents highlighted increasing environmental awareness of local communities and whilst the effect of this is yet to be seen, this was considered as having considerable potential in improving GI implementation in smaller municipalities.
Article
This study evaluated the cooling effect of the 30.07 km² Purple Mountain Forest (PMF) in Nanjing City, China. Data from fixed and mobile measurements of air temperature inside and outside of the PMF over 37 days were used to conduct a holistic analysis of spatial/temporal patterns in the cooling effect of forest and the factors driving this variation. The forest exhibited a maximum cooling effect of 8.4 °C throughout the study period. The average daytime cooling intensity was 4.1 °C in the central undeveloped area, decreased to 1.8 °C at the highly developed tourism zone, and further to 1.3 °C at the boundary zone and 0.3 °C in the outside built-up area. Cool air could extend 267 and 883 m into nearby built-up areas along two roads radiating from the forest boundary. The cooling intensity could increase by 1 °C for every 950 m reduction in distance to the central area, every 95 m increase in altitude, or for every 0.8 increase in leaf area index. Cooling was more pronounced in the nighttime than in the daytime and on sunny days than on cloudy and rainy days. Solar radiation and relative humidity were key factors affecting the cooling intensity. Rainfall could considerably increase the cooling intensity of subsequent sunny days at the tourism and boundary zones of the forest. The results of this research enhance our understanding of the cooling effect of large urban forests. Our results also have implications for urban planning and forest management in the context of global warming.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors influencing residents’ adaptation strategies to climate change effects in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach The metropolis was stratified into low, medium and high residential densities. Across the residential densities, questionnaires were administered on 384 residents. The questionnaire addressed issues on resident’s socio-economic and demographic attributes, awareness of climate change and factors influencing residents’ adaptation to climate change. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings Result indicated that the adaptation strategies adopted by residents in the different residential areas were similar but varied in magnitude as denoted by the resident response index RRI (RRIh = 3.32, RRIm = 3.39 and RRIl = 3.41). The multiple regression analysis computed indicated the residential characteristics such as education, average monthly income, age, house type and house ownership ( p < 0.05) were significant factors influencing resident’s level of climate change adaptation strategies adopted. Research limitations/implications The study could be strengthened by looking at specific climate change effects such as floods or drought in major cities of Nigeria. Hence, the view presented in this paper may not be considered generalizable to the impacts of climate change in the study area. Originality/value In recent years, research studies on human adaptation and coping strategies to climate change have generated considerable development interest. This study contributed to this growing area of research by examining the factors influencing residents’ adaptation strategies to climate change in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria.
Article
Stormwater biofiltration systems (SBS) are a popular technology for mitigating the negative effects of urbanization on the hydrological processes and water quality in urban areas. However, little is known about SBS's long-term performance in actual field conditions. The findings of a review of the scientific literature on the long-term performance of SBS are presented in this paper. The findings show that only a few studies have investigated the performance of SBS and its change over time, and that the results of laboratory and field experiments differed due to the presence of plants, regular maintenance, and some uncertain environmental factors. Based on the existing knowledge gaps in this field, the main challenges observed was the lack of long-term field data series, and the existing mathematical models are not able to accurately forecast the long-term performance of SBS. This could be owing to the difficulties in monitoring activities, the high costs involved and the unpredictability around the operational timeframe. Future study should concentrate on the implementation of simulation and modeling-based research in pilot and full-scale SBS, and the inclusion of new performance indicators should be considered as a priority.
Article
Smart technologies promise innovative approaches to manage nature-based solutions (NBS) for more effective regulating functions under climate change. However, smart systems may also affect people’s experiences of NBS by introducing noticeable changes in urban landscapes. This study investigated public perception of “smart” retention ponds that had changing water level as controlled by smart systems and varied in the following microscale landscape elements determined by planning and design choices: land use context, basin slope, and surrounding plants. Using visualizations that showed pond landscape design alternatives at typical, low (draining water), and high (retaining water) water levels, we surveyed residents in three American cities for their perceptions of smart ponds (n = 974). Our results suggest that water level manipulation by smart systems negatively affects perceptions of stormwater ponds; both low and high water were perceived as significantly less attractive, neat, and safe than the typical water level condition. Furthermore, these effects of water level were moderated by other design elements. Perceptions of high water level were more positive for ponds in greenspace than in residential or commercial contexts. Perceptions of low water level were more positive for ponds in residential contexts than in greenspace or commercial contexts, as well as for ponds surrounded by woody or unmaintained plants than those surrounded by mown turf edge. In both high and low water conditions, ponds with steep slopes were perceived more positively than those with shallow slopes. These findings can support successful planning, design, and management of smart NBS.
Article
Green infrastructure (GI) refers to trees, rain gardens, rain barrels, and other features that address stormwater management, climate change and other challenges facing many cities. GI is often not equitably distributed across urban landscapes, making its benefits unevenly experienced. Cities have multiple initiatives focused on different types of GI in residential areas, including underserved neighborhoods, although there is potential for GI programs to serve more privileged neighborhoods. The goal of this study was to examine GI program participants and non-participants to better understand who participates in different types of residential GI programs and why. We surveyed residents who had previously participated in Philadelphia’s GI programs as well as those who had not, comparing socio-demographics, knowledge-levels, environmental concerns, outdoor space preferences, motivations and barriers. We found that the GI program participants are on average younger, wealthier, more highly educated, and more likely to be White than our sample of residents who have not participated. Participants in tree programs have different socio-demographics and motivations as compared to those who installed green stormwater infrastructure. Future research should examine strategies to reach neighborhoods with different socioeconomic conditions and built environment characteristics, such as offering features appropriate for small properties with limited plantable space.
Article
An increasing world population is projected to increase water, energy and food requirements, three vital resources for humankind. Projected climate change impacts will aggravate water availability, as well as flood risks, especially in urban areas. Nature-based solutions (NBS) have been identified as key concepts to defuse the expected tensions within the Water-Energy-Food (W-E-F) nexus due to their multiple benefits. In this paper, the authors outlined the theories and concepts, analyzed real-life case studies, and discussed the potential of NBS to address the future W-E-F nexus. For this purpose, we performed a systematic literature review on the theories of NBS that address the W-E-F nexus, and we summarized 19 representative real-life case studies to identify the current knowledge gaps and challenges. The quantitative and qualitative data was used to differentiate and discuss the direct and indirect potential benefits of NBS to the W-E-F nexus. The study further expanded on the challenges for the implementation of NBS and highlighted the growing possibilities in the context of circularity and the implementation of NBS in urban planning. It was concluded that the potential impacts of NBS on the W-E-F nexus have been identified, but the quantitative effects have not been analyzed in-depth. Moreover, indicators are mostly single-purpose and not multipurpose, as required to fully characterize the W-E-F nexus and circularity holistically. Overall, there is a need to adopt systemic thinking and promote the multipurpose design of NBS.
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We surveyed urban residents to study their knowledge, engagement, perception, and curiosity of bird biodiversity in four Peruvian cities in two different ecosystems (Lima and Huacho in the Pacific desert, and Nauta and Iquitos in the western Amazon). Surveys also included questions on social variables such as age, gender, education, outdoor activities, and years residing in the area. Bird point counts were carried out in the same sites where residents were surveyed. These sites were also visually assessed for greenspace cover and distance to nearest landmarks. Exploratory analyses (principal components analyses and factor analysis of mixed data) were carried out on environmental and survey data to summarize and select correlated variables for multivariate linear models. Amazonian city residents had higher "knowledge" and "engagement" scores than residents in the desert cities. Best performing models predicting "knowledge" scores suggested that urban residents learned about birds outside of the formal education sphere, although there were no strong common patterns among cities or in the full dataset. "Engagement" scores in the desert cities seemed to be linked to local and neighborhood greenspace and education, suggesting socioeconomic class plays a role. The overwhelming majority of all four cities' respondents scored highly in "perception" and "curiosity" measures, implying that orientation toward nature is not lost in these four cities and that finding and promoting the human-nature connection in urban areas is a matter of asking the right questions and promoting existing nature practices and perspectives.
Chapter
In the development of urban blue-green infrastructures (BGI), the involvement of the civil society has been emphasised in recent policy paradigms. Despite governmental efforts encouraging local residents to participate, in order to more fully identify demands and devise solutions, at the grassroots level, challenges still remain regarding stakeholder partnerships. Non-governmental actors are expected to facilitate top-down policy communication and bottom-up civil participation. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the problematics, functions and characteristics in action may help to suggest a better framework for stakeholder integration. The case study takes place in the Wenshan District, an urban settlement in Taipei City, Taiwan. From 2014 to 2019, in order to better cope with flood risk, BGI projects have been conducted by various non-governmental actors with divergent problematics and approaches. The chapter provides comparisons among diverse actors from three sectors: a local community group that offers local-based educational programmes, a consulting firm that focuses on participatory planning and design, and the researchers in a project team—representing civil society, private sector and academia, respectively. The details of each project are collected from meetings with the actors, as well as secondary data such as project reports and related materials. To illustrate the roles non-governmental actors play in facilitating urban BGIs, the study undertakes comparisons among the three actors in terms of their strategies of mobilising and networking with other stakeholders, along with patterns for upscaling the effects. Through the comparative study, the chapter further implies an alternative framework for stakeholder integration
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This paper examines public preferences for developing sponge parks using blue/green infrastructure in Can Tho city, the biggest and fast-growing city in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Particularly, the paper assesses the economic value associated with the provision of a set of ecosystem services (flood control, recreational activities, biodiversity) and ecosystem disservices (pest abundance) provided by blue/green infrastructure using a discrete choice experiment. Results indicated that flood control is the most highly valued ecosystem service, followed by recreation and biodiversity. Household willingness to pay for flood control-related benefits is higher than for the other ecosystem services and disservices. Results further suggest that overlooking the existence of ecosystem disservices generated by the installation of blue/green infrastructure measures, such as sponge parks, could lead to the overestimation of welfare effects. This is the first study to account for the value of potential ecosystem disservices associated with blue/green infrastructure in the context of developing countries. It is suggested that these policies should be designed in a way to strengthen cities’ resilience and deliver the conditions needed to improve human wellbeing, while minimising the effects of welfare-reducing elements. Future research conducting environmental valuation studies should integrate both ecosystem services and disservices in order to generate policy recommendations that improve local communities’ wellbeing.
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To mitigate urbanization impacts on the hydrological cycle, Low Impact Development techniques, especially On-site Stormwater Detention - OSD, are applied worldwide. Besides their frequent use, the public knowledge about these techniques and stormwater management is insufficient, particularly in Latin America. Public comprehension about stormwater management and LID techniques lead to more acceptance and engagement. In this sense, the aim of this article is to present the results of interviews about local’s perception on stormwater management in Belo Horizonte/Brazil. The results indicate that males and respondents older than 40 years old have more knowledge about stormwater management, as well as higher socioeconomic interviewees. Although the use of OSD is positively perceived, a greater knowledge on urban stormwater does not lead to a greater willingness to co-participate in the stormwater management. Our results provide an overview of city inhabitants’ perception of municipal stormwater management and have great potential to help managers.
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Green infrastructure (GI) has been gaining increasing attention due to its efficiency in controlling and purifying urban stormwater runoff, creating environmental amenities, and biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, the existing knowledge of people's preferences for GI is not yet sufficient for evidence-based policymaking for enhancing GI. This study analyzes citizens' perceptions of the relative importance of six GI practices and estimates their willingness to pay (WTP) to enhance them. To this end, the study applies two types of stated preference methods (best-worst scaling and contingent valuation) to citizen survey data collected in Portland, Oregon. We found that GI practices that are more likely to lead to private benefits (e.g., rain barrels, urban trees) received relatively higher ratings, whereas the ratings of practices that do not offer such benefits (e.g., bioswales, rain gardens) were relatively lower. However, the diversity of preferences was large, as the relative importance varied widely among respondents. Heterogeneous preferences were also found in terms of citizens' WTP for hypothetical GI enhancement. Our comparison of uniform and variable payment schemes revealed that variable payment outperformed uniform payment because of the significant variation in citizens' WTP. The difference was large when the annual household payment was small.
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This study assessed the impact of introducing a Sustainable Urban Drainage (SuDs) scheme to a socioeconomically deprived area, on residents buy-in and sustainable behaviours. Surveys were completed before the scheme was implemented by 180 residents (in affected n = 79 and neighbouring streets n = 101) and 1 year after the schemes completion by 51 residents. Following scheme completion, sustainable behaviours significantly increased by 17% in the scheme area and by 9% in the neighbouring streets. Written feedback indicated increased buy-in from residents affected by the scheme, and from neighbouring areas. Written feedback before the scheme included: (i) Concerns about parking; (ii) Liking the scheme; (iii) Feeling consultation was lacking; and (iv) Feeling the scheme was a waste of funds. Feedback after scheme completion included: (i) Feeling the SuDs improved the area; (ii) Remaining concerns about parking; (iii) Valuing the extra green space in the neighbouring area; and (iv) Wanting the SuDs in neighbouring streets. Introducing Green Infrastructure may improve resident’s sustainable behaviours. Importantly, residents in neighbouring areas became envious of the SuDs once completed and showed increased sustainable behaviours indicating spill-over effects. The 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) recently took place, and England is considering statutory SuDs as seen in the scheme discussed here. Therefore, this research is particularly relevant to local authorities and stakeholders who can struggle to communicate the multi-benefits of sustainable urban design solutions.
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Ecosystem services (ES) provided by nature-based solutions (NBS) have been examined using various data collection techniques and preference elicitation methods to understand what ES are important to human well-being. This article provides a systematic review of 153 scientific publications, with a focus on data collection techniques and perspectives of well-being used when eliciting preferences toward multiple ES provided by NBS. ES provided by urban parks, urban trees, and community gardens are the most commonly examined; however, generally specified NBS such as “green spaces” or “green infrastructure” prevail. The review further shows that the questionnaire surveys is the dominant technique for bringing evidence about the most preferred ES, followed by semi-structured interviews and workshops. Only a limited number of studies use revealed or stated preference methods as a part of data collection efforts such as a choice experiment or contingent valuation. Additionally, the review defines three different perspectives of well-being considered but rarely discussed in existing studies: individual; community; and society well-being perspectives. As the concept of well-being is hardly discussed in NBS literature and still depends on a large degree of subjectivity, this review highlights the need for future research that looks more deeply at individual, community, and social well-being, which is influenced differently by the implementation of NBS.
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هدفت الدراسة إلى التعرف على تأثيرات إدارة علاقات العملاء بأبعاده )ثقة العملاء، كفاءة التنظيم والتواصل مع العملاء( كمتغير مستقل والأداء التسويق ى كمتغير تابع على الأداء التسويقى للمصارف التجارية، ولتحقيق أهداف الدراسة تم تصميم إستبانة وتوزيعها على أفراد عينة الدراسة والبالغ عددهم ) 62 ( مفردة، وتم استخدام الحزمة الإحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية ( SPSS ( لتحليل البيانات التى تم جمعها من العينة المستهدفة. توصلت الدراسة إلى نتائج عديدة أبرزها أن تحسينات الخدمات المصرفية التي يقوم بها البنك بصورة دورية تسهم في جذب المزيد من العملاء، وأن إدارة علاقات العملاء بالمصارف تعمل بفعالية على تحسين الأداء التسويقي، كما أوصت الدراسة بتوصيات من بينها: العمل على تحسين وتعزيز الأداء التسويقى لإيجاد فرص تسويقية جديدة لضمان البقاء والنمو لإرضاء العملاء، الاهتما م بتحليل بيانات العملاء والعمل على ابتكار أساليب مواكبة للتواصل معهم.
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Despite the well-recognized financial limitations, social aspects can also impact the adoption of green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) as it is ingrained in the socio-ecological system we live in. Thus, this work focuses on gaining an understanding of the public's perceptions of GSI by considering cognitive biases that hinder its adoption. This work is composed of two forms of human-subject studies, including an online-based survey and a series of semi-structured interviews. The survey (n = 510) was conducted to gauge public opinions toward GSI, whereas the interviews with representatives of major local regulatory agencies were to learn about the logistics for GSI implementation in Mecklenburg County, NC. The results were interpreted using the theory of planned behavior of rational actors. Statistical results showed a weak interpretation through this theory to explain the survey participants' intention to adopt GSI measures. This could suggest that the incorporation of irrationality, such as cognitive biases, could further enhance the predictability of the theory. At the same time, an inconsistency between the findings from the survey and the interviews was identified: most survey participants showed an overall uniform positive attitude, intention, and behavior regarding GSI practice adoption, whereas the interviewed experts all suggested a wide diversity on such terms. Suggestions were made based on the findings for better policy-making on public engagement for local regulatory agencies. This research aims to help local stormwater management authorities explore shortcomings in current stakeholder engagement plans to gain sustainable support for GSI implementation in urbanized areas.
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The urban dimension of ecosystem services (ES) is underexposed, while the importance of ES for human wellbeing is nowhere as evident as in cities. Urban challenges such as air pollution, noise, and heat can be moderated by urban green space (UGS), simultaneously providing multiple other services. However, available methods to quantify ES cannot typically deal with the high spatial and thematic resolution land cover data that is needed to better understand ES supply in the urban context.This study derives methods to quantify and map a bundle of six ES as supplied by UGS, using land cover data with high spatial and thematic resolution, and applies these to the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Land cover data comprise eight classes of UGS. Methods are derived from an evidence base on the importance of UGS types for the supply of each of the six ES that was built using literature review.The evidence base reveals that UGS types differ in their contribution to various ES, although the strength of the evidence varies. However, existing indicators for urban ES often do not discriminate between UGS types. To derive UGS-specific indicators, we combined methods and evidence from different research contexts (ES, non-ES, urban, non-urban).Rotterdam shows high spatial variation in the amount of UGS present, and accounting for this in ES supply reveals that ES bundles depend on UGS composition and configuration. While the contribution of UGS types to ES supply differed markedly with UGS type and ES considered, we demonstrate that synergies rather than trade-offs exist among the ES analysed.Synthesis and applications. Our findings underline the importance of a careful design of urban green space (UGS) in city planning for ecosystem services (ES) provision. Based on the latest insights on how different UGS provide ES, the methods presented in this study enable a more detailed quantification and mapping of the supply of ES in cities, allowing assessments of current supply of key urban ES and alternative urban designs. Such knowledge is indispensable in the quest for designing healthier and climate-resilient cities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Urban green infrastructure can help cities adapt to climate change. Spatial planning can play an important role in utilizing green infrastructure for adaptation. Yet climate change risks represent a different sort of challenge for planning institutions. This paper aims to address two issues arising from this challenge. First, it defines the concept of green infrastructure within the context of climate adaptation. Second, it identifies and puts into perspective institutional barriers to adopting green infrastructure for climate adaptation, including path dependence. We begin by arguing that there is growing confusion among planners and policy makers about what constitutes green infrastructure. Definitional ambiguity may contribute to inaction on climate change adaptation, because it muddies existing programs and initiatives that are to do with green-space more broadly, which in turn feeds path dependency. We then report empirical findings about how planners perceive the institutional challenge arising from climate change and the adoption of green infrastructure as an adaptive response. The paper concludes that spatial planners generally recognize multiple rationales associated with green infrastructure. However they are not particularly keen on institutional innovation and there is a tendency for path dependence. We propose a conceptual model that explicitly recognizes such institutional factors. This paper contributes to the literature by showing that agency and institutional dimensions are a limiting factor in advancing the concept of green infrastructure within the context of climate change adaptation.
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Green infrastructure projects are increasing in popularity, in part because of the range of benefits they can provide. However, certain benefits such as water quality improvements and climate risk mitigation are more easily integrated into planning decisions than the less tangible cultural ecosystem services that green infrastructure can provide. While methods exist to characterize the value of these cultural services, there are methodological challenges to obtaining this information and fitting it to a decision context, particularly when weighed against monetary costs and benefits. In a developing country context, these challenges can be magnified and thus the value of cultural services are seldom considered. We illustrate this through a case study of a river in Jakarta, Indonesia, where plans call for widening the river channel, stabilizing the banks with concrete, and restricting access to the river. We employ a mixed-method approach of household surveys, a discrete choice experiment and ethnographic interviews, to ascertain historical and present uses of the river, and residents' preferences for future changes to the river. We demonstrate that low-income residents value non- or indirect-use cultural services that the river corridor provides—services that would be lost under the current rehabilitation plan. By assessing residents’ willingness to pay for cultural services, we can more easily compare these scenarios to the current plan. We also show how our mixed-methods approach to valuation can help frame and interpret quantitative results, so that decision makers have additional contextual information that reflects the knowledge and aspirations of communities most impacted by the rehabilitation project. We demonstrate that such approaches are feasible and sometimes necessary in complex, data-poor urban environments.
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Cities and towns can be conceptualised as complex social-ecological systems or landscapes that are composed of different spatial elements. Trees in urban landscapes provide a variety of tangible and intangible benefits (ecosystem services) that may be valued differently across diverse households and individuals. Here, we consider how the benefits and values of trees to urban residents vary across public and private spaces in three low income neighbourhoods in two medium-sized towns in northern South Africa. We find that the most asset poor residents in informal settlements derive significant benefits from the provisioning services offered by trees in natural green spaces on the ‘urban periphery’; in particular they value supplies of wood for energy, whilst also recognising the importance of regulating services such as shade. Trees in such spaces help these immigrants cope with a lack of infrastructure, services and disposable income after their move to the city. In new, low-cost housing neighbourhoods, the importance of trees in providing shade and shelter in gardens is emphasised due to the hot and dusty nature of these settlements, while residents in older township neighbourhoods make more mention of the aesthetic value of trees in private spaces as well as the fruits they provide. In all neighbourhoods, attitudes towards trees in public spaces were mixed because of their perceived association with crime, although low income households did make extensive use of tree products from natural areas. The relevance of the results for urban planning and greening in low income areas is discussed.
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As dangerous climate change looms, decision-makers are increasingly realising that societies will need to adapt to this threat as well as mitigate against it. Green infrastructure (GI) is increasingly seen as an ideal climate change adaptation policy response. However, with this research the authors identify a number of crucial knowledge gaps within GI and, consequently, call for caution and for a concerted effort to understand the concept and what it can really deliver. GI has risen to prominence in a range of policy areas in large part due to its perceived ability to produce multiple benefits simultaneously, termed ‘multifunctionality’. This characteristic strengthens the political appeal of the policy in question at a time when environmental issues have slipped down political agendas. Multifunctionality, however, brings its own set of new challenges that should be evaluated fully before the policy is implemented. This research takes important first steps to developing a critical understanding of what is achievable within GI's capacity. It focuses on one of GI's single objectives, namely climate change adaptation, to focus the analysis of how current obstacles in applying GI's multifunctionality could lead to the ineffective delivery of its objective. By drawing on expert opinion from government officials and representatives from the private, non-government organisation (NGO) and academic sectors, this research questions GI's ability to be effectively ‘multifunctional’ with an inconsistent definition at its core, deficiencies in its understanding and conflicts within its governance. In light of these observations, the authors then reflect on the judiciousness of applying GI to achieve the other objectives it has also been charged with delivering.
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The health impacts of exposure to summertime heat are a significant problem in New York City (NYC) and for many cities and are expected to increase with a warming climate. Most studies on heat-related mortality have examined risk factors at the municipal or regional scale and may have missed the intra-urban variation of vulnerability that might inform prevention strategies. We evaluated whether place-based characteristics (socioeconomic/demographic and health factors, as well as the built and biophysical environment) may be associated with greater risk of heat-related mortality for seniors during heat events in NYC. As a measure of relative vulnerability to heat, we used the natural cause mortality rate ratio among those aged 65 and over (MRR65+), comparing extremely hot days (maximum heat index 100°F+) to all warm season days, across 1997-2006 for NYC's 59 Community Districts and 42 United Hospital Fund neighborhoods. Significant positive associations were found between the MRR65+ and neighborhood-level characteristics: poverty, poor housing conditions, lower rates of access to air-conditioning, impervious land cover, surface temperatures aggregated to the area-level, and seniors' hypertension. Percent Black/African American and household poverty were strong negative predictors of seniors' air conditioning access in multivariate regression analysis.
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In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas.
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The significant shifts in climate variables projected for the 21st century, coupled with the observed impacts of ongoing extreme weather and climate events, ensures that adaptation to climate change is set to remain a pressing issue for urban areas over the coming decades. This volume of Progress in Planning seeks to contribute to the widening debate about how the transformation of cities to respond to the changing climate is being understood, managed and achieved. We focus particularly on spatial planning, and building the capacity of this key mechanism for responding to the adaptation imperative in urban areas. The core focus is the outcomes of a collaborative research project, EcoCities, undertaken at the University of Manchester's School of Environment and Development. EcoCities drew upon inter-disciplinary research on climate science, environmental planning and urban design working within a socio-technical framework to investigate climate change hazards, vulnerabilities and adaptation responses in the conurbation of Greater Manchester, UK. Emerging transferable learning with potential relevance for adaptation planning in other cities and urban areas is drawn out to inform this rapidly emerging international agenda. Approaches to build adaptive capacity challenge traditional approaches to environmental and spatial planning, and the role of researchers in this process, raising questions over whether appropriate governance structures are in place to develop effective responses. The cross-cutting nature of the adaptation agenda exposes the silo based approaches that drive many organisations. The development of a collaborative, sociotechnical agenda is vital if we are to meet the climate change adaptation challenge in cities.
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Green infrastructure (GI) and ecosystem services (ES) are promoted as concepts that have potential to improve environmental planning in urban areas based on a more holistic understanding of the complex interrelations and dynamics of social–ecological systems. However, the scientific discourses around both concepts still lack application-oriented frameworks that consider such a holistic perspective and are suitable to mainstream GI and ES in planning practice. This literature review explores how multifunctionality as one important principle of GI planning can be operationalized by approaches developed and tested in ES research. Specifically, approaches developed in ES research can help to assess the integrity of GI networks, balance ES supply and demand, and consider trade-offs. A conceptual framework for the assessment of multifunctionality from a social–ecological perspective is proposed that can inform the design of planning processes and support stronger exchange between GI and ES research. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13280-014-0510-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Cities are not socially homogenous, but divided into socially and structurally differentiated sub-units. Likewise, the individuals of a community, city or neighbourhood present specific behavioural patterns and uses with respect to their public green areas. This premise has led us to explore the question of how the perceptions, uses, and behaviours of people from different countries, cultures, and socioeconomic levels in Chile, Germany and Spain differ or coincide as far as urban nature and landscapes are concerned. Due to the comparative nature of the project, research areas with similar characteristics were chosen, thus allowing a comparative analysis of upper and lower middle-class neighbourhoods. People from all six study areas were surveyed using the same questionnaires. The results revealed that people of different social and cultural backgrounds use and perceive urban landscape in different ways. We found that nature of different kind plays an important role in all the urban societies and particularly in the neighbourhoods studied, regardless of social status or nationality. However, the higher the social status, the greater the urban green area dedicated to private uses. The preference for specific types of nature depends not only on social status, but cultural elements, accessibility and tradition as well. Moreover, nature-related outdoor activities are defined by this status, in turn reflecting the individual’s cultural status within society.
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The concept of ecosystem services (ES) neatly encapsulates the ways in which human society depends upon the existence and functioning of nature, but also draws power by chiming with dominant neoliberal ideology. Scientific paradigms such as this have an inherent tendency to stop adherents from recognizing alternative approaches. It is high time to examine whether the concept is being oversold with potentially damaging consequences. Many authors have questioned the monetization of ES, but the origin of the problem lies deeper in anthropocentrism. By illustration with alternatives, I attempt to show how the ES paradigm has constrained thought, particularly towards the monetization and financialization of nature, even when many ecologists and others oppose this trend.
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Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management.
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Hangzhou is a rapidly growing Chinese coastal metropolis that is facing climate change impacts, including intense heat waves, flooding and increased severity of storms (e.g. typhoons and thunderstorms). This paper examines whether green infrastructure (GI), specifically increased tree planting, could help Hangzhou City adapt to some of these impacts. The paper reports the results of a survey of Hangzhou green-space users and their disposition toward tree planting in public and communal green-spaces as a climate change adaptive response. Results show that surveyed green-space users tended to favor tree planting as an adaptive strategy if they were older, believed that individual actions could reduce climate change impacts, and believed that future climate change impacts would be economically disruptive. Few respondents reported tree costs (disservices). While the perceived benefits of urban trees were unrelated to support for urban greening, results suggest that under some conditions, residents may be willing to support increased tree cover within urban public and communal open spaces. Findings suggest land use planners and environmental managers in China would do well to cultivate support for green infrastructure interventions among older green-space users and residents who perceive personal costs associated with climate change. Additional research across a range of Chinese cities, and internationally, could further assist in evaluating the efficacy of green infrastructure for climate change adaptation from a green-space user perspective. Particular attention will need to be given to the potential costs of large-scale tree planting (e.g. health impacts) and to the utility of GI for macro-scale climate change response.
Article
Western Australia (WA) is experiencing severe water shortages associated with a drying climate. Suburban gardens in and around WA's capital city of Perth however, continue to be dominated by water dependent European style gardens featuring green lawns and introduced species. One area in metropolitan Perth going against this norm is the local government district of Fremantle. Residents within this city council have shown widespread adoption of native gardens: a seemingly obvious means of reducing water use and increasing local biodiversity. In an endeavour to understand the differences in garden design preferences, the aim of this research was to explore cultural and psychological drivers of native gardening within the city of Fremantle. Twelve in-depth, face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with Fremantle homeowners. Participants had converted their garden from a traditional European design in favour of an aesthetic based on native species. Drivers such as knowledge, functionality, and social norms emerged, and interestingly resembled the same sorts of drivers previously identified as driving European style gardening practices in Australia. We account for the tension of same drivers yet different design due to differences in social and cultural values. Specifically, the dominant worldview in Fremantle is pro-environmental and this driver appears to shape the social context in which gardening decisions are made, making for a more accepting setting for residents to adopt alternative garden designs. Findings from this research are of value to water and environmental policy makers, urban local governments, and environmental educators.
Article
Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies.
Article
This study aimed to explore people's perception of tree planting in street canyons and the perceived tree impacts through a questionnaire survey. Also, by using a discrete choice experiment, it aimed to reveal how people performed tradeoffs among three streetscape attributes: namely permeability (i.e. spacing between buildings), aspect ratio (i.e. ratio of street width to building height), and tree planting. A secondary aim was to determine respondent's willingness to pay for streetscape features and tree planting. Despite published research results that indicate tree planting can have a negative impact on air quality, the survey results from 509 respondents in Hong Kong indicated that the majority of them held positive views of tree planting in street canyons. The probability of having an overall positive view was found to be higher if an individual perceived that trees could improve air quality, provide shading or did not obstruct footpaths. The preferred streetscape was high permeability, regardless of whether respondents thought that trees could or could not contribute to improving air quality. However respondents who perceived that trees could improve air quality preferred tree planting at both sides of the street over lower aspect ratio whereas those who perceived that trees did not improve air quality preferred low aspect ratio over tree planting at both sides of the street. Both sets of respondents did however agree on the preferred order of tree planting options, namely planting on both sides of the street was preferred to planting at the center of the street which in turn was preferable to no tree planting at all. The overall willingness to pay was estimated to be HK$163.4, HK$132.4 and HK$121.1 per month for high permeability, street-level tree planting and low aspect ratio, respectively. The study clearly identifies high permeability as the most preferred planning option. However, the perception held by the majority of respondents that trees can improve air quality is contrary to recent research findings. This poses a dilemma for urban planners in that schemes that may be more beneficial, i.e. low aspect ratio, may face more public opposition than less beneficial schemes involving tree planting. Although the study was conducted in Hong Kong the findings should be applicable to other modern metropolises characterized by high rise buildings.
Article
This paper proposes a rights-based approach for participatory urban planning for climate change adaptation in urban areas. Participatory urban planning ties climate change adaptation to local development opportunities. Previous discussions suggest that participatory urban planning may help to understand structural inequalities, to gain, even if temporally, institutional support and to deliver a planning process in constant negotiation with local actors. Building upon an action research project which implemented a process of participatory urban planning for climate change in Maputo, Mozambique, this paper reflects upon the practical lessons that emerged from these experiences, in relation to the incorporation of climate change information, the difficulties to secure continued support from local governments and the opportunities for local impacts through the implementation of the proposals emerging from this process.
Article
Few multi-city studies have been conducted to explore the regional level definition of heat wave and examine the association between extreme high temperature and mortality in developing countries. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of extreme high temperature on mortality and to explore the local definition of heat wave in five Chinese cities. We first used a distributed lag non-linear model to characterize the effects of daily mean temperature on non-accidental mortality. We then employed a generalized additive model to explore the city-specific definition of heat wave. Finally, we performed a comparative analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the definition. For each city, we found a positive non-linear association between extreme high temperature and mortality, with the highest effects appearing within 3days of extreme heat event onset. Specifically, we defined individual heat waves of Beijing and Tianjin as being two or more consecutive days with daily mean temperatures exceeding 30.2°C and 29.5°C, respectively, and Nanjing, Shanghai and Changsha heat waves as ≥3 consecutive days with daily mean temperatures higher than 32.9°C, 32.3°C and 34.5°C, respectively. Comparative analysis generally supported the definition. We found extreme high temperatures were associated with increased mortality, after a short lag period, when temperatures exceeded obvious threshold levels. The city-specific definition of heat wave developed in our study may provide guidance for the establishment and implementation of early heat-health response systems for local government to deal with the projected negative health outcomes due to heat waves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
Sustainable stormwater management facilities such as bioswales and rain gardens are one way in which cities are simultaneously addressing the need to replace or repair stormwater infrastructure while also meeting regulatory obligations. Retrofitting patterns of neighborhood development through the implementation of infrastructure like bioswales is localized solution to stormwater management. Such infrastructure addresses sustainability and resilience goals while reflecting the city as part of rather than separate from the ecosystem. This article presents results of a subset of 42 semi-structured interviews collected through an exploratory qualitative case study of Portland Oregon's Tabor to the River program. These findings focus on Green Streets (bioswales), asking whether participants consider them small scale nature, and whether stormwater visibility fosters environmental learning. Results suggest that sustainable stormwater management facilities have potential toward aiding in stormwater awareness, particularly if combined with additional ways of learning (e.g., informational signs). Participant perceptions of Green Streets as small scale nature are less straight forward. This study gives some insight into the subtleties of human experiences with sustainable stormwater infrastructure, giving a glimpse into the potentials of Green Streets, and other educational inputs, in contributing to increased understanding of Portland's stormwater system. Building upon this first attempt at discovering the potential for environmental learning through sustainable stormwater infrastructure, or in their capacity in fostering connectedness with nature, could be instructive for future infrastructure planning and policy development that seeks to foster human–nature connectedness and ecological understanding within our communities.
Article
Warming associated with urban development will be exacerbated in future years by temperature increases due to climate change. The strategic implementation of urban green infrastructure (UGI) e.g. street trees, parks, green roofs and facades can help achieve temperature reductions in urban areas while delivering diverse additional benefits such as pollution reduction and biodiversity habitat. Although the greatest thermal benefits of UGI are achieved in climates with hot, dry summers, there is comparatively little information available for land managers to determine an appropriate strategy for UGI implementation under these climatic conditions. We present a framework for prioritisation and selection of UGI for cooling. The framework is supported by a review of the scientific literature examining the relationships between urban geometry, UGI and temperature mitigation which we used to develop guidelines for UGI implementation that maximises urban surface temperature cooling. We focus particularly on quantifying the cooling benefits of four types of UGI: green open spaces (primarily public parks), shade trees, green roofs, and vertical greening systems (green walls and facades) and demonstrate how the framework can be applied using a case study from Melbourne, Australia.
Article
Visitor perception can influence use pattern and inform planning and management of urban green spaces (UGSs). This study investigated visitors’ views on key UGS variables and socioeconomic effect on UGS perception in Guangzhou, China. A questionnaire survey solicited responses to positive and negative UGS attributes from 595 respondents selected by stratified sampling from visitors in the study area. The results showed good knowledge, positive perception and limited concern about safety. Benefits directly related to individual and family interests were emphasized, such as health enhancement, promotion of children development, and stress reduction. The social role of community development (social interaction) received less support. Significant differences in perception were found across most socioeconomic variables, including gender, age, marital status, education, occupation, and district of residence. The distance-reinforced negative perception of UGS called for the generous provision of proximal sites near homes to satisfy local demands. Future UGS planning could capitalize on the positive views to promote preservation, provision and use of UGS. Local governments could incorporate citizen perception and preference into the relevant decision-making process to meet the diverse and evolving demands for UGS. The findings could be applied to the design and management of UGS in other developing cities.
Article
Urban nature, including residential gardens, can promote biodiversity and increase human wellbeing. Understanding factors that encourage the spread of gardening within cities may help planners facilitate healthier and more biodiverse urban communities. This study characterizes the spatial distribution and attributes of gardens found in easement areas of Ann Arbor, Michigan. Spatial analyses of these privately managed public spaces provide evidence of clustering for both presence of gardens and their esthetic quality. Data collected on the location and attributes of easements from 22,562 properties during summer of 2009, show that 11% of these properties held an easement garden. Results of multiple spatial analyses, each targeting a different aspect of garden distribution, show that (a) the most intense easement garden clustering occurs among neighbors with direct visual access to nearest neighbors’ easement areas; (b) it is 2.4 times as likely that a property holds an easement garden if a property within 30 m holds one; (c) although clustering is measureable for all neighborhood sizes up to 610 m from home, peak clustering happens within 91 m of home; and (d) clustering of easement gardens are clustered in terms of quality (appeal), and greatest clustering occurs between pairs of adjacent neighbors. While larger scale factors may play a role in where a garden cluster is initiated, the dominant occurrence of relatively small cluster sizes indicates that social contagion is in play. The potential value of social contagion is discussed as a mechanism for spread sustainable behaviors that support ecological resilience in urban areas.
Article
The valuation of ecosystem services has primarily been conducted within the context of the economic value of these services to society. Ecosystem services research has since advanced to identify conflicts of interest between different sectors of society while prioritizing conservation actions. This approach can be important in semiarid ecosystems, where biodiversity conservation can be hindered by a lack of community awareness. In the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula, conservation is perceived by society as a barrier to the economic development provided by agricultural or tourism activities. We use the contingent valuation method to identify community perception and economic values of different ecosystem services provided by semiarid ecosystems in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula. This method identifies the perceptions of individuals benefiting from ecosystem services and examines their willingness to pay for the maintaining of these ecosystem services. Results showed that most respondents recognized the importance of services to human well-being and were willing to conserve these services. Preferences for maintaining water and air quality showed that respondents understood the relationship between the conservation of ecosystem services and local well-being. However, responses varied greatly across categories of beneficiaries; this finding highlights a potential conflict of interest that should be considered in any decision-making processes.Highlights►Biodiversity in semiarid areas can be hindered by a lack of community awareness. ►Preferences for ecosystem services are useful to identify conflicts of interest. ►Contingent valuation method can identify the economic values of services. ►Water and air quality were the most important in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. ►Social preferences varied greatly across categories of services beneficiaries.