ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

There are many free instant messengers available now which allow to communicate with friends with text, phone call, video, sharing of files, in group or not and keep contact with them even internationally. But only very few of the instant messengers have gained a popularity and attention. Recent studies have shown that the most popular instant messengers are WhatsApp, Viber and Telegram. Even, Facebook acquired WhatsApp due to have huge users. Viber is another messenger with many integrated features that allows the phone calls and sends the text messages for free and there is no subscription like WhatsApp. While Telegram offers the users an open-source platform with no ads, a clean fast interface, asks for no payments whatsoever and the biggest selling point is security. WhatsApp, Viber and Telegram which instant messenger is best? The popularity of Telegram has reached at the top of Google play store and become the most downloaded messaging app in the world today. But at the moment WhatsApp is still the winner!
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE)
Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2016, pp. 909~914
ISSN: 2088-8708, DOI: 10.11591/ijece.v6i3.10271 909
Journal homepage: http://iaesjournal.com/online/index.php/IJECE
WhatsApp, Viber and Telegram: which is the Best for Instant
Messaging?
Tole Sutikno1, Lina Handayani2, Deris Stiawan3, Munawar Agus Riyadi4, Imam Much Ibnu Subroto5
1Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
3Department of Computer Engineering, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, Indonesia
4Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
5Department of Informatics Engineering, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang, Indonesia
Article Info ABSTRACT
Article history:
Received Feb 2, 2016
Revised May 13, 2016
Accepted May 26, 2016
There are many free instant messengers available now which allow people to
communicate with friends with texts, phone calls, videos, by sharing files, in
group or not, and to maintain contact with them even internationally. But
only very few of instant messengers have gained popularity and recognition.
Recent studies have shown that the most popular instant messengers are
WhatsApp, Viber and Telegram. Facebook acquired WhatsApp due to its
huge number of users. Viber is another messenger with many integrated
features that allow for phone calls and send text messages for free, and like
WhatsApp there is no subscription, while Telegram offers users a completely
free open-source platform without any ads, a clean interface, and (the biggest
selling point) security. So, which instant messenger is best? Currently
Telegram is the most downloaded messaging apps in the Google Play Store.
But at the moment WhatsApp is still the winner!
Keywords:
Encryption
Instant Messaging
Telegram
Viber
WhatsApp
Copyright © 2016 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science.
All rights reserved.
Corresponding Author:
Tole Sutikno,
Department of Electrical Engineering,
Faculty of Industrial Technology, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
UAD 3rd Campus, “Jl. Prof. Dr. Soepomo, Janturan, Yogyakarta 55164, Indonesia
Email: tole@ee.uad.ac.id
1. INTRODUCTION
Now that smartphone usage is on the rise, instant messaging applications have become a necessity
for users. There are many free instant messengers available now with the development in technology which
has shown outstanding improvements in it. These services allow people to communicate with friends with
texts, phone calls, videos, shared files, in groups or not, and to maintain contact with them even
internationally [1-5]. But very few have gained popularity and recognition. Recent studies have shown that
the most popular instant messengers are WhatsApp, Viber and Telegram. In this paper the features of all
three applications will be compared.
1.1 WhatsApp
Recently, WhatsApp has become the most popular messenger with more than 1 billion people as its
user base, and is the first messenger app to hit this milestone [2, 6, 7]. In 2014, Facebook acquired WhatsApp
because of its huge number of users [8-10]. In its initial years, it charged the user as much as USD 0.99 per
year (the first 12 months was a free trial period). Later, subscription charge was completely cancelled since
18 January 2016 [11, 12]. WhatsApp provides services for text and audio messaging, free voice calls and
exchanging photos or videos and even for sharing of limited types of documents. But the main advantage of
ISSN: 2088-8708
IJECE Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2016 : 909 – 914
910
WhatsApp is its easiness for expanding the user base. When installing it, one can virtually reach all contacts
in his/her address book on the phone who have installed the same apps. And with more extensive engagement
between users in user-created WhatsApp groups, it acquires a healthy share in mobile space usage [3, 8, 12].
WhatsApp clearly dominates the global instant messenger market at present. The following are the
reasons why it has been chosen over Viber, Telegram or others messengers: 1) WhatsApp has become a top-
of-mind brand in the market of instant messengers. Many people instantly recalls WhatsApp, but not with
other messengers. This is because of word-of mouth promotion by the users; 2) when using WhatsApp,
people can speak to most of their friends because they are already on WhatsApp; 3) the bonus with
WhatsApp is that it is ads free service, although WhatsApp is not alone in this feature: many instant
messengers also provide the same service. However, the choice to provide ads-free service means that the
consideration of monetization lay in other part of service or it has great resources to cover the service; and 4)
another added advantages of WhatsApp over other messengers is that WhatsApp provides official web-based
application that runs on Windows desktop environment. Additionally, it and can be used with the Chrome
web based browser [13-16].
1.2 Viber
Viber is arguably the messenger with the most features in it. It has numerous options that simply
superior than others; e.g. it has high quality video call. Viber provides voice calling service that can dial to
any mobile number, even if the dialled number is not using Viber (with additional charge, for this case).
Viber offers group chat rooms just like other messenger services, and in addition to that service, it also offer
so-called public chat that allow users to communicate openly, which may suit with the type of hobby group,
fans club communication, or even large communities. A number of big groups on social networks often
create their channel in Viber. It offers a variety of customisable features, such as dedicated background for
different chat. Instead of sending photos only, it can also perform drawings with one’s finger. Viber also
provides official desktop version for the apps that can be used in laptops or PCs. However, despite its rich
features, it fails to attract people. It is believed that its less intuitive interface (compared with WhatsApp, for
example) and its controversial decision for dominant purple colour are of several reasons why it is trailing
badly [3, 4, 12].
Viber has offered voice and video call services for a few years before WhatsApp and Telegram start
to provide the similar voice and video services. Due to its earlier development, it is understandable that Viber
can offer better voice quality with less noise thoughout all bandwidths, in comparison with WhatsApp and
Telegram. Viber also offers two modes of voice quality: the normal and HD modes, with the latter very
beneficial on high bandwidth networks. Perhaps the most unique feature is the Viber Out, which make it
possible to Viber users to be in contact with people who are not on the service [3, 17, 18].
1.3 Telegram
Telegram is a popular messaging service that is based on open-source platform. In addition to its
completely free service without any payments, it also offers ads-free environment with a clean and fast
interface. Telegram was initialised in August 2013 by the Russian-born entrepreneur Pavel Durov, but the
"Russian WhatsApp" is in serious competition with the giants of the industry, WhatsApp and Viber.
Telegram has gained the popularity status that it becomes the most downloaded messaging apps in the
Google Play Store. Telegram has earned the similar most popular social network among free downloaded
apps in more than forty countries, including Germany and the United States, beating other social network
apps such as Facebook, WhatsApp, WeChat, and Kik. [12, 19-22].
Telegram is easy to sign up and use. It has many similarities to WhatsApp in terms of dealing with
user ID and contact. The phone number is used for user’s primary identification. Once the user installs the
apps, he/she can communicate with any number in their contact list that already installs the same apps.
However, Telegram has more to offer. Any user can create a username as unique ID in Telegram, thus
allowing others who know this username to directly contact without having to know the phone number of the
respective party. Moreover, adding other’s username into Telegram’s contact list will not automatically
reveal the phone number. By considering that phone number is such privacy for several people, this feature is
a great way to enhance the privacy protection. In addition, the archive of communication is stored in cloud,
thus the users do not have to worry that they lost their chats after changing phone [12, 19].
Among its benefits is the sticker shop. It is a collection of funny images that can be used in chats
besides text. It can share documents in more variety of filetypes that WhatsApp, as well as image and video
sharing, without size limit. Telegram is a multiple platform app that can run on Android, iOS, Windows
Phone, Mac and Windows OS. Moreover, Telegram account can be accessed from multiple devices, even at a
given time, and messages appears simultaneously on all devices [19, 22].
IJECE ISSN: 2088-8708
WhatsApp, Viber and Telegram which is Best for Instant Messaging? (Tole Sutikno)
911
Telegram is designed as a light app, very fast and reliable. It provides platform for chatting in
groups, with far more users can be included in a group (up to 5000 participants) than what WhatsApp capable
of. Finally, Telegram also provides bots: an automatic answering account that can respond to specific text
command by giving preformatted answers. The integration of bots into Telegram’s API offers
unprecendented applications, something that is not found on WhatsApp [19, 21, 23].
2. FEATURE COMPARISON
As part of the social media, instant messaging tools are now frequently used. This is in line with
social cognitive theory (SCT) which emphasises reciprocal determinism in the interaction between people
and their environments [24]. SCT posits that human behaviour is the product of a dynamic interplay of
personal, behavioural and environmental influences. A person’s behaviour can be influenced by the
environment and also influence the environment. It is relevant to the current situation that the popularity of
WhatsApp, Viber and Telegram are also influenced by the environment. The more people use instant
messaging, the more people follow it. According to Bandura’s theory [25, 26], the use of WhatsApp, Viber
and Telegram can be viewed as illustrations of these reciprocal determinisms, as providers must seek to
influence the environmental and social factors that influence people’s behaviour in using their product.
Person-behaviour relation is in context with the bi-directional interaction of one’s thoughts,
emotions and biological properties. For example, a person’s beliefs, self-perceptions, goals and intentions
greatly influence their behaviour. A bi-directional interaction also happens between the environment and
personal characteristics [24-27]. The expectations of a human as well as its beliefs and cognitive
competencies are greatly constructed by influx from social and physical environment [24]. The interaction
between behaviour and environment set the aspects for modification from each side. The environment partly
determines the development of one’s behaviour [27]; in this case it happened to perform the behaviour of
people in choosing WhatsApp, Viber and Telegram. Due to people having high expectations of the products
they choose, providers must try to meet these expectations. They must always improve their product with
many advantages, such as high technology, low prices and being user friendly.
Table 1 shows side-by-side the feature comparisons for the above free instant messaging services to
give some perspective on where they stand [12, 28, 29]. WhatsApp and Viber bring detailed info when the
exact status of messages, from the moment of sending to when the messages are opened by the recipient,
while Telegram includes read receipts with double ticks, but lacks the other aforementioned features. Now,
all instant messengers focus on security issues, with completely private, safe and self-destructing messages.
All instant messaging providers claim that end-to-end encryption is implemented. As a natural result, people
have wondered which service is safer: WhatsApp, Viber or Telegram?
3. END-TO-END ENCRYPTION
Encryption is essential in communication system. In secure end-to-end communication, it is required
that only the communicating parties can understand the messages. Eavesdropper may not read the cryptic
communication, and they have to posses the cryptographic keys in order to dechiper the conversation. In
messaging service, the end-to-end encryption is highly needed so that telco or internet providers and the
company that runs the service cannot read the message [30]. Surveillance and tapping are not possible
because the cryptographic keys are not shared for decrypting the data being communicated or stored.
Therefore, any provider of end-to-end encryption cannot handover data of their customers’ communication to
the authorities [31]. In its early years, instant messaging applications could not promise of keeping the user’s
privacy. The user’s messages can be stored and recorded to gain profiles of specific users. Eventually, illegal
access to social media accounts may access these records. Zero-Interaction PRivacy (ZIPR) [32] and
BabelCrypt [33] were the first systems introduced to address this problem that automatically retrofitting
arbitrary mobile chat applications with end-to-end encryption.
Recent changes in app security have given birth to an fierce competition in offering users secure
instant messaging [19], as shown in Table 2, and this has been the tendency now for many years. WhatsApp
did not really have a great rep when it came to security, but things have changed now, with the latest version
of the app bringing end-to end encryption [34]. On April 5, 2016, the topic was brought to people’s attention
again when WhatsApp, in collaboration with Open Whisper Systems, implemented end-to-end encryption.
The app encrypts all the chats and data like voice messages, media, etc. end-to-end, which means that not
even WhatsApp can read our messages [12, 16, 35]. Following WhatsApp's move to adding end-to-end
encryption to its platform, on April 19, 2016 Viber implemented end-to-end encryption for all messages and
ISSN: 2088-8708
IJECE Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2016 : 909 – 914
912
Table 1. Whatsapp, Viber and Telegram specs comparison
WhatsApp
Viber
Telegram
Backups
(Google Drive integration)
(backup file)
(cloud-based)
Block user
Broadcasts - -
Delivery receipt
First check means sent,
second means the message
has been delivered (not
necessarily read)
First check means
delivered, second means the
message has been read
Desktop client
Format text (bold,
italics, bold & italic,
strike through)
-
Group chat
256 participants
99 participants
5000 participants
Hold-to-talk
Multi-device
Only one mobile device at a
time, plus access on
desktops.
Online status
Phone calls -
(Fees apply) -
Platforms iOS, Android, Windows
Phone, BlackBerry,
Symbian,
Nokia Series 40, Nokia
Asha
Windows, OS X, Android,
BlackBerry, iOS, Series 40,
Symbian, Bada, Windows
Phone, Linux
Android, iOS, Windows
Phone, Windows, OS X,
Linux
Photo editor - -
Price Free Free Free
Read receipt
First check means
delivered, second means the
message has been read
Registration type Phone number Phone number, email Phone number
Screen sharing - - -
Secure Conversation End-to-end encryption End-to-end encryption End-to-end encryption
Send images
Send videos
Send files (doc, zip,
mp3, etc)
(up to 160 MB each)
(up to 200 MB each)
(up to 1.5 GB each)
Share contact -
Share location
Sketching -
-
Stickers
User base 1000M monthly active users 500M monthly active users 100M monthly active users
Username (No need to
share phone number) - -
Video calls
-
Voice calls
-
calls on its platform, including group chats (up to 200 people). Viber’s end-to-end encryption is to protect its
customers' communications against snooping, but only for one-to-one and group conversations in which all
participants are using the latest Viber version for Android, iOS, Desktop or Windows 10 [3, 17, 18, 28].
Telegram, on the other hand, is based on the MTProto Mobile protocol and brings end-to-end encryption with
secret chats. It also has the self-destruct feature and notifications to users when a screenshot is taken by the
IJECE ISSN: 2088-8708
WhatsApp, Viber and Telegram which is Best for Instant Messaging? (Tole Sutikno)
913
recipient. Moreover, Telegram is open-source, so anyone can check the app’s source code, API or protocols
to find any security flaws [19-22].
Table 2. Whatsapp, Viber and Telegram in assessing the security
Security Criteria WhatsApp Viber Telegram Telegram
(Secret Chats)
Is communication encrypted in transit (all user
communications are encrypted along all the links in the
communication path)?
Is communication encrypted with a key the provider
does not have access to (all user communications are
end-to-end encrypted)?
-
Can correspondent's identity be independently verified?
- -
Are past communications secured if keys are stolen?
- -
Is the code open to independent review? - -
Is the crypto design well-documented?
-
Has there been an independent security audit?
Message encryption in WhatsApp is based on the Signal Protocol combining the Double Ratchet
Algorithm, prekeys and a 3-DH handshake. On the other hand, voice call encryption is with the Secure Real-
time Transport Protocol (SRTP), and a separate encrypted channel is dedicated for layering all client-server
communications. The Signal Protocol library used by WhatsApp is open-source and published under the
GPLv3 licence [36]. Viber's protocol uses the same concepts of the double ratchet protocol used in
WhatsApp in collaboration with Open Whisper Systems. However, Viber's implementation was developed
from scratch and does not share Signal's source code. Viber messages are encrypted with the Salsa20
encryption algorithm. Viber calls are encrypted with 256-bit Curve25519 key-pair [3, 12, 18], while
Telegram uses a symmetrical encryption scheme called MTProto. The protocol was developed by Nikolai
Durov and is based on 256-bit symmetric AES encryption, RSA 2048 encryption and Diffie-Hellman key
exchange. Telegram supports two layers of secure encryption. The cloud chats use server-client encryption,
while secret chats employ an additional layer of client-client encryption. All data of any type is encrypted in
the same way [21, 22, 37].
Even though there is no general consensus when choosing an instant messaging application, in
general WhatsApp, Viber and Telegram are some of the safest apps for instant messaging. Unlike WhatsApp
and Viber, Telegram’s secret chat messages are fully encrypted between senders and do not give user data to
third party vendors. It even offers a self-destruct feature, where messages disappear after the time set and no
one sees them on your device or the recipient’s.
4. CONCLUSION
WhatsApp is the most popular among the world’s users of the smartphones with about 60%,
followed by Viber and, in third place, Telegram. Viber is the most functional messenger, but if the main
concern is the security of communication, it is wiser to opt for Telegram. Telegram offers capability of
syncronization, super fast service, reliable backup and better security feature. Although WhatsApp dominates
the social media space due to its simplicity and backed by giant i.e. Facebook, Telegram is essentially
providing better platform than others.
References
[1] A. Buchenscheit, B. Könings, A. Neubert, F. Schaub, M. Schneider, and F. Kargl, "Privacy implications of
presence sharing in mobile messaging applications," in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2014,
pp. 20-29.
[2] C. Sgaras, M. T. Kechadi, and N. A. Le-Khac, "Forensics acquisition and analysis of instant messaging and VoIP
applications," in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence
and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) vol. 8915, ed, 2015, pp. 188-199.
[3] A. L. B., P. J. N., P. V. R., and S. D. Jyoti, "Whatsapp, Skype, Wickr, Viber, Twitter and Blog are Ready to
Asymptote Globally from All Corners during Communications in Latest Fast Life," Research Journal of Science
and Technology, 2014, vol. 6, pp. 101-116.
[4] S. K. Khatri and K. Narula, "General maturity model for social messaging application," in 2015 4th International
Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization: Trends and Future Directions, ICRITO 2015,
2015.
ISSN: 2088-8708
IJECE Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2016 : 909 – 914
914
[5] N. H. Tang and Y. C. Lee, "A comparative study on user loyalty of mobile-instant messaging services: Korea and
Vietnam (Research in Progress)," in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2015.
[6] N. Statt. WhatsApp has grown to 1 billion users, 2016. Available:
http://www.theverge.com/2016/2/1/10889534/whats-app-1-billion-users-facebook-mark-zuckerberg
[7] M. Seufert, T. Hoßfeld, A. Schwind, V. Burger and P. Tran-Gia, "Group-based communication in WhatsApp," 2016
IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops, Vienna, Austria, 2016, pp. 536-541.
[8] S. Vijayakumar Bharathi and A. Goswami, "A multidimensional study on the usage of facebook among college
students," International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2014, vol. 9, pp. 9849-9862.
[9] Chandrasekhar, C.P. The next internet bust? Economic and Political Weekly, 2014, No. 12, pp. 10-11.
[10] Vijayakumar Bharathi, S., Goswami, A. A multidimensional study on the usage of facebook among college
students, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2014, vol. 9, pp. 9849-9862.
[11] Mensa-Bonsu, M.A.S. The old order changeth and giveth way to the new: WhatsApp debuts as a means of
substituted service in Ghana. Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal, 2015, vol.15, pp. 149-154.
[12] Battle of the messengers: WhatsApp vs Viber vs Telegram, 2016. Available: http://appleapple.top/battle-of-the-
messengers-whatsapp-vs-viber-vs-telegram-poll/
[13] Mathew, A.B., Madhu Kumar, S.D. Analysis of data management and query handling in social networks using
NoSQL databases. International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics
(ICACCI), 2015, pp. 800-806.
[14] B. Khatoon, K. B. Hill, and A. D. Walmsley, "Instant messaging in dental education," Journal of Dental Education,
2015, vol. 79, pp. 1471-1478.
[15] L. Y. Jin and J. Park, "Effects of platformization strategy on continuance intention of mobile messaging apps,"
International Journal of Mobile Communications, 2016, vol. 14, pp. 291-308.
[16] H. Bajaj and R. Jindal, "Thinking beyond WhatsApp," in 2015 International Conference on Computing for
Sustainable Global Development, INDIACom, 2015, pp. 1443-1447.
[17] U. Batavia. Detailed Comparison: Viber Vs. WhatsApp Voice Calling. Available:
http://www.technewstoday.com/23384-detailed-comparison-viber-vs-whatsapp-voice-calling/
[18] E. Diaz-Aviles et al. Towards real-time customer experience prediction for telecommunication operators.
Proceedings of 2015 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, 2015, pp. 1063-1072.
[19] Job, J., Naresh, V., Chandrasekaran, K. A modified secure version of the Telegram protocol (MTProto). IEEE
International Conference on Electronics, Computing and Communication Technologies, CONECCT 2015, art. no.
7383884.
[20] Y. Temchenko. Why does Russian-made Telegram messaging app irritate its competitors?, 2016. Available:
https://goo.gl/dJMIAU
[21] How Telegram Becomes the Hottest Messaging App in the World, 2016. Available:
http://neurogadget.net/2015/08/30/how-telegram-becomes-the-hottest-messaging-app-in-the-world/13950
[22] R. Sari-Motlagh, S. Ebrahimi, A. Nikfallah, S. Hajebrahimi, B. Shakiba. Lifelong Learning in Practice: The Age of
Discussion through Social Media, European Urology, 2016, vol. 69, pp. 1162-1163
[23] P. Sawers. Telegram pushes supergroup limit to 5,000 people and makes groups viewable to anyone in the public,
2016. Available: http://goo.gl/UuBBOS
[24] A. Bandura, Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory: Prentice Hall, 1986.
[25] A. Bandura and N. E. Adams, "Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change," Cognitive Therapy and
Research, 1977, vol. 1, pp. 287-310.
[26] A. Bandura, "Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change," Psychological Review, 1977, vol.
84, pp. 191-215.
[27] A. Bandura, "Human agency in social cognitive theory," American Psychologist, 1989, vol. 44, pp. 1175-1184.
[28] K. Azza. WhatsApp Vs Telegram Vs Viber, which is best for chatting?, 2016. Available: http://goo.gl/OrlqSR
[29] J. Vilches. Mobile Messaging Clients Compared, 2016. Available: http://goo.gl/Gfe9aD
[30] Hacker Lexicon: What is End-to-End Encryption?, 2016. Available: https://goo.gl/o3ZKuf
[31] J. McLaughlin. Democratic Debate Spawns Fantasy Talk on Encryption, 2016. Available: https://goo.gl/MYt1FJ
[32] A. Razeen and L. Cox, "Demo: Zero interaction private messaging with ZIPR," in MobiSys 2014 - Proceedings of
the 12th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, 2014, pp. 351-352.
[33] A. T. Ozcan, C. Gemicioglu, K. Onarlioglu, M. Weissbacher, C. Mulliner, W. Robertson, et al., "BabelCrypt: The
Universal Encryption Layer for Mobile Messaging Applications," in Financial Cryptography and Data Security:
19th International Conference, FC 2015, San Juan, Puerto Rico, January 26-30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, R.
Böhme and T. Okamoto, Eds., ed Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2015, pp. 355-369.
[34] Tech. Telegram Vs. WhatsApp: Which Messenger to Use?, 2016. Available: http://goo.gl/8qUMiB
[35] W. S. Team. Whatsapp: End-to-End Encryption, 2016. Available: https://goo.gl/XKBtWw
[36] WhatsApp. WhatsApp Encryption Overview. Technical white paper, 2016. Available:
https://www.whatsapp.com/security/WhatsApp-Security-Whitepaper.pdf
[37] MTProto Mobile Protocol, 2016. Available: https://core.telegram.org/mtproto
... The characteristics of the notary office administration system users are as follows. Users who act as admin of the system manager are on average educated from high school to undergraduate, where knowledge of technology related to social media, information technology, and instant messaging is customary and even has become the user's needs [19]. Further user characteristics, namely based on customer needs. ...
... From the start of Telegram until now, this application has gained popularity status and has become a widely used instant messaging application. The Telegram application also provides a Bot feature that can answer commands automatically with answers that have been formatted [19]. The choice of SMS gateway technology as a medium for providing information and communication is to accommodate users who do not have a smartphone or laptop, so that users can still obtain and request information related to the progress of the document being managed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Notary is an official authorized to make an authentic deed regarding all deeds, agreements and stipulations required by a general rule. Activities carried out at the notary office such as recording client data and file data still use traditional systems that tend to be manual. The problem that occurs is the inefficiency in data processing and providing information to clients. Clients have difficulty getting information related to the progress of documents that are being taken care of at the notary's office. The client must take the time to arrive to the notary's office repeatedly to check the progress of the work of the document file. The purpose of this study is to facilitate clients in obtaining information about the progress of the work in progress, and make it easier for employees to process incoming documents by implementing an administrative system. This system was developed with the waterfall system development method and uses the Multi-Channel Access Technology integrated in the website to simplify the process of delivering information and requesting information from clients and to clients with Telegram and SMS Gateway. Clients will come to the office only when there is a notification from the system via Telegram or SMS notifying that the client must come directly to the notary's office, thus leading to an efficient time and avoiding excessive transportation costs. The overall functional system can function properly based on the results of alpha testing. The results of beta testing conducted by distributing the system feasibility test questionnaire to end users, get a percentage of 96% of users agree the system is feasible to be implemented.
... In a comparative study about the best application for instant massaging, Sutikno, Handayani, Stiawan, Riyadi, and Ibnu Subroto (2016) reveal that Viber, unlike WhatsApp and Telegram, is the most functional messenger since it offers a good quality of voice and video call services. Viber can also provide two modes of voice quality: the normal and HD mode, with the latter being very beneficial on high bandwidth networks. ...
... Viber can also provide two modes of voice quality: the normal and HD mode, with the latter being very beneficial on high bandwidth networks. Perhaps the most unique feature is the Viber Out, which makes it possible for Viber users to contact people who are not on the Internet service (Sutikno et al., 2016). ...
... In a comparative study about the best application for instant massaging, Sutikno, Handayani, Stiawan, Riyadi, and Ibnu Subroto (2016) reveal that Viber, unlike WhatsApp and Telegram, is the most functional messenger since it offers a good quality of voice and video call services. Viber can also provide two modes of voice quality: the normal and HD mode, with the latter being very beneficial on high bandwidth networks. ...
... Viber can also provide two modes of voice quality: the normal and HD mode, with the latter being very beneficial on high bandwidth networks. Perhaps the most unique feature is the Viber Out, which makes it possible for Viber users to contact people who are not on the Internet service (Sutikno et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although the research on speech disfluencies in the literature produced very significant information on the general characteristics of speech disfluency production of children and adult speakers, there is no adequate account of speech disfluencies of young speakers. The purpose of this study is to provide the 18-23-year-old fluent Turkish native speakers’ production rates of the filled gap, hesitation, prolongation, slip of the tongue, false start and repetition type of speech disfluencies and to analyze the influence of the gender and speech situation (prepared/unprepared) variables on speech disfluency production in this age group. 14 participants (7 male/ 7 female) took part in the study. By conducting face to face interviews, prepared and unprepared speech samples (for children unprepared speech samples only) of at least 300 words of each participant were collected and transcribed. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank and Mann-Whitney U Tests were used for the statistical analysis of the data. As a result, the most widely observed types of speech disfluencies in the current study were prolongations, filled gaps, and hesitations, respectively. In terms of the gender variable, males produced more prolongations than the females in the prepared speech situation. In the unprepared speech situation, the hesitation, prolongation, false-start, and slip-of-the-tongue type of disfluency production rates of males were higher than the females. In terms of the speech situation variable, regardless of the gender variable, all participants produced a greater number of prolongations and slips of the tongue in the prepared speech situation compared to the unprepared speech situation. When the same data were analyzed according to the speech situation variable by considering the gender variable as well, it was seen that all participants (male/female) in the 18-23 age group produced more prolongation type of disfluencies in the prepared speech situation compared to the unprepared speech situation.
... WhatsApp has been dominating the global instant messenger market for the past two years (Bucher, 2020). It has been found that many individuals prefer WhatsApp communication for its accessibility and extensive engagement between users and the user-created WhatsApp groups (Sutikno et al., 2016). Respondents received an electronic link directing them to a Google Form that contained the survey questionnaire. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The present study attempts to shed some light on tourists’ destination brand loyalty (DBL) in the Malaysian ecotourism context. More specifically, this study aims to examine the relationships between electronic word of mouth (eWOM), destination brand quality (DBQ), destination brand image (DBI), psychological engagement (PE) and DBL. Design/methodology/approach Based on the Stimulus–Organism–Response theory and buyer black box model, this study developed a framework to address tourists’ loyalty towards ecotourism destinations. An online survey was carried out to collect data, which yielded 210 completed usable responses. Structural equation modelling – partial least squares was used to test the study hypotheses. Findings Findings from this study revealed that eWOM and destination product quality affect DBI. Moreover, data support the mediating effect of PE between DBI and DBL. Practical implications This study provides valuable insights for practitioners and policymakers of the tourism industry in creating a DBI, keeping tourists psychologically engaged and retaining their loyalty to the ecotourism destinations. Originality/value This study is amongst the first to examine the effect of eWOM and DBQ on DBI in the ecotourism context. It also examines PE in relation to the DBI, which is a comparatively new area in the literature.
... In addition to social networking, communication applications, such as WhatsApp, Telegram, Instagram, Viber, IMO, and Discord, have become popular and are competitors of social networking services. Sutikno, Handayani, Stiawan, Riyadi, and Subroto (2016) compared WhatsApp, Telegram, and Viber and identified WhatsApp as the best instant messaging platform. Similarly, Montag et al. (2015) demonstrated that WhatsApp is the driving force in communication applications. ...
... In this research, chatbot will be made using the Telegram service. This is based on superiority in terms of security [6], and a simple chatbot application programming interface (API) facility. Chatbot will service requests for academic information such as student information, grade information, attendance information and financial information. ...
... The global uptake of WhatsApp is considerable: By the third quarter of 2017, 73% of Saudi Arabia's population were using WhatsApp, followed by Malaysia (68%), Germany (65%), Brazil and Mexico (56%), Turkey (50%) and South Africa (49%) in 2017 (Statista 2018). When compared with similar apps like Viber and Telegram, WhatsApp was also the most popular messenger app in 2016 (Sutikno et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media applications led by WhatsApp have exhibited a great adoption rate in individualistic and collectivistic societies. To study the factors which influence the adoption of software applications across cultures, the application design was studied by researchers in both individualistic and collectivistic societies. Most of such studies concentrated on the application design from the developer's point of view. Differently, this research study empirically explores the factors that influence the adoption of smartphone apps, such as WhatsApp, from the user's perspective. Therefore, the focus in this paper is on the moderating effect of Hofstede’s crosscultures dimension, individualism vs. collectivism (IDV), and the interconnection between the persuasive system design (PSD) and acceptance. A total of 488 responses were collected from societies which span on the spectrum of IDV to include two individualistic societies, Netherlands and Germany, and two collectivistic societies, Malaysia and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The overall results indicate that persuasive design principles are relevant to cultures across the globe. Moreover, individualism has a negative influence on the correlation between the persuasive system design principles and acceptance. Consequently, the findings suggest that in collectivistic societies, PSD principles have a stronger influence on the acceptance of smartphone apps. Thus, smartphone apps that are targeting the global community would highly benefit from the implementation of PSD principles which can lead to a higher adoption.
... There are many free instant messaging application available now which allow people to communicate using texts, phone calls, videos, etc, and to maintain contact with them even internationally. Recent studies have shown that the most popular instant messengers are WhatsApp, Viber, Telegram [1], and Blackberry Messenger (BBM). BBM is one of the multi-platform instant messaging applications that has many users that increase significantly each year. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mobile-instant messaging (MIM) services have been evolved and changed dramatically over these recent years thanks to the explosion of smartphone use. Many service providers are joining in this lucrative market, for instance WhatsApp, Viber, Hangouts and Facebook Messenger (as the international platforms) and the other regional applications such as WeChat (for Chinese user), KakaoTalk (for Korean user, Line and Tango (for Japanese user). Korea is a mature and developed market for MIM services with the domination of KakaoTalk while Vietnam is still an infant and on-developing market with the market share game between service providers. The antagonism between the two markets gives an interesting motivation for the research. Thus, this paper aims to find out whether any difference in user behavior and user loyalty for MIM services between Korean nation and Vietnamese nation. To do it, the study theoretically bases on the information systems (IS) success model and expectation-confirmation model (ECM) with a slight adjustment to be appropriate with the research context. Data collection surveys on MIM users in Korea and Vietnam who are using KakaoTalk particularly. The results and implications might suggest some helpful lessons for Vietnamese MIM market from the mature Korean market.
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
Conference Paper
This work investigates group-based communication in WhatsApp based on a survey and the analysis of messaging logs. The characteristics of WhatsApp group chats in terms of usage and topics are outlined. We present a classification based on the topic of the group and classify anonymized messaging logs based on message statistics. Finally, we model WhatsApp group communication with a semi-Markov process, which can be used to generate network traffic similar to real messaging logs.
Conference Paper
WhatsApp is a very popular mobile messaging application, which dominates todays mobile communication. Especially the feature of group chats contributes to its success and changes the way people communicate. The group-based communication paradigm is investigated in this work, particularly focusing on the usage of WhatsApp, communication in group chats, and implications on mobile network traffic.
Conference Paper
The advent of mobile phones and the spread of the internet have caused a substantial increase in the utilization of these technologies for personal communication. A wide range of mobile applications exist, most of which use their own proprietary protocol. Reports of snooping attacks have prompted the parent organizations and users to guarantee that the encrypted data sent over a public network is decrypted only by the intended recipient. Smart phone operating systems provide GPS data to these applications so that users can tag photos with this information. As these applications mostly run a daemon or service in the background to automatically receive messages, an unattended switched on location service coupled with a weak protocol leaves the user highly vulnerable of being tracked by eavesdroppers. These applications are known to, by observing their behaviour, upload the user's contact list to the server so as identify those contacts using the same application. These are but just two important data that need to be protected by tough security measures during transit. Any loop hole in security protocols will leave the user vulnerable to attacks, even outside the digital world. Online chat protocols such as the Telegram protocol ensure end-to-end security of data. Although the protocol itself has been explained in much detail by the designers, this protocol is disfavored because of its performance drawbacks and its susceptibility to man-in-the-middle attacks. In this paper, we modify the Telegram protocol in an attempt to make it more efficient and secure.
Article
As mobile messaging apps (e.g., WhatsApp) are becoming increasingly popular with the widespread adoption of smart phones, competition to gain a larger user-base gets more intense among app providers. To win the competition by leveraging their user bases, messaging app providers pursue a platformization strategy through which they offer a variety of services (e.g., games, shopping, etc.) to their messaging app users. The main objective of this study is to gauge the effect of the platformization strategy on the messaging app users. To do so, we first identify several factors (e.g., perceived network size, innovativeness, service variety and convenience to locate services) that can characterise the platformization strategy. We then develop a research model that focusses on the effects of the factors on users' intention to continue to use messaging apps. This research model is tested with data collected from 148 users through an online questionnaire survey. The results of data analysis using structural equation modelling through partial least square (PLS) approach suggest that perceived network size and perceived innovativeness of services have significant effects on the users' continuance of intention to use mobile messaging apps.