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CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF JACKFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS): A REVIEW ON CURRENT STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE

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Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is commonly grown in home gardens of tropical and subtropical countries. The fruit provide 2 MJ per kg/wet weight of ripe perianth and contain high levels of carbohydrates, protein, starch, calcium and vitamins. Jackfruit has diverse medicinal uses especially anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-fungal activity. Jackfruit is considered to be an underutilized fruit where most of the fruits get wasted due to ignorance, lack of post harvest technology and gaps in supply chain systems. Jackfruit contains more protein, calcium, iron, vitamins and other essential nutrients when compared to the common fruits. A wide gap in the marketing of jack fruits and its processed value added products which can be fully explored for additional income as well as food security. Encouragements should be done to the marketing as well as value added food products from this underutilized fruit tree.
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International Journal of Innovative Research and Review ISSN: 2347 4424 (Online)
An Online International Journal Available at http://www.cibtech.org/jirr.htm
2015 Vol. 3 (2) April-June, pp.83-95/Vazhacharickal et al.
Research Article
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CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF JACKFRUIT
(ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS): A REVIEW ON CURRENT STATUS
OF KNOWLEDGE
*Prem Jose Vazhacharickal, Sajeshkumar N.K., Jiby John Mathew, Ajesh C. Kuriakose,
Benchamin Abraham, Renjith J. Mathew, Alen N. Albin, Deenamol Thomson, Riny Susan Thomas,
Nijamol Varghese and Sophyiamol Jose
Department of Biotechnology, Mar Augusthinose College, Ramapuram-686576, Kerala, India
*Author for Correspondence
ABSTRACT
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is commonly grown in home gardens of tropical and sub-
tropical countries. The fruit provide 2 MJ per kg/wet weight of ripe perianth and contain high levels of
carbohydrates, protein, starch, calcium and vitamins. Jackfruit has diverse medicinal uses especially anti-
oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-fungal activity. Jackfruit is considered to
be an underutilized fruit where most of the fruits get wasted due to ignorance, lack of post harvest
technology and gaps in supply chain systems. Jackfruit contains more protein, calcium, iron, vitamins and
other essential nutrients when compared to the common fruits. A wide gap in the marketing of jack fruits
and its processed value added products which can be fully explored for additional income as well as food
security. Encouragements should be done to the marketing as well as value added food products from this
underutilized fruit tree.
Keywords: Anti-oxidant; Jackfruit; Jackalin; Monecious; Underutilized Fruit
INTRODUCTION
Artocarpus heterophyllus belong to the Moraceae family, colloquially jack fruit in English is native to
India and seen abundant in Western Ghats (Jagadeesh et al., 2007a; Baliga et al., 2011; Reddy et al.,
2004; Jagadeesh et al., 2007b; Prakash et al., 2009; Wangchu et al., 2013). Besides India, jackfruit is
commonly grown in home gardens of tropical and sub-tropical countries especially Sri Lanka;
Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Brazil (Jagadeesh et al., 2007b;
Baliga et al., 2011; Dutta et al., 2011; Siti Balqis and Rosma, 2011; Lin et al., 2009; Saxena et al., 2009a
Maia et al., 2004; Hameed, 2009). In India, it widely distributed in the states of Assam, West Bengal,
Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka (Wangchu et., 2013) and considered to be
the „Poor man‟s food‟ (Jagadeesh et al., 2007a; Prakash et al., 2009). In Malayalam (regional language in
Kerala, India) jack fruit is called as “Chakka” while the ancient Indian language Sanskrit refers as
Atibruhatphala (Baliga et al., 2011; Haq, 2006; Prakash et al., 2009). The morphology of the tree varies
with 10-30 m tall; with long tap root and desne crown (Wangchu et al., 2013) producing the largest tree
born fruit in the world (Baliga et al., 2011; Prakash et al., 2009). The fruit weight up to 50 kg, but average
weigh is considered to be 10 kg, while only 30-35% of the bulb is edible (Jagadeesh et al., 2007a; Baliga
et al., 2011; Saxena et al., 2009b; Hameed, 2009; Swami et al., 2012; Selvaraj and Pal,1989).
Jack fruit is considered as national fruit in Bangladesh and highly appreciated in India due to cheap and
availability in summer seasons were food is scarce (Muralidharan et al., 1997; Morton, 1987; Schnell et
al., 2001). The fruit provide 2 MJ per kg/wet weight of ripe perianth and contain high levels of
carbohydrates, protein, starch, calcium and vitamins (Swami et al., 2012; Ahmed et al., 1986; Burkill,
1997; Saxena et al., 2009a). Boiled and cooked jackfruit seeds are included in the diets which have 77%
starch content, which is exploited as a potent source of starch (Bobbio et al., 1978; Tulyathan et al., 2002;
Mukprasirt and Sajjaanantakul, 2004; Odoemelam, 2005). Jackfruit is widely used in culinary
preparation, baking, candid jackfruit, baby food, jams, jellies, juice, chips, deserts and the advances in
food processing technologies further expanded the possibilities (Burkill, 1997; Swami et al., 2012;
Selvaraj and Pal, 1989; Narasimham, 1990; Roy and Joshi, 1995; Haq, 2006). Jackfruit is widely accepted
International Journal of Innovative Research and Review ISSN: 2347 4424 (Online)
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by consumers, researchers and food industries due to the presence of bioactive compounds and diversity
products made out of it (Swami et al., 2012; Saxena et al., 2009a; Dutta et al., 2011; Lin et al., 2009;
Devalaraja et al., 2011). Various parts of jackfruit tree have been used for medicine and the hard wood
used for construction (Roy and Joshi, 1995; Alagiapillai et al., 1996). The aim of this review paper was to
improve the current knowledge, medicinal and industrial application properties of jackfruit.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Botanical Description and Varieties
Artocarpus species (15 edible fruits) are known to occupy various niches and habitats, comprise mainly
bread fruit and jackfruit (Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; Wangchu et al., 2013). Jackfruit is monecious and
pollinated flowers develop several months to develop into ripe fruit, depending on climatic and soil
conditions (Morton, 1987; Baliga et al., 2011). According to Prakash et al (2009) jackfruit consist of
lower fleshy edible region (bulb), middle fused region (syncarp) and out spiney region (spike). When ripe
the fruit get fleshy, outer spines widened and flesh get soft and yellow (Saxena et al., 2009). Except the
thorny outer bark and axis are not edible (Baliga et al., 2011). The jackfruits were classified based on
their phonotypical and organoleptic characteristics with variation in bulb colour as well as shape, size,
odour, flake size, flake colour and period of maturity (Haq, 2006; Prakash et al., 2009; Jagadeesh et al.,
2007b; Jagadeesh et al., 2007a). Two types of ecotypes are recognised flake characteristics, one with soft
and spongy while other with firm carpels which called different in regional languages (Baliga et al., 2011;
Amma et al., 2011; Shyamalamma et al., 2008; Muralidharan et al., 1997; Odoemelam, 2005).
Nutritional and Vitamin Composition
Studies have proved that the nutritional and photochemical composition among jackfruit varies depending
on the cultivar as well as region (Baliga et al., 2011; Arkroyd et al., 1966; Azad, 2000; Haq, 2006;
Narasimham, 1990). It is a good source of vitamins (A, C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin) and minerals
(calcium, potassium, iron, sodium, zinc) (Swami et al., 2012; Haq, 2006; Narasimham, 1990; Arkroyd et
al., 1966; Azad, 2000). Protein and carbohydrate concentration also varied in seeds across India were
some varieties contain 6.8% of protein content in seeds (Baliga et al., 2011; Chrips et al., 2008).
Table 1: Phenolic, flavinoid content and antioxidant activity of araticum, papaya and jackfruit in
undigested and digested extracts (Modified after; Pavan et al., 2011)
Parameters
Araticum
Papaya
Jackfruit
Digested
Undigested
Digested
Undigested
Digested
Total phenol
content
178. 2 ± 11
79.5 ± 0.13
28.6 ± 2.2
23.3 ± 3.5
33.9 ± 0.8
Flavonoid
content
399 ± 44
15.9 ± 2.6
26.4 ± 3.7
33 ± 9.5
28.4 ± 1.2
TEAC
1647.7 ± 5.5
447.5 ± 18
383.3 ± 17
56 ± 2
318 ± 12
ORAC
31165 ± 4113
3112 ± 866
2017 ± 393
2117 ± 388
3047 ± 455
Table 2: Biochemical difference various jackfruit varieties in South India (Chrips et al., 2008)
Name of
variety
Flake
Seed
Total sugar
(%)
Total
carbohydrate
(%)
Total protein
(%)
Total
carbohydrate
(%)
Total protein
(%)
Valayan
21.3 ± 1.02
23.8 ± 2.6
1.4 ± 2.2
42.5 ± 0.6
5.9 ± 0.7
Nettadivarika
17.5 ± 0.9
28.4 ± 1.7
2.3 ± 1.5
40.3 ± 2.3
6.8 ± 2.3
Chemparethy
20.7 ± 0.4
26.1 ± 0.8
1.9 ± 2.7
37.4 ± 1.1
5.3 ± 1.4
Mondan
18.6 ± 1.9
31.2 ± 2.0
2.0 ± 1.4
42.8 ± 0.9
6.5 ± 1.8
Venkanni
15.3 ± 1.15
28.4 ± 1.3
1.7 ± 2.3
40.2 ± 1.5
6.0 ± 1.5
Numbers represent means ± one standard deviation (SD) of the mean
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Figure 1: Introduced and indigenous regions of Artocarpus heterophyllus around the world
(Modified after; Haq, 2006)
Table 3: Uses of different jackfruit parts (Swami et al., 2012; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010)
Plant part
Use
Reference
Fruit
Food: Vegetable, pickle,
chutney, jam, jelly, paste,
candies, juice, power,
confectionery
Burkill, 1997; Swami et al., 2012; Selvaraj and Pal, 1989;
Narasimham, 1990; Roy and Joshi, 1995 Haq, 2006;
Verheij and Coronel, 1992
Seed
Eaten boiled, roasted and
salted as table nuts, flour
for baking, substrate for
solid state fermentation,
animal feed
Bobbio et al., 1978; Tulyathan et al., 2002; Mukprasirt
and Sajjaanantakul, 2004; Odoemelam, 2005; Verheij and
Coronel, 1992; Babitha et al., 2006; Babitha et al., 2007
Wood
Furniture, musical
instruments, bee hives,
boats, dye
Haq, 2006; Verheij and Coronel, 1992
Latex
Varnishes, glue, caulking
for boats and buckets,
Haq, 2006;
Root
Carving and picture
framing
Leaves
Fodder for cattle and
goats, making spoon to
take rice kanji, removal
of methylene blue
Uddin et al., 2009a; Uddin et al., 2009b
Jackfruit peel
Adsorbent for the
removal of cadmium
Hameed, 2009
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Table 4: Uses of different jackfruit Lectins (Swami et al., 2012; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010)
Lectin
Study focus
Reference
Jacalin
Inhibition and activation studies on
human B and T-suppressor cells
Saxon et al., 1987; Kabir,
1998
Jacalin
Interaction with human IgA1
Hagiwara et al., 1988
α-D-Galactose specific
lectin
Crystallographic study
Basu et al., 1988
Anti-T lectin
X-ray studies
Dhanaraj et al., 1988
Jacalin
Purification of C1 inhibitor
Pilatte et al., 1989
Jacalin
Interaction with ant egg glycoprotein
Ray and Chatterjee, 1989
Jacalin
X-ray characterization
Banerjee et al., 1991;
Banerjee et al., 1991
Jacalin and artocarpin
Activation studies on B and T cells
Miranda Santos et al., 1991
Jacalin
Binding studies
Sahasrabuddhe et al., 2004
Artocarpin
Interactions with monosaccharide
Barre et al., 2004; Basu et al.,
1988
Table 5: Different vernacular names of Artocarpus heterophyllus in India (Modified after; Baliga et
al., 2011)
Language
Names
Scientific names
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.
Artocarpus brasiliensis Gomez.
Artocarpus hetrophylla Lam.
Artocarpus maxima Bianco
Artocarpus philippensis Lam.
Name in various Indian languages
Sanskrit
Panasa, Atibruhatphala, Kantaphal
Hindi
Kathal, Panas
Bengali
Kanthal
Guajarati
Phanas
Kannada
Halasu
Konkani
Phanas
Malayalam
Chakka
Tamil
Palaa
Telugu
Panasa
Table 6: Common names, uses and distribution of major Artocarpus species (Modified after;
Jagtap and Bapat, 2010)
Scientific name
Common name
Uses
Distribution
Artocarpus altilis
(Parkinson) Fosberg
Breadfruit
Hypertension, diabetes,
liver cirrhosis
Pacific, Tropical Asia,
Indonesia, Papua New
Guinea
Artocarpus chama Buch.-
Ham.
Chaplasha
-
India, Burma
Artocarpus chempeden
Spreng
Chempedak
Diarrhoea, malaria,
South-East Asia,
Indonesia
Artocarpus elasticus
Reinw. Ex Blume
-
Inflammation, dysentery,
tuberculosis
South-East Asia, West
Malaysia
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Lam.
Jackfruit
Diarrhoea, fever,
dermatitis, cough
India, South-East Asia
Artocarpus hirsutus Lam.
South India
Artocarpus odoratissimus
Blanco.
Marang, Terap
Fruits edible
Borneo, Philippines
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Table 7: Chemical composition of jackfruit (Modified after; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010)
Composition
Young fruit
Ripe fruit
Seed
Water (g)
76.2-85.2
72.0-94.0
51.0-64.5
Protein (g)
2.0-2.6
1.2-1.9
6.6-7.04
Fat (g)
0.1-0.6
01-04
0.40-0.43
Carbohydrate (g)
9.4-11.5
16.0-25.4
25.8-38.4
Fibre (g)
2.6-3.6
1.0-1.5
1.0-1.5
Total sugars (g)
-
20.6
-
Total minerals (g)
0.9
0.87-0.9
0.9-1.2
Calcium (mg)
30.0-73.2
20.0-37.0
50
Magnesium (mg)
-
27
54
Phosphorous (mg)
20.0-57.2
38.0-41.0
38.0-97.0
Potassium (mg)
287-323
191-407
246
Sodium (mg)
3.0-35.0
2.0-41.0
63.2
Iron (mg)
0.4-1.9
0.5-1.1
1.5
Vitamin A (IU)
30
175-540
10-17
Thiamine (mg)
0.05-0.15
0.03-0.09
0.25
Riboflavin (mg)
0.05-0.2
0.05-0.4
0.11-0.3
Vitamin C (mg)
12.0-14.0
7.0-10.0
11
Energy (Kj)
50-210
88-410
133-139
Figure 2: Morphological characters of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) (Modified after;
Haq, 2006)
Phytochemical Composition
The Artocarpus species contain a diversity of compounds especially phenolic compounds, flavonoids,
stilbenoids, arylbenzofurons, carotenoids, volatile acid sterols and tannins which varies depending on the
variety (Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; Baliga et al., 2011; Hakim et al., 2006; Arung et al., 2006; Chandrika et
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al., 2005; De Faria et al., 2009; Ko et al., 1998; Venkataraman, 1972; Wong et al., 1992; Maia et al.,
2004). Fructose, glucose and sucrose were the major sugars in jackfruit, while capric, myristic, lauric,
palmitic, oleic, stearic, linoleic and arachidic acids were the major fatty acids (Chowdhury et al., 1991;
Chowdhury et al., 1997; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; Rahman et al., 1999; Ong et al., 2006).
The seeds contain β-carotene, α-carotene, β-zeacarotene, α-zeacarotene and crocetin which are mostly
present in trans form (Baliga et al., 2011; Chandrika et al., 2005; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; De Faria et al.,
2009). The occurrence of Jacalin (lectin) in the jackfruit seeds was first reported in 1979 which is a
tetrameric two chain lectin molecular mass 65 KDa combining a heavy α-chain (133 amino acid) with
light β-chain (20-21 amino acid) (Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; Chatterjee et al., 1979; Young et al., 1991).
Jacalin is the major protein representing over 50% in jackfruit seeds (Kabir et al., 1993) and can bind to
human IgA (Chatterjee et al., 1979; Pereira et al., 1980; Saxon et al., 1987) and T-antigen (Sastry et al.,
1986). In addition to Jacalin, Artocarpin, a polyspecfic lectin which can react with a variety of
monosaccharide is also present in jackfruit seeds (Chowdhury et al., 1991; Barre et al., 2004). Artocarpin
is a 159 amino acid polypeptide chain which is a non glycosylated version of Jacalin, showing 52%
identity in sequences (Rosa et al., 1999; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010). The seeds have high protein than from
beef and fishes, with high carbohydrate content and 11.4% oil content which make an alternate source for
animal diet (Ajayi, 2008).
These phyto-nutrients have a wide range of health benefits especially antimicrobial, anticancer,
antihypertensive, antiulcer, antioxidant and anti-ageing properties (Swami et al., 2012; Haq, 2006; Loizzo
et al., 2010; Siritapetawee et al., 2012; Ko et al., 1998). Root has been found affective effective against
asthma, skin diseases, diarrhoea and fever (Samaddar, 1985). The presence of phyto-nutrients further
enhances the opportunities for development of value added products (Umesh et al., 2010; Jagtap and
Bapat, 2013).
Biological Activities
Antibacterial Activity
The methanolic extracts of stem, roots, bark and leaves and seeds exhibit broad spectrum antibacterial
properties against various gram positive and negative bacteria (Jagtap and Bapat, 2010). However the
butanol fractions of root bark and fruit have much promising antibacterial activity (Khan et al., 2003).
Antimalarial Activities
The flavonoids especially artonin, artocapones show antiplasmodial activity.
Anticariogenic activities
The studies on methonlic extracts of leaves posses inhibitory effect on various cariogenic bacteria (Sato et
al., 1996).
Antifungal Activities
The studies jackfruit seeds shown to inhibit growth of Fusarium moniliforme and Saccharomyces
cerevisiae (Trinade et al., 2006).
Table 8: Free sugars in soft and firm varieties of jackfruit (Modified after; Rahman et al., 1999)
Samples
Glucose
Fructose
Surcose
Inositol
Soft variety
JES
69
63
8
Trace
DES
158
104
Trace
6
CES
148
96
Trace
Trace
Firm variety
JEF
ND
-
-
-
DEF
101
159
63
36
CEF
381
302
18
18
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Figure 3: Jackfruit trees a) jackfruit with varying sizes; b) different stages of fruiting; c) tree
bearing fruits; d) fruits plucked; e) small type of jackfruit; f) jackfruit cut opened; g) jackfruit
seeds; h) opened jackfruit flakes; i) flakes unopened
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Figure 4: Major phytochemical components of jackfruit a) carotenoids; b) prenylflavones; c) sterols
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Table 9: Starch and dietary fiber content in soft and firm varieties of jackfruit (Modified after;
Rahman et al., 1999)
Samples
Starch
SDF
IDF
Total dietary
fibre
Soft variety
JES
7.8
4.5
38.6
43.4
DES
8.7
3.8
39.9
43.7
CES
9.9
4.9
42.2
47.1
Firm variety
JEF
9.0
3.5
38.9
42.5
DEF
11.1
3.3
41.7
45.0
CEF
11.1
3.5
42.6
46.0
Conclusion
Being one of the underutilized fruits in India, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. has promising leads to
further scientific researches and livelihood strategies. The tree indigenous to the Western Ghats is an
important source of nutritious food during summer season. Encouragements should be done to the
marketing as well as value added food products from this underutilized fruit tree.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are grateful for the cooperation of the management of Mar Augusthinose college for
necessary support. Technical assistance from Binoy A Mulanthra is also acknowledged.
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... Moraceae plants, including A. heterophyllus are rich sources of isoprenylated phenolic compounds, including flavonoids. Jackfruit has diverse medicinal uses especially antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, and antifungal activity 6 . ...
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Plant drugs enjoy much acclaim and worldwide acceptability even in the midst of amazing advancements in modern medicine. Current research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves an approach combining botanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological techniques. In the present study, we selected the root bark of the plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. belonging to the family Moraceae, to establish its phytochemical constituents, antioxidant property, and cytotoxic activity. Phytochemical evaluation of the total ethanolic extract (TEE) obtained showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic, flavonoids, amino acid, terpenoids, etc. The TEE was fractionated using solvents in the increasing order of polarity, i.e., petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. The antioxidant studies were conducted by DPPH and ABTS methods on chloroform extract (CE) and ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of the root bark of A. heterophyllus Lam. The extract which showed the greatest antioxidant property (EAE) was selected for cytotoxic studies using the MTT method on HL60 (Human promyelocytic leukemia) cell lines. Both the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity studies showed promising results.
... Both the seeds and the fleshy perianth tissue (often referred to as "flakes") of jackfruit are consumed as curries and boiled forms. Other parts of jackfruit trees including fruits, leaves, and bark have also been extensively used in traditional medicine due to their anti-carcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and hypoglycemic effects [8][9][10]. However, the concentration of the chemical compounds potentially varies among jackfruit varieties [8], which are commonly classified according to texture into hard and soft types [8] or colour [11,12]. ...
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Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is an ancient fruit that is widely consumed as a fresh fruit. The use of jackfruit bulbs and its parts has also been reported since ancient times for their therapeutic qualities. The beneficial physiological effects may also have preventive application in a variety of pathologies. The health benefits of jackfruit have been attributed to its wide range of physicochemical applications. This review presents an overview of the functional, medicinal, and physiological properties of this fruit.
Article
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam, commonly known as the jackfruit tree and belonging to the family Moraceae, is an exotic tree originally native to the Western Ghats of India. The fruits are of dietary use and are an important source of carbohydrate, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins. The heart wood is a very durable timber and is used in the preparation of furniture. The bark, roots, leaves, and fruit are attributed with diverse medicinal properties and are used in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine to treat a range of ailments. Preclinical studies have shown that jackfruit possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticariogenic, antifungal, antineoplastic, hypoglycemic, wound healing effects and causes a transient decrease in the sexual activity. Clinical studies have also shown that the decoction of the leaves possesses hypoglycemic effects in both healthy individuals and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Phytochemical studies have shown that jackfruit contains useful compounds like the flavonoids, sterols and prenylflavones which may have been responsible for the various pharmacological properties. The present paper reviews the nutritional value, culinary uses, the phytochemical compounds, traditional usage and validated pharmacological properties of jackfruit.