Citizenship Can Be Learned: Participatory Budgeting as a Pedagogical Process

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Citizenship is only possible insofar as what is public exists as a space of collective construction, of common good. It is the conditions of citizenship that provide the measure of democracy. As Peter Burke reminds us, “Although citizenship need not entail democracy, democracy does entail citizenship; to assert this is to claim that the value of democracy is grounded in citizenship.”1 This consideration is relevant because insofar as democracy has become an almost universally accepted value, the debates on citizenship, respectively, the difficulties of experiencing citizenship also are expanded. We have examples of these debates, in topics on radicalization and furthering of democracy, especially through a mechanism of direct citizen participation, and on the strengthening of civil society or of the nonstate public sphere.

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... It should be emphasized that educating participants and gathering information for decision-making processes are widely recognized in the literature as important goals of citizen participation in budgeting (Ebdon, Franklin, 2006). In the literature, research on the educational dimension of participatory budgeting was undertaken by Schugurensky, Myers or Streck (Schugurensky, 2006;Schugurensky, Myers, 2008;Streck, 2010) indicating that PB is an important tool for informing and activating the citizens. ...
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Annotation The aim of the paper is to diagnose the degree of involvement of representatives of the Y generation (students) in the processes of co-management at the municipal level. It was devoted among others to the area of creating a participatory budget and analysis of the scope of use by the respondents of communication instruments used by local government units in the area of public communication. The work involved desk research and direct questionnaire surveys. The study used descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, distribution analysis. The millennials' identification with their local communities is rather low-only 36% of respondents are familiar with such issues. Additionally only about 20% of respondents believe they have some influence on local issues. The percentage of people actually participating in specific activities other than local elections was very low (5 to 11%). In terms of participatory budget, only 39.42% of respondents are familiar with this form of participation. The problem is low involvement of these people in creating budget projects as only 6.09% presented their own proposals. Among people who were familiar with the notion of participatory budget most of them acquired information through social media 54.32%, posters (33.33%), friends (30.86%) and the city website (28.4%).
“Public” life once meant that vital part one’s life outside the circle of family and close friends. Connecting with strangers in an emotionally satisfying way and yet remaining aloof from them was seen as the means by which the human animal was transformed into the social – the civilized – being. And the fullest flowering of that public life was realized in the 18th Century in the great capital cities of Europe. Sennett shows how our lives today are bereft of the pleasures and reinforcements of this lost interchange with fellow citizens. He shows how, today, the stranger is a threatening figure; how silence and observation have become the only ways to experience public life, especially street life, without feeling overwhelmed ; how each person believes in the right, in public, to be left alone. And he makes clear how, because of the change in public life, private life becomes distorted as we of necessity focus more and more on ourselves, on increasingly narcissistic forms of intimacy and self-absorption. Because of this, our personalities cannot fully develop: we lack much of the ease, the spirit of play, the kind of discretion that would allow us real and pleasurable relationships with those whom we may never know intimately.
Um die Bedeutung von Kindern und Jugendlichen für die öffentliche Verwaltung, vor allem, bei der Aufstellung des Haushaltes zu verstehen, werden in dieser Abhandlung einige wichtige Punkte herausgegriffen. Zunächst werden die Gründe für die Berücksichtigung von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Themen, die vor kurzem noch als exklusiver Diskussionsgegenstand einer kleinen Gruppe von Fachleuten und Politikern waren, analysiert. Ergebnisse und Daten aus sämtlichen Erfahrungen mit Bürgerhaushalten in Brasilien werden dargestellt und untersucht, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf der Teilnahme von Kindern in der Stadt São Paulo liegt. Das Ergebnis weist darauf hin, dass für Kinder und Jugendliche eine Parallelwelt geschaffen wird, auch wenn es mit dem Argument ist, sie dadurch schützen zu wollen, das hemmt nicht nur ihre Entfaltung als Individuen und Bürger, sondern es bedeutet auch den Verlust eines Potenzials an Kreativität und Energie. Ein Potenzial das für die heutigen Gesellschaften so lebenswichtig ist, damit sie ihre Rolle überdenken und sich neu orientieren können.
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