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The Oculus Rift Film Experience: A Case Study on Understanding Films in a Head Mounted Display


Abstract and Figures

The purpose of this research was to determine the level of narrative comprehension in films when watched in a virtual reality headset (Oculus Rift). A 360-degree live-action film was created and was shown to participants after which the level of comprehension of various literary aspects as well as the feeling of distraction and enjoyment were measured using questionnaires and interviews. Revealing how increased freedom to view a movie in virtual reality has an effect on storyline understanding, provided a framework to start a discussion on whether and how to utilize virtual reality as a means for storytelling through films.
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The Oculus Rift Film Experience: A Case Study on
Understanding Films in a Head Mounted Display
Hannah Syrett, Licia Calvi, Marnix van Gisbergen
Academy for Digital Entertainment, NHTV University of Applied Sciences, Breda,
The Netherlands
{calvi.l, gisbergen.m},
The purpose of this research was to determine the level of narrative
comprehension in films when watched in a virtual reality headset (Oculus Rift).
A 360-degree live-action film was created and was shown to participants after
which the level of comprehension of various literary aspects as well as the
feeling of distraction and enjoyment were measured using questionnaires and
interviews. Revealing how increased freedom to view a movie in virtual reality
has an effect on storyline understanding, provided a framework to start a
discussion on whether and how to utilize virtual reality as a means for
storytelling through films
Oculus Rift, virtual reality, film, storytelling, narrative
1 Introduction
Films provide a brief escape from reality. They provide
distraction, add action,
love and fear and in doing so change a
person’s mood [1]. Films absorb
viewers in a storyline in which case viewers might forget time and place. In recent
years advanced virtual reality technologies have been developed that might
enhance a film experience, shifting feelings from absorption to immersion.
Immersion can be described as the “psychological state characterized by
perceiving oneself
to be enveloped by, included in, and interacting with an
environment that provides a continuous stream of stimuli” [2]. Virtual reality
(from here on abbreviated as VR) devices, which made use of head-mounted
displays, were created as early as the nineteen fifties. A device created by
Sutherland and Sproull in 1968, which made use of a stereoscopic display and a
mechanical tracking system, is considered as one of the first head-mounted VR
devices [3]. However recent progresses related to display improvements,
positional tracking possibilities, new interaction options, audio improvements
(such as built-in interactive 3D audio) and viewer comfort (lower weight, better
ergonomics) increased the attention for using VR as a means to experience a film.
A successful example of a head-mounted VR device is the Oculus
(OR). The OR was initially created for 3D gaming in 2012 and the company
behind OR achieved global success, which is demonstrated in the $10 million deal
acquired via crowdfunding campaigns and the $2 billion acquisition deal with
Facebook in March 2014. The success is related to being the first to introduce a
relative low cost and technological advanced head-mounted (large field of view)
display that created true feelings of immersion without feeling nauseous [4]
Since the introduction of VR and the OR there are ‘believers’ that are looking
for possibilities to use VR for films, wanting to utilize the expected advantages of
an increased experience. There are however also ‘challengers’ that prefer
possibilities in ‘traditional media’, such as cinema, that provide more control over
the narrative. Heilig, who created the famous VR device ‘Sensorama’ in 1962,
already described in his paper “The cinema of the future” (1955) how film critics
were sceptical about new 3-D and other VR related developments, as it could
have a negative effect on story perception [5]. The same discussion continues
today, see for instance online articles by Conditt (2016) and Franklinn-Wallis
(2016), leading to the question whether the freedom to look around in a 360-
degree virtual world increases a film experience or decreases the experience due
to a lack of control and comprehension of how a story unfolds [6] and [7]
Despite criticism and scepticism, the OR has gained popularity as a medium
for film since the Sundance Film Festival in 2012 [8]. Films for the OR might
have started small but quickly received a lot of attention. An important
development was the establishment of the new Oculus company called
Studio’. The main goal of this company is to build truly immersive cinematic
experiences and is lead among others by a former Pixar director [4]. The growing
interest in VR films is also demonstrated in new investments, such as the $66
million investment in VR start-up Jaunt by among others The Walt Disney
Company. Other examples that reveal a rising attention for VR as a medium
for film, relate to an increase in available content (see for instance new VR
films shown at the 2016 Sundance film Festival) and available channels that
release new VR channels (such as YouTube) or are present in VR
environments (such as Netflix and Hulu).
Many small independent companies and enthusiasts came up with an
idea for
an OR film. More often tips and tricks are shared on how to create a VR movie
[9][10]. However a mere three years ago ‘pioneers’ had no guidelines concerning
how to make a film that could engage as well as immerse viewers in VR without
losing grip of the story and needed to learn by doing [11]. In the Netherlands the
Creative Lab at the NHTV University of Applied Sciences, created one of the
first short
films for the Oculus Rift called ‘Dyskinetic’. The film allowed the
viewer to experience being a helpless coma patient while your family is
discussing whether or not they should end your life [12]. The Media
Amsterdam, together with the company WeMakeVr, created a live-action movie,
which was one of the first interactive films in the Netherlands [13]. Both films
were well received. However as the OR (DK1) was only accessible for
developers, audience reach was low. The first OC for consumers, with many
improvements, however has recently been released (March 28th) which will open
doors to a larger audience and will stimulate the creation of more VR films [8].
Creating a story based immersive film in VR is not an easy-to-reach goal and
often confusion arises whether content should be regarded as a film or more as
a different kind of experience. A horror film created by The Sid Lee Collective
for example did allow viewers to “experience a 360-degree nightmare”. This film
however lacks a storyline and might therefore be perceived not as a ‘film’ but
an experience.
Films in the OR seem to provide a different viewing experience compared to
traditional film viewing. Using the OR seems to reduce the possibilities a director
has to guide the audience. It is the viewer who seems in charge of deciding
what to look at, where to look and for how long. For this reason, traditional
perceptions of and rules for filmmaking cannot simply be
applied when using
VR technologies. As VR films are relatively new, little research is available on
the subject. Hence the need to study what aspects of a film’s
storyline could be
understood without enforcing the director’s vision on the viewers by making use
of traditional film techniques such as restricting the amount of freedom to look in
a virtual reality environment.
The objective of this research is to understand the viewers’ experience of a VR
film in terms of immersion and comprehension and in how far these effects
determined by the storytelling techniques adopted. In particular, we
focused on the
storyline to determine what aspects of a film’s storyline can be
comprehended in VR and whether viewers find it pleasurable to watch a film in a
head mounted display such as the OR. In doing so we provide new insights to be
used to answer the question whether or not it is possible to create a story that can
easily be comprehended in virtual reality while generating an immersive
experience. Insights that will enable further development ideas on how to create a
movie in VR and in doing so stimulate future endeavours in VR filmmaking. In
order to study the viewers’ experience and understanding of an OR film, a film
had to be created that could serve as a case study. A film called ‘The Prism’ (see
Section 4.3 for a full description) was created specifically for this research and
was one of the first of its kind. This film was a detective themed live-action
film shot in 360-degrees. The viewer was part of the story having the actors
speaking to them and looking at them for guidance, however as this was not an
interactive film the viewer could not interact with the actors. The film can be
viewed via YouTube (
In the next sections we provide a brief outline concerning the challenges of
creating a VR film in connection to film comprehension challenges. Next, we
discuss how the research was conducted and provide the research results.
Finally, we discuss future research recommendations and avenues for creating
films in VR.
2 Oculus Rift Filmmaking
Throughout the years, many proposals have been created on how on screen data
is converted into a story world and how viewers perceive this. Scholars have
identified the most important elements in a film as being script, setting,
technology, performance, conflicts, camera shots, style, plot and narration, which
combined can be described as the literary aspects of a film [14]. In traditional
filmmaking, directors function as narrators and use various techniques to tell the
story on screen. They for example use shot sequences, editing and unify
functional diegetic time and space to guide the audience’s attention [15]. The
abovementioned techniques however are hard to apply to VR films, as they might
break that feeling of immersion [9]. When watching a VR film the viewer needs
to feel like being part of the film. By editing the film and changing shot
sequences as in traditional filmmaking, the viewer could be ripped out of the
current situation and forced to acclimatize themselves to a new surrounding or a
new angle which could be confusing as well as disturbing. In a certain sense, the
viewer takes over the role of the director within a VR film, as they are able to
look around and can determine what they want to look at, when they want to look
at it and how (often) they want to look at it. This means they can direct their own
attention, instead of having particular items, feelings or people being focused on
for them. This provides the viewer with an extra sense of freedom. However it is
still unclear whether this freedom has a positive or negative result on the viewing
experience. Without having the certainty of the viewer’s attention for objects,
actors or emotions, important parts of the film can for instance be missed,
resulting in a ‘reduced experience’. Style, which represents the director’s vision
and attitude towards the film, is also limited in a VR film. Directors see the style
of a film as a way to add value to it by giving the film their own distinct
signature through the use of camera shots and editing. But in VR films this is for
a large part absent due to the primacy of the viewer. Technical aspects of filming
need to be given considerable attention when making a film for the VR. Not only
because of the viewer freedom but also because a 360-degrees view means that
there is no place to hide. However, script, plot and narration are aspects from
traditional filmmaking that should and can still be taken into account when
creating a VR film. The assumption behind this is that viewing a film in VR
creates a better experience when storyline, or any of the aforementioned narrative
elements, are taken into account and kept intact as much as possible. Therefore,
comprehension of the narrative elements and storyline is taken as the key focus
of the current study when watching a VR film.
3 Method
We were interested in the viewer’s understanding of a film when watched in the
Oculus Rift (OR). The focus was on the literary aspects of a film, in particular
the aspects of characterization, plot and mood. Our hypothesis was that the
viewers would be able to recognize and understand the literary aspects of a VR
film, despite the lack of story control due to more freedom and possibilities in
how to view the film content. The study took place in April 2015 at two different
locations. A survey was conducted at the Go Short International Short Film
Festival in Nijmegen (Fig. 1). A qualitative research by means of face-to-face
interviews was conducted at the NHTV University of Applied Sciences in Breda.
The literary aspects were examined in the survey as well as the interviews.
Whereas the survey identified what literary aspects where understood, the
interviews gave an indication to why these aspects were (not) understood. In both
locations participants viewed the film while sitting at a table, which mirrored the
seating situation in the film (see Section 3.3). An Oculus Rift Development Kid 2
was placed on their head with a Sennheiser HD202 over-ear headphone. The film
played on a Micro-Star International (MSI®) Gaming Series laptop that ran on
Windows 8.
Fig. 1.
Participants viewing the film at the Go Short International Film Festival
At the Go Short Film Festival, participants were given a multiple-choice
questionnaire after they watched the film. The interviews were conducted a week later
with a different group of participants. Interviews were conducted a few minutes after
viewing the movie.
3.1 Participants
The Oculus Rift is not advised for children under the age of 13 or for any adults who
suffer with heart conditions or epilepsy [8]. Sixty-three participants were recruited via
convenience sampling and all matched the target group of the film and had never seen
the movie before. Thirty-three participants were female, with two thirds of the sample
being between the ages of 18-30 years old. All participants were inexperienced VR
users. Almost 70% of the participants had never used a VR device before. Participants
that already used a VR device had only experienced this once with an older version of
the OR. This high number of inexperienced users was expected because of the
newness of the product; no consumer edition of the OR was available and the
Development Kit 2 had just been released (in July 2014).
Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with a separate group of
participants between 18-30 years old (five males and four females). After the ninth
interview it became apparent that conducting more interviews would not provide the
research with any new information and therefore the amount of interviews was
considered sufficient. Seven participants had no experience with VR. The remaining
participant used the OR a few times before this study was conducted.
3.2 Measurements
A questionnaire was used to understand the participants’ comprehension of the
storyline. The questionnaire mainly consisted out of five-point Likert scale questions
with a few nominal questions to allow participants to choose the answer ‘other’ and to
answer freely. Frequency of distribution was used to determine the overall level of
agreement for the descriptive statistics. Themes and patterns were sought throughout
the interviews to bring more meaning to the information as well as to explain and
support the quantitative data. In order to understand plot comprehension,
characterization and mood as specific narrative elements in an OR film, we adopted
methods used for traditional film analysis.
Story comprehension.
Several studies have been conducted that measured the
comprehension of film narratives and images all having a different focus. Bordwell
discussed measurements of narration in fiction film [16], Turtola focused on the
literary, theatrical and cinematic approaches within drama comprehension [17] and
Branigan discussed narrative comprehension and film in general [14]. A widely
accepted way to measure the level of plot comprehension in films is the three-R scale
[18]. The three R’s are used as a direct method to access memory, as they measure
Recognition, Recall and Reconstruction, with the latter sometimes being replaced by
Recounting [19]. Recognition is the quicker and simpler way to access information in
the memory, as you can compare information provided now with
information you
learnt in the past, but all three are important [20]. The three R’s combined determine
the level of comprehension the viewers had of that particular film [21]. The questions
addressing recognition of the storyline are multiple-choice questions in which the
participant can read more options and determine which answer they recognize to be
correct for the film they watched. For recall and recognition, open questions were used
to allow participants to recreate the story in their mind on their own with the
information they remember (not recognize). This type of questions allowed
participants to recall the main storyline of the film and reconstruct all surrounding
parts to make up the whole story. By having the participants recognize, recall and
reconstruct the storyline after watching the film in the OR, comprehension of the
storyline could be assessed.
Characterization comprehension. Whereas the three R’s are specifically suited for plot
analysis and comprehension, there is no agreed upon scale to distinctively measure
how viewers understand characterization in a film. Characterization is described as a
way for the writer to reveal the personality of a character. The mnemonic device of
STEAL (Table 1) is frequently used to explore characterization in a film as it includes
all of the aspects of indirect characterization [22].
Table 1. Mnemonic device of STEAL [22].
These aspects of STEAL can be applied to VR film as they rely on the film’s storyline
and not on the technology showing the film.
Mood measurements
Finally, to determine the mood of the film, a mood measure
grid was used which was inspired by Russell’s cognitive structure of affect [23].
Russell’s cognitive structure of affect summarizes representations of affect covering
the level of pleasure-displeasure and those of arousal-sleep. Different moods from
each part of this structure were used to describe the feelings of mood experienced by
the participants when watching the OR film.
Interview topics. The approach used for the mixed method was connecting data,
which is when a dataset is analysed and then used to inform the subsequent data
collection [24]. Firstly, the quantitative data was analysed, which gave an indication
as to which topic needed a higher level of understanding. These topics were then used
to create the questions for the qualitative data. Participants were asked to reconstruct
the storyline. The interviews allowed the participants to go back and forth through the
film’s storyline, recalling the overall storyline in order to be able to answer elaborately
[14]. The participants were given neutral questions such as “What can you tell me
about the characters in the film?” which were formulated in such way to not influence
or persuade the interviewee [25]. By not mentioning a specific character it was up to
the participant to recall the characters they saw in the film and reconstruct the story
surrounding that character.
Frequency of distribution was used to determine the overall level of agreement for
the descriptive statistics. Themes and patterns were sought throughout the interviews
to bring more meaning to the information as well as to explain and support the
quantitative data.
3.3 Material
The film that was created for the research was called ‘The Prism’ (Fig. 2). The film
was created to entertain as well as to make it possible to measure comprehension of
specific literary aspects of the film. The film was shot with four Canon 5D cameras,
on which fish eye lenses were attached allowing for a full 360-degree coverage. The
film lasted 7 minutes in which the viewer was given numerous cues about why they
were sitting in the interrogation room and what information about the crime to
investigate was known.
The story was about a police interrogation. The viewer (participant) experienced
the film from the perspective (viewpoint) of the police officer (the interrogator) in the
storyline and was being spoken to by police officer ‘Winters’ and by the interrogatee
‘Emma Garner’. The story was set in an interrogation room with a one-way mirror
with the police officer (the viewer) as well as the interrogatee sitting at a table.
Information was spread out on the table in front of the police officer to give the viewer
more clues about the storyline.
Fig. 2.
Screenshot from ‘The Prism’ showing the point-of view of the viewer
The characters Emma Garner and a second officer were present in the room and
were speaking to the viewer as if the viewer was the other interrogator. Additionally,
a second officer (Bell), who was sitting behind the one-way mirror and therefore not
visible to the viewer, spoke to officer Winters and the viewer via a headpiece and in
doing so provided the viewer with more information on the case. The two-sided
conversation, headset information and visual clues allowed the viewer to understand
the literary aspects.
4 Results
The usage of the newest OR version helped to create a positive experience: 94% of the
participants and almost all interviewees did not suffer with any health problems whilst
watching the film. For those that had some complaints, this was related to dizziness or
eyestrain problems. The film was perceived positively with just under 90% admitting
to enjoying watching a film in the Oculus Rift and over 90% of both samples agreeing
to expecting a future for films in head mounted displays. Over 60% of the participants
felt that being able to look around during a film felt like a distraction, however the
interviews made clear that the feeling of distraction was also due to the newness of the
product / experience. Many participants mentioned that as this was their first
encounter with the Oculus Rift they were more interested in the features of the display
than in what was actually being shown. In addition only a weak correlation was found
(r =-0.29) for the enjoyment of watching the OR between first-time users and users
who had used the Oculus Rift before. Both equally enjoyed the experience. The
interviews revealed that even for the more experienced users VR still felt new
(especially the DK2) and that they never experienced a film in VR before.
Characterization of the interviewee Emma Garner and officer Winters. Descriptive
statistics were used in the questionnaire relative to the questions formulated by using
the mnemonic device of STEAL. When watching the film in the Oculus Rift the
participants frequently mentioned body language and the fact that they were evidently
reading the body language of the people in their surroundings. They also mentioned
the feeling of empathy towards the characters as the participants felt part of the story
with the characters pleading for their help. Finally, the feeling of intimidation
bestowed upon by the police officers as he circled around the participants and got in
their personal space was also frequently mentioned, a fact that is not possible with
regular film.
More than 60% of the participants correctly acknowledged that the police officer
was not experienced nor in charge of the interrogation and more than 80% correctly
read Emma Garner’s body language and tone of voice as saying she was insecure and
losing control.
Plot. Simple nominal questions were used to confirm whether the participants could
recognize and recall factors of the film’s storyline. The distribution of responses were
analysed showing that for each statement over 65% of the participants selected the
correct answer, therefore confirming they understood the plot of the story. One of the
facts mentioned on numerous occasions in the film was the brother and sister
relationship between the interviewee and the suspect. However, surprisingly, 14%
claimed to have no clue about this relationship proving that the Oculus Rift did
distract some participants a lot more than others. Readable facts placed on the table in
front of the participant were noted by nearly all. However, they could not be read
easily, limiting the amount of small details possible for films. The participants of both
the questionnaires and interviews confirmed that they received most information from
audible clues. Overall the participants comprehended the film’s plot correctly.
However some of the smaller details were overlooked or overheard. The participants
were able to recall and reconstruct the film’s plot when asked about what happened.
They also experienced no difficulties in describing what happened prior to the
beginning of the film moving back and forth through the film’s story [14].
Conflict. Most participants understood the conflicts in the film: 81% of the
participants understood that the internal struggle of betrayal and protection was a
reoccurring theme. Participants inferred these themes mainly using visible cues
‘reading’ the interaction between the police officer and the interviewee as well as the
internal struggle displayed within the characters.
Setting and mood. Being fully immersed in the setting helped the participant feel part
of the film. The feeling of tenseness was recorded by 70% of the participants. They
mentioned in the interviews that this feeling of tenseness was evoked by the storyline
and by the aggression the police officer displayed. Being surrounded in an
interrogation environment did contribute to the storyline comprehension but did not
seem to increase feelings or mood experiences.
Distracting elements. Besides the literary aspects there were a few noticeable
distracting elements, which were frequently mentioned throughout the interviews.
Especially the unexpected immersion and point of view was a reoccurring topic in the
interviews. Many participants mentioned they felt being part of the film and yet they
also mentioned that they felt slightly confused with the point of view of this film,
which differed from a regular film. Participants did not expect and are not used to
being part of the story in a film, let alone that the characters acknowledge the
presence of the viewer. Or as one participant explained: “It took me a while to
understand that I was part of the story”. Especially as a character was staring at the
character as if waiting for a response, viewers missed the option to interact as if in a
game: “It made me feel kind of stupid”. This increased the distraction and therefore
decreased story comprehension.
5 Discussion and Conclusion
The research showed that viewers liked the experience of a VR film. Although the key
features of a VR device do distract the viewer, the overall story comprehension
remains intact. When watching a film in the OR participants felt distracted by the
freedom the device provided. Being able to look around during the film, even when a
character was looking directly at or talking to them was a different viewing experience
and added a new feature to film viewing. As such the research showed that important
factors of a storyline are missed and this must be taken into account when creating a
story in VR.
Although the results make clear that it is a challenge for a director to guide
viewers’ attention in VR, the difficulty to do so is also related to the unexpected point
of view and the newness of the medium. The newness factor created a wow feeling
that stimulated the viewing behaviour, which might not reflect the viewing behaviour
when more VR movies have been seen. The participants were trying to experience all
of the features possible in the OR and were less interested in following the actual
storyline. It is to be expected that when the device becomes more accessible the
newness will wear off and the viewers will pay more attention to the content instead
of the technology and environment context. Once viewers become more experienced
in viewing films in VR, they might better understand the intention of a director and
feel less inclined to test all movement possibilities. That could also result in viewers
noticing more and thus following cues given by the director such as what and where to
look at in a specific moment. Even so, increased viewing experience is still no
guarantee that a viewer will be looking in the direction the director wishes. The
challenge remains to produce a story that fits into the VR world created and takes into
account the (higher) need for an experience.
However even though the experience was new and exciting and participants wanted
to test what was possible, this did not negatively affect the level of comprehension of
the film. The majority of the participants had not been in contact with the OR before,
but surprisingly they were still able to comprehend the film’s storyline even though
they had to get used to the technology whilst watching the film. The participants were
able to recognize the characterization and conflict within the film; as well as being
able to easily recall factors, which supported their level of comprehension of these
aspects [19].
There were several limitations in this research mainly due to the lack of previous
research. For this reason research conducted on general films had to be used. However
due to the large differences in regular films and 360-degree OR films, not all research
could simply be adopted. Due to the lack of pre-existing research it was also difficult
to find supporting data. The most challenging part of this research however was the
creation of a 360-degree film. Without any guidelines and with timing issues and
restrictions, some unexpected effects were stimulated, among which the point-of-view
used that made viewers want to interact with the characters as if being in a game.
However, overall the results provided positive insights into films for the OR and
indications on how to achieve better results, which is very insightful for future
research. Elements, which were not comprehended as much, were mood and setting. It
became apparent in the interviews that these elements were not felt sufficiently as they
received insufficient attention from the filmmakers. The room was extremely bare and
did not project any feeling to the participants. The participants felt as if they were in
the room, however there was nothing in the room to give them a certain feeling or
mood, which a more exciting genre could have made better use of.
A genre that relies heavily on mood and that could profit from the OR is horror as
the genre tries to provoke the feeling of tenseness and scariness in viewers. Especially
the use of darkness could benefit in the horror genre as the OR allows for a viewer to
look around and search for what might scare them. The question of what happened
next in ‘the Prism’ arose by numerous participants, fuelling their desire to know more,
however this desire was only limited. Reason being that the detective genre and
storyline lacked tension and an attractive setting to get the viewers excited.
Frequently mentioned in the interviews as well as in personal conversations was the
need for more. Participants wanted to interact with their surroundings, picking up
items, moving and speaking to the characters, thus showing a preference towards
interactive films over non-interactive films for the OR.
More research should be conducted on comprehension of a storyline within the
Oculus Rift. The results from this study provided insights into acquiring more adept
results from a more detailed and elaborate survey. Films of different genres should be
examined and results compared to this current research to provide more insightful
information. The film we studied was perceived as very immersive. However any
technical issue, such as small editing errors or little glitches would break this feeling
of immersion as it would remind the viewer that it was not a real-life experience. It is
therefore of high importance that when creating a film for the OR, it is technically of a
high quality to minimize distractions and maximize the feeling of immersion.
This research was not about whether VR is a better means than traditional cinema
to create a film. With this research we wanted to see whether a film experience could
be created that takes into account possible benefits of a more immersed experience as
well as possible drawbacks of a decreased comprehension due to less control.
Although hard to conclude based on one research using one movie (genre), that has
not been optimally created for VR, the results seem to indicate that it is possible to tell
stories in VR by means of a film. As such we tend to join the ambassadors and
advocate VR to be used for films. VR devices such as the Oculus Rift offer a lot of
potential for the film industry by creating new viewing experiences.
Acknowledgements. We would like to thank the Creative Lab team for providing the
facilities to create this movie as well as Anneliene van den Boom for the production of
the movie.
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... The ability of a sudden noise or bright light to direct one's attention in a virtual world is often used as a measure of the immersive qualities and attention control of extended reality materials (Cummings & Bailenson, 2016). Syrett et al. (2016) and Van Damme et al. (2019) reported empirical data addressing the narrative and watching qualities of 360-degree and VR entertainment. They examined viewers' sense of participation while watching a narrow film with a Virtual reality headset and a 360º news item, accordingly. ...
... These two experiments indicated that when participants were exposed to movingimage stimuli (a VR film and a 360-degree news report), they developed strong emotional attachments to the story's protagonists. The experiment by Syrett et al. (2016) only shows that, on average, their audience members comprehended the story and had an authentic experience despite the distracting novelty because there was no control group (that would allow comparisons to other types of screening technology or material). The experiment by Syrett et al. (2016) only shows that, on average, their audience members comprehended the story and had an authentic experience despite the distracting novelty because there was no control group (that would allow comparisons to other types of screening technology or material). ...
... The experiment by Syrett et al. (2016) only shows that, on average, their audience members comprehended the story and had an authentic experience despite the distracting novelty because there was no control group (that would allow comparisons to other types of screening technology or material). The experiment by Syrett et al. (2016) only shows that, on average, their audience members comprehended the story and had an authentic experience despite the distracting novelty because there was no control group (that would allow comparisons to other types of screening technology or material). Participants reported a higher a sense of faithfulness and presence while seeing the film through the cardboard viewer or OR. ...
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Cinema Studies: Different Perspectives is essential reading for anyone interested in cinema discipline. The singular aim of this edited book of scholarly text is to stimulate and engage readers in the fast-changing, complex, and increasingly interdisciplinary nature of cinema studies, and to serve as a catalyst for future intellectual, academic, and professional-driven research agendas. It is believed that the integration of cinema studies with other disciplines will undoubtedly contribute to the development of the cinema field both in practice and in theory. Therefore, each chapter of this book, which consists of 9 chapters, focuses on a sub-discipline such as advertising, new media, journalism, philosophy, technology, politics, and tourism. Each chapter concentrates on specific facets of cinema studies with different sub-disciplines by offering valuable insights for industry professionals, academicians, and students who want to excel in important aspects of cinema in the movie industry. A summary of the chapters included in this timely book is discussed below. Chapter 1, by Semire Ruken Öztürk and Ali Karadoğan, provides a comprehensive literature analysis of cinema censorship evaluations in Turkey between 1985 and 1987. The films made in this period were analyzed under ten themes. These are sexuality; distorted image; reasons related to security forces; bad language; reasons for the title of the film; political reasons, other states, nations, or Atatürk; the Turkish flag; father, family, traditions, customs; drugs, suicide; and newspapers. Chapter 2, by Doğa Çöl, explores the possibility of Plato’s diegesis through the moving image. This chapter mainly aims to question the possibility of a purely diegetic film and determines the significance of inquiring about such a work. For this, the author stresses understanding what Plato thinks of poetry in general, especially the difference between diegetic and mimetic poetry. Then the author stresses defining the film and comparing it with Plato’s diegesis and see if they are compatible. Consequently, the author questions whether the naming of a concept or, in this case, an artwork is valuable. Chapter 3, by Burak Turten, determines audience acceptance of virtual reality (VR) films by analyzing the perceived benefits and risks based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) with thematic analysis. More specifically, it first provides the definition of virtual reality and then discusses its benefits and risks based on TAM for cinema audiences by providing examples from virtual reality in the cinema industry. Chapter 4, by Gülsüm Çalışır and Armağan Bayrak, focuses on streaming platforms as a new generation of broadcasting. It mainly examines to answer why audiences prefer new generation streaming platforms and how ad-free content affects the popularity of these platforms. The authors stress the fact that these platforms offer more variety than traditional broadcast platforms, including local and global content, and direct the consumption habits of the audiences. Chapter 5, by Kürşad Gölgeli, concentrates on the evolution of advertising in interactive movies and video games. It mainly examines current and potential changes in the relationship between advertising, movies, and video games. In this context, it evaluates the role of new media, interaction in movies and video games, marketing innovations, and advertising in the digital world. Chapter 6, by Ersin Diker and Şeyma Kara, explores cinema advertisement and assesses the significance and evaluations of cinema advertisement. More specifically, the chapter examines how movie-going practices of cinema audiences in Turkey and how audience attitudes towards cinema advertisements differ in terms of some socio-demographic variables. Chapter 7, by Ayşegül Çilingir and Nilay Akgün Akan, finds out the advertisement reflections of animated movies. It mainly aims to explore to what extent the surfaces and contents in the animated films are reflected in the ads within a specified period and to determine how the features that co-exist in the animation film and ad are created with the coding scale used. Chapter 8, by Ahmet Biçer and Kadir Macit, mainly focuses on how journalism is represented in cinema. More specifically, this chapter analyzes the discourses produced about journalism in the context of criticism-evaluation-themed "Journalism in Cinema" in the November 2021 issue of Altyazı. In line with its subject and objective, the study briefly covers the literature and discussions on Journalism in Cinema and Cinema Magazines under different headings. Chapter 9, by Aysegül Acar, examines the topic of film-induced tourism, the benefits, and disadvantages of film-induced tourism for the destination, and film-induced tourism products, together with the future directions of film-induced tourism in the field. The chapter offers suggestions to local governments and the film and tourism industry on how filmmaking can create new attractions for a destination. I would like to thank Karabük University and Northern Arizona University for giving me the opportunity to contribute to the development of the cinema discipline. I especially thank Dr. Frederick DeMicco, who has created conducive and stimulating scholarly environments. I am grateful to Dr. Muhittin Cavusoglu who compiled the index, for assistance. I also wish to record his enormous gratitude to Dr. Ayşegül Acar who has worked tirelessly on this project, for her generous support, patience, and assistance throughout the process. In conclusion, I would also like to thank all authors who contributed to the production of this essential and timely book. I believe the chapters included in this book offer useful and important information for researchers, students, and practitioners in the context of cinema and related disciplines. Burak Turten
... The second section, memory characteristics (ten items), recorded recollection vividness, emotional and physical reactions when recalling the movie, memory perspective (first-or third-person), and the structural comprehension of the narrative (Berntsen & Rubin, 2006;Qin, Rau, & Salvendy, 2009). The third section measured recollection accuracy (Syrett, Calvi, & van Gisbergen, 2016;Szita & Rooney, 2021): participants were given twelve statements from the movie to determine whether they were true or false. ...
... The corpus of these studies provides design and storytelling principles (Dooley, 2017;Rothe and Hußmann, 2018), evaluation methods (Bala et al., 2017;Reyes, 2018), as well as conclusions regarding viewing experiences. For instance, Syrett et al. (2016) explored patterns of comprehension and engagement with a short feature film watched using an Oculus Rift VR headset. ...
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Virtual reality cinemas offer computer-generated screening environments that resemble physical-world movie theaters for avatar-based viewers. Reflecting on virtual spectatorship in the context of social isolation, the present study investigates whether VR cinemas could provide an alternative for collective movie watching and whether they could facilitate an engaging experience similar to other, physical-world co-viewing environments. To measure these effects, we designed a behavioral experiment in which participants watched a feature film sequence either in VR or a physical screening room in the presence or absence of viewing companions. After viewing, participants’ experiences—including emotional engagement, narrative empathy, presence, social experiences, and physical and mental well-being—were recorded using survey methods. We observed that VR viewing can produce an equally enjoyable film experience, as well as similar levels of emotional engagement and narrative empathy, while it leads to increased comprehension of characters’ feelings and sense of narrative engagement. In addition, social viewing may mean less engagement and more distractions depending on the screening environment. We also found that even though previous virtual reality exposure negatively correlates with comfort and well-being during viewing, early adopters of technology and VR supporters are more likely to have an enjoyable and engaging film experience.
... In immersive storytelling viewers have autonomy to explore the space and to naturally frame the areas of the sphere they want to focus on. The creators' concern with how to direct viewer's attention has been a central issue in academic research (Rothe et al. 2018;Gödde et al. 2018;Fearghail et al. 2018;Gruenefeld et al. 2018;Dooley 2017;Mateer 2017;Lin et al. 2017;Sheikh et al. 2016;Syrett et al. 2016;Nielsen et al. 2016). Following this fashion, researchers have also used gaze/eye tracking to identify how users explore the visual story world (Bala et al. 2018;Bender 2018;David et al. 2018;Bala et al. 2017;Löwe et al. 2017;Bala et al. 2016). ...
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In the past ten years, audiovisual creators have been working on the development of narrative experiences for extended reality (XR) technologies, especially virtual reality (VR). The evolution of this practice has led to the creation of a technical language and processes. The transfer of knowledge from cinematography and videography has been the basis for the creative practice of “immersive narratives,” very often carrying with it jargon and practices that do not fit entirely with XR’s spatial nature. In this essay, I ref lect on whether we are still writing for a screen or writing for space from a practitioner’s perspective. Such a change of perspective starts with the recognition of the perceptual sphere and how to compose scenes in it. In this regard, a review of storyboarding for VR, followed by my own experience in creating an interactive VR movie, allowed me to ref lect on the concept of framing, camera positions, and authorial intentions. Finally, I argue that we can move from screenwriting to space-writing in relation to the technologies and immersive power of XR.
With the increase of Virtual Reality (VR), the importance of advertising within VR has become more relevant. However, it is unclear whether advertising strategies used in traditional media also work in VR. This study is focused on openness in advertisements, an advertisement strategy that refers to the degree of guidance towards the intended message. More open means less guidance and is often used to increase attention and attitude. However, open ads have not been researched in VR before. In this study, VR-advertisements were created and tested that differ in openness. An experiment with 87 participants revealed new ways of creating openness based on positioning and timing of anchoring cues. Moreover, the results revealed a negative effect of openness on interpretation, consistent with findings in studies using traditional media. Unexpectedly, openness in VR-advertisements did not influence (ad and brand) attitude, possibly due to the newness-effect causing high appreciation for ads in VR.
The growth of migrants and refugees puts pressure on the building of temporary settlements. Most are designed based on functional aspects, especially during Covid crisis. Emotional well-being connected to the notion of home is missing, impeding an inclusive community. Being There is a VR-experience of migration spaces developed through participatory-design approaches centred around needs connected to home. Thematic analysis based on 28 interviews with Latin-American migrant/refugee women and volunteers, revealed the meaning of home, based on: culture, temporary transition, togetherness, and journey. The insights were used to create the VR animations (of the journey), the ideal temporary space, the interactions (with migrant voice-overs) and Volumetric-Captured character scenarios. It revealed the importance and possibilities to translate notions of home into VR-experiences to raise empathy and awareness for the importance of designing settlements regarding sense of home and shows how VR helps architects to understand, design and communicate temporary spaces.
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An analysis of the underlying structure of simple stories is presented. It is claimed that this type of representation of stories is used to form schemata which guide encoding and retrieval. A type of tree structure containing basic units and their connections was found to be adequate to describe the structure of both single and multi-episode stories. The representation is outlined in the form of a grammar, consisting of rewrite rules defining the units and their relationships. Some transformational rules mapping underlying and surface structures are discussed. The adequacy of the analysis is first tested against Bartlett's protocols of “The War of the Ghosts.” Then a developmental study of recall is presented. It is concluded that both children and adults are sensitive to the structure of stories, although some differences were found. Finally, it is suggested that the schemata used to guide encoding and recall are related but not identical and that retrieval is dependent on the schemata operative at the time of recall.
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Factor-analytic evidence has led most psychologists to describe affect as a set of dimensions, such as displeasure, distress, depression, excitement, and so on, with each dimension varying independently of the others. However, there is other evidence that rather than being independent, these affective dimensions are interrelated in a highly systematic fashion. The evidence suggests that these interrelationships can be represented by a spatial model in which affective concepts fall in a circle in the following order: pleasure (0), excitement (45), arousal (90), distress (135), displeasure (180), depression (225), sleepiness (270), and relaxation (315). This model was offered both as a way psychologists can represent the structure of affective experience, as assessed through self-report, and as a representation of the cognitive structure that laymen utilize in conceptualizing affect. Supportive evidence was obtained by scaling 28 emotion-denoting adjectives in 4 different ways: R. T. Ross's (1938) technique for a circular ordering of variables, a multidimensional scaling procedure based on perceived similarity among the terms, a unidimensional scaling on hypothesized pleasure–displeasure and degree-of-arousal dimensions, and a principal-components analysis of 343 Ss' self-reports of their current affective states. (70 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The quality of reading comprehension test items may be determined, in part, by computing an index that indicates the extent to which correct answers to such items can be identified in the absence of the reading passages to which they refer. Data obtained in this study indicate that such an index can be determined with an adequate degree of reliability. The data also are used to illustrate how the strengths and weaknesses of particular items may be determined. Procedures that have been used to varying degrees in the past for producing reading comprehension items of high quality are discussed./// [French] Il est possible d'évaluer en partie la qualité des éléments des tests de compréhension de lecture par l'élaboration d'un index qui indique dans quelle mesure les réponses correctes à ces éléments peuvent être identifiées en l'absence des passages de lecture auxquels elles correspondent. Les résultats obtenus dans la présente étude indiquent qu'un tel index peut être obtenu avec un degré satisfaisant de précision. Ces résultats servent également à illustrer comment on peut déterminer la valeur ou la faiblesse de certains éléments. Examine les procédés qui ont été utilisés à divers degrés afin de produire des éléments de compréhension de lecture de grande qualité./// [Spanish] La calidad de los items en las pruebas de comprensión en la lectura puede ser determinada, en parte, al computar un índice que indique el grado al cual las respuestas correctas a tales items pueden ser identificadas en la ausencia de los pasajes de lectura a los cuales los items se refieren. Los datos obtenidos en este estudio indican que tal índice puede ser determinado con un grado adecuado de confianza. También se utilizan los datos para ilustrar cómo pueden ser determinadas las partes fuertes y dèbiles de un item en particular. Se discuten también distintos procedimientos que han sido usados en el pasado para producir items de la comprensión en la lectura de alta calidad.