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Security and Defense: A Contradiction in Terms?

  • IUPS Hawaii (International University of Professional Studies)


Abstract Man has always faced danger. So do animals in the wild. However, the pattern of how they deal with danger is very different. Modern day man possesses a huge arsenal of many varied weapons. However, has this brought the security man is looking for? Based on scientific data, we question the validity of the belief that security is linked to defense. We also consider some different definitions of security as well as suggesting ways of finding it through therapy and meditation. Derived from string theory, the Theory of Different Dimensions is contemplated to see how it might lead to a deeper understanding of how people perceive the world. To supplement this, the theory of projection as used by depth psychologists, traditional societies, and quantum physics, is also considered. If the attributes we see in others are just projections of our unacknowledged qualities and emotions as suggested by these different traditions, then the search for security based on the proliferation of arms is also a mirage and a contradiction in terms. Security then can only be attained through embarking on an inner journey to find out who we really are. This includes expanding our perception, working with our shadow, facing our inner fears and anxieties and learning to use the verb to be in a more conscious way. Keywords: security, defense, perception, projection, inner journey
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Abstract and Keywords
1. Introduction
2. Defense
3. Does Possessing Arms Increase Security?
4. Security
4.1. Security as Meaning Safe
4.2. Security as a Way of Being
5. Therapy and Meditation
5.1. Somatic Experiencing
5.2. Meditation Methods that Meditate on the Self Via the Heart
6. Different Dimensions of Reality
6.1. Dualistic Perceptions of Reality
6.1.1. Yin and Yang
6.1.2. Dualistic Vision
6.1.3. Our Brains and Reality
6.1.4. The Brain and its Two Hemispheres
6.2. The Third Dimension
6.3. The Fourth Dimension
6.4. Other Dimensions of Experience
7. Projection
7.1. Depth Psychology
7.2. Traditional Societies
7.3. Linking Projections with Dualistic Thinking
8. Quantum Reality
9. Practical Applications of our Analysis
10. Conclusion
11. References
12. Short Biosketch of the Author
Keywords : security, defense, perception, projection, inner journey
1 Security in Infrastructures. Edited by J. Martin Ramírez, and Juan Carlos
Fernández. © 2016 Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
2 Submitted: October 29, 2015; accepted: April 25, 2016.
3 Contact: e-mail:
Man has always faced danger. So do animals in the wild. However, the
pattern of how they deal with danger is very different. Modern day man
possesses a huge arsenal of many varied weapons. However, has this
brought the security man is looking for? Based on scientific data, we
question the validity of the belief that security is linked to defense. We
also consider some different definitions of security as well as suggesting
ways of finding it through therapy and meditation. Derived from string
theory, the Theory of Different Dimensions is contemplated to see how it
might lead to a deeper understanding of how people perceive the world.
To supplement this, the theory of projection as used by depth
psychologists, traditional societies, and quantum physics, is also
considered. If the attributes we see in others are just projections of our
unacknowledged qualities and emotions as suggested by these different
traditions, then the search for security based on the proliferation of arms is
also a mirage and a contradiction in terms. Security then can only be
attained through embarking on an inner journey to find out who we really
are. This includes expanding our perception, working with our shadow,
facing our inner fears and anxieties and learning to use the verb to be in a
more conscious way.
1. Introduction
The history of man on this planet seems to revolve around an endless
series of wars with intervals of peace or an absence of war in between. In
recent years, due to technology, the weapons used by modern societies
have spiraled to include weapons that can, in fact, destroy mankind and all
of life on this planet. The reason for their development seems to rest on the
understanding that security can be obtained by a defense that involves the
possession of arms. The corollary of this statement leads almost naturally
to the belief that an increase in defense brings an increase in security.
However, before we accept this, we need to find out if the first proposition
is true. We should also ask if this is the type of security we really need or
In this presentation we will look at defense and security from various
angles, including scientific findings, to see what validity there is in the
assertions that link security with a defense that implicates the possession
of arms. We will also look at what we mean by security ; the underlying
cause or causes of the need for security and how we can work to achieve a
security that is not based on defense or on the creation, storage or use of
arms. Based on different theories, we will also look at how reality is
perceived. Different solutions generated by these theories will also be
2. Defense
In recent history that does not yet date a hundred years, the build-up of
nuclear arms between America and Russia began after the 2nd World War.
Both sides distrusted each other. It was initially believed that uranium was
a rare commodity and America, fearing nuclear proliferation, thought that
buying up the stocks of uranium would give them the safety and security
they were seeking (Helmreich 1986). However, this was not to be, for
within a decade large deposits of uranium were discovered. Nuclear
proliferation could not be avoided in this way.
(During the Cold War) vast quantities of uranium were amassed, and tens
of thousands of thousands of nuclear weapons were built using enriched
uranium and plutonium made from uranium. (New World Encyclopedia,
paragraph 7)
After the end of the Cold War, it was decided to reduce the number of
weapons. However, it has been found that the cost of their destruction is
The radioactive waste created in the manufacture of an average nuclear
bomb includes 2,000 tons of uranium mining waste, 4 tons of depleted
uranium and 50 cubic meters of ‘low-level’ waste. ‘Clean up’ following
nuclear weapon production and testing in the US will cost more than $300
Security and Defense: A Contradiction in Terms? 5
billion through to the year 2070. (New Internationalist Magazine, 2008,
paragraph 4)
Equally, the cost of protecting the storage of them so that they do not fall
into wrong hands is also great. From 1993 to 2007 America spent about
1.6 billion US dollars on protecting Russian stockpiles of nuclear
armaments (National Nuclear Security Administration, 2007). It is also
estimated that "the United States will have to spend $18 billion a year for
15 years starting in 2021 to keep its nuclear weapons operational"
(Osborne in Gady 2015) As uranium is a substance that is cancer
provoking (Gilland, Hunt, Pardilla & Key 2000), its usage and storage
cannot be taken lightly. Fallout of daughter isotopes from nuclear tests
done by America, Russia and later France has also created pollution
throughout the world (Warneke, Warwick & Taylor 2002). There have
been at least 2,053 nuclear test explosions in the atmosphere, underwater
and underground. According to Barnaby (2004),
the combined explosive yield of these bombs is equivalent to 40,000
Hiroshima bombs and has resulted in 50 times more radioactive
contamination than the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. (Barnaby in New
Internationalist Magazine 2008, paragraph 3)
Human exposure to uranium or its radioactive daughters can be through
inhaling, or drinking contaminated water or food. Of course, animals are
exposed in the same way. Even though the levels of uranium are said to be
small, neither the testing of nuclear armaments nor the exposure to
uranium can be considered safe. In fact, Barnaby (2004) estimates that
exposure to the radioactivity produced by atmospheric tests will eventually
cause the death of about 1.5 million people. On 10th September 1996, the
United Nations adopted The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
(CTBT), a multilateral treaty by which states agree to ban all nuclear
explosions in all environments for military or civilian purposes (UN
1996). The treaty has not yet entered into force, as it has not yet been
ratified by eight states.
Another question we must ask ourselves is why were so many
warheads created during the Cold War when only one nuclear bomb is
needed to wipe out a whole city? The answer to this question seems to be
based on the unacknowledged corollary mentioned above which involves
the belief that an increase in defense brings an increase in security.
However, if the first proposition is false, then the corollary on which it is
based is also false. Can we also honestly say that the build-up of
armaments is a true sign of intelligence or is there something else
operating within us that we have to uncover and learn to work with?
However, first let us turn now to look at small arms, for weapons of mass
destruction (WMDs) are not the only weapons that are dangerous.
Small arms and light weapons, in fact, cause more harm and death than
WMDs. According to a survey concerning small arms:
between 2004 and 2009, at least 208,300 violent deaths were recorded in
armed conflictsan average of 52,000 people killed per year. This is a
conservative estimate including only recorded deaths: the real total may be
much higher. (Small Arms Survey n.d., paragraph 1)
We should therefore also ask if possessing small arms leads to greater
security. Former UN Secretary Kofi Annan said that small arms and light
weapons "could be described as weapons of mass destruction" (Annan, in
Small Arms Review Conference 2006) because they cause so much
damage. In addition to the figure mentioned above,
the number of indirect deaths from armed violence is thought to be four
times as high. These deaths are mainly due to lack of access to medical
care, food, and water. The number of small arms and light weapons in
circulation is estimated at 875 million, with an additional 700,000 to
900,000 being produced each year. Nearly three quarters are in the
possession of civilians. (Development and Cooperation 2013, paragraph 4)
In a study done in 1998, the number of children of 15 years and under
dying accidentally in America after finding a parent’s gun was over 150
(Lott & Whitley 2001). The same authors also concluded that accidental
injuries were most common in homes where guns were kept for selfdefense.
Further research suggests that access to firearms in the home
increases the risk of violent death, which comprises of the "risk for
completed suicide and being the victim of homicide" (Anglemyer, Horvath
& Rutherford 2014). This seems like a contradiction in terms for the very
people who are seeking security through possessing a gun, sometimes land
up being injured or killed by it. In a recent Pugwash meeting in Nagasaki,
Ramirez and Cayón (2015) pleaded that non-proliferation should not only
apply to WMDs but also to conventional armaments.
3. Does Possessing Arms Increase Security?
But are these figures the whole story and will banning both WMDs and
conventional weapons eventually bring us the security we desire? Of
course, working towards treaties that outlaw the manufacture, storage and
use of weapons of all sorts is a noble way forward, but again we refer to a
question we asked earlier, what is really going on? First man has created
weapons believing they would make him more secure, and now he wants
to outlaw the very same weapons so he can feel more secure. This
apparent paradox needs to be explored more fully to understand the
underlying causes of the ideas that link security with defense. Therefore,
let us now look at what we mean by security.
4. Security
According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary , the word security has
several meanings with various connotations. The first definition is "the
state of being protected or safe from harm" and things are done to "make
people or places safe" and "freedom from danger". However, the second
definition talks of security as a quality or state of being secure which
involves "freedom from fear or anxiety".
4.1. Security as Meaning Safe
The first definition seems to indicate that something can be done from
outside to protect us from danger and harm. Moreover, this is probably the
sense that is being referred to when we talk about "security and defense".
It also leads us to the understanding that the possession of weapons can
possibly defend man and his family or country against harm. However,
based on reflection and scientific research, this understanding is proving to
be erroneous. It is an unproven belief or hypothesis. As we mentioned
above, access to firearms in a home increases the risk of violent death.
Equally the creation, storage and use of WMDs increase the risk of
cancers due to exposure to uranium and the daughter isotopes, and the fear
of weapons falling into the wrong hands and/or being used (regardless of
by whom) to seriously endanger life on this planet. It is no wonder that
that more reflective people are seriously considering a treaty to ban both
WMDs and small arms. This is probably a sign that mankind is reaching a
certain maturity in his contemplations and thinking. It is also only in
recent years that the belief that security through defense which involves
the possession of arms and weapons, has begun to be examined
scientifically. The scientific findings mentioned above all seem to call into
doubt that security can be found in the possession and storage of arms.
However, of course, this depends on how we define security. So let us now
look a little closer at the other definition of security we mentioned above.
4.2. Security as a Way of Being
The other definition of security involves the state of being secure
which comprises of "freedom from fear or anxiety". Once we talk of a
"state of being", we are talking about an inner conscious experience. So
we also have to ask ourselves if creating, storing and using weapons have
led people to experience more security inside, a state which is essentially
free from fear or anxiety? Also, do our "so-called enemies" just go away
when we conquer them through the use of force? In addition, we must also
ask ourselves if the banning of WMDs and small arms will change our
inner conscious experience. Certainly it might lower the tension, but it is
argued here that having treaties, noble as they might be, will not be
enough. A certain fear might arise that not everybody will adhere to the
treaty, and then we might be back on the merry-go-round once again. For
this author, the only way to experience freedom from fear or anxiety is to
work internally with one´s inner conscious states. If this is so, the next
question is what do we need to do to be able to achieve an inner state that
is free from fear and anxiety or how can we work with these states?
5. Therapy and Meditation
There are several ways we can approach this, which in the end, may be
compatible and complementary. The first approach we will consider is a
therapeutic approach for it helps us understand the nature of stress and
trauma and how it affects us. It also provides us with a solution, which is
body based and related to the system’s natural healing ability (Payne,
Levine & Crane-Godreau 2015).
5.1. Somatic Experiencing
For Levine (1989) there is an obvious difference between the bright,
alert state of animals in the wild and modern man who often seems hardly
aware of his surroundings or what is happening inside of himself. He,
therefore, asked himself: what do animals in the wild still do that man has
forgotten how to do?
Animals in the wild constantly live in danger of becoming the prey of
other animals. Even a male lion is eventually defeated when a younger
male lion takes over his pride. However, as animals seem to deal with
these events in a very different way to humans, Levine and Frederick
(1997) decided to investigate what they do. Through careful observation,
they found that when faced with a life threatening situation, animals could
Security and Defense: A Contradiction in Terms? 9
do two things, fight or flight. Of course, this observation is not new;
Cannon first described it in the 1920s. However, in observing an antelope
flee from a lion, Levine became aware that there often comes a time when
the antelope just drops. And of course, this is when the lion can "catch" it.
However, if the lion is then frightened off, what happens to the buck that is
now lying on the ground? If one watches carefully the buck will lie still for
a long time; then it will either start to tremble and/or shake with abrupt
movements resembling those seen in somebody undergoing an epileptic
fit. Finally, it will perform an exuberant leap that has been called the
victory leap, and off it will run––it has survived death once again! A bird
having hit itself against a glass window will go through much the same
process. Levine and Frederick therefore asked themselves what was
happening inside. They surmised that when the buck dropped it
dissociated as in nature, carnivores like eating their prey alive. It seems
Nature has allowed another state where the spirit or life force of the animal
essentially leaves the body so that it does not feel the pain of its body
being eaten alive. It is not dead at this stage, but it is not present in its
body either. In order to return, they postulated that the activities described
above occur to literally shake the experience out of the Central Nervous
System (CNS). Moreover, it is this shaking and trembling process that
permits the CNS of the animal to readjust after the traumatic event and
enable it to run off ready to face life again (Levine & Frederick 1997).
Mankind too has always faced danger. However, the danger we face
today is not the same that man faced when he lived in the wild. Today we
might get a phone call informing us that we have lost all of our money on
the stock exchange. It is of course perceived as a dangerous situation
which we neither flee from nor fight, even though our body has begun to
produce hormones preparing us to perform these actions. In the end, all we
do is become numb and overwhelmed by an event that is out of our
Of course all mankind including children, still face events that are truly
life threatening where maybe they are too young to flee or fight. These
experiences, therefore, become part of their life stories, which are often
accompanied by traumatic symptoms of hyper arousal, shutdown, and
deregulation. This is an unresolved story, for generally when the CNS tries
to discharge the event, out of ignorance modern man tries to stop the
process, especially when trembling, shaking and discharges occur.
Levine (1999) postulates that the very same survival based brain
system involved in the formation of trauma can be enlisted in the
transformation and healing of the trauma. In therapeutic terms, this
"instinct to heal" and self-regulate is activated through the awareness of
empowering body sensations that contradict those of paralysis and
helplessness. Levine termed his therapeutic approach somatic
experiencing, and it is the new experience that in the end gives rise to a
new way of being which restores resilience, equilibrium, and wholeness.
Essentially it is a therapy where interoception and propioception are the
core elements that are involved and also said to lead to a successful
outcome (Payne, Levine & Crane-Godreau 2015). The term interoception
involves "sensitivity to stimuli originating inside the body" and involves
three different aspects: "sensitivity", "proprioception" and "somatic sense"
(The Free Dictionary, interoception).
From this analysis of trauma, it is easy to understand that people who
live or have lived in war zones are living under highly traumatic
conditions which no doubt have an impact on their CNS and their inner
experiencing consciousness. Later in this presentation, we will return to
consider in more depth the impact of war on the survivors of war.
5.2. Meditation Methods that Meditate on the Self via the Heart
Not much research has yet been undertaken on meditation methods that
are feeling based and include meditating on the deeper Self (Louchakova
2003; Louchakova 2007). Payne, Levine & Crane-Godreau (2015) claim
that many meditation methods that focus on internal awareness share a
similarity to the Somatic Experiencing method described above. They also
feel that traditional methods of meditative movement such as Yoga , Tái
Chi, and Quigong share this same focus (Schmalzl et al., in Payne, Levine
& Crane-Godreau 2015, 1). It has yet to be established whether Somatic
Experiencing produces the same outcomes in the long run as meditation
methods that not only include interoception and proprioception but also
mediate on the deeper Self via the heart and include the contemplation of
the phenomenological inner experiencing consciousness of the
practitioner. In methods that meditate on the Self via the heart, the somatic
sense, which is an awareness of an inner organ, namely the heart, is
included in a very distinct way. The author of this paper is at present
undertaking a study into one of these methods, which is known as Arka
Dhyana or Intuitive Meditation (IM). In IM, practitioners learn to direct
their minds where they want them to go. This is done using their own
touch, coupled with the breath and a vibratory sound, which also increase
sensitivity to stimuli originating inside the body. In other words, it
increases interoception in a very unique and natural way (Lindhard, in
press). Like most meditation methods one of the first layers opened is the
emotional layer and in IM, the sensations behind what we identify as an
Security and Defense: A Contradiction in Terms? 11
emotion, are experienced consciously without classifying them as good or
bad. They are also experienced by our seeing them as part of us rather than
identifying with them through the use of the verb to be. This includes fear
and anxiety. So instead of saying: "I am afraid," which implicates the full
identification of the subject with the emotion, IM practitioners learn that
fear is only a part of them, and they are much more than just fear. They
can then go on to explore where they store it in their body. In this way, the
different emotions come to be considered as natural expressions of the
body under certain circumstances. Moreover, when practitioners become
more advanced, they become aware of how their own inner thoughts and
stories provoke inner reactions in their bodies which are instantly
experienced. When this is realized, they become very careful how they use
words and what stories they tell themselves for these are instantly
followed by a bodily reaction that can be pleasant or unpleasant. It seems
the body reacts to outside reality and to the stories we tell ourselves in
inherently the same way (Lindhard 2015).
However, regardless of the differences that might be eventually found,
all the methods mentioned previously have something in common,
especially in the initial stages. Also, it must be remembered that therapy
methods usually address a specific problem like trauma whereas some
meditation methods like IM are used to lead the practitioner to the
experience of the most sublime states of consciousness including
enlightenment (Arka 2013). Basically, each person will go as far as he
wants to go, and some just want to feel more relaxed. However, in IM,
some practitioners also want to experience the true nature of
Consciousness, which in the East, is considered as Sat, Chit, and Ananda
pure being, pure knowledge and pure bliss (Lindhard 2013, MA
Integration Paper).
Meditation methods have been mentioned here to show that man is not
doomed to only experience inner conscious states that are fear based, but
many different inner experiencing states of consciousness are available to
the intrepid explorer of his inner world, including states known as ananda
or bliss. When the inner sensations that we label as fear and sensations that
we label as anxiety, are finally consciously explored and thus brought into
the "light" or conscious awareness, practitioners, as we have already
mentioned above, can then go on to discover how their own thoughts and
words produce specific experiences inside. With this realization, they then
can take control of how they use words and what stories they expose
themselves to, including what they tell themselves and what they reveal
themselves to outside, such as violent films. This is real security for they
now are consciously the "captain of their ship" and can to a certain extent
decide what they want to experience.
When a real disaster occurs outside, a seasoned meditator is also able
to seek instantly-intuitive guidance on how to work with the situation. In
Africa, this author has seen an experienced tracker who is intimately
connected to nature, stop a charging elephant in its tracks by just holding
up his right hand. To seek security through the build-up of weapons
certainly seems to be a contradiction in terms when one considers what
mankind is inherently capable of achieving when he or she turns their
attention inwards and begins to meditate on the deeper Self. The inner
journey is truly an adventurous inner exploration to find out who we really
are and the true nature of consciousness. This also requires that we
become aware of how we operate and how our bodies react to the stories
we tell ourselves. So let us now consider several theories about how our
perception operates.
6. Different Dimensions of Reality
Let us now turn our attention to the theory of different dimensions of
reality, as these too not only seem to affect our inner conscious
experiences but also how we perceive the world outside. Williams (2014)
explains how
‘dimensions’ are simply the different facets of what we perceive to be
reality’... (According to) the theoretical framework of Superstring
Theory...the universe exists in ten or more different dimensions. These
different aspects are what govern the universe, the fundamental forces of
nature, and all the elementary particles contained within. (Paragraphs 2 &
On a daily basis, we are aware of a world that has three dimensions:
length, width, and depth. A good example of this is a cube or a human
body. We are also aware of the first dimension, which is essentially a
straight line with no other discernible qualities and the second dimension,
which has x and y axes. This creates a shape like a square or a rectangle.
Beyond these dimensions, scientists speculate there are seven more
dimensions which “are not immediately apparent to us, but which can still
be perceived as having a direct effect on the universe and reality as we
know it" (paragraph 5). Williams points out that the fourth dimension is
thought by scientists to be related with time, and the fifth and sixth are
where the notion of possible worlds arise "In theory, if you could master
Security and Defense: A Contradiction in Terms? 13
the fifth and sixth dimensions, you could travel back in time or go to
different futures" (paragraph 8).
Despite saying this, Williams (2014) feels that the popular characterization
where people start thinking of parallel universes and alternative realities is
very different from the "reality of dimensions and how they play a role in
the ordering of our Universe" (paragraph 1). But is it? What if the different
dimensions have a lot to do with how we really perceive our reality?
Moreover, if this is true, what has this to do with security and defense?
Well, depending on what dimension we are situated in depends on how
we will perceive the world and what solutions we will be able to find to
solve our problems.
6.1. Dualistic Perceptions of Reality
When we come from a dualistic perception of reality, we see the world
regarding opposites.
6.1.1. Yin and Yang
The well-known Chinese concepts of yin and yang represent the dual
nature of the universe. From this perspective, we classify our world in
dualities like male and female, black and white, day and night, etc. In
addition, we also classify the qualities of things regarding dualities such as
hard or soft, strong or weak, and high or low.
In Taoism and Confucianism, the poles in the Chinese symbol of yin
and yang are not considered separate from each other, for each pole is also
seen as containing the other. They are seen as complementary opposites
(Girardot 1988). In this scheme, no pole can, in fact, exist independently
of its opposite pole, for example, day cannot exist or be perceived
independently of night.
6.1.2. Dualistic Vision
When we perceive nature through a vision that is dualistic, particularly
when we are talking about the morphological attributes of things and
maybe even when we are talking about the qualities of things, it is easy to
remember that each duality consists of two complementary poles.
However, when we start talking about the concepts, attributes or labels
with which we identify or define others such as good, victim, terrorist,
etc ., we are inclined to forget that these terms also have an opposite pole
and that each pole includes the other. Good cannot exist without bad; the
victim cannot exist without the tyrant, and the terrorist cannot exist
without the peace lover. Each pole contains the other. It is also much
easier to consider oneself as having the attribute of a victim, but it is not so
easy to admit that one has an attribute of a tyrant; in the dual world, we
possess both attributes at least potentially. But we are in fact neither the
victim nor the tyrant––we are much more than a mere attribute; we are
conscious beings whose nature is creative. We can also, therefore, make
choices. But coming from a strictly dualistic perception, we do not realize
When we identify with an attribute, we also project the pole that is
difficult to accept onto others. When somebody inflicts damage like during
the 9/11 attacks, America identified itself as being the victim. Of course,
the attack was a cruel and sad event. However, then in the name of
defending and restoring peace, America attacked. And some families that
were innocent by-standers in Afghanistan also got injured and killed. For
them, this too was a sad and cruel event. Sometimes future generations are
the ones that retaliate. How many family feuds persist from one generation
to the next? When we acknowledge that all use of arms eventually leads to
the formation of victims, who in the name of righteousness will also then
want to retaliate either immediately or later, is when we begin to search for
a way out. As we have already pointed out, when we use the verb to be,
we often use it incorrectly and create a limitation in ourselves or others
(Puig 2010). When finally, we admit that we cannot separate the victim
and the tyrant and that they are only attributes, and we are much more than
these attributes, is when we can change and go beyond the limitations we
have imposed on ourselves or others.
The phrase "you are either with us or against us" which has been
mouthed by many people in the past including politicians, is based on a
dualistic way of perceiving the world and does not permit a greater
analysis of any situation nor the finding of a solution which goes beyond
the use of arms. There are no shades of grey; alternative possibilities are
closed. However, imagine the present state of affairs on this planet if,
instead of identifying with being a victim and instead of throwing bombs,
America had delivered food parcels and opted for an inter-cultural
dialogue as to why some people in the Arab world wished to do America
harm. This would also probably have stopped the violence and even the
spiral of violence that we see today would not exist.
Israel and the Palestinians are locked into the same duality with both
sides claiming to be victims. But both sides throw bombs and perform acts
of violence. In essence, they are both playing both roles; they are victims,
and they are tyrants. The full recognition of this, is what permits man to
Security and Defense: A Contradiction in Terms? 15
opt out of this duality by transcending it. When we finally wake up and
realize that we are much more than a victim or a tyrant, we can change our
tune. We are living beings whose inherent nature is creative. This makes
forgiveness possible, and through forgiveness either of ourselves or others,
we are transformed in the process. Through this transformation, we
transcend the dualistic way of perceiving the world and enter into the third
or even the fourth dimension. But before we discuss this, let us see how
our brains work.
6.1.3. Our brains and reality
Our brains are inherently dualistic for they consist of a left and a right
hemisphere and it is probably this which gives rise to a surface mind,
which is also dualistic. The 1981 Nobel Laureate in Medicine and
Physiology, Roger Sperry concluded that "the human being does not only
have two cerebral hemispheres, but he also has two minds.... Both minds
have two different consciousnesses" (Sperry in Puig 2010, 40). Although
we do not take the position here that consciousness is a product of the
brain, we feel that the brain reflects consciousness. We also take a view
that consciousness "has many levels especially in humans"; he outlines six
main levels (Arka 2013, 37). This cuts through many difficulties. It also
permits the inclusion of Sperry´s suggestion that there are two different
consciousnesses if we consider these as different levels of consciousness,
rather than different entities. This also opens the possibility of exploring
where and if these levels are reflected in the brain.
6.1.4. The brain and its two hemispheres
Based on the work of Sperry with patients suffering from epilepsy and
whose corpus callosum has been severed, we now know that the left
hemisphere of the brain is to do with thinking which includes the use of
words and analytical tasks. As the language center is situated in the left
hemisphere, the right hemisphere has to manage information in a different
way. It is responsible for body sensations, images, symbols, music and
emotions (Sperry in Nobel Prize, section 3). According to Puig (2010), it
is in the left hemisphere where we possibly encounter the limitations we
have imposed on ourselves through the construction of our identity to do
with language for it creates a personality based on words by which we
define ourselves. However, it also limits us and cuts us off from
experiencing who we really are. Our right hemisphere is related to
sensations in the body, intuition, as well as "the experience of unity and a
complete lack of time" (Puig 2010, 44).
Let us now look at what is known about body based practices.
6.2. The Third Dimension
The third dimension is body based, for the intelligence in the body is
closer to pure consciousness than our surface minds (Arka 2013). This is
why the IM method of meditation, which we mentioned earlier, is based
on training our surface mind to come down and connect to the body and
heart again. Somatic Experiencing , Physical Yoga , Tái Chi and Quigong
are also all body-based practices. When we are in an interoceptive state of
consciousness while practicing these methods, we are in the present, for
body sensations occur in the now. We are also in the third dimension
because the body is three-dimensional. Being in the third dimension
allows us to have a three-dimensional perception of the world; dualistic
thinking falls away, and we open ourselves to a universe which has more
possibilities although of course dualistic thinking still remains as a
possibility. We no longer see the world as being either or, white or black,
good or bad. Shades of grey now start appearing, which allow a more in
depth analysis of any situation. It also allows us to find alternative
solutions to our problems.
As the right hemisphere is related to sensations in the body, it seems as
though these methods might be one of the keys in activating the right
hemisphere and the various experiences which Puig (2010) claims are
associated with it and which we have already stated above.
6.3. The Fourth Dimension
The training that modern man receives is all centered on developing an
intellectual mind, and for Arka (2013) this has resulted in mankind losing
touch with their feeling heart. The third dimension requires that we
enhance our feeling capacity, and the fourth dimension requires that we
develop our feeling heart to an even greater extent. Hence, in IM, we
meditate on the deeper Self via the heart.
After the recent bombing in Paris, the husband of one of the people
killed wrote on his Facebook page: "You do not have my hate––I do not
know who you are, nor do I want to know, you are souls who are dead"
(ABC, 18th Nov. 2015, 27). The fourth dimension is the level at which
forgiveness prevails so that we can raise ourselves to a new level of
understanding that essentially we are all One human family. Differences of
Security and Defense: A Contradiction in Terms? 17
nationality, religion, caste and sex fall away, and we realize that we all
have more in common than our supposed differences. We also work for
the common good of all, not for our own individual aspirations.
Unconditional love, which is based on seeking the happiness and wellbeing
of others, begins to prevail.
6.4. Other Dimensions of Experience
We will not contemplate the other dimensions here except to say that
the scientific investigation into Near Death Experiences (NDE), is
revealing that certain people can experience very lucid conscious states
which are characterized by certain inter subjective qualities even when
they are showing a flat line EEG or no brain function and when their
hearts have also stopped beating (van Lommel 2007). They are in fact
clinically dead but on resuscitation, they come back. Most of these people
also undergo tremendous changes in their lives after this experience and
become more sensitive and compassionate human beings. It seems that
The Theory of Different Dimensions of Reality may help us to incorporate
NDE in a way that can help us to better understand both ourselves and
others and even death itself. Maybe dying leads to an expansion of our
consciousness, where we are transformed in how we perceive ourselves
and how we perceive the world. Maybe death itself is nothing to fear.
Let us now turn to look at different theories of projection mainly
because they seem to be related to some of the ways of perceiving the
world that we have just described.
7. Projection
Psychologists have long recognized the theory of projection. Freud
(reprint 1998) was one of the first psychologists to talk about the theory of
projection, which involves shifting aspects of oneself onto another whether
they are thoughts, motivations, desires and/or feelings. It is also about
defending ourselves by denying the existence of our own unpleasant
impulses and attributing them to others. The scapegoat in the Biblical
tradition is probably also linked to this for it is easier to blame another,
even a poor defenseless goat, than to take responsibility for one´s actions,
even if one is only even partially to blame.
7.1. Depth Psychology
In Jung´s system, it is the shadow archetype which represents the part
or parts of the personality that are unclaimed and get projected. This can
be on an individual or national level (Jung, reprint 1978). Jung also spoke
about counter projection where "all projections provoke counter-projection
when the object is unconscious of the quality projected upon it by the
subject" (1967, par. 519). Clarifying this further, Casement (2001) points
out that during counter projection, what is unconscious in the recipient will
then also be projected back onto the projector, thus provoking a mutual
form of "acting out". When we come from an unconscious place of distrust
and fear inside, this then is reflected back to us.
7.2. Traditional Societies
Along with depth psychology, traditional societies recognized the
existence of psychic forces and for them, it was important that the person
worked with their own inner demons and fears. Tribal shamanistic rituals
often deliberately provoked fear in the youngsters undergoing initiation so
they could learn to work with these inner emotions without projecting their
fears onto others (Somé 1994). In Africa, basically, initiation was to
transform youngsters into men, not through obedience to others, but
through training them to work with their own inner states and also to bring
out their positive attributes which were always considered as being
beneficial for the group, rather than the individual as a separate entity.
During this process projections were taken seriously as was the need to
work with the inner world. We use the past tense of the verb here because,
with the expansion of Western ways of thinking, educational systems and
the perception of the world, the old African traditions are dying out.
7.3. Linking Projections with Dualistic Thinking
This theory of projection as used by psychologists is similar to the
analysis we have made above when talking about one pole of a duality that
has not been owned or of which we are unconscious, which is seen as
occurring in another. This certainly occurred during the Cold War with
each side mistrusting the other. Each side can be seen as reflecting the
unclaimed or unconscious quality, namely mistrust, onto the other. Both
sides certainly, at least to themselves, probably classified themselves as
trustworthy without realizing it is part of a duality.
In our discussion of different dimensions of reality, we have suggested
that it is in the second dimension, which is characterized by a dualistic
way of perceiving the world, where the unacknowledged polarity of an
attribute with which we have identified, gets projected back at us. It seems
some people live in this reality; however others will transcend this level
and explore further realities thereby also experiencing an ever-increasing
expansion of consciousness.
Further work needs to be done on this to see how the theory of
different dimensions of reality as applied to our perceptions stands up to
scientific testing. At the moment, it is a hypothesis that is related to string
theory, a quantum way of perceiving the world. So let us turn now to look
a little more closely at what is meant by "quantum reality”.
8. Quantum Reality
Quantum physics has dispelled the idea that there is an objective
reality out there that is independent of the observer. In fact, when we look
at Newton’s material universe from a quantum perspective, it can be
summed up in the following way:
1) Atomic matter, supposedly the ultimate immutable substance,
dissolves into waves of potential existence;
2) Determinism, which rigidly governed Newton's universe like a
cosmic machine, falls apart, giving us a world with spontaneity;
3) An objective world, existing "out there" independent of the
observer, vanishes, leaving a world in which the observed
phenomena depend upon how we choose to observe them;
4) The manifold world of separate independent objects interacting
locally within space and time is transcended, revealing a realm
where all things are non-locally united in an indivisible whole
(McFarlane 1988).
In this model, everything is interconnected. Our thoughts and words,
especially those with an emotional charge, contain a certain quantum of
energy that is picked up through our bodies and the bodies of others.
Observers too are part of the quantum reality, and everything they think
and do affects both themselves and the reality they are trying to observe.
Objectivity and strict determinism fall away, giving rise to a world that is
full of wave potential and spontaneity. In this world we too can change,
for we are part of this reality; we are not fixed entities. We can, therefore,
change "our tune" any time we choose. Every moment in every day is an
opportunity to perceive our inside and outside realities in a different way
and open ourselves to more creative ways of dealing with the situations we
are facing. Every day we can reinvent ourselves.
Although this sounds easy, for those of us who need some help, we
have discussed how meditation, therapy and body-based exercises like
physical Yoga , Tái Chi, and Quigong can all help us increase our
interoseptive abilities that bring us into contact with our bodies and the
third dimension. Although we have not examined it here, the therapy
method known as focusing is another easy way to increase our body-based
awareness. For people who want to go further and explore their inner
world and experience different realities, feeling-based methods of
meditation like IM, which also include contemplation, can assist in the
process. Quantum reality is not some "far distant land"; it is hidden
beneath the "veil of materialism". Furthermore, to get to the quantum
realm "we do not need any special equipment; it is here, we live in it"
(McFarlane 2014, 12). Although McFarlane is using materialism as
referring to a physical world opposed to the quantum world, it also seems
to be related to our material habits of putting money and goods before
people and their feelings, including our own.
Before we conclude, let us have a look at people who have undergone
severe trauma either through living through war or having witnessed
scenes which have seriously marked their lives, to see if our analysis can
help them in any practical way.
9. Practical Applications of Our Analysis
It seems likely that war, like any traumatic event, will leave an impact
on the CNS of the people concerned. It is also quite possible that this is
accompanied by a certain numbing, shutdown, hyper arousal, and
deregulation. In addition, the inner experiencing consciousness of the
person or child is likely to be accompanied by many unresolved emotions,
like fear or anger as these are the residue of the flight and fight response,
which was not completed either because the subjects were not able or
because they were too young. Another possibility is that the trauma was so
great that the person dissociated and has still not fully returned to "body
consciousness". Despite this, these people including children and
youngsters will be faced with the task of making meaning of their lives.
Probably they will not be directly aware that they carry the impact of
unresolved trauma in their CNS or others in their family might also be
suffering in a similar way. They are probably also unaware that the way
they perceive their world has been marked by these events, even though
they might feel they are not quite right.
After extensive interviewing of the youngsters who perpetrated the
Boston Massacre, LoCicero wrote:
Building a story out of the hundreds of puzzle pieces I found as I dug
deeper into the events of April 15 and those that preceded them...was, in
the end, a lonely endeavor. Ironically, it was in those moments of
loneliness when I believe, I had the greatest insight into the good kids who
were recruited to terrorism. They, it seems, were also alone in some
fundamental way with their own attempts to create their life stories I was
trying to understand––out of disparate pieces of knowledge including
knowledge of the deep pain and suffering of members of their families and
communities, past and present, a deep longing to have a meaningful life.
They had much to cry about, and were challenged to make meaning.
LoCicero (2014, 3)
The obvious question is how we can help youngsters like these before
they start throwing bombs or committing an act of violence. Based on our
analysis in this paper, it seems important that children and adults from war
zones undertake body-based activities to help them return to a body-based
reality, which is three-dimensional. When educational activities which are
left brain based, are solely stressed, we are in fact enhancing a twodimensional
view of reality which promotes the risk of developing
projections of our unwanted and unacknowledged attributes onto others.
According to this analysis, excessive emphasis on mental activities creates
a similar risk in all people unless they maintain a more rounded life style.
To bring people back to feeling consciousness, it is also important they
receive the support of a caring other. Obviously, therapy can help war
victims to release the traumatic experiences from their CNS. But we are all
potential therapists, and we all have a feeling heart, and from this place,
just a sincere embrace of another who is suffering can change his or her
life forever. Education systems can also be adapted to include a "feeling
half hour" at the beginning of the day. In this way, the teacher can know if
"little Johnny" is having problems at home and encourage the other
children to be sensitive to his feelings. It does not change what is going on
at home, but little Johnny comes to realize that others care for him because
he is important. Meditation methods like IM, which help increase
sensitivity to inner body sensations and bring feelings including emotions
such as fear and anxiety into conscious awareness so they can be worked
with, can also assist all population groups to develop their feeling heart
and move beyond the limits of the lower dimensions. With every increase
in dimension, it seems that we undergo an expansion in consciousness,
which enables us to see ourselves, events and our actions in multiple ways
and from multiple perspectives. It seems unlikely that a person living in
what is known as the fourth dimension would deliberately harm somebody
else as it would be like harming him or herself.
10. Conclusion
Throughout history groups have felt threatened by other groups, giving
rise to a perceived need to defend themselves. In modern society, this has
led to an increased proliferation of armaments.
It is suggested here that historically the way we have always
approached the topic is based on an incorrect premise: that an increase in
defense leads to an increase in security. Today, states still spend large
amounts of money, time and energy on defense and people are probably
no more secure than in the past. Looking at history, permanence is an
illusion, and eventually empires and states fall and new ones arise. Arming
themselves did not help them in the end. On an individual level, most
accidents with weapons are in households that own a gun. In fact, more
deaths in the world are caused by small arms, not by the more
sophisticated weapons. It appears that our need to defend ourselves often
seems to backfire.
So what can be done? Einstein said, "the world that we have made as a
result of the level of thinking we have done thus far creates problems that
we cannot solve at the same level as the level we created them" (Einstein
in Icarus-falling.blogspot reprinted in 2009, paragraph 1, line 12).
Generally, this is thought to imply the need to change the way we think––
to think outside the box. But what does this really entail? We have
suggested here that we need to go beyond just dualistic thinking for when
we do this we are apt to start projecting the unclaimed part of a duality
onto others. This creates a mutual form of acting out, with both sides
claiming they are victims and neither side recognizing that they are also
tyrants. Both sides also reflect the unconscious fear and mistrust the other
is experiencing. We have argued here that it is also this that has led to an
ever increasingly felt need to find security based on defense which is
based on the possession of arms.
To go beyond this, we have suggested that embarking on an
adventurous inner journey that also involves getting back to our body,
which is three-dimensional, is a good start. We have also suggested the
importance of working with our inner fears and anxieties through
inclusion, not denial. We have also suggested that emotions are easier to
work with when we do not identify with them but see them as a part of us.
Security and Defense: A Contradiction in Terms? 23
When we start facing these various aspects in ourselves, the following
little story illustrates a new possibility for how we can live.
There was a simple farmer who became well-known for his cultivation
of corn. When interviewed, he was asked the secret of his success, and he
replied: "I share the seeds of my corn with all my neighbors." The
journalist then asked: "but why so, do you not want to be the best?" "Ah"
replied the farmer, “if my neighbors are growing the best corn, then I
know that my corn will also be the best for cross-fertilization always
occurs" (source unknown).
To create a new way of thinking, we have to adopt a new way of being.
The world is getting smaller, and slowly we realize we are all human
beings and if our neighbors are happy and prosperous and we can add to
their wellbeing, we too will benefit in the long run. When we humble our
egos, stop trying to defend ourselves out of fear and mistrust of the other
and let our hearts take over, it is possible that the solutions to the many
problems that face man today can arise from the depth of our being. This
requires that we learn to adopt a more meditative life style and rediscover
our feeling heart. Just ruminating over our problems with our thinking
mind will not let in anything novel nor will it create a new way of
thinking, or being.
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12. Short Biosketch of the Author
TINA LINDHARD has a B.Sc. in Psychology and Sociology from UCT,
Cape Town, South Africa, a MA in Transpersonal Psychology from Sofia
University (California, USA), and Doctorate studies in Consciousness
Studies on the Arka Dhyana Method of Meditation (Intuitive Meditation)
at the International University of Professional Studies (IUPS) in Hawaii,
USA. She is President of the Center for Conscious Awareness Spain. Her
writings and investigations are mainly concerned with consciousness.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available [[This is a statement of the problem for the Prayer of the Heart research – book in progress. Please cite the URL for this page]] This research will examine the religious body-based praxis from the perspective of the comparative history of religions. Research will focus on the particular example of spiritual practice, Prayer of the Heart, found to be common to all world religions. The historical forms of Prayer will be researched and reconstructed, using the scriptural sources, art and historical artifacts, and linguistic evidence. The structure, contents and the historical canvas of the practice will be analyzed in connection with the analysis of the dynamics of the cultural-historical forms of self. The research of the cultural hermeneutics of the Prayer of the Heart as the inner (esoteric) tradition, valuable in itself, will serve to answer the questions of the more general order, such as what is the role of body-based praxis in the overall history of religions. Here, body-based religious praxis is differentiated from ritual, myth, art, scripture or other parts of religious tradition. Praxis as an activity of human being involving the use of the body (Cole, 1996), has never been examined in relation to religious matters. However, cultural studies demonstrate that praxis is the necessary component of transformation, evolution and changes in the self in the particular socio-historical era (Cole, 1996; Cushman, 1995; Storey, 1996). Kippenberg (2003) states that human history is, in fact, the history of religions. Consequently, sacramental, religious and spiritual practices involving the human body are likely to play a role in mediating history, especially as related to the historical dynamics of the human self.
Plutonium and uranium isotope ratios can be used to differentiate the sources of nuclear contamination from nuclear weapon establishments (Environ. Sci. Technol. 34 (2000) 4496; Internal Report for AWRE Aldermaston, UK (1961)), weapon fallout (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 51 (1987) 2623; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 63 (1983) 202; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 22 (1974) 111; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64 (2000) 989), reprocessing plants, reactor or satellite accidents (Science 105 (1979) 583; Science 238 (1987) 512) and in addition they provide markers for post-1952 geochronology of environmental systems. A good record of plutonium and uranium isotope ratios of the background resulting from atmospheric nuclear testing is essential for source characterisation studies. Using recently developed mass spectrometric techniques (J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16 (2001) 279) we present here the first complete records between 1952 and the present day of northern temperate latitude 240Pu/239Pu and 238U/235U atom ratios for atmospheric deposition. Such information was not derived directly during the period of atmospheric testing because suitable mass spectrometric capability was not available. The currently derived records are based on an annual herbage archive and a core from an Alpine glacier. These studies reveal hitherto unseen fluctuations in the 238U/235U atmospheric fallout record, some of which are directly related to nuclear testing. In addition, they also provide the first evidence that plutonium contamination originating from Nevada Desert atmospheric weapon tests in 1952 and 1953 extended eastwards as far as northwestern Europe. The results presented here demonstrate that we now have the capability to detect and precisely identify sources of plutonium in the environment with implications for the development of atmospheric transport models, recent geochronology and environmental studies.
It is frequently assumed that safe-storage gun laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides, while the possible impact on crime rates is ignored. We find no support that safe-storage laws reduce either juvenile accidental gun deaths or suicides. Instead, these storage requirements appear to impair people's ability to use guns defensively. Because accidental shooters also tend to be the ones most likely to violate the new law, safestorage laws increase violent and property crimes against law-abiding citizens with no observable offsetting benefit in terms of reduced accidents or suicides. Copyright 2001 by the University of Chicago.
Navajo men who were underground miners have excess risk of lung cancer. To further characterize the long-term consequences of uranium mining in this high-risk population, we examined lung cancer incidence among Navajo men residing in New Mexico and Arizona from 1969 to 1993 and conducted a population-based case-control study to estimate the risk of lung cancer for Navajo uranium miners. Uranium mining contributed substantially to lung cancer among Navajo men over the 25-year period following the end of mining for the Navajo Nation. Sixty-three (67%) of the 94-incident lung cancers among Navajo men occurred in former uranium miners. The relative risk for a history of mining was 28.6 (95% confidence interval, 13.2-61.7). Smoking did not account for the strong relationship between lung cancer and uranium mining. The Navajo experience with uranium mining is a unique example of exposure in a single occupation accounting for the majority of lung cancers in an entire population.
Should the US Spend $1 Trillion on Nuclear Weapons
  • F-S Gady
Gady, F-S. 2015. "Should the US Spend $1 Trillion on Nuclear Weapons?" The Diplomat. Retrieved from