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Fostering students’ moderation competence: The interplay between social relatedness and perceived competence

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Abstract

Using a longitudinal design, the present study examined whether two teaching concepts that varied in their capacity to foster students’ self-determination affected students’ sense of social relatedness and their perceived moderation competence, as well as the interplay between these two elements and the students’ performance during a moderation exam. We conducted a quasi-experimental field study with university students (N = 160), who were evenly distributed between an experimental (EG) and a control group (CG). The results of multi-group path analysis suggest that simultaneously fostering autonomy, competence, and relatedness (EG), in comparison to providing autonomy and competence support only (CG), leads to a stronger link between perceived competence and social relatedness. If students experience moderation competence, they in turn feel socially related to their teacher, which leads to an even higher competence perception thereafter. The crucial role of teachers’ behaviour, in particular relatedness support, in learning development is discussed.

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... So far, only little research has been conducted on how the acquisition of moderation competence can be fostered among students (B€ urgermeister et al., 2016;Ringeisen et al., 2017). In particular, research on the role of learning-related emotions in this process is lacking. ...
... The study was designed as a quasi-experimental longitudinal field study with an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). The study was part of a larger study (see also B€ urgermeister et al., 2016;Ringeisen et al., 2017). It took place in the context of a weekly seminar on the acquisition and improvement of oral communication competences for university students. ...
... In order to foster self-perceived competence in students, teachers in both conditions provided structure in the form of (a) setting clear goals, expectations, and evaluation criteria for the moderation exam, (b) offering students small exercises to practice selected moderation techniques, and (c) providing informational and advisory support during learning. Students were made familiar with a standardized evaluation sheet at the beginning of the course, which was used for the grading of the final exam (B€ urgermeister et al., 2016;De Grez, Valcke, & Roozen, 2012). It comprised five categories (e.g. ...
Article
Fostering oral communication competences constitutes a primary goal of higher education. However, research on the acquisition process is sparse, especially when the role of learning-related emotions is considered. Based on control-value theory, the present study therefore investigated the interplay between learning-related boredom and enjoyment and the build-up of moderation competence throughout a university course to foster oral competences. A longitudinal quasi-experimental study with two teaching conditions was conducted. 160 students were assigned either to a control group (CG: autonomy supportive teaching enriched with basic levels of competence support and relatedness support) or an experimental group (EG: autonomy supportive teaching enriched with high levels of competence support and relatedness support). Perceived moderation competence and emotions were assessed three times (T) by self-report: after completion of the course introduction (T1), half way (T2), and at the end of the course (T3). The students’ behavioral performance during a practical moderation exam was graded at T3. Path analyses revealed differential effects of enjoyment and boredom on students’ perceived moderation competence and their grades over time: An activating, learning-enhancing effect of enjoyment on moderation competence was demonstrated, especially if teachers supported students’ experience of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Boredom, in contrast, had a detrimental effect on the behavioral performance in the practical moderation exam.
... At the beginning of the course, students were made familiar with two standardized evaluation sheets which were used for grading two practical examinations, one for presentation and one for moderation skills, which took place at the end of course (Bürgermeister et al., 2016;De Grez et al., 2009a/b;Ringeisen & Bürgermeister, 2015). ...
... Initially, we consulted reviews and empirical studies which reported on valid and reliable ways to measure oral communication skills (e.g., Carlson & Smith-Howell, 1995), identified critical behaviors and/or performance criteria to successfully hold presentations and moderations (Bürgermeister et al., 2016;De Grez et al., 2009a/b;Freimuth, & Barth, 2014;Hamilton, 2012;Lecher & Witte, 2003;Ringeisen & Bürgermeister, 2015), or defined behavioral clusters of presentation and moderation skills (Braun et al., 2008;Frey & Balzer, 2007;Frey et al., 2014). Since both skills represent task-specific facets of oral communication self-efficacy, and therefore share common variance, we aimed to create items that capture their distinct behavioral facets. ...
... Moderation skills, on the other hand, appear to be more complex as they require a bidirectional interaction with multiple individuals at once. Compared to presentation skills, the quality of moderation skills seems to differentiate more greatly over time, and benefits more from elaborated presentation skills, than vice versa (Bürgermeister et al., 2016;Freimuth & Barth, 2014;Kerby & Romine, 2009). One prominent example refers to the differentiated meaning of conclusion and summary in the context of a moderation, which students acquired over the course of the semester in study 2. ...
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By means of two studies, a self-report measure to assess self-efficacy in presentation and moderation skills, the SEPM scales, was validated. In study 1, factorial and construct validity were examined. A sample of 744 university students (41% females; ranging from < 20 to > 31 years, with more than 50% between 20 and 25 years) completed newly constructed self-efficacy items. Confirmatory factor analyses substantiated two positively correlated factors, presentation (SEPM-P) and moderation self-efficacy (SEPM-M). Each factor consists of 8 items. The correlation patterns between the two SEPM subscales and related constructs such as extraversion, the preference for cooperative learning, and conflict management indicated adequate construct validity. In study 2, criterion validity was determined by means of latent change modeling. 160 students (Mage = 24.40, SD = 4.04; 61% females) took part in a university course to foster key competences and completed the SEPM scales at the beginning and the end of the semester. Presentation and moderation self-efficacy increased significantly over time of which the latter was positively associated with the performance in a practical moderation exam. Across both studies, reliability of the scales was high, ranging from McDonald´s omega = .80-.88.
... Aligned with the assumptions by CVT, a few studies in the context of fostering oral communication skills rendered support that a teaching concept was most beneficial, which supported the students' sense of autonomy, self-perceived competence, and relatedness at once. If teachers engaged in autonomy support and/or competence support only, the benefits with regard to changes in competence and/or boredom, and subsequent performance, were smaller (Bürgermeister et al. 2016;Tibubos et al. 2019). For instance, Tibubos et al. (2019) investigated the interplay between boredom, competence development, and performance over time when students learned how to moderate group work during respective communication classes at university. ...
... Aligned with the assumptions as specified by CVT (e.g., Pekrun 2006;Pekrun et al. 2007), and a recent review on the principles for presentation training at university (van Ginkel et al. 2015), a teaching concept was realized, which supported the students' sense of autonomy, self-perceived competence, and relatedness. Our instructional outline mirrored the design of existing studies with regard to the operationalization of the teaching behaviors, the course structure, and the assessment approach (for details see Bürgermeister et al. 2016;Tibubos et al. 2019; van Ginkel et al. 2015). In terms of autonomy support, the lecturers allowed the students to decide on their presentation topics, the presentation format and the use of media. ...
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Realizing a longitudinal design, the current study investigated how self-efficacy, levels of and changes in boredom and improvement in presentation competence, are associated with presentation performance. 158 university students (Mage = 24.40, SD = 4.04; 61% women) participated in a four-month presentation training. They reported self-efficacy at the beginning of the course (t1), and boredom and improvement of competence on three occasions over time (t2 = after course introduction; t3 = half way; t4 = after course completion). Using a standardized rubric two lecturers independently evaluated the students’ performance during a practical presentation exam at t4. Data were analyzed with latent growth modeling. Improvement of competence increased over time while boredom decreased. Greater boredom at t2 was related to a smaller improvement of competence at t2, and to a stronger decline in boredom, which, in turn, was associated with greater improvement of competence over time. Greater self-efficacy predicted a smaller improvement of competence at t2, which, in turn, was related to a slower rate of decline in boredom over time. Better presentation performance was predicted by higher self-efficacy, lower boredom and greater improvement of competence at t2, and a stronger decline in boredom. Our findings suggest reciprocal effects between intensity and change trajectories of boredom and improvement of competence, which contribute to better presentation performance, aside from high self-efficacy beliefs.
... Based on these specific case results, the recommendations would centre on finding and implementing the best procedures and strategies to close the main gaps. Nevertheless, an important pending task for academia, as discussed by Bürgermeister et al. (2016), is to work on reinforcing graduates' confidence in the skills and capabilities they have already acquired. Continuous reevaluation and sharing responsibilities are two fundamental issues for the higher education sector. ...
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Existing research on teaching outcomes using Self-Determination Theory has mainly focused on the role of autonomy support for students’ performance, neglecting an investigation of the combined effects of different teaching behaviours. The current study examined the effects of teachers’ autonomy, relatedness, and competence support on students’ presentation skills. A quasi-experimental design was used with university students (N = 160) distributed evenly across experimental and control groups. A combination of autonomy support and moderate competence support increased students’ feeling of relatedness, which in turn fostered self-efficacy in presenting, leading to better presentation performance. A combination of autonomy support, relatedness support, and high competence support enhanced students’ self-efficacy even more strongly. Increases in self-efficacy and performance were mediated by students’ sense of social relatedness. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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Feedback is an essential construct for many theories of learning and instruction, and an understanding of the conditions for effective feedback should facilitate both theoretical development and instructional practice. In an early review of feedback effects in written instruction, Kulhavy (1977) proposed that feedback’s chief instructional significance is to correct errors. This error-correcting action was thought to be a function of presentation timing, response certainty, and whether students could merely copy answers from feedback without having to generate their own. The present meta-analysis reviewed 58 effect sizes from 40 reports. Feedback effects were found to vary with control for presearch availability, type of feedback, use of pretests, and type of instruction and could be quite large under optimal conditions. Mediated intentional feedback for retrieval and application of specific knowledge appears to stimulate the correction of erroneous responses in situations where its mindful (Salomon & Globerson, 1987) reception is encouraged.
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Zusammenfassung. Innerhalb von Organisationen und Betrieben wird durch den Einsatz von Arbeits- und Projektgruppen ein “Gruppenvorteil“ in Form besserer Ergebnisse, schnellerer Entscheidungsfindung und breiterer Zustimmung erwartet. Haufig bedarf es jedoch eines derart hohen Aufwandes an Koordinations- und Integrationsleistungen, um den vielfaltigen Argumenten, Einstellungen und Informationen gerecht zu werden, dass diese Erwartungen sich nicht erfullen. Der Einsatz von Moderationstechniken soll diese Koordinations- und Integrationsleistungen erleichtern und gleichzeitig sozio-emotionale Prozesse steuern. Moderationstechniken, die theoriegeleitet die wesentlichen kognitions- und sozialpsychologischen Leistungskriterien berucksichtigen, liegen in Form der am Arbeitsbereich Sozialpsychologie der Universitat Hamburg entwickelten Formalen Moderation (FORMOD) und Prozeduralen Moderation (PROMOD) vor. Experimentell konnte im Rahmen eines DFG-Projektes gezeigt werden, dass die wissensbasierte Technik PROMOD der ...
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Zusammenfassung. Im Rahmen des Bologna-Prozesses werden europaweit Bachelor-Studiengange eingefuhrt, deren Abschlusse berufsqualifizierend sind. Die beteiligten Lander haben sich auf einen Qualifikationsrahmen, d.h. auf eine Liste von studienfachunspezifisch formulierten Kompetenzen verstandigt, die in Lehrveranstaltungen vermittelt werden sollen. Inwieweit diese Kompetenzen tatsachlich von den Studierenden erworben werden, ist empirisch nachzuweisen. Bisherige Lehrveranstaltungsevaluationsinstrumente konnen zu diesem Zweck nur bedingt genutzt werden, denn sie messen eher den Prozess als das Ergebnis einer Veranstaltung. Deshalb haben wir ein Instrument entwickelt, das in sechs Subskalen mit insgesamt 29 Items den selbsteingeschatzten Zuwachs an Fach-, Methoden-, Prasentations-, Kommunikations-, Kooperations- sowie Personalkompetenz erhebt. In einer Stichprobe mit insgesamt 2507 Fragebogen wurde das Instrument entlang der klassischen Testtheorie uberpruft. Die Ergebnisse zeigen gute Reliabilitaten und die...
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Using a self-determination theory (SDT) framework, we explored the relationship between the satisfaction of teachers' basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence and their self-reported levels of teaching-related engagement, emotions, and emotional exhaustion. In particular, we tested a 2-component model of teachers' need for relatedness, with representation of the need for relatedness with students and the need for relatedness with colleagues. One thousand and forty-nine teachers participated in 3 studies. In Study 1 (n = 409), we tested a model that examined how perceptions of autonomy support are associated with teachers' relatedness with colleagues and students and how relatedness subsequently predicts teaching engagement and emotional exhaustion. In Study 2 (n = 455), we tested a full SDT model, hypothesizing that perceptions of autonomy support lead to satisfaction of teachers' needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness with colleagues and students, which in turn lead to teachers' engagement and expression of emotions (anxiety, anger, and enjoyment). In Study 3 (n = 185), we used scenarios to test participants' beliefs about 2 hypothesized teachers, 1 with high student and low peer relatedness and the other with low student and high peer relatedness. Results from the 3 studies consistently emphasize the finding that for teachers, satisfaction of the need for relatedness with students leads to higher levels of engagement and positive emotions, and lower levels of negative emotions, than does satisfaction of the need for relatedness with peers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article reviews several basic statistical tools needed for modeling data with sampling weights that are implemented in Mplus Version 3. These tools are illustrated in simulation studies for several latent variable models including factor analysis with continuous and categorical indicators, latent class analysis, and growth models. The pseudomaximum likelihood estimation method is reviewed and illustrated with stratified cluster sampling. Additionally, the weighted least squares method for estimating structural equation models with categorical and continuous outcomes implemented in Mplus extended to incorporate sampling weights is also illustrated. The performance of several chi-square tests under unequal probability sampling is evaluated. Simulation studies compare the methods used in several statistical packages such as Mplus, HLM, SAS Proc Mixed, MLwiN, and the weighted sample statistics method used in other software packages.
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Strukturgleichungsmodelle gehören mittlerweile zu den etablierten statistischen Methoden in den Sozialwissenschaften und eignen sich für die Beantwortung einer Vielzahl von Fragestellungen. Das Analyseprogramm Mplus erfreut sich als eines der aktuellsten, flexibelsten und anwenderfreundlichsten Statistikprogramme zunehmender Beliebtheit. Praxisnah, mit zahlreichen Beispielen, Probedatensätzen und Abbildungen führt der Autor Schritt für Schritt in die Grundlagen der Handhabung von Mplus ein. Dabei werden nicht nur Strukturgleichungsmodelle für quer- und längsschnittliche Auswertungen, sondern auch Mehrebenenmodelle und Latent-Class-Analysen besprochen.
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This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
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Young adolescents’ perceptions of teachers’ and peers’ multiple classroom supports were examined in relation to motivational outcomes (interest and social goal pursuit). Responses from sixth (n = 120), seventh (n = 115), and eighth (n = 123) grade students concerning four dimensions of support (expectations for specific behavioral and academic outcomes, provisions of help, safety, and emotional nurturing) indicated that social supports differ as a function of students’ sex, grade level, teacher, and classroom, and in their relations to interest and social goal pursuit. Relations of students’ perceptions to motivational outcomes differed as a function of source of support. In addition, students’ perceptions of teacher and peer supports differed as a function of teacher and classroom. In general, findings confirm the utility of a multi-dimensional approach to social support that acknowledges the independent as well as interactive contributions of teachers and peers to student motivation.
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Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
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Self-report correlational data support self-determination theory's (SDT's) postulate that there are three basic psychological needs, for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, which combine additively to predict well-being and thriving. However, experimental research in the SDT tradition has focused only on autonomy support, not relatedness and competence support. To fill this gap, we employed a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design within a game-learning experience to predict rated need satisfaction, mood, and motivation, and also objective game performance. Manipulated competence and relatedness support had main effects on most outcomes. Rated competence, relatedness, and autonomy need satisfaction also predicted the outcomes, and the significant experimental main effects were all mediated by the corresponding rated variables. Neutral control group data showed that thwarting participants' needs is more impactful than enhancing them. These findings offer new support for key postulates of SDT, while integrating the correlational and experimental traditions in this area.