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Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior

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... Attitude is an indicator of how much a person likes or dislikes an object, and «object» is used in a general sense to refer to any aspect of the personal world (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). They also stated that the more positive a person's attitude toward an activity is, the more likely he should aim to engage in that conduct; the more negative his attitude is, the more likely he should avoid engaging in that behavior and vice versa. ...
... They also stated that the more positive a person's attitude toward an activity is, the more likely he should aim to engage in that conduct; the more negative his attitude is, the more likely he should avoid engaging in that behavior and vice versa. Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and also the extension developed by Ajzen (1991) the theory of planned behavior (TPB) has guided this study. According to Ajzen (1991), salient beliefs must be obtained from a sample of respondents who are typical of the research population. ...
... Salient beliefs are those that immediately spring to mind when thinking about the object and function as the dominant factors determining the attitude (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980;Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Specifically, in this study out of the three kinds of salient beliefs only behavioral beliefs was considered since this is assumed to influence attitudes toward the behavior. ...
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Study purpose. The study purpose was to develop an instrument to measure students’ attitude towards physical education through salient behavioral beliefs. Materials and methods. The participants of the study were both boys and girls of grades 7 to 10 from the state of Manipur (India) in the first, second and fourth phase. In the first phase, based on the recommendation of the theory of reasoned action and its extension, the theory of planned behavior, an elicitation study was conducted using open-ended questions, where a total of 308 student responses were collected. The student responses were used to develop items through content analysis. In the second phase, i.e. content validity study, a total of 5 experts were recruited to evaluate the developed items from the elicitation study. In the third phase i.e. pilot study, out of the total of 123 student responses, 104 student responses were found to be usable for analysis. In the fourth phase, i.e. main study, out of the total of 433 student responses, 377 student responses were found to be usable for analysis. Results. Due to lack of good model fit from the pilot study, a second exploratory factor analysis was conducted with the first half of the main study data which produced a three-factor model, and this model was tested with confirmatory factor analysis with the other half of the main study data. The model fit indices were found to be appropriate, and also the composite reliability and construct validity were found to be appropriate. Conclusions. This belief-based attitude measuring instrument was found to be valid and reliable for grades 7 to 10 in the Indian physical education context, i.e. schools which incorporate both yoga and physical education in the general physical education curriculum.
... Mindfulness, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, subjective norms, and attitude play a critical role in m-payment usage intention (Flavián et al., 2020). Subjective norm is the degree of individual attention influenced by other societal members' opinions while taking a particular decision (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Attitude can be defined as the beliefs that a person has related to the results that will be offered by the application of certain behaviors and his evaluation of possible outcomes (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). ...
... Subjective norm is the degree of individual attention influenced by other societal members' opinions while taking a particular decision (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Attitude can be defined as the beliefs that a person has related to the results that will be offered by the application of certain behaviors and his evaluation of possible outcomes (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Technology readiness index (TRI) constructs aided the perceived usefulness and ease of use in influencing attitudes towards m-payments during the COVID-19 pandemic (Rafdinal and Senalasari, 2021). ...
... The technology acceptance model (TAM) is primarily acknowledged as the utmost accurate, cost-effective, and robust framework for determining how people accept and use technology (Pavlou, 2003;Davis, 1989). The framework is founded on the theory of reasoned action (TRA), which holds that a person's behavior intention leads to actual behavior, which is influenced by subjective norms and attitude, both of which influence individual beliefs (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Online banking acceptance is based on six aspects: perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived enjoyment, knowledge about online banking, security and privacy, and internet connection quality (Pikkarainen et al., 2004). ...
This study aims to establish various market segments based on consumers' attitudinal elements influencing the adoption of mobile payments (m-payments). It also examines the best discriminators between identified clusters of m-payment users. Three hundred and sixty m-payment users participated in the study. Cluster and discriminant analyses were employed for the analysis. The findings suggest that two segments are established, and strategies can be developed accordingly. The study provides marketers with numerous touchpoints to propagate the adoption of m-payment apps. It also comprehensively explains m-payment users in developing economies by superimposing the cohorts to Roger's diffusion of innovation model.
... Literatürde, kullanıcıların, teknolojiye yönelik tutumları, algıları, inanışları ve nihai sistem kullanımları arasındaki ilişkiyi açıklamaya çalışan pek çok model bulunmaktadır. Bunlar; Akla Dayalı Davranış Teorisi (Ajzen ve Fishbein, 1980), Planlı Davranış Teorisi (Ajzen ve Madden, 1986) ve Teknoloji Kabul Modeli (Davis,1989) olarak sıralanabilir. Tüm bu teorik modeller arasında, Teknoloji Kabul Modeli, bilişim sistemleri araştırmacıları tarafından, bireylerin teknoloji kabullerine etki eden faktörleri açıklamada en çok kabul gören model olarak ön plana çıkmaktadır (Agarwal ve Prasad, 1999). ...
... Teknoloji Kabul Modeli, özünde Ajzen ve Fishbein (1980) tarafından geliştirilen Akla Dayalı Davranış Teorisi'nden yola çıkılarak Davis (1986) tarafından ampirik olarak test edilmiş bir modeldir. Bu bağlamda, TKM'nin teorik kökleri, gerçekleşen davranış, davranışı yerine getirme niyeti, niyetlerin belirleyici faktörü olarak tutum ve tutumun öncülleri gibi kavramların teorik ve ampirik olarak uzun zamandır incelendiği zengin bir sosyal psikoloji literatürüne dayanmaktadır (örn., Fishbein, 1967;Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). ...
... Teknoloji Kabul Modeli, özünde Ajzen ve Fishbein (1980) tarafından geliştirilen Akla Dayalı Davranış Teorisi'nden yola çıkılarak Davis (1986) tarafından ampirik olarak test edilmiş bir modeldir. Bu bağlamda, TKM'nin teorik kökleri, gerçekleşen davranış, davranışı yerine getirme niyeti, niyetlerin belirleyici faktörü olarak tutum ve tutumun öncülleri gibi kavramların teorik ve ampirik olarak uzun zamandır incelendiği zengin bir sosyal psikoloji literatürüne dayanmaktadır (örn., Fishbein, 1967;Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). TKM, prensip olarak, bireylerin bir teknolojiyi kabul etme niyetlerinin, o teknoloji kullanmaya yönelik tutumları tarafından yönlendirileceği temeline dayanmaktadır (Agarwal ve Prasad, 1998). ...
Chapter
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Insufficiency in education cause social costs as well as negativities in country life in economic terms. This negative situation will lead to inefficiency in production and people to earn lower wages and to live below certain living standards, while preventing the worker from becoming qualified and specialized. Insufficiency in education will cause people to make mistakes in their decisions as consciously or unconsciously and to remain face to face with criminal activities. So guilty, crime victims and society will have to undertake high costs. When analyzed crime statistics of Turkey, it seen that less the number of high educated prisoners from the number of educated prisoners in other lower levels in the prisoners entering prison. That is, the tendency of people to commit crime decreases as the level of education increases. Contribution of Anadolu University Open Education System to Turkish Education, it would be appropriate to say that the reducing effect of it on criminal activities is high. In this study, it was normatively examined that effect of AUOS important contribution to every aspect of people's lives in Turkey, on crime case an important determinant in terms of level of development of a country.
... Literatürde, kullanıcıların, teknolojiye yönelik tutumları, algıları, inanışları ve nihai sistem kullanımları arasındaki ilişkiyi açıklamaya çalışan pek çok model bulunmaktadır. Bunlar; Akla Dayalı Davranış Teorisi (Ajzen ve Fishbein, 1980), Planlı Davranış Teorisi (Ajzen ve Madden, 1986) ve Teknoloji Kabul Modeli (Davis,1989) olarak sıralanabilir. Tüm bu teorik modeller arasında, Teknoloji Kabul Modeli, bilişim sistemleri araştırmacıları tarafından, bireylerin teknoloji kabullerine etki eden faktörleri açıklamada en çok kabul gören model olarak ön plana çıkmaktadır (Agarwal ve Prasad, 1999). ...
... Teknoloji Kabul Modeli, özünde Ajzen ve Fishbein (1980) tarafından geliştirilen Akla Dayalı Davranış Teorisi'nden yola çıkılarak Davis (1986) tarafından ampirik olarak test edilmiş bir modeldir. Bu bağlamda, TKM'nin teorik kökleri, gerçekleşen davranış, davranışı yerine getirme niyeti, niyetlerin belirleyici faktörü olarak tutum ve tutumun öncülleri gibi kavramların teorik ve ampirik olarak uzun zamandır incelendiği zengin bir sosyal psikoloji literatürüne dayanmaktadır (örn., Fishbein, 1967;Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). ...
... Teknoloji Kabul Modeli, özünde Ajzen ve Fishbein (1980) tarafından geliştirilen Akla Dayalı Davranış Teorisi'nden yola çıkılarak Davis (1986) tarafından ampirik olarak test edilmiş bir modeldir. Bu bağlamda, TKM'nin teorik kökleri, gerçekleşen davranış, davranışı yerine getirme niyeti, niyetlerin belirleyici faktörü olarak tutum ve tutumun öncülleri gibi kavramların teorik ve ampirik olarak uzun zamandır incelendiği zengin bir sosyal psikoloji literatürüne dayanmaktadır (örn., Fishbein, 1967;Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). TKM, prensip olarak, bireylerin bir teknolojiyi kabul etme niyetlerinin, o teknoloji kullanmaya yönelik tutumları tarafından yönlendirileceği temeline dayanmaktadır (Agarwal ve Prasad, 1998). ...
Chapter
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Cost savings provided by the growth of companies are called “economies of scale”. This cost advantage encourages firms, whose objectives are profit maximization, to operate in the international arena by further increasing their production. After the Second World War, the efforts to liberalize and increase the international trade in a new structure in the world economic system has led to the emergence of global companies that have reached higher turnovers than the national income of many countries. While large scale production structures of these firms provided them significant economies of scale and competitive advantage, these their structures became the most important factor to became global producer firm. Today, these large international companies have provided significant contributions to the phenomenon of globalization, which is now based on its borders and which means that the countries and people of the world approach, even, integrate, culturally, socially, politically and economically. It is a fact that the firms, which try to increase their scale in order to obtain the advantage of economies of scale in terms of microeconomics, have become the most important actors that carrying globalization to today together with international financial and economic institutions.
... Esta teoría, fue propuesta por Ajzen & Fishbein, (1980), (Glanz et al., 2015) y de acuerdo con esta teoría, el hecho de que un individuo tome decisiones de actuar de determinado modo, es influenciado directamente por la intención, siendo este último, el indicador para predecir el comportamiento. Esto, adicional a la Teoría del Comportamiento Planeado, que también sustenta que la intención es el principal factor para que una persona se comporte de cierta manera, como se aprecia en el siguiente párrafo: ...
... (Reyes et al., 2019, p. 185) y (I. B. Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). Como se aprecia en la figura 4, la intención está sujeta a los factores, que son la actitud y las normas subjetivas. ...
... La base de la investigación cuantitativa está sujeta a los modelos de medición que tengan un rigor metodológico, (Hernández-Sampieri et al., 2006 b) esta investigación se apega al instrumento de recolección de datos de la teoría del comportamiento planeado del Icek Ajzen, (I. B. Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), (I. Ajzen, 2015), este instrumento manifiesta que "las intenciones son antepuestas ante cualquier tipo de comportamiento planificado", (Farhat, 2016, p. 43 a), así mismo, las intenciones constituyen un alto grado de probabilidad de una conducta futura, y acuden a momentos, motivaciones, recuerdos, experiencias, que fungen como indicadores predictores de la conducta futura, (Krueger, 1993) & (Ajzen 1991), citado por (Farhat, 2016, p. 44 b). ...
Thesis
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The present study is a document based on marketing and the administration tools, in order to investigate the behavior of the female market over the auto repair shops and maintenance services, that allows the decisions of service providers to be routed in advance from of the study of market behavior, creating attractive ways for competitiveness, that allows the entrepreneur to build innovative proposals, and provide quality products and services that meet the needs and desires of women who manage transportation units in the border region city of Tijuana-San Diego. This paper is carried out firstly by making a documentary review, analyzing the findings of previous investigations, as well, we follow up to contextualize the automotive service in the region, to continue with the adaptation of the instrument of the theory of planned behavior of (I. Ajzen, 1985), where the decision process variable is added. The findings concluded that the female market that requests mechanical services needs a service approach, differentiated attention, as well as that the decision process is related to the intention of the purchase.
... Scholars have focused on the effects of attitudes and attitude formation and change to understand and predict consumer behavior [68][69][70]. As critical drivers of consumers' attitudes and attitude change, personal values ultimately affect consumer behavior in terms of the selection of products/service classes, categories, and particular brands [65,71,72] (see Figure 1). ...
... Personal values underlie attitude formation as global beliefs about desirable modes of behavior or end states [81]. Compared to personal values, attitude is the overall evaluation of or orientation towards an object or behavior emphasizing specific products, brands, or situations [70]. In other words, the attitudes of a consumer are formed by the way the consumer applies his or her general values to certain situations or objects [79]. ...
... In other words, the attitudes of a consumer are formed by the way the consumer applies his or her general values to certain situations or objects [79]. Attitudes are expressed as affective, cognitive, and conative orientations toward particular situations and objects (e.g., products or a brand) [70]. Finally, consumption behavior is the manifestation of a consumer's basic values and is influenced by attitudes [79]. ...
Article
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This conceptual paper is about the relationship between cultural value orientations and personal value systems in relation to predicting pro-environmental behavior in hospitality and tourism via a comprehensive literature review undertaken in the social sciences field. Based on the conceptual aspects of this topic, this paper demonstrates awareness of the wider literature and focuses on tourism and hospitality as special kinds of consumer products and behaviors, with consideration of the differences in approaches to the subject of personal values demonstrated by hospitality and tourism scholars. Based on the comprehensive literature review of research on personal values and cultural values, this study proposes conceptual differences and provides some recommendations for using cultural value orientations and personal value systems in the prediction of pro-environmental behavior in the hospitality and tourism study.
... The individual meaning associated with attitude comes from the "like or dislike" paradox (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). Ajzen and Fishbein recommend using a bipolar rating scale when assessing attitudes. ...
... Subjective normativity refers to an individual's perception of his or her commercial validator's willingness to buy or not to buy sustainable products. According to Ajzen and Fishbein (1980), "The more a person thinks that other people who are important to him believe he should take a certain action, the more he intends to do so." In assessing subjective norms, a measure to align intentions and actions is recommended. ...
Chapter
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This chapter shows, in a documentary way, the role of nopal in the social and cultural development of the municipality of Sonsón, Antioquia, highlighting its history and its impact on hundreds of families of this region. The nopal has historically been cultivated in Sonsón to harvest one of its flagship products, the fig; an exotic fruit cultivated primarily for export, and much less for local consumption. However, it is known that all parts of the plant are usable, including the waste associated with its pruning. In Colombia, the complete exploration of the entire plant has been timidly explored, so new potential uses beyond harvesting the fruit are unknown. This document exposes the potential of nopal waste in the development of craft, art, and product design pieces using eco-design strategies based on circular economy trends. Hence, a look to an integral use of the plant allows the tradition of the so-called “fig trees” to endure over time, avoiding the threats associated with new agricultural products that promise the farmers “greater benefits” for the livelihood of their families and the development of the region. This look, in addition, will contribute to responding to some of the Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs through interdisciplinary work between academy, public and private sectors, and citizen interest, promoting the encounter of scientific and artistic communities around the nopal, through the development of a museum exhibition in Medellin’s Botanical Garden, which allows to exalt the nopal as an alternative for the sustainability of families in the municipality of Sonsón.
... The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) developed by can be implemented here to �ind out the main factors that in�luence how an Instagram user perceives in�luencer marketing. Initially, Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) developed a theory that was called the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and they assumed that the central aspects of behavioral intentions to assess real behavior are attitude and norms (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). TRA analyzed that if an individual has a constructive attitude and if they believe that the societies agree for them to do so (subjective norm), then it will affect the increasing level of intention (motivation) and this will lead the individual to perform the behavior. ...
... The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) developed by can be implemented here to �ind out the main factors that in�luence how an Instagram user perceives in�luencer marketing. Initially, Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) developed a theory that was called the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and they assumed that the central aspects of behavioral intentions to assess real behavior are attitude and norms (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). TRA analyzed that if an individual has a constructive attitude and if they believe that the societies agree for them to do so (subjective norm), then it will affect the increasing level of intention (motivation) and this will lead the individual to perform the behavior. ...
Article
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Social media influencers are winning over the internet with their outstanding work and presence. Their opinions have a powerful impact on people, especially on the young generation. We can mark them as a modern phenomenon that has seen a huge increase in cooperation with marketing agencies over recent years. More and more people are following such influencers so that they do not miss out on their content. Brands flock to such influencers for mentions, reviews, and recommendations. Even though influencer marketing is a relatively new strategy, it continues to be a viable solution for marketers who are willing to think outside the box while building relationships with their target market. The aim of the study is to offer a comprehensive reflection on influencer marketing opportunities and determine the impact of influencers on consumer behavior of Generation Y and Z. We wanted to find out whether influencers, who promote products, can attract potential customers and encourage them to purchase, as well as find differences between the given consumers' generations. The analysis is performed using statistics. Thus, this inquiry is also a study of causality. Causal research, alternatively referred to as explanatory study, is used to determine the extent and type of cause-and-effect relationships
... People are known to be affected by the social norms. Ajzen and Fishbein (1980;p. 57) describes as "a person's subjective norm, i.e. his perception that most people who are important to him think he should or should not perform the behavior in question." ...
... However, this review only resulted in research using more systematic and comprehensive techniques and a wide range of other variables influencing the relationship were introduced. Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975;Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) and its extension Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985;Ajzen 1991) is models of determinants of human behaviour, which has generated a great deal of interest. TRA stated that intention to display certain behaviours could be predicted on the basis of attitude towards that behaviour and personal norm concerning the behaviour. ...
... The individual meaning associated with attitude comes from the "like or dislike" paradox (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). Ajzen and Fishbein recommend using a bipolar rating scale when assessing attitudes. ...
... Subjective normativity refers to an individual's perception of his or her commercial validator's willingness to buy or not to buy sustainable products. According to Ajzen and Fishbein (1980), "The more a person thinks that other people who are important to him believe he should take a certain action, the more he intends to do so." In assessing subjective norms, a measure to align intentions and actions is recommended. ...
Chapter
This work presents the pedagogical approach and the outcomes of a course aimed at teaching sustainability through the lenses of materials. The last decade has been crucial to finally reach a mature state of awareness of how the material side of our productions and its poor management is at the base of many environmental problems. Such awareness pushed the emergence of new materials, motivated by the search for more sustainable alternatives and a re-evaluation of biological processes capable of creating materials and artifacts through bio-based and bio-fabrication techniques. The clear environmental crises also pushed the design field to pay more attention to materials; but to date, for designers, understanding the sustainability of materials and their real impact on life cycle products is still not trivial; new biotechnologies are opening up the possibility for designers to experiment with organic sources and living materials. The academic course described in this study focuses on a didactic method based on a practice-based approach; the students are guided to learn the key aspects that can define a material in a sustainable context, improving their material development knowledge and lab working skills. A learning-by-doing path is developed in three workshops tackling material sustainability with increasing difficulty and understanding. The learning journey starts with an analysis of local wastes for the development of new DIY circular materials. The second step introduces the living variable of bio-fabricated materials, amplifying the complexity of the project and adapting to nature’s time scale. The last step requires a higher understanding of the synergistic mechanisms between biotic and abiotic agents in an ecosystem by exploring bioreceptive materials. These three material approaches have been selected for the design methodologies and sustainability principles they have in common. Using classroom observations and a survey, the authors examined student experiences and perceptions of the proposed syllabus in order to understand its efficacy in terms of the last student’s material and sustainability awareness. This educational path has proved to deeply connect the students with materials’ life cycles and local and natural resources, gaining a deeper understanding of regional environmental issues potentially having a material design solution.
... Idea model TAM ini awalnya ditemui oleh Davis (1989) dalam kajiannya untuk menerangkan perihal penerimaan teknologi computer berdasarkan satu teori yang jelas. Model asal dibangunkan oleh Ajzen & Fishbein (1980) dan seterusnya dikembangkan lagi oleh pengkaji lepas (Lu et al., 2003;Davis, 1989;Venkatesh et al., 2003). Rajah 1 menunjukkan kaitan antara pembolehubah yang diukur dalam TAM. ...
Conference Paper
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Abstrak: Pandemik COVID 19 telah mengubah sistem pendidikan serta perlaksanaannya secara menyeluruh dan aplikasi teknologi telah digunapakai secara meluas dalam memudahcara urusan pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Justeru, kajian deskriptif ini bertujuan untuk melihat tahap penggunaan Google Sites sebagai medium pengurusan dokumen dalam kalangan pelajar WBL di PUO. Tahap penggunaan ini dilihat dari empat aspek iaitu Persepsi Kemudahan Penggunaan (Perceived Ease of Use), Persepsi kegunaan (Perceived Usefulness), Sikap Menggunakan Teknologi (Attitude Towards Using Technology) dan Niat Perilaku Untuk Menggunakan (Behavioral Intention to Use) terhadap penggunaan Google Sites dalam pengurusan dokumen yang disediakan kepada pelajar. Instrumen kajian adalah set soal selidik yang mengandungi 20 item berskala Likert. Responden terdiri daripada 30 pelajar semester 8 program Ijazah sarjana Muda Teknologi Kejuruteraan Awam, PUO. Data dianalisis menggunakan perisian Statistical Package for The Social Science (SPSS) versi 21 untuk mendapatkan peratus dan skor min. Hasil analisis menunjukkan tahap penggunaan Google Sites sebagai medium pengurusan dokumen oleh pelajar memperolehi min keseluruhan yang tinggi. Pembelajaran berasaskan Google Sites yang dibangunkan memudahkan urusan penghantar dokumen sepanjang pelajar berada di industri. Jelas, Google site boleh digunakan sebagai satu medium perantaraan antara pelajar dan industri sepanjang tempoh pandemic. Katakunci: Penggunaan; Google Sites; Pembelajaran, E-learning.
... A person's act is determined by the behavioural intention to emit the behaviour (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980;Vallerand et al., 1992). Intentions are supposed to reflect an individual inspirational antecedent to indicate an individual's willingness and to assume how much of an effort to put forth to accomplish a task (Ajzen, 1991;Singh and Srivastava, 2018). ...
Article
Purpose The research identifies the predictors of Islamic mobile banking (IMB) smart services adoption and usage in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach Based on the Unified Theory of the Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and the Unified Theory of the Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2), an extended and modified model that encompasses perceived trust was developed. The sample comprised 358 customers from Islamic banks (IBs) in Jordan, and structural equation modelling was applied to examine data drawn from the sample. Findings The research framework presented 0.728% of the behavioural intention variance and 0.455% of the use behaviour. Results discovered that performance expectancy, perceived trust and hedonic motivation have significant relations with behavioural intention. The finding that effort expectancy has an insignificant effect and that social influence has a significant negative influence on behavioural intention was unexpected. Research limitations/implications The research has successfully verified the effect of performance expectancy, perceived trust and hedonic motivation on the customer's intention to use IMB smart services. However, the research data findings are based on the cross-sectional design. Practical implications The outcomes hold implications for marketing strategy makers who are responsible for promoting IMB smart services in IBs. Originality/value This research presents a deeper insight into IMB adoption and use. The research employed UTAUT and UTAUT2 as the baseline model and incorporates perceived trust to estimate behavioural intention. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this could be the first inquiry that examines IMB smart services adoption and use in Jordan.
... That is the reason why the current study sought to extend this model through adding new determinants to fit it well with the characteristics of mobile services (Amin, 2007;Qingfei et al., 2008;Snowden & Spafford, 2006;Wong & Hsu, 2008;Yang, 2005). TAM was rooted in the theory of reasoned actions (TRA), a model suggests that beliefs influence attitudes, attitudes influence intention and this may generate behaviors (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Based on TAM model, the level of technology acceptance by users depends on two main constructs, namely, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use." ...
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The complex village problems require special handling, especially in the management of village funding. It is believed that there are needed parameters to measure the success of village fund management. This research seeks to produce a method of measuring the effectiveness of village funding management. Fuzzy inference system (FIS) is an artificial intelligence model developed to quantify qualitative data obtained from expert opinion intomathematical equations. From this research, the effectiveness measurement model using FIScan be applied as one method of measuring the effectiveness of village fund which is userfriendly.
... That is the reason why the current study sought to extend this model through adding new determinants to fit it well with the characteristics of mobile services (Amin, 2007;Qingfei et al., 2008;Snowden & Spafford, 2006;Wong & Hsu, 2008;Yang, 2005). TAM was rooted in the theory of reasoned actions (TRA), a model suggests that beliefs influence attitudes, attitudes influence intention and this may generate behaviors (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Based on TAM model, the level of technology acceptance by users depends on two main constructs, namely, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use." ...
Article
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... Also, according to Ajzen (2012), it is at the level of beliefs that we obtain substantive information about what leads to a certain behavior or not. The Theory of Planned Behavior, initially formulated by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980), and later revised in Ajzen (1991), presents the behavioral, normative or control beliefs that favorably or unfavorably drive intention, which in turn precedes the behavior. ...
Article
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This article aims to propose a conceptual model for evaluating the knowledge stage of a professional activity. Starting from an integrative literature review, a method that allows us to assess, criticize and synthesize empirical or theoretical knowledge, we explore the evolutions of the model by Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1980). The collection and analysis process followed a six-stage process, starting from a guiding question and proceeding to a literature search, so that data collection and critical analysis of information could be carried out in a structured and codified way, enabling the discussion of results and, finally, the presentation of the review. As a result, we suggest a model capable of classifying a professional competence in accordance with the literature, through a model that considers practice, theoretical/technical knowledge, and attitude as axes for the evolution of learning. The suggested model contributes to the construction of a skills assessment instrument.
... Two types of personal attitude can be distinguished: the first is the emotional/experimental attitude, which refers to feelings and emotions, and the second is the instrumental/cognitive attitude, which refers to rational arguments and ideas [54][55][56]. It is worth noting that among the most important theories dealing with the interpretation of people's attitudes and behavioral phenomena are the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior, which is the main reference in most research that deals with individuals' attitudes and behaviors [6,[57][58][59]. The scale proposed by Ajzen [58] was adopted to measure tourism graduates' attitudes in this study. ...
Article
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The Saudi Arabian government has promoted the tourism industry as a way to achieve the Kingdom’s Vision 2030 by diversifying the economy and reducing overdependence on the oil sector. To align with this, several universities in Saudi Arabia have started providing tourism education. Accordingly, several academic programs and university incubators were launched to prepare workers and entrepreneurs for the industry. This study examines the role of support given by university incubators—embedded in networking support, financial support, and training support—in enhancing entrepreneurship intention among tourism graduates. Furthermore, the study examines the mediating role of personal attitude in the aforementioned relationship. Data were collected from a sample of 750 senior students at tourism and hospitality management colleges in Saudi Arabian public universities. All of the research participants have had access to these incubators. Using structural equation modeling, the study shows that the personal attitude of graduates partially mediates the impact of networking support as a dimension of university incubator support and entrepreneurship intention. However, the personal attitude of graduates was found to fully mediate the relationships between financial and training support and entrepreneurship. Future research implications and limitations are elaborated.
... Steinmetz et al. [32] reviewed a range of interventions and concluded that the TPB is a popular model for explaining the mechanisms underlying the adoption of healthy behaviors. The TPB, which evolved from a prior theoretical framework, the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) [33,34], is an appropriate theoretical framework for considering multiple behavioral changes, as it allows the identification of beliefs related to the production of health-related behaviors within a specific context [35]. According to the TRA, the strongest predictor of behavior is behavioral intention, which indicates whether a person is ready to perform the aforementioned behavior. ...
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The present study examined the effectiveness of a school-based health education program promoting healthy diet and exercise, named DIEX, implemented on adolescents. The program is based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and is supported by life skills training. The recipients of the program were high school students (n = 367; 168 boys and 199 girls) from 14 schools in Greece who attended 10 1 h sessions implemented by their schoolteachers. Data were collected before and after the program implementation through online questionnaires for: a. attitude, intention, subjective norms, and PBC toward healthy eating; b. knowledge about healthy eating; c. exercise behavior and attitude toward the DIEX program; and d. satisfaction with the DIEX program (only post-program). The results showed that there were significant differences among the pre- and post-measures of students’ knowledge and behavior about healthy diet, as well as attitudes and satisfaction toward the program’s application. The results show that the DIEX program may have improved nutrition behavior variables. Conclusively, a theory-based behavioral intervention with skills training may result in positive behavioral changes for young students during health education in school settings with the assistance of new technologies.
... This attention has resulted in many intention-based theories and models being proposed and empirically examined in the last decade, with the aim of identifying, explaining, and predicting the dynamics of technology adoption and use. These include the theory of reasoned action (TRA; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975;Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) and its extension, the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985Ajzen, , 1991, the task-technology fit model (Goodhue & Thompson, 1995), social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986(Bandura, , 1997, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (Venkatesh et al., 2003), the motivational model, the model of PC utilization (Thompson et al., 1991), the technology acceptance model (TAM; Davis, 1989), the combined TAM and TPB (Taylor & Todd,1995), innovation diffusion theory (Rogers, 1983), and GETAMEL . In recent decades, there has been growing body of empirical work on these theories and models, but it has produced abundant contradictory results on their generalizability and comparability . ...
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The present study aims to determine factors influencing graduate students’ intention to use Zoom technology. A questionnaire modified to conform to the General Extended Technology Acceptance Model was distributed to 256 graduate students at King Khalid University in Saudi Arabia. The results indicate that the hypothesized model was a good predictor of intention to use. About 71% of the variance of intention to use Zoom technology was explained. The model’s antecedents significantly predicted intention to use. The most crucial factor was attitude, while perceived usefulness had a negligible impact on predicting intention to use. Both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness were found to predict students’ attitudes towards using Zoom. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were the most fundamental external factors in predicting perceived usefulness, but subjective norms had no significant effect. The best predictor of students’ perceptions of the usefulness of the Zoom technology was perceived ease of use, followed by self-efficacy. Finally, perceived ease of use was significantly predicted by self-efficacy. The findings improve understanding regarding the acceptance of Zoom. This work is of particular interest to researchers, developers, and practitioners of Zoom in educational contexts.
... Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) have both dealt with choice of behavior, where there have been reasons behind the choices made (East, 1993). assumption was people engaged in rational behavior and weighed the consequences of any action they might take or choice they make. ...
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Abstract This study aims to provide an overview of legislation and employment policies for young people in Albania, mainly for those who have completed professional education studies. The effectiveness of these policies will be attached special priority in our study. By this work we intend to answer questions such as: How really effective are the employment policies for young people? Which are the factors influencing the effective implementation or not of these policies? Which are the consequences of unemployment of young people with professional education? Different statistics and data collected from public or private institutions on professional education and employment opportunities for young people will be analyzed in this study. The entire study will be subject to review of literature sources and critical analysis. It aims to promote the awareness of local policy-makers to draft social policies on the labor market, mainly for the employment of young people with professional education, which should be implemented in the context of current state of affairs of Albania, as well as the sensibilization of young people in term of professional education under market requirements. The study will certainly continue with some conclusions to be introduced at the end, associated with key recommendations from the authors, in order to better address the employment policies for young people oriented to real market demands in Albania. Keywords: effectiveness, employment, employment policies, professional education, young people JEL Classification: M51, M50, J20
... Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) have both dealt with choice of behavior, where there have been reasons behind the choices made (East, 1993). assumption was people engaged in rational behavior and weighed the consequences of any action they might take or choice they make. ...
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... The theory of reasoned action (TRA) has been widely used in behavioral research due to its great applicability to environmental psychology (de Leeuw et al., 2015;Echegaray and Hansstein, 2017;Oztekin et al., 2017;Cudjoe et al., 2020;Han and Cudjoe, 2020). The TRA has been used as the basic framework in most of the studies related to environmental knowledge (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980), where the attitude and behavior variables in the TRA are taken out separately (Polonsky et al., 2012;Babaei et al., 2015;Taufique et al., 2016;Baser et al., 2017;Almasi et al., 2019). As a result, a new model that only includes knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) is gradually formed (Polonsky et al., 2012;Babaei et al., 2015;Taufique et al., 2016;Baser et al., 2017;Almasi et al., 2019). ...
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With the rapid increase in household waste, environmental degradation becomes more serious. It is imperative to promote waste sorting in China. This study proposes an extended KAB model to explore the impact mechanism of different dimensions of subjective environmental knowledge on urban residents' waste sorting intention. The study also explores the moderating role of environmental concern in the relationship between three types of subjective environmental knowledge and attitude toward waste sorting. Based on 308 valid questionnaires, through structural equation model, multiple regression analysis, and simple slope test, we found that system knowledge, action-related knowledge, and effectiveness knowledge all have positive impacts on residents' attitudes toward waste sorting, and effectiveness knowledge has the most significant impact. Meanwhile, environmental concern positively moderates the relationship between system knowledge, effectiveness knowledge, and attitude toward waste sorting. This study makes an important theoretical contribution to enrich the existing literature on residents' waste sorting behavior and provides theoretical insights for governmental waste sorting policy formulation at the practical level.
... As exemplification can relate to protective behaviors (Zillmann, 2006), a number of protective behavioral intentions (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) were measured. In two semantic-differential items (e.g., 1 = extremely unlikely, 7 = extremely likely) participants indicated whether they would take precautions when visiting local gas stations (α = .81). ...
Article
Research has shown that vivid exemplars bias risk perceptions, raising concerns about the role of media in shaping public opinion. However, receiver characteristics that moderate the influence of vivid exemplars remain understudied. We propose that insofar as exemplars in media portrayals represent (at times biased) samples of the population of events, inferential reasoning ability (IRA) – the knowledge of and skill at applying inferential and statistical principles – may enable people to avoid drawing invalid inferences from exemplars. In two message-exposure experiments employing different designs and stimulus materials, we find that exemplars conditionally influence perceptions of risk, depending on the receiver’s IRA. Specifically, higher IRA was associated with reduced influence of vivid exemplars. This work highlights the importance of accounting for heterogeneous audiences in risk messaging and offers tools for measuring audience IRA.
... The influence of subjective norms on forming intention proved to be generally weaker in previous studies than the influence of attitude (Ham, Jeger & Frajman Ivković, 2015, 740). The theory of reasoned action (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980;Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975) states that subjective norms can directly influence intentions. Beliefs about whether important others would support the behaviour determines the motivation to act. ...
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The researches of academic dishonesty and students' unethical behaviour have increased in the past two decades. Questions is: why students behave unethically and what factors influence on their unethical behaviour. In this research authors used theory of planned behaviour to predict intentions of students' unethical behaviour. The theory of planned behaviour explains how to predict planned and deliberate behaviour. For this purpose, it is necessary to investigate the attitudes towards specific behaviour, subjective norms (beliefs about how others look at this behaviour) and perceived behavioural control toward this behaviour. Knowledge of these three elements enables to predict the intentions of behaviour, which are highly correlated with the actual behaviour. Based on this, the goal of this paper is to validate the use of a modified Theory of Planned Behaviour for predicting students' unethical behaviour observing the influence of subjective norms on students' intentions for engaging in unethical behaviour in higher education. The study was conducted through a questionnaire among students of undergraduate and graduate studies. In data analysis, descriptive statistics analyse of variance (ANOVA), regression analysis and correlation analysis were used. Research results show statistically significant positive correlation between subjective norms (the influence of family and friends) and the student's intentions of engaging in unethical behaviour. Positive correlations are shown between subjective norms (family) and students' mother's and father's level of education and between subjective norms (friends) and students' year of study. Negative correlation is shown between both groups of subjective norms and students class attendance. Results from regression analysis reveal significant positive relationship between student's intentions of unethical behaviour in higher education and subjective norms relating to the impact of family and friends of respondents. Implications of research findings are discussed in the paper. UTJECAJ SUBJEKTIVNIH NORMI NA NEETIČNO PONAŠANJE STUDENATA U VISOKOM OBRAZOVANJU SAŽETAK Istraživanja o akademskom nepoštenju i neetičnom ponašanju studenata porasla su u zadnja dva desetljeća. Postavlja se pitanje zašto se studenti ponašaju neetično i koji faktori utječu na njihovo neetično ponašanje. U istraživanju autori su koristili Teoriju planiranog ponašanja kako bi predvidjeli namjere studenata vezane uz neetično ponašanje. Teorija planiranog ponašanja objašnjava na koji način se mogu predvidjeti planirana i promišljena ponašanja. U tu svrhu, nužno je poznavati stavove s obzirom na specifično ponašanje koje nas zanima, subjektivne norme (vjerovanja o tome na koji način drugi u okolini gledaju na to ponašanje) i koliko ljudi vjeruju da mogu kontrolirati to ponašanje. Poznajući sva tri elementa omogućuje predviđanje namjera ponašanja koje su povezane s planiranim ponašanjem. Na temelju navedenog, cilj rada je, korištenjem prilagođenog modela Teorije planiranog ponašanja, predvidjeti neetično ponašanje studenata promatrajući na koji način subjektivne norme utječu na njihovu namjeru neetičnog ponašanja. Rezultati istraživanja su pokazali kako postoji pozitivna statistički značajna korelacija između subjektivnih normi (ukoliko se promatra utjecaj obitelji prijatelja) i namjera neetičnog ponašanja studenata u visokom obrazovanju. Pozitivan utjecaj na subjektivne norme od strane obitelji ima razina obrazovanja roditelja i status studenta a kod subjektivnih normi od strane prijatelja ima godina studija. Negativna korelacija se javila između obje grupe subjektivnih normi i prisutnosti na nastavi. Rezultati provedene regresijske analize otkrivaju signifikantnu pozitivnu vezu između namjere neetičnog ponašanja studenata i subjektivnih normi koji se odnose na utjecaj obitelji i prijatelja ispitanika. Istraživanje se provelo putem anketnog upitnika na studentima preddiplomskog i diplomskog studija. U analizi se koristila deskriptivna statistika, analiza varijance (ANOVA), regresijska analiza i korelacijska analiza. Implikacije rezultata raspravljene su u radu. Ključne riječi: subjektivne norme, namjere, neetično ponašanje, student, visoko obrazovanje 1. Introduction Over the last decade numerous studies have been conducted trying to explain what makes people behave in certain way. Conducted studies helped numerous authors to develop different models of behaviour which are nowadays used to explain what effects on human behaviour. One of the best known integrated model of behaviour is the one developed by Icek Ajzen-the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour tries to explain human behaviour and gives an insight on how people's behaviour can be modified.
... Fishbein et Ajzen (1975) puis Ajzen et Fishbein (1980) ont proposé une théorie de l'action raisonnée. En résumé, la réalisation d'un comportement reflèterait l'intention comportementale. ...
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Actions de prévention : messages et comportements Des actions de prévention peuvent être mises en oeuvre en amont de la consommation d'alcool, mais aussi à tout moment de son évolution. Ce chapitre présente un bilan des connaissances scientifiques sur les modèles et théories du changement des attitudes et des comportements, des effets de résistance, liés à la consommation d'alcool. Nous présenterons successivement les campagnes d'information et leur impact sur les attitudes et comportements, les aspects plus psychologiques et socio-psychologiques liés à la personnalité, les théories et techniques de changement des comportements en matière de consommation d'alcool, les possibilités d'intervention en termes de communication digitale (e-santé) et de persuasion technologique.
... In line with our findings, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and its variants are the most commonly utilized underlying theory. TAM was first introduced by Davis [43] who adapted the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) [44] to explore/explain the determinants of usage/non-usage of technological innovations. Behavioral intention is recognized as a reliable predictor of actual usage, particularly in the context of studies on current and/or emerging technologies that are not yet commercially available [45][46][47]. ...
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The capability of ‘demand-responsive transport’, particularly in autonomous shared form, to better facilitate road-based mobility is considered a significant advantage because improved mobility leads to enhanced quality of life and wellbeing. A central point in implementing a demand-responsive transit system in a new area is adapting the operational concept to the respective structural and socioeconomic conditions. This requires an extensive analysis of the users’ needs. There is presently limited understanding of public perceptions and attitudes toward the adoption of autonomous demand-responsive transport. To address this gap, a theory-based conceptual framework is proposed to provide detailed empirical insights into the public’s adoption intention of ‘autonomous shuttle buses’ as a form of autonomous demand-responsive transport. South East Queensland, Australia, was selected as the testbed. In this case study, relationships between perceptions, attitudes, and usage intention were examined by employing a partial least squares structural equation modeling method. The results support the basic technology acceptance model casual relationships that correspond with previous studies. Although the direct effects of perceived relative advantages and perceived service quality on usage intention are not significant, they could still affect usage intention indirectly through the attitude factor. Conversely, perceived risks are shown to have no association with perceived usefulness but can negatively impact travelers’ attitudes and usage intention toward autonomous shuttle buses. The research findings provide implications to assist policymakers, transport planners, and engineers in their policy decisions and system plans as well as achieving higher public acknowledgment and wider uptake of autonomous demand-responsive transport technology solutions.
... Cụ thể, biến chất lượng thông tin (IQU) được trích từ nghiên cứu của Filieri và cộng sự [13]; tin cậy thông tin (CRE) dựa trên nghiên cứu của Cheung và Thadani [10] và số lượng thông tin (IQT) dựa trên Filieri và cộng sự [13]. Nhận thức rủi ro dịch bệnh (THR) đạt được từ Witte [14]; động lực bản thân (SEF) và hành vi rửa tay (HAN) được đề xuất từ Ajzen và Fishbein [15]. Liên quan đến hành vi bảo vệ sức khỏe, hành vi đeo khẩu trang (MAS) dựa trên Dodds và cộng sự [16]; giãn cách xã hội (DSO) dựa trên Nguyen và Le [4]. ...
Article
Information content via social media has received attention from the community during the pandemic. This work aims to examine a preventive behavior model due to information value through social media under COVID-19 in Vietnam. This model is formulated based on the integration of Health Belief Theory (HBT) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). A web-based survey is performed to collect data from 321 respondents who have utilized social media to seek and accumulate COVID-19-related information. The results indicate that perceived threat and self-efficacy are two vital predictors of readiness to uptake preventative behaviors. Additionally, information dimensions (i.e., information quality and information credibility) are crucial motivations underlying perceived threat and self-efficacy. Information quality well surmises information credibility. Finally, theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Attitudes are widely characterized as users' predispositions to react positively or negatively to goods or services (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). In consumer behaviour research, consumers' attitudes are generally perceived as a precursor to users' behavioural intentions (Ajzen, 1985;Fishbein and Ajzen, 1977). ...
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Recent literature on the QR code payment system has called for further research on the adoption of QR codes as a payment tool among digital natives. In response to this call, this study investigates the influence of perceived value on digital natives’ attitudes and trust in fostering their intention to adopt QR code payments through the integration of prospect theory and perceived value theory. Following a purposive sampling technique, a quantitative approach was employed and PLS-SEM was performed to evaluate the study hypotheses. A structured questionnaire was used to collect survey data from 387 digital natives. Findings showed that digital natives’ behavioural intention to adopt QR code payments was positively influenced by perceived value and trust but not by attitude. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that attitude and trust serially mediated the relationship between digital natives' perception of value and their propensity to accept QR code payments. Nevertheless, this study also highlighted the moderating effects of technology readiness and innovation resistance and showed how they strengthen and weaken the relationships amongst perceived value, attitude, trust, and behavioural intention. The study offers valuable insights for marketing managers and policy makers in understanding digital natives’ perceptions towards adopting QR codes with regard to making payments and advances the theoretical depth by contributing to the literature related to the adoption of QR codes while making payments.
... Therefore, this has necessitated the understanding of the adoption of digital wallets among consumers. To do so, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) proposed by Davis (1986), which stemmed from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) developed by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980), was employed to explain the phenomenon. Generally, this research framework informs the acceptability of individuals with regards to measuring their behaviour upon using a new information system. ...
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The coronavirus outbreak has necessitated physical distancing to be ruled out as a measure to control the virus transmission. The pandemic has also called forth an alternative among Malaysians to continue their livelihood, including opting for mobile wallets during routine business transactions. Despite the growing number reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, the 40% increase has yet to reach the optimum level of usage, indicating that mobile wallet use will remain relatively low. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate mobile wallet usage amidst the COVID-19 pandemic by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The present research was conducted nationwide, involving a sample size of 452 who completed the distributed questionnaires. The analysis of data utilised the Smart Partial Least Square (SmartPLS). The results show a significant relationship between perceived usefulness and attitude towards mobile wallet usage. The respondents believe that using mobile wallets would be beneficial to them. In addition, perceived ease of use is also found to be significant, and the respondents believe that they do not require much effort to use a mobile wallet. The attitudes towards using mobile wallets have also observed a significant relationship with the intention of Malaysians to use them. For future research, it is recommended that the study is conducted with larger sample size and that the integration of a qualitative approach is considered to better understand the usage of mobile wallets in a similar context.
... This [21] was propounded by Icek Adjen. The theory was an improvement on [22]. The improvement of the theory was evident in the inclusion of the third construct "Perceived Behavioral Control" which refers to an individual's belief or ability to undertake an action. ...
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Child marriage is a bane to sustainable development, as it has been associated with the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, intimate partner violence, and maternal mortality. This study examines the association between education and child marriage is sub-Saharan Africa. A subsample of one thousand, four hundred and sixty-one females, aged 12 years to 18 years was extracted from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey dataset. The independent variables were intra-regional groups and education. The dependent variable was child marriage (<18 years). The associations between intra-regional groups and education on child marriage were examined from the ever-given birth subsample to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs, using binary logistic regression models. There was a positive significant relationship between maternal education (χ2 = 65.5, p < 0.05) and intra-regional ethnic groups (χ2 = 106.58, p < 0.05) on child marriage. The odds were higher among the Hausa/Fulani groups that do not have a formal education (OR = 1.34; p < 0.05), have a poor financial status (OR = 1.67; p < 0.05), and those who had previously terminated a pregnancy (OR = 1.24; p < 0.05). The findings indicate that the intra-regional ethnic group affiliation and the lack of a formal education influences the incidence of child marriage, especially among socio-economically disadvantage females. Interventions aimed at curtailing child marriage should utilize community-based education to engage relevant stakeholders within the grassroots.
... The theory of planned behavior is an extension of the theory of reasoned action as proposed by Ajzen & Fishbein, (1980) & Fishbein & Ajzen, (1975 which was made necessary by the original model's limitations in dealing with behaviors over which people have incomplete volitional control. As a general rule, the stronger the intention to engage in a behavior, the more likely should be its performance. ...
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This study examines the extent to which mitigation strategies relate with productivity in manufacturing firms in River state. Risk transfer and risk avoidance were adopted as dimensions of mitigation strategies while efficiency and effectiveness were adopted as measures of productivity. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design, a total of five manufacturing companies out of the 62 registered manufacturing companies were selected for this study namely; Chinjex group of companies, West African Glass industry, General These firms have a total of 309 employees. Using the Krejcie and Morgan table, we had a sample size of 169. Spearman rank order correlation was used in testing the stated null hypotheses. The study found a significant relationship between all dimensions of mitigation strategies and measures of productivity. The study further recommends collaboration with firms who are specialized in the aspect of risk that has great impact on firms' production and performance. It would save them great cost and ensure their sustainability amongst others.
... Technology acceptance is a rather complicated process and shows the willingness of the person or an organization to use technology for their own benefit. Based on this complex structure, which has been mentioned in the past literature, many studies have shown that not only the technological features but also the personality traits, social impact, trust, and regulatory conditions of the users are effective in acceptance behaviour (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980;Thompson et al., 1991;Gefen et al., 2003). ...
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The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the adoption of blockchain technology by the companies in the industries such as raw material, transportation, healthcare, food, financial and to propose a comprehensive model explaining adoption behavior in the supply chain context. Supply chain, blockchain, information systems, and logistics literature have been extensively examined to create the associated model. Accordingly, the concept of inter-firm acceptance faced by researchers was accepted as a differentiating point and related constructs and the model were designed specifically for blockchain technology. A comprehensive literature review showed that there is a very limited number of studies on the acceptance of blockchain technologies by companies. The model created consists of 4 main determinants and 10 related attributes. In this context, inter-organizational factors such as power and trust of chain stakeholders and readiness for technology as organizational factor were analyzed within the integration of relative advantage, transparency, and cost as main characteristics of the technology. This model provides an important and unique perspective for practitioners and the academic studies to be carried out.
... TAM has proven to be a theoretical model in helping to explain and predict user behaviour of information technology (Legris, Ingham, & Collerette, 2003). TAM is considered an influential extension of Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), according to Ajzen and Fishbein (1980), Davis, Bagozzi, and Warshaw (1989) proposed TAM to explain why a user accepts or rejects information technology by adapting TRA. TAM provides a basis with which one traces how external variables influence belief, attitude, and intention to use. ...
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Digital skills are relatively new resources for enhanced academic performance is a continuing discussion and debate among university students. A central problem of the digital technology's agenda is how to develop students' skills and competencies to support immediate and longer-term life transitions. This paper examined digital skills and academic performance of university students in Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria. The objectives were to examine the effect of the availability of digital skill resources, accessibility of digital skill resources and effect of the user-ability of digital skill resources on academic performance of students of management sciences in Lagos State University. Survey-descriptive research design was adopted. Convenience sampling technique was used to select 132 participants using questionnaire as an instrument from a population of 8 departments. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, simple percentages, frequency counts, tables and Pearson Chi-square. The findings obtained shows (i) a significant relationship between acquisition of digital skills and academic performance, (ii) a significant relationship between accessibility of digital skills and academic performance, (iii) a significant relationship between user-ability of digital skills and academic performance of students of Faculty of Management Sciences, Lagos State University, Lagos. The study recommended that university management and Faculty of Management Sciences in particular should invest more in computers and related technology as means of, not only solving accessibility problem but improving its presence. The Lagos State Government through should provide more infrastructures to enhance digital skills. Computers, printers, and projectors should be put in place for more practice and utilization. The Government should provide and maintain Internet connection in the university and connect more computers to the Internet. The university management should then liberalize accessibility of Internet and e-mail in the system, in form of establishment of digital resource centers where all software can be accessed, students' packages and all versions of technology.
... According to the theory of reasoned action developed by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980), behavior is a result of specific intentions. Intentions, in turn, are influenced by attitudes and subjective norms, which are defined as the assessment of the result of the respective behavior (whether favorable or unfavorable) and the perceived social pressure for either displaying or avoiding a specific behavior. ...
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This paper aims at examining the sustainable urban consumption (SUC) of households in three Bulgarian cities and determining whether there are significant differences between their sustainable consumption patterns. A conceptual model for measuring SUC is developed with an emphasis on the behavioral component of the attitudes. As part of this, four indexes to study different dimensions of SUC are constructed, namely: Housing Index (provision of the housing with conditions for sustainable consumption); Electricity and Water Index; Food Index; Transportation Index. А Composite Behavioral Index (CBI) was also constructed from the four aforementioned indexes. The model was tested in an empirical study covering a total of 1049 households in the cities Sofia (403 households), Varna (342 households) and Svishtov (304 households). The results reveal that a relatively small portion of the households in the three cities tend to have sustainable lifestyles. Overall, the households from Varna perform the most sustainable behavior. The efficient use of electricity and water prevails the investments in sustainable housing conditions, which signals for orientation towards short term savings rather than reduction of costs in the long run. With no significant differences between the cities, the sustainable transportation practices are least popular among the households. Sustainable food consumption, normally related to preparing at home fresh and locally produced food of mainly vegetable origin, was more widespread among the households from Varna and Svishtov. The proposed research methodology for measuring SUC can be applied both in comparative analyses of SUC for households from different settlements and regions, and for tracking the changes of SUC for households in a given settlement.
... The attitude of teachers was mainly evaluated from whether they could generate positive emotions in their implementation of STEM education and achieve good results in STEM education. Attitudes' influence on an individual's behavioral intentions has been strongly supported by previous studies [25,40]. Therefore, the following hypothesis was proposed: ...
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Teachers are the key factors in ensuring the effectiveness of STEM education, and their intentions deeply influence their teaching practices. The existing research about the influencing factors of teachers’ intentions to implement STEM education has some problems, such as small sample sizes, being limited to teachers of a single subject, and the need for optimization of the theoretical model relied on. This research, based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior combined with the readiness of teachers, formed an assumption model of the factors influencing teachers’ STEM education intentions from the aspects of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Questionnaires were sent to 532 K12 general teachers in China. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to analyze recycled data and verify the assumption model. The results show the following: (1) The educational readiness of K12 teachers in China was at an upper–middle level. Among them, the level of emotional readiness was the highest, while the level of behavioral readiness was the lowest. (2) The STEM behavioral intention of teachers was at an upper–middle level, and attitudes and perceived behavioral control had direct significant impacts on teachers’ intentions to engage in STEM education. Perceived usefulness, self-efficacy, and behavioral readiness were the three strongest indirect impact factors. (3) The emotional readiness of the teachers directly affected their intentions to implement STEM education. Behavioral readiness and cognitive readiness indirectly had an impact on teachers’ intentions to implement STEM education by influencing self-efficacy.
... 15 Later, Ajzen and Fishbein developed the multi-attribute attitude theory into TRA, which stated that behavioral intention was a direct factor that determines behavior, influenced by "Attitude (AT)" and "Subjective Norm (SN)." [16][17][18][19] It was not until 1985 that Ajzen's observed that rational behavior theory postulates that "whether or not an individual takes a particular action" is entirely out of voluntary control, ignoring many external factors that can affect the degree of controllability of an individual's will. ...
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Taiwan’s coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine procurement was delayed until October 2021. With the vaccine’s introduction in Taiwan, the public will have an opportunity to choose vaccination. Choosing to vaccinate involves considerations regarding the trade-off between the protective power of the vaccine and its side effects, which is a planned behavior. College students have considered high-risk objects for COVID-19 outbreaks given their lifestyle, and their efficient vaccination may help reduce mutual infection between college students and the general public. This study obtained 707 valid questionnaires from Taiwan college students (20 years old and above). We investigated several factors during our college students’ survey regarding vaccination. Among this integrated TPB model, “Attitude,” “Subjective Norm,” “Perceived Behavioral Control,” and “COVID-19 Information Asymmetry” had a positive impact on vaccination “Behavioral Intention.” COVID-19 information asymmetry positively and significantly affected behavioral intention through perceived behavioral control, while perceived behavioral control had a mediating effect. To promote the behavioral intention of college students to choose COVID-19 vaccination, public and private departments for epidemic prevention must aim to overcome the self-efficacy barriers of perceived behavioral control and promote the primary group influence effect of subjective norm and the self-interest factor of attitude. Governments and NGOs should also ensure prompt and accurate transmission of epidemic and vaccine information and actively investigate and prohibit misleading details from unknown sources and no scientific basis. Such a policy will generate trust, effectively increasing the vaccination rate and reducing cluster infection.
... It is viewed as a critical strategy to reduce poverty, positively impact attitudes and behaviors, and improve psychosocial functioning (36,(125)(126)(127). Asset theory is consistent with other behavioral and psychosocial theories, including Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (128) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (129)(130)(131)(132)(133)(134). ...
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Various studies across different disciplines are being undertaken to better understand the causes of low birth rates; however, since families with one or two children or no children at all constitute the majority of families in European countries, the perspective of such families dominates current research. As a result, the causes of higher reproductive rates in families with multiple children are unknown. This research aims to help fill this knowledge gap, especially by focusing attention on families with multiple children in countries with low birth rates, which has not been given due consideration in current Polish and international sociological literature. This conceptualization of the issue results from the author’s own experiences and is based in theories of new institutionalism developed in Anthropology and Sociology. A sociological approach to the issue moves away from Bronisław Malinowski’s model of the procreative institution, which meets the social reproductive needs and includes the following institutions: courting, marriage, family, clan, society. Malinowski viewed the procreative institution as universal, existing in all societies in order to support the goal of reproduction of the group. Building on this concept of the procreative institution, this research presents reproduction in the context of the history of the Euro-Atlantic sphere and contemporary post-industrial societies. This research focuses on a specific segment of Polish society: families with multiple children in which the mother has a higher education. This focus is in response to the claim that higher education rates characterize both contemporary post-industrial societies and a lower birth rate, which suggests an interrelatedness between different spheres of social life, broadly understood. Qualitative methods were employed in this research on the conditions that impact on reproductive rates, which enabled attention to complex, interrelated issues that inform family decisions about procreation. In-depth interviews were the main research tool, which was supported by an analysis of the situation of the families with multiple children included in the sample and participant observation in the place of residence of those families. The interviews and observations were carried out in two phases – in 2013 and 2017 – which allows this study to note the impact of family-oriented policies that aim to support demographic growth and that were introduced after the first phase of the study. Overall, 40 interviews were collected with mothers and fathers in families with multiple children. The informants constitute a diverse sample in terms of income and the age of the mother. The sample includes families in which the mother can still bear children as well as families in which the mothers have passed reproductive age. The analysis shows that having multiple children was a matter of conscious choice made by the married couples, above all, in accordance with the mindset/ believes and attitudes they had developed through their own family up-bringing and through the youth groups they were affiliated with as young people themselves. Their believes and attitudes related to families with multiple children, marriage, reproduction, and upbringing influence their willingness to have multiple children. This study found that the norms and informal rules that constitute social expectations, both in the immediate community and in the broader society, as well as the parents’ exposure to family models, significantly influence the decision to either limit or to continue with reproduction in the case of 3+ children. Forming families with multiple children depends on both formal and informal norms and rules that make up the social system and the mental models of the informants, which give them a sense of subjective perceived control. These factors include: the relations in the married couple, the family planning methods that are used, the mothers’ health during pregnancy and birth, the child-care and child-rearing practices, the professional life of the parents, as well as the housing and financial situation of the family. Moreover, moral and religious rules influence families with multiple children. A diachronic analysis of the families in the sample allowed the definition of five strategies used by couples who form families with multiple children: a general openness to having children, an analysis of desires and possibilities, a situational openness, planning, an excitement for reproduction. All the families taking part in the study claimed to be happy or very happy. This study also enabled an indication of directions for future research, for example: links between families with multiple children and care, the professional engagement of the parents, social norms about family size, contraception and family planning methods. The study was based in a small sample size, which further underlines the need for further research. This study can serve to orient future investigations. This research raised a key question about the conditions that must be secured in contemporary post-industrial societies, both by future parents and the broader cultural context, in order for future generations to be regenerated. Such studies should be undertaken in the field of sociology and it might be worth considering defining a separate subfield of the sociology of procreation. These studies should focus on the social conditions and factors that influence procreation as a social activity, and in the field of new institutionalism, reproduction as dependent on institutions on different levels of society. Procreation is not just a private issue of the married couple, but an activity that is socially influenced, as this study has shown.
Chapter
In this chapter an endeavour has been established to capture the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19-related educational transformation and adaptability of the teaching-learning community to embrace the exigency-based changes along with the exploration of the community of inquiry model (CoI) with its three basic elements: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. The chapter also delves into the learners' and teachers' reactions and adaptability towards the change to acquire it as a permanent solution to the traditional teaching procedure. There would be a discourse on the use of ICT (information and communications technology) to address the issues of coping mechanism with the virtual platform, making it a seamless process. In this chapter, the target audience gets a fair cognitive familiarity with the present state and future prediction of the COVID-19-driven pandemic and ramification of it in the future for academic discourse and referencing.
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The study aimed to measure the quality of car dealership services from the point of view of customers by applying to the automotive sector in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia to raise the level of car companies’ services and for agencies to achieve the customers’ desires, needs and satisfaction, improve the quality of services, and the possibility of reaching results in improving the quality of services through which recommendations can be proposed Contribute to increasing customer satisfaction. The research problem was the quality of service provided by car dealerships and not the product itself. Low service quality is a selling problem, not a brand problem. Service quality expectations for new car owners have been increasing, increasing pressure on car manufacturers as well as dealerships to provide high-quality products and services. After-sales services and repairs at car dealerships have received much criticism from customers compared to their other purchasing experiences. Customer dissatisfaction with the quality of after-sales services at car dealerships highlighted the importance of providing high-quality services to customers to improve their satisfaction and generate positive behavioral intentions. Since the main objective of the study was to measure the quality of car dealership services from the point of view of customers by applying to the automotive sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, our study targeted the clients of five of the largest car companies and agencies in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The design and distribution of the questionnaire designed for this study was distributed to a sample of clients. Due to the large size of the target community, it was also relied upon the method of distributing the questionnaire during the interview, as the use of this method makes the respondents' answers more credible, as well as helps the respondent in answering the various questionnaire axes upon request. The study reached several results, the most important of which are: There is a statistically significant relationship between the quality of the services provided with its dimensions (service tangibility, reliability, response, empathy, safety) and customer satisfaction within the car agencies under study.
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