The orchid flora of Vietnam is the richest among all other regional floras of mainland Asia. Successive inventories show an increasing orchid number from 411 species in the year 1934, 718 spp. in 1992-1994, 897 spp. in 2003-2005, 1005 spp. in 2009 and 1090 species & 160 genera figured in 2011. Since last inventory, 116 species and 13 genera have been additionally discovered and documented in Vietnam. The present report summarizes published and new original data for the last 5 years. When the new data presented here were included, the orchid flora of Vietnam should comprise at least 1213 documented species from 174 genera. One genus discovered for this period in Vietnam has broad distribution in mainland subtropical and temperate Asia (Cephalanthera), 8 genera have broad Malesian distribution (Abdominea, Hymenorchis, Cordiglottis, Grammatophyllum, Macropodanthus, Microtatorchis, Octarrhena, Tuberolabium) and 4 genera are endemics of Indochina (Bidoupia, Drymoda, Lockia, Vietorchis). At least 116 species were discovered in Vietnam during last five years. Among them, 63 were discovered and documented as a new species for the flora of the country. These species form 4 groups: species with Mainland Asia – Himalayan distribution (19 species), species of South-Chinese floristic province (9 species), Malesian species (15 species), species of Indochinese Peninsula (20 species). Other 53 discovered species are local endemics of following floristic provinces: South-Chinese floristic province (6 species), North-Indochinese floristic province (15), Central-Annamese floristic province (4 species) and South-Annamese floristic province (28 species). All newly described endemics well illustrate unique character of local aboriginal floras of eastern Indochina and reveal some peculiar specific evolutionary threats in the orchid family. Brief illustrated data on floral morphology, distribution and ecology are provided for all newly discovered species. Expected IUCN Red List national status is identified for these species as well. Largest part of discovered species (67 species, or 58%) belongs to threatened categories: VU (20 species, or 17%), EN (25 species, or 22%) and CR (22 species, or 20%). Other discovered species (49 species, or 42%) belong to non-threatened categories: DD (32 species, or 28%) and LC or lover risk (17 species, or 15%). Totally for the last five years in studied area were discovered and described three new genera – Bidoupia Aver., Lockia Aver. and Vietorchis Aver., as well as at least 54 species new for science – Aerides phongii*, Bidoupia phongii*, B.khangii, Bulbophyllum bidoupense, B.blaoense, B.glabrichelia, B.phitamii, B.setilabium, B.striatulum, B.tipula, Cheirostylis glandulosa, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum*, C.lecongkietii*, C.phitamii*, C.tricornutum, Cordiglottis longipedicellata, Cymbidium repens*, Dendrobium congianum, D.thinhii*, Eria grandicaulis, E.praecox, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Gastrochilus kadooriei, Hymenorchis phitamii*, Liparis caudata, L.honbaensis, L.longibracteata, L.longispica, L.ngoclinhensis, Lockia sonii*, Luisia parviflora, Malaxis subtilis, Miguelia cruenta*, Nervilia mekongensis, Oberonia dolichostachys, O.janae, O.ngoclinhensis, O.rhizoides, O.sonlaensis, O.tatianae, Octarrhena minuscula, Odontochilus aureus, Paphiopedilum tamphianum*, Podochilus rotundipetala, Sarcoglyphis tichii*, Schoenorchis hangianae*, S.scolopendria, Taeniophyllum phitamii, Tainia acuminata, T.cornuta, Trichoglottis canhii*, Vanda gracilis*, Vanilla atropogon* and Vietorchis furcata. Almost all these taxa are strict endemics of Vietnam. Orchids, names of which are marked above by asterisk (*) stand presently on the verge of full extinction.