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The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom

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Abstract

The traditional school shows the educator as the subject in education, the keeper of information and all control. The child is considered to be the object in education, the one who passively receives information from outside. The following study introduces a new model of educator for pre-school. His role appears to be passive. Indeed, he has the knowledge, but this new conception is just to provide the child with the necessary materials for his development. The Montessori teacher shows the child how to use the materials then he withdraws, humbly, just to observe the feedback. Using the observation, this study proposes a new approach towards the child by avoiding the adult’s constraint. It places the child into a free environment filled with firm, precise limits. Training the adult into the child’s psychology and knowing his stages of development can lead to a better understanding and discovery of the child.
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2016 The Authors. Published by LUMEN Publishing House.
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Revista Româneasc pentru
Educaţie
Multidimensional
2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, June, pp. 107-123
The Role of the Educator in a Montessori
Classroom
Izabela T.C. BĂRBIERU
Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
Covered in:
EBSCO, ERIH PLUS, CEEOL, Ulrich Pro
Quest, Cabell, Index Copernicus, Ideas
RePeC, EconPapers, Socionet, Journalseek,
Scipio
How to cite: Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru
Educatie Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: KWWSG[GRLRUJ10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
DOI: 10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
107
The Role of the Educator in a
Montessori Classroom
Izabela T.C. BĂRBIERU1
Abstract
The traditional school shows the educator as the subject in education, the
keeper of information and all control. The child is considered to be the object in
education, the one who passively receives information from outside. The following study
introduces a new model of educator for pre-school. His role appears to be passive.
Indeed, he has the knowledge, but this new conception is just to provide the child with
the necessary materials for his development. The Montessori teacher shows the child
how to use the materials then he withdraws, humbly, just to observe the feedback.
Using the observation, this study proposes a new approach towards the child by
avoiding the adult’s constraint. It places the child into a free environment filled with
firm, precise limits. Training the adult into the child’s psychology and knowing his
stages of development can lead to a better understanding and discovery of the child.
Keywords:
educator, non-intervention, Montessori, pre-school, observation, independence.
1 PhD. Candidate, The University of Bucharest, The Faculty of Psychology and
Educational Sciences, Romania, izabellaboisteanu@yahoo.com, 0724 675 062.
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07


108
Introduction
At the beginning of the XXth century a female doctor called
Maria Montessori worked with children from a mental hospital in Rome.
She made an apparatus based on her studies of early pedagogues like
Jean Marc Itard (1775- 1838) and Edouard Seguin (1812- 1880). With

that at the national examination they received better results than the
normal children. This moment is considered the beginning of her
success 
In 1907, she worked with 60 children with ages from 2, 5 to 6
years old who were involved in a project from the city Hall in San
Lorenzo for renovating the builings where she had to supervise the
children of the workers. Therefore, this project was an opportunity for
her, because using her own materials she managed to determine the
children to behave, read and write in less than a year. This was the first
project called Casa dei Bambini and many others followed (2007, p. 10).
In his study, Alternative educaţionale din România, Felea (2002) states
that in Romania, the Montessori method escalated in 1933, when
Nicolae Titulescu initiated the Montessori Association in Romania
        
and 
In 1994 it was held the first Montessori Trainig Course for
Educators in Romania in Drobeta Turnu Severin (p.52). In the last years
        
M.(2012) show that in Romania there are 18 kindergartens and 5 schools
in the present and the Montessori Institute of Bucharest organizes
courses for training educators with trainers from Norway, Finland and
Holland. There is an interest for opening the next level in high school
using the Montessori method (p. 84).

based very much upon observation (p. 13). Only observing the child
           true
potential         
         
periods and in the 100 miliard neurons that the child posseses from
nformation in
order to prepare the environment. The child is a sensitive human
being
he touches gives him some information. For this reason, all the materials
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom

109
in the classroom can be touched and the process of learing becomes an
active one. The materials are child-sized, colorful, attractive and most
of them made of glass. The child is free to move in the class, to choose
his material, to work as long as he wants and where he wants (1963, p.
195). Each child has the responsibility of his own work (to set the
material and to place it back to its place, to set the table and to clean
after himself, to dress and undress by himself). The educator is trained
into the principles of the method and hi    
     
demonstrate the materials for the child and to help only when he is really
forced to sit
at their tables. The classes are organized in mixed aged groups for the
older ones to help the younger ones. The younger children can borrow
books from school and, in this way, they can make contact with primary
children. Teaching in the Montessori method is an active process, where
children learn to take care of themselves and others, they learn how to
write and to read, they learn how to count, to make addition, subtraction,
division, multiplication by they are 5 years old. And this, just having fun.
1. The Role of the Educator in the Traditional Preschool
The traditional school, remarks Tudoran (2004) shows the
educator as the subject in education, the keeper of information and all
control. The child is considered to be the object in education, the one
who passively receives information from outside (p. 65).
The same author states that the relation that is settled between
the educator and the child can be varied. He mentions:
- Communication relation
It refers to the transmission of information, of reaction and
request.
- Guidance and direction relation
It refers to the relation of dominance and authority from the
educator and to the passive reception of the information and the

- Socio- affective relation
Meaning the actions of the educator towards the children. There
are included here trust, empathy and acceptance (pp. 66-67).
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07


110
2. Methods of managing conflicts in the traditional
preschool
During the educational act in kindergartens the educators need
methods to overcome the conflict that appear between children. The
large number of children with only one educator makes the approaching
of discipline in a positive manner very difficult. Manolache (1947)
concludes that most of the methods refer to the usage of constraint and
reward. These offer a way for mantaining discipline in that particular
moment (p. 190).The usual rewards used in the activity are toys,

d thing only waiting for the
reward. The reward gives pleasure being a stimulus for repeating the
good thing. A reward that is used repeatedly is no longer efficient. In this
way, it needs to be always intensified but this cannot be offered without
limit. Rewards in excess can lead to indiscipline (p. 195).
Pongracz& Alezar (2010) show that other methods that the
educators use to help children to improve their behaviour refer to
playing different games like: assertive communication games;
discussions on images with different behaviours; reading texts which
present characters with different emotional states; role play.
The educator also needs to avoid critics, to be affective, to
encourage positive behaviour, to correct the negative ones and to control
herself. A good idea can be getting out with children more often, thus
altering the typical, conventional environment (p. 79).
3. Methodology
The subject of our study refers to the observation of a
Montessori environment. We used the intentional and systematic
observation to measure the attitude of the educators, the discipline in the
classroom and the whole educational atmosphere. The observation took
place in regular conditions without any intervention from the observer.
The purpose of our systematic observation taken into a
Montessori environment is to identify the role of the Montessori
educator and also to identify his attitude towards children in practicing
positive discipline.
The questions of our research are:
- How is teaching accomplished in a Montessori classroom?
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom

111
- What is the attitude of the Montessori educator towards children
in the classroom?
- What are the methods of managing conflicts in a Montessori
preschool?
- How does the Montessori educator encourage independence in
children?
The concrete aspect that had been followed during the
observation were:
- The way the Montessori educator achieves the act of teaching.
- The attitude of the Montessori educator towards the children in
managing conflicts.
- The attitude of the children towards their colleagues and the
educator.
- The benefits and disadvantages of using positive discipline.
The hypothesis refers to the fact that using positive methods of
discipline for pre-school and giving freedom with ferm limits can lead do
an optimisation of the entire educational activity.
The observation had taken place for a period of approximately
one month from March until April 2015. In this period of time there
were observed 7 educators ( 5 leading teachers and 4 assistants). All the
leading teachers were trained in AMI (Association Montessori
Internationale) courses for children from 3 to 6 years old. One educator
was trained in the USA, one in Romania, one in Czech Republic and two
in Austria.
There were observed 79 children with ages from 3 to 6 years old
in three Montessori institutions in Romania.
The observation was taken mostly in the morning period from 8
a.m. until 1 p.m in a formal context, in the classroom.
4. The observation guide
We used an observation guide that had two criteria: the attitude
of the educator and the attitude of the children. Each observation guide

        
63).
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07


112
The attitude of the adult criterion was organised on the following
observational indicators:
- The use of the individual way of teaching.
- 
- 
- Managing conflicts using positive methods.
- Using a high tone in mantaining discipline in the classroom.
- Modeling behaviour through personal example.
- Setting ferm limits and applying them with consistency.
-          
classroom.
- Respecting 
The attitude of the children criterion was organised on the following
observational indicators:
- 
- Encouraging the care for the environment and for the others.
- Stimulating different types of interaction in the classroom.
5. The interpretation of the observation data
On one hand, the systematic observation made in a Montessori
environment made possible the accomplishment of a global image
towards the attitude of the educator in the classroom. On the other
hand, observing the attitude of the children completed the image of the

First, we will present the main criterion of the observation the
attitude of the adult- and its observational indicators.
- The use of the individual way of teaching.
The educational act in a Montessori classroom is accomplished
      
presentations are demonstrations of the usage of the materials in the
classrooms. These presentations are made only by the leading educator
in the class and they have some characteristics:
- During the presentation there are used only few words. The
reason for this is that the child can focus only on the movement
of the hands.
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom

113
- The movements of each presentation are slower than the adults
normally use, in order for the child to follow.
- Each presentation has a special focus emphasized by the
     
   termines
him repeat the action.
- Generally, the presentations are made respecting the pattern-
from left to right and from top to bottom. These make the
children accustomed to a later reading and writing.
Some presentations, for example, in Mathematics can be made to
a small group of children but they are mostly individual.
The systematic observation of the educators from all Montessori
classes had shown the fact that individual teaching is a general way of
teaching in a Montessori environment.
- Measuring the educators interventions during the child’s activity.
The motto of the Montessori method is
Help me to do it by
myself!
According to this message the adult has the mision to interfere
as less as possible. The child needs to make his own hard work. The
educator has the role to introduce the materials to the child and when he
begins to work by himself, the adult withdraws, quietly. He observes the
child, by far. The only reasons when the educator can interfere is when it
is dangerous or distructive behaviour. This retention in action it is a very
difficult job for the educator because adults are accustomed to frequently

argue.
- interfering means not

Therefore, interference is perceived as intrusive. In all classes
that we observed we noticed the fact that the intervention of the
         This is the
reason why some think that the role of the Montessori educator is a
passive one.
- Setting a prepared environment according to the child’s needs.
Between the age of 3 to 6 years old the child passes through a
period of changes and accomplishments. He likes to imitate the work of
the adults near him. For this reason one of the biggest area in a
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07


114
Montessori environment is called Practical life. As the name says, this is
made of materials that imitate the adult actions but only that they are
child sized, real and attractive. In this area, we mention materials for the
care of the person, like washing hands, washing clothes, cleaning shoes,
etc. There are also materials for the care of the environment like
sweeping, washing dishes, washing the tables, dusting, mopping,
arranging flowers, etc. A very important and very interesting types of
materials for the children are the ones for preparing the food. In here we
mention cutting cucumbers, cutting bannanas, making orange juice,
making sandwiches, cutting apple slices, etc.
Another area in a Montessori environment is the Sensorial area.
In this area we can find the materials that were specially created by Maria
Montessori herself. Each material has a certain sensorial quality to
emphasize a particular dimension (height, length), visual sense (the
coloured tablets), the gustatory sense (the tasting bottles), the auditory
sense (the sound boxes), the smelling sense (the smelling bottles), the
tactile sense (the touching boards with rough and smooth and also the
thermic bottles with graded temperatures) and so on.
The next area refers to Language. In this area the materials
provide opportunities for the children to exercise work with letters.
Starting from hearing the sounds in the Sound game, from touching the
Sandpaper letters that helps the memory to fix the letter into the mind
through muscle memory, from the Mobile Alphabet that helps the child
to handle the vowels and consonants and to make words, then sentences
until grammar exercises and reading exercises.
There is the Mathematics area in which the children can
discover the experience of working with concrete quantities and
numbers. With each material children learn more achieving addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division. All these only through games
and children do not even realise how easily they learn these operations.
In our observation we noticed the fact that all the classroom
were equiped with the Montessori apparatus. During the year the
educators replace materials that are either used any more by children or
they are outdated.
- Managing conflicts using positive methods.
In the Montessori classes the educators try to apply active
discipline. This type of discipline refers to the fact that each child has the
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom
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115
liberty to move around the classroom, to talk (as long as they do not
disturb others), the lack of mobility being present only at the choosing of
the child. The child has the freedom to choose his work, to be involved
in an activity as long as he wants and where he wants (at the table, on the
carpet or even outside in several environments).
In this situation the educator has the mision to keep this
atmosphere in the room. He is helped by the assistant, who takes care
that other children do not disturb the ones who work, the children who
place the materials to their initial location in the proper setting and
verifies whether can also do other activities with the children that are
disruptive, until the educator is released from other presentations.
In any environment conflicts can appear. When this happens, the
educator interferes only when needed. During our observation we
noticed a couple of situations when the educator let the children to solve
their own issues. In all the classes that we observed we had seen the fact
that the educator uses a series of methods to calm tempered children :
empathy, holding, taking them in another room for a talk, sending them
into the library to calm themselves, by wainting there until the sand in
the hourglass finishes. In one room the educator sent the child to sit on
a chair and in another class the child was sent to a space in the room
with cushions to sit on. Another method that was mentioned was giving

Would you like to stay in my arms while I am making another

         
consequence of inadequate behaviour was followed by a reinforcement
of good manners (for example, if a child had broken a vaze he has to
clean). We even observed the lack of praise. In one classroom the
educator when asked by a child if she likes his drawing she asked back

We also observed the lack of rewards of any kind. Children find
pleasure in their work and they choose the materials only based on
interest.
- Using a high tone in maintaining discipline in the classroom.
In all the environments that we observed the tone of the
educator was a normal one. The shouting in any situation is avoided.
         
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07


116
their voice. Even for sending a message from a distance there are some
signs (for example, the educators call the assistant by making a sign). The
reason for this is to give an example for the children. Using a high tone
by the educator sends the message that this is the suitable thing to do. In
a normal Montessori classroom, with almost 30 children and with an
experienced teacher that talks loudly the whole atmosphere in the room
will be rowdy.
- Modelling behaviour through personal example.
In all classrooms that we observed the educator tried to be a
model of action. From solving conflicts, from the way of speaking,
dressing, walking, the adult sends a message to the child. Being in their
period in which they imitate and they whish to be as the adults in their
surroundings, they absorb all attitudes without discriminating.
In two of the kindergartens we observed situations when little
girls imitated the way of presentation of the educator, respecting even
the smallest details. In one kindergarten, a little girl tried to solve a
conflict using the words that the educator had used in similar situations
(for example, 
- Setting ferm limits and applying them with consistency.
Like any other organised institution, the Montessori classrooms
have sets of rules. Indeed, there is some flexibility and a certain
exemption that the children have, but they also have to respect some
rules. Some of them are: placing the material back to its place in the
correct setting; cleaning after themself; using words when solving
conflicts; not running in the class; taking care of the animals and plants
in the room; respecting the other children and adults.
The difficult task of the educator is to be consistent in applying
the rules. He can never miss to comply because then the children will
receive the message that the ground rules can be easily avoided and and
that it is legitimate not to follow the rules. The educator has to respect
his word no matter the tantrums of the children. Consistency during
tantrums accompanied with afection give a feeling of security to the
child.
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom
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117
- Measuring the time for the educator’s observation in the classroom.
Observation         
Only through observation he can realise the stage of development in
which the child is in, what material to give to the child and what
improvement to make to the materials. The observation should be an
ongoing process. Sometimes the educator has sufficient time to sit and
to note down the observation on children, but sometimes the
observation is made by the assistant or noted later on in the day. The
observations made need to be general, on the whole class and also
individual. The information needs to be objective and short.
In all rooms that had been observed the educator mainly
observed the class.
- Respecting the child’s concentration.
Concentration is also a very important part of the Montessori
          
focus. The main reason is that the child should be allowed to focus on
         
development. Maria Montessori thought that the first step in developing
the child is the interest towards the material. After that, there comes the
work. Through this work the child begins to transform himself and self-
correct his behavioural deviations. And only after enough work, the
special moment comes- the concentration. This moment is so precious, so
spontaneous that no one is allowed to ruin it. When this moment comes,
the child enters a path that leads to the main purpose of the whole
activity, called by Maria Montessori normalisation (1963, p. 89). This refers
to the development of the full potential of the child. To make him
happier, full of life, capable of helping others and listening to the adult
(meaning here to accept the fact that the adult is his guide and he can use
the experience of the adult to live).
      
concentration and tried to encourage the other children not to disturb as
well.
Further, we will present the second criterion of the observation
the attitude of the children and its 3 observational indicators.
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07


118
- Encouraging the child’s independence.

activity. This independence is stimulated only through movement. A
id of any movement like a paralytic.

p. 51).
In the above data we have shown that children in a Montessori
classroom are encouraged to do things by themselves.
In the classes observed we saw many situations when children
managed to fulfill numerous tasks by themselves, such as: serving
breakfast by themselves and cleaning the dishes; dressing themselves
when going outside; eating by themselves; mopping after spilling water
on the floor, on their own initiative; sweeping after dropping dirt on the
floor, on their own initiative; replacing the used objects in materials;
using the toilet; dusting when finding dust on the materials.
- Encouraging the care for the environment and for the others.
Most of the materials in Practical Life are based on taking care of
themself and the environment. We gave some examples in the prepared
environment indicator.
Concerning the care for the others and the environment we
observed certain lessons that are specific to Montessori method, called
 
shows concrete ways of action in certain situations. We mention here:
How do we present ouserself? How do we wish Happy Birthday? How
do we observe a working child without disturbing? How do we ask for

- Stimulating different types of interaction in the classroom.
A very interesting aspect that we observed during our
observation is the fact that the classes have mixed ages (3 to 6 years old).
The reason for this is that the older ones help the youngsters just like in
a family. The older ones get enough experience with the materials that
are used at the incipient stage of the class, so they are in the situation
when they can become young assistants. It is a known fact that children
learn faster from their own peers.
In all observed environments we noticed older children helping
others but only when they really needed. An interesting aspect is the fact
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom
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119
that the children in one Montessori kindergaten were permitted to visit
other classroom, including the school. This is a great advantage for the
children because they get to know the new environment and this
facilitates the transfer from kindergarten to school.
6. Conclusions
The systematic observation made in a Montessori environment
made possible obtaining a global image towards the attitude of the
educator in the classroom.
The observation helped us to discover the fact that the
preparation of the Montessori educator is realised on different levels.
Getting the knowledge it refers to the fact that a person
becomes a Montessori educator only after he is trained in a AMI
Montessori Course. In these courses the educator learns the way of
teaching, the principles of the Montessori pedagogy, he learns to make
objective observation by observing children for hundreds of hours and
    
45). Only the AMI Montessori diploma gives the educator the
information he needs. From now on she needs a lot of experience with
children.
The next role of the educator is to prepare the environment.

and size. Montessori (1966) encourages that the Practical Life materials
      
Getting the
knowledge
Prepares the
environment
Links the
child to the
environment
and
withdraws
Observes the
child
Uses the
feedback to
improve
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07


120
After preparing the materials the educator links the child to the
materials through presentations. Each child needs a demonstration of
the materials for them to know the use of them. These presentations are
made as many times children need them. Only after the child is focused
on working on the material, the educator withdraws.
She needs to withdraw to see the effects of the materials on
children. In this way she can observe them. After each presentation the
educator observes the child for a short while. If she has the time she can
note down the observation or she can do this later in the day.
After getting the feedback the educator has the information to
improve the environment. From this information she knows either to
change the material in itself, to change an object in the material either to
make a new presentation. Each feedback returns the educator back into
getting the knowledge aspect and to begin again the whole cycle.
The questions at the beginning of our study received their
answer: teaching in a Montessori classroom is mostly individual and
sometimes in small groups; the Montessori educator must be positive,
empathic, calm and consistent; the methods used to manage conflicts in
a Montessori classroom are empathy, holding, taking the children in
another room for a talk, sending them into the library to calm
themselves, by wainting until the sand in the hourglass finish, giving
alternatives and each child bears the consequences of his actions, but
using positive reinforcement; in the Montessori environment the
children are encouraged to make as much actions by themselves : to
dress and undress, to eat, to wash the dishes, to clean after themselves,
to use the toilet.
During our observation we noticed the fact that using positive
methods of discipline gave children real positive models of action which
they imitated in their relation with their colleagues. This situation made it
easier for the educator to focus on the educational activity rather than
only solving conflicts. The freedom with ferm limits that the children
experience give them security, raise their self-confidence and basic trust.
Therefore, pozitive methods of solving conflicts in the classroom
connected with freedom with limits lead to a better unfolding of the
didactical activity.
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom
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121
7. The limits of the research
During our study we noticed a few aspects, for example, one
class observed had the procedure that each year the educators should
change the classroom. This aspect leads to the lack of continuity in the
classroom, to a continuous accomodation and feelings of insecurity.
All classes observed had a number of children of 12 to 20 at
most. The ideal Montessori classrooms have 30 children and two adults.
A few of the advantages of using active discipline in a classroom
are: modelling the children to act in a positive way, to manage their anger
by using the words in a positive manner, encreases self-esteem and
cooperation between groups.
Another side of using active discipline in a classroom is the fact
that sometimes it works difficult on short periods, it needs a lot of
patience, tact from the adult, time, a very close cooperation between
educator and family and consistency.
8. Discussions
The current study will be included into a larger reseach called
       
        
achieve the purpose of this study we will use the systematic observation
made in a Montessori environment but also a systematic observation
made in traditional preschool environments.
The process of selecting the subjects was intentional. There were
choosen educators that had the Montessori training and that worked in a
Montessori institution. The observation was preceded by obtainig the
aproval for using the collected information in our reseach from the
educators and from their managers. They were informed on the
confidentiality of the data and on the purpose of the study. The notes of
the observation were put at their disposal.
The Montessori method is a well known international alternative.
The Association Montessori Internationale in Amsterdam affiliates
training centers throughout the world. These centers offers AMI
diploma courses that are recognised internationally for their quality and
authenticity. The subject of the study has the purpose to reveal the
important role of the educator as a part of the prepared environment.
Only a trained and experienced teacher can follow the child on his path.
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07


122
The study empasizes the importance of recognising a genuine
Montessori educator.
During our research we realised that the culture of cooperation is
very important. We hope that our work will encourage the educators to
cooperate more and to realise the role of the observation in their work.
Also, encouraging observation in other kindergartens can help educators
to improve their attitude.
References
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Tudoran, D. (2004). Pedagogia şcolară şi preşcolară. 
Biodata
PhD Candidate Izabela T.C. BĂRBIERU
I had graduated the Pedagogical High school in
he Faculty of Orthodox Theology Justin
the Patriarch from University of Bucharest and I
have a Master degree in Theological Studies and
Christian Education, Bucharest.
Currently, I am a PhD. Candidate at the Faculty of
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom

123
Psychology and Educational Studies, University of Bucharest.
I graduated the AMI (Association Montessori Internationale) Montessori


for children from birth to 3 years old at the Montessori Institute of
Bucharest in 2015.
Currently, I work as a pre-school teacher at the Montessori Primary
School in Bucharest.
Areas of interest: pre-school education, early education, freedom in
education.
Barbieru, I. T. C. (2016). The Role of the Educator in a Montessori Classroom. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie
Multidimensionala, 8(1), 107-123. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/rrem/2016.0801.07
... In addition, it also has effects on children's personality development, confidence, and selfesteem. This is because the child in the Montessori's environment is free to move in the class, to choose his material, to work as long as he wants and where he wants (Barbieru, 2016). ...
... A Montessori teacher is distinguished from a teacher in the other prevalent approaches with a role that is different from other classrooms. His/her role is to observe children and monitor their behavior without interfering in the work of their activities (Sackett, 2016;Malam, 2004;Barbieru, 2016). This approach results in students being enthusiastic and motivated toward learning. ...
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Today’s education has three impediments to meaningful and sustainable educational reform; first, the lack of precise and accurate anthropology of learners; second, dilemma between constructivism-leading academy and behaviorism-dominating classrooms; third, the lack of philosophy of education in theory and practice. The Montessori system was built upon the Christian theological anthropology, which uncovers that the main source of failure in our education is humanity’s original sin and sins preventing us from fulfilling the Imago Dei or the reciprocating self. This article highlights why the Montessori method is a feasible school reform model by briefly examining Montessori’s anthropology centering on Imago Dei, teacher’s respect for the child resulting in education through being and embodiment, and systematized teacher-training system.
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عزة بنت سيف البريدي أ.د عبدالله بن خميس أمبوسعيدي الملخص: هدفت الدراسة إلى تقصي أثر استخدام أنشطة قائمة في مدخل المنتسوري في تنمية مهارات عمليات العلم لدى طلبة الصّف الرابع الأساسي، وقد اتبعت الدراسة منهج شبه التجريبي. وقد تم تقسيم عينة الدراسة إلى مجموعتين؛ التجريبية مكوّنة من (31) طالباً وطالبة، والضابطة مكونة أيضا من (31) طالبا وطالبة، تم اختيارهم من مدرستين من مدارس محافظة الداخلية بسلطنة عمان. ولتحقيق هدف الدراسة، تم تهيئة قاعة منتسوري ذات ستة أركان، كل ركن مكوّن من عدة رفوف يتضمّن أنشطة تعليمية، وأعداد اختبار مهارات عمليات العلم مكوّن من (20) مفردة؛ والذي بلغت قيمة معامل الثبات له (0.82)؛ مما يعدّ مؤشرا جيدًا على أن الأداة مناسبة لهدف الدراسة. أشارت نتائج الدراسة إلى وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية عند مستوى دلالة (α =0.05) بين المتوسطات الحسابية لدرجات طلبة مجموعتي الدراسة التجريبية والضابطة في بعض مهارات عمليات العلم لصالح المجموعة التجريبية. وفي ضوء النتائج السابقة توصي الدراسة بعقد ورش تدريبية للمشرفين والمعلمين في مجال تدريس العلوم، لتعريفهم بمدخل المنتسوري في التعليم. الكلمات الدالة: مدخل المنتسوري، مهارات عمليات العلم، الطلبة، الصف الرابع.
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