Article

Positive Psychology In Sales: Integrating Psychological Capital

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Abstract

As positive psychology moves into the workplace, researchers have been able to demonstrate the desirable impact of positive organizational behavior. Specifically, psychological capital (PsyCap) improves employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Advancing PsyCap in sales research is important given the need for a comprehensive positive approach to drive sales performance, offset the high cost of salesperson turnover, improve cross-functional sales interfaces, and enrich customer relationships. The authors provide an integrative review of PsyCap, discuss its application in sales, and advance an agenda for future research. Research prescriptions are organized according to individual-level, intra-organizational, and extra-organizational outcomes pertinent to the sales field.

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... Resilience helps salespeople adopt a more pragmatic approach to dealing with adversity, adapt despite difficulties, and use setbacks as opportunities for growth and development (Lussier and Hartmann 2017). In fact, past research also conveys that those higher in resilience recover to become equal to or better than what they were before the adverse event (Friend et al. 2016). Hence, in an unfavorable context when a salesperson has been underperforming and receives a performance review warning letter, we predict, H1: Resilience is positively associated with improved salesperson performance. ...
... Based on the definition of resilience, which includes perseverance and trying again after a negative event, we predict that resilience is positively associated with a salesperson's subsequent effort. Resilience also includes learning and evolving in the process and bouncing back stronger than before by definition (Friend et al. 2016;Bande et al. 2015). While perseverance and persistence are undoubtedly an important aspect of resilience, they alone do not capture the full essence of the construct because they miss the notion of emerging stronger than before. ...
... By definition, resilience requires a negative event, failure, or obstacles. Friend et al. (2016) confirm that resilience enables individuals to bounce back quickly and effectively from adverse events while resilience in the face of failure was discussed by Credé et al. (2017) (emphasis ours). Prior research shows that within the sales process, failure can lead to lower expectations of subsequent success-called "negative anticipatory emotions"which then affects a salesperson's motivation and subsequent choices (Brown et al. 1997). ...
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Prior research has shown that approximately half of salespeople fail to achieve their targets each year. Not only is the role difficult but also sales jobs are often marked by high levels of stress, rejection and burnout. Thus, salesperson resilience is critical. However, a gap remains in our understanding of how resilience influences performance and how managers can motivate salespeople to be more resilient. To answer these questions, we collected survey data from 110 salespeople from a large firm based in the Midwest, along with objective effort and performance data provided by the company prior to and following a poor performance review. Our analyses reveal that intrinsically motivated salespeople are more resilient than salespeople driven by a desire for financial compensation. In addition, resilience leads to sales performance through increasing two types of effort-both initiating more calls with customers and achieving longer average call duration. Hence, our findings demonstrate that resilient salespeople not only persevere but also become better at selling in the process.
... Certain organizational climates, practices, and behaviors can build individual, group, and organizational strengths and generate high performance (Cameron, Bright, & Caza, 2004). The state-like characteristic of PsyCap can develop the capability of employees and teams to deal with high demands in work environments (Friend, Johnson, Luthans, & Sohi, 2016). Although PsyCap has received a lot of attention in the literature (Avey, Reichard, Luthans, & Mhatre, 2011;Friend et al., 2016;Kang & Busser, 2018;Tsaur, Hsu, & Lin, 2019;Youssef-Morgan & Luthans, 2013), few empirical studies have been undertaken to apply the concept in multilevel models, particularly in service environments. ...
... The state-like characteristic of PsyCap can develop the capability of employees and teams to deal with high demands in work environments (Friend, Johnson, Luthans, & Sohi, 2016). Although PsyCap has received a lot of attention in the literature (Avey, Reichard, Luthans, & Mhatre, 2011;Friend et al., 2016;Kang & Busser, 2018;Tsaur, Hsu, & Lin, 2019;Youssef-Morgan & Luthans, 2013), few empirical studies have been undertaken to apply the concept in multilevel models, particularly in service environments. Therefore, the current study aims to incorporate the construct of PsyCap in relation to its potential interaction with a psychosocially safe work environment to shape ASB and PSB, and contribute to enhanced customer engagement. ...
... PsyCap refers to state-like positive personal and/or collective motivational resources, which can drive positive and extraordinary organizational behavior and performance. In the competitive working environment, the state-like and thus open to development characteristic of PsyCap can a play significant role in improving employees, teams and organizations' capability to adapt to challenges work situations (Friend et al., 2016). Drawing on the scientific criteria of positive organizational behaviors, namely, that they are developmental, measurable, and manageable for performance improvement, PsyCap is considered as a synergistic interaction of four positive resources. ...
Article
The study examines the effect of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) and psychological capital (PsyCap) on customer engagement through discretionary service behaviors including adaptive and proactive service behaviors (ASB and PSB). A field study of 56 managers, 513 service employees, and 560 customers in 56 branches of insurance companies was carried out to test a theoretical model using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM7). The results demonstrated that PsyCap and PSC were both positively associated with ASB and PSB at the individual level. The results also showed that an interaction between PsyCap and PSC was related to ASB but not PSB. This suggested that PsyCap and PSC interact in a synergic manner to affect service employees’ engagement in ASB, beyond their direct effects. At the branch level, ASB was not associated with customer engagement behavior, but PSB was. Furthermore, PSB mediated the relationship between PSC and customer engagement behavior, although ASB did not.
... Given the potentially devastating effects of the pandemic on the mental health of salespeople, it is timely to incorporate positive psychological factors such as PsyCap to enhance sales performance and promote positive organizational behavior at both individual and group levels. PsyCap, with its positive impacts on the attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and performance of salespeople, has been largely under-researched in the sales literature (Friend et al., 2016). The inclusion of PsyCap in the personal selling transformation framework provides positive insights that salespeople can use to improve their mental health, psychological well-being, and sales performance. ...
... The four positive constructs of PsyCap that synergistically interplay with each other to produce desirable work attitudes, behaviors, and performance are hope, efficacy, resilience and optimism , otherwise known by the acronym HERO. Hope is goal-directed and self-motivated behavior that enables one to achieve pre-set goals, and seek alternative paths to reach those goals (Friend et al., 2016). An individual with self-efficacy possesses a belief in their ability to take on and overcome challenging tasks, whilst an individual with resilience can bounce back quickly and effectively from setbacks, failure, and adversity . ...
... We argue that personal change precedes organizational change and that the personal transformation of mindsets, attitudes, and behaviors provides an impetus to implement positive organizational changes during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, we respond to the call to include positive psychology in understanding sales behavior and performance (Friend et al., 2016) by incorporating PsyCap and LO in our proposed framework. We postulate that PsyCap and LO are two critical components that salespeople need to effectuate personal change for better work performance. ...
... Recently, two salespersons' psychological motivations have been drawing increasing research attention: psychological capital (PsyCap) and selfmonitoring (e.g. Deeter-Schmelz and Sojka, 2007;Friend et al., 2016). Psychological capital, which includes hope, resilience and optimism, represents "one's positive appraisal of circumstances and probability for success based on motivated effort and perseverance" (Luthans et al., 2007, p. 550), while self-monitoring refers to the extent to which individuals control their self-presentation according to "situational cues to social appropriateness" (Snyder, 1974, p. 526). ...
... However, prior research tends to analyze their effects on employees' behaviors and work performance separately (e.g. Friend et al., 2016), resulting in the following limitations. First, performance implications are still unknown when these two motivational elements coexist. ...
... Moreover, though previous studies have acknowledged the important roles of the two psychological motivations, the mediation pathways between them and sales performance are still unclear (Friend et al., 2016). We endeavor to answer the above questions by identifying the interactions between self-monitoring and PsyCap, and the possible mediators. ...
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Purpose Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory and the motivation-opportunity-ability (MOA) framework, this study examines how salespersons' self-monitoring and psychological capital influence sales performance. Design/methodology/approach This study uses survey data from 293 salespersons employed in China and their archival sales performance to test the hypotheses posited. Findings The results show that both salespersons' self-monitoring and psychological capital enhance sales performance via adaptive selling. However, these elements are primarily substitutes in influencing adaptive selling. In addition, by dividing social capital into two types (i.e. family-based social capital and customer-based social capital), the results reveal that salespersons' self-monitoring enhances family-based social capital, but not customer-based social capital. Finally, customer-based social capital, but not family-based capital, improves sales performance. Research limitations/implications This paper extends the literature on sales force management, which examines various psychological traits and their influences on sales performance. While self-monitoring and psychological capital have been investigated separately, this research simultaneously examines these two factors by drawing on resource conservation theory. Furthermore, it explores how these psychological traits impact salespersons' ability development (i.e. adaptive selling) and capital accumulation (i.e., family-based social capital and customer-based social capital), which, in turn, affect sales performance. Practical implications The results offer managerial insights into sales force selection and management. In particular, managers should encourage salespersons to obtain greater customer-based social capital, which is more valuable than family-based social capital in boosting sales performance. Social implications The present research is also beneficial for employee psychological health management, as it seeks to illuminate the role of psychological traits, ability development and capital accumulation. It offers insights into sociological research on social capital by categorizing it into family-based and customer-based capital. Originality/value This paper extends the literature on salespersons' psychological traits, selling abilities and social capital by examining the impacts of self-monitoring and psychological capital on adaptive selling and social capital. Specifically, this study examines the interplay between self-monitoring and psychological capital from the perspective of resources conservation theory.
... Second, PsyCap relates to the specific context and participants chosen for this study, which is frontline sales representatives. A recent literature review of PsyCap and its application in sales by Friend, Johnson, Luthans, and Sohi (2016), noted that 'the potential impact of positive psychological factors is largely absent from the sales literature ' (p. 306). ...
... Specifically, it answers the call by Ellinger et al. (2013) for more research by studying PsyCap as a 'mediating employee variable.' It also responds to the call of Friend et al. (2016) for more research on 'psychological capital and … its potential benefits for the field of sales' (Friend et al., 2016). Second, this study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating the PsyCap and SosCap perspectives to understand their links to work-related performance. ...
... Specifically, it answers the call by Ellinger et al. (2013) for more research by studying PsyCap as a 'mediating employee variable.' It also responds to the call of Friend et al. (2016) for more research on 'psychological capital and … its potential benefits for the field of sales' (Friend et al., 2016). Second, this study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating the PsyCap and SosCap perspectives to understand their links to work-related performance. ...
Article
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This paper explores the linkages between psychological capital (PsyCap), social capital (SosCap), and work-related performance. Specifically, our aim is twofold. First, the study examines whether and how PsyCap relates to three types of work-related performance: innovative behaviour (IB), job engagement (JE), and sales performance (SP). Second, it examines the relationship between PsyCap and the structural dimension of SosCap, which is represented in this study by the concept of authentic leadership (AL), the relational dimension of SosCap, represented by the supportive organisational climate (SOC) variable, and work-related performance, reflected in the variables IB, JE, and SP. A conceptual model was developed and tested using a survey of frontline service sales representatives of car dealerships. The findings reveal that PsyCap is directly linked to IB, JE, and SP. AL, the structural dimension of SosCap, and SOC, the relational dimension of SosCap, were both directly linked to PsyCap. The findings also reveal that the relationships between AL, SOC, IB, JE, and SP are all mediated by PsyCap. AL is directly related to SOC. The relationship between AL and PsyCap is mediated by SOC. This study indicates that PsyCap and SosCap are symbiotic resources. Specifically, it contributes fresh knowledge regarding how organisations can capitalise on the resources of PsyCap and SosCap to improve work-related performance.
... Likewise, researchers recognize that personal selling has an affective element and that a better understanding of the role of affect in buyer-seller relationships is needed (Erevelles and Fukawa 2013). For example, research suggests that salesperson emotional intelligence has positive effects on salesperson performance (Laask and Shepherd 2013) and that emotions serve as a driving force behind salesperson motivation (Brown, Cron, and Slocum 1997;Friend et al. 2016). In short, researchers and practitioners agree that emotions are an asset to salespeople who can both manage their customers' emotions (Barnes et al. 2013) and use their own emotions in relationships with customers (Torres 2014). ...
... Finally, our work aligns with the study of positive psychology within the sales domain. Scholars within this area have noted the lack of research examining positive employee states and how positive organizational behavior transcends the boundaries of the firm (Friend et al. 2016). We begin to close this gap by showing how employees' positive state of gratitude indeed maintains extra-organizational outcomes by spilling over to customers through employee behaviors. ...
... Finally, the current findings extend our understanding of how concepts within positive psychology apply to sales. Sales researchers within this domain have encouraged investigations of positive employee states and how positive organizational behavior transcends the boundaries of the firm (Friend et al. 2016). Our examination of gratitude, which is a positive state, helps address this gap by showing how salesperson gratitude spills over to customers. ...
Article
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In addressing the call for research to understand affect in sales, this research uses moral affect theory and literature on emotional contagion to examine the effects of salesperson gratitude and customer gratitude on downstream relationship outcomes. The findings of this work suggest that salesperson prosocial behaviors account for the positive association between salesperson gratitude and customer gratitude. These prosocial behaviors – information sharing and extra-role behaviors – combined with customer gratitude serve as explanatory mechanisms for the positive effects of salesperson gratitude on customer commitment, which is an important result of buyer-seller interactions and an essential component of long-term relationships. Further, this research finds that salesperson extra-role behaviors and relationship length interact such that salesperson extra-role behaviors cultivate customer gratitude within developing and established relationships, but that these behaviors are particularly beneficial for less mature relationships. Understanding the role of salesperson gratitude and customer gratitude in driving relational outcomes contributes to both a theoretical understanding of the role of affect in sales and practical applications of emotions within buyer-seller relationships.
... Given the lack of reliable information on traditional economic capital, alternative channels gain relevance as a means of reflecting quality and effort, such as social or psychological capital (Friend et al. 2016). Prior research has shown that the signaling of technical capital allows investors to differentiate between promising and underwhelming blockchain ventures Howell et al. 2018). ...
... Positive language is perceived as a positive representation of an organization. From the perspective of the target audience, these characteristics increase trust in an entrepreneur's abilities and motivate positive economic outcomes such as higher sales or favorable firm evaluations (Anglin et al. 2018;Friend et al. 2016). The role of language in venture performance has been pointed out by numerous studies (Dorfleitner et al. 2018;Tetlock 2007). ...
... The first insight from our research is that signaling of positive language is positively linked to economic outcomes in ICO campaigns, as is the case in conventional finance. Similar effects have been discussed for economics in general (Friend et al. 2016;Luthans et al. 2004), and particularly Twitter utilization in relation to stock performance and crowdfunding success (Deng et al. 2018;Greenberg et al. 2013). We extend this research by analyzing the sentiment of Twitter messages during ICO campaigns and find that signaling positive language is associated with higher raised volumes. ...
Article
Blockchain ventures rely on a distributed funding instrument called initial coin offering (ICO). Since ICOs are not regulated, potential investors face information asymmetries and decision-making under uncertainty. In this study, we investigate whether blockchain ventures can effectively reduce these information asymmetries by utilizing signaling mechanisms on Twitter and how the resulting effects differ from those in conventional market environments. Based on a corpus of 144,492 tweets from 522 ventures, we provide empirical evidence that positive language and a high, yet steady level of interactivity with the community are linked to higher funding, while frequent stressing of time frames has the opposite effect. To the best of our knowledge, this presents the first study to analyze how the textual content of tweets can be linked to the success of blockchain ventures.
... Sources: Baron, Fresedan Baum (2007); Brooke (2004) ; Luthans (2004Luthans ( , 2007 Brooke (2004) who is also in agreement with Baron, Fresedan Baum (2007) adds financial capital to the already four factors proposed by them. Luthans (2004) further expands the criteria or the outcomes of the psychological capital such as self-efficacy, hopes, optimism and resilience. ...
... Sources: Baron, Fresedan Baum (2007); Brooke (2004) ; Luthans (2004Luthans ( , 2007 Brooke (2004) who is also in agreement with Baron, Fresedan Baum (2007) adds financial capital to the already four factors proposed by them. Luthans (2004) further expands the criteria or the outcomes of the psychological capital such as self-efficacy, hopes, optimism and resilience. According to him, an entrepreneur should put a high hope and confidence with the knowledge, skills and capabilities he or she has in starting a business. ...
... Such qualities, while not costly to signal, are critical in launching a successful venture. Therefore, it is likely that displaying positive psychological capital influences the positive perceptions of an individual or firm (e.g., Friend et al., 2016;McKenny et al, 2013). ...
... Indeed, conceptual work has theorized that positive psychological capital may act as a positive signal, through the portrayal of confidence, optimism, and resiliency, leading to more positive evaluations by stakeholders (Friend et al., 2016). Further, those who desire to appear competent will attempt to signal qualities such as confidence (Holoien and Fiske, 2013), while optimism is positively related to perceptions of leadership potential (Chemers et al., 2000). ...
Article
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We extend the entrepreneurship literature to include positive psychological capital-an individual or organization's level of psychological resources consisting of hope, optimism, resilience , and confidence-as a salient signal in crowdfunding. We draw from the costless signaling literature to argue that positive psychological capital language usage enhances crowdfunding performance. We examine 1726 crowdfunding campaigns from Kickstarter, finding that entrepreneurs conveying positive psychological capital experience superior fundraising performance. Human capital moderates this relationship while social capital does not, suggesting that costly signals may, at times, enhance the influence of costless signals. Post hoc analyses suggest findings generalize across crowdfunding types, but not to IPOs.
... Miao et al. (2007), and Ryan and Deci (2000) found that different motivational processes lead to intrinsic satisfaction. Satisfaction has been shown to enhance happiness and productiveness among the workforce (Friend, Johnson, Luthans, & Sohi, 2016;Peterson, Balthazard, Waldman, & Thatcher, 2008). Yet, we find that there is a lack of research into the dependencies between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. ...
... She is proud of her achievements and the resulting compensation. Previous research has shown that pride increases sales-related motivations, including efficacy (Friend et al., 2016;Verbeke, Belchak, & Bagozzi, 2004). The extrinsic regulation has formed Nina's core of intrinsic regulation. ...
Article
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This study examines the manifestation of intrinsic motivation by exploring the sources of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among employees of a retail hypermarket. The research uses narrative and ethnographical analysis from 24 interviews. Two unique dimensions were created for motivational power—source and growth process—for a new typology of work motivation. The typology consists of four processes: intrinsic regulation, intrinsic valuation, extrinsic valuation, and extrinsic regulation. The results show how intrinsic motivation can be reinforced through these processes. Recommendations are presented for different personnel teams in the service sector. © 2017 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
... Specifically, positivity has "the ability to broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires and build their enduring resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources" (Fredrickson, 2001, p. 219). Although the broaden-and-build theory initially focused on emotions, recent work has also focused on states such as optimism and resilience (Friend, Johnson, Luthans, & Sohi, 2016;Luthans, Vogelgesang & Lester, 2006b;. This focus on states is consistent with the rationale underlying broaden-and-build theory. ...
... Our focus on optimism and resilience is also supported by the positive psychology and broaden-and-build theory literature. As others have previously highlighted (e.g., Friend et al., 2016;Luthans, 2002;Seligman, 2012), optimism and resilience have been linked to wide-ranging desirable outcomes, including employee performance. These desirable outcomes are at least partially attributable to the ability of optimism and resiliency to increase mental flexibility, creativity, efficiency, and openness to information (Barnes et al., 2015). ...
... Such qualities, while not costly to signal, are critical in launching a successful venture. Therefore, it is likely that displaying positive psychological capital influences the positive perceptions of an individual or firm (e.g., Friend et al., 2016;McKenny et al., 2013). Indeed, conceptual work has theorized that positive psychological capital may act as a positive signal, through the portrayal of confidence, optimism, and resiliency, leading to more positive evaluations by stakeholders ( Friend et al., 2016). ...
... Therefore, it is likely that displaying positive psychological capital influences the positive perceptions of an individual or firm (e.g., Friend et al., 2016;McKenny et al., 2013). Indeed, conceptual work has theorized that positive psychological capital may act as a positive signal, through the portrayal of confidence, optimism, and resiliency, leading to more positive evaluations by stakeholders ( Friend et al., 2016). Further, those who desire to appear competent will attempt to signal qualities such as confidence (Holoien and Fiske, 2013), while optimism is positively related to perceptions of leadership potential ( Chemers et al., 2000). ...
Conference Paper
Language conveying positive psychological capital reflects optimism, hope, resilience, and confidence. Use of this language in organizational narratives has been linked to key organizational outcomes such as firm performance. Drawing from positive organizational behavior and signaling theory literatures, we examine how language indicating positive psychological capital in crowdfunding profiles impacts crowdfunding campaign performance. Using a sample of 895 Kickstarter campaigns, we find that higher levels of positive psychological capital rhetoric lead to increased rate of funding and an increased probability of meeting funding goals. These relationships are moderated by the amount of funding requested by the venture.
... Even though the theory initially focused on emotions, recent studies have extended it to positive states such as psychological capital (Lussier and Hartmann 2017), optimism, and resilience (Friend et al. 2016). Support for the rationale underlying the theory is found in past studies that have linked positive states with broadened attention, leading to change and development in behaviors (Isen 2008). ...
Article
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Ethical selling has been found to have significant influence on sales performance and relational selling behaviors. However, sales ethics was mostly explored through a negative lens (i.e., what is wrong with salesperson) and we depart from this tradition by using a positive lens (i.e., if sales person is in flow, she would be more ethical). Using broaden-and-build theory, this paper examines the influence of flow on ethical selling. The mediating role of information sharing is also examined. Results from a study of 192 pharmaceutical salespeople in India suggest that flow influences ethical selling behavior via information sharing. The findings imply that flow can serve as a driver for information sharing and ethical decision making among salespeople. The study contributes to the sales ethics literature by extending the application of positive psychology to the sales domain for the first time.
... Within the broadenand-build theory, positive states can lead to positive behavior, because they widen one's psychological capacities and subsequent behaviors, when faced with adversity (luthans & youssef, 2007). While the broaden-and-build theory initially focused on the role of positive emotions, recent work in the organizational sciences has focused on positive states, such as optimism and resilience (friend, Johnson, luthans, & sohi, 2016;. ...
... Further, we provide additional explanation to strengthen the arguments linking positive psychology to adaptive selling behaviors. This vein of inquiry addresses calls for research to place a sharper focus on positive valance variables and their role in driving salesperson's behaviors (Panagopoulos and Ogilvie, 2015;Friend et al., 2016;Lyngdoh et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate salespersons’ self-monitoring and its effect on adaptive selling behavior. As salespeople are constantly facing different customers with various needs and want and engaging in a different sales situation, salespeople must deploy their inner capabilities in practicing adaptive selling behavior during and across sales interactions. This study also investigates the impact of salesperson’s intrapersonal leadership – where leadership stems from the individuals with the purpose to influence oneself. Design/methodology/approach Authors draw on the social cognitive theory of self-regulation to develop our model and examine the relationship between self-monitoring, thought self-leadership and adaptive selling behavior. We empirically test the model using data from 335 pharmaceutical salespeople working across several countries in Asia. Findings The results support the role of self-monitoring and thought self-leadership as antecedents to adaptive selling. Further, the results suggest that self-monitoring positively moderates the relationship between thought self-leadership and adaptive selling behavior. In light of these results, we explore implications and limitations and conclude by suggesting directions for further research. Research limitations/implications The sampling method used was convenience sampling, which may limit the theoretical generalization of our results across all emerging markets. Moreover, this study examines the direct impact of self-management mechanism on adaptive selling behavior and the way it interacts with salesperson's thought self-leadership to strengthen adaptive selling behavior. However, the research model does not include organization-level drivers. Originality/value This study makes an important and original contribution to sales literature by demonstrating the direct and interaction effects of self-monitoring mechanism on a critical component of a business to business sales process, adaptive selling behavior. Results from this study highlight the critical importance of cognitive processes that drives positive selling behavior.
... PsyCap refers to qualities such as confidence in oneself (self-efficacy), ability to evaluate things and people positively (optimism), ability to march ahead towards a goal (hope) and the quality of not getting deterred by the challenges that arise during tough times (resilience) . Studies have indicated that the PsyCap of employees is related to positive performance and attitude at the workplace (Friend et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the recent times, researchers have shown an increased interest in positive psychological capital (PsyCap). However, it is acknowledged that due to the limited number of studies conducted on the antecedents of psychological capital, there is a lack of sufficient data for conclusively proving the antecedents of PsyCap. Consequently, this article aims to explore the potential antecedents of PsyCap as a reliable source of data in the context of rural school teachers. The focus is to investigate both the individual differences and the contextual factors as desirable variables that constitute PsyCap among the school teachers of rural Jharkhand, India. Samples of 1,120 respondents from different rural schools were collected and analysed with Structural Equation Modeling (AMOS 20.0). The findings of the study explained that both the individual differences ( proactive personality and emotional intelligence) and the contextual factors ( perceived organizational support, servant leadership and meaningful work) have a positive relationship with PsyCap. The impact of PsyCap on teacher performance can form the basis for further research on the subject. JEL Codes: M12, M53
... Some of these factors, such as insufficient financial capacity of customer to perform repeated purchases even in a long perspective [60] are not applicable to mid-ranged restaurant services, some, such as psychological characteristics of customers [61] may weaken this satisfaction-repurchase link. Psychological motives influence customer satisfaction and intentions to repurchase even prevail over physical attributes of service delivery [62][63][64] and counter ex-ante attitudes towards selected services [65]. These discrepancies in prevailing scientific streams motivate us to investigate the relationship between customer satisfaction created by non-physical means (social servicescape factors) and intentions to repurchase specific restaurant services. ...
Article
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The present paper studies the importance of social servicescape factors to customer satisfaction in middle-priced restaurant services. This paper fills the existing literature gap on the importance of social servicescape factors onto customers’ satisfaction in middle-priced services. A survey of 514 respondents from three capitals of the Baltic States was conducted for the purpose of the present study. Descriptive statistics together with an independent samples t-test and partial least squares path analysis were employed for data processing. The results obtained confirmed the hypothesis about the importance of social servicescape attributes to customer satisfaction. The study also highlighted the difference in gender attitudes towards intangible aspects of service delivery. The research confirmed the existence of a relationship between customer satisfaction and repurchase intentions, although to a lesser extent than could have been anticipated from the literature review. The findings of the study covered by the present paper allow us to position middle-priced restaurants closer to luxury ones compared to casual restaurants
... Previous research has supported the relationship between employees' PsyCap and multiple measures of performance, including both supervisor-rated and objective sales performance Peterson et al., 2011;Clapp-Smith et al., 2009). Employees' PsyCap increases sales outcomes by reinforcing extra effort, enhancing the generation of multiple solutions to problems, increasing positive expectations about results and developing positive responses to adversity (Friend et al., 2016). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between sales managers’ authentic leadership style and salespeople’s positive development. Design/methodology/approach Multilevel regression analysis was used to examine the data from 40 work teams from several Spanish retail companies (190 salespeople and 40 sales managers). Findings In line with previous studies, the analyses indicated that sales managers’ authentic leadership style as perceived by employees significantly predicted salespeople’s work engagement and psychological capital (PsyCap). Contrary to the expectations, salespeople’s perceptions of sales managers’ authentic leadership did not relate to sales managers’ self-ratings of authentic leadership, but instead related to sales managers’ gender (women were perceived as more authentic) and higher perceived frequency of leader–follower interaction. Originality/value The study contributes to the literature by testing if sales managers’ variables (gender and self-ratings of authentic leadership and perceived frequency of leader–follower interaction) predict salespeople’s perceptions of authentic leadership, which in turn, predict salespeople’s positive development (work engagement and PsyCap).
... Thus, by broadening people's mental states and creating sustainable resources, positive emotions transform people for good and help them survive and flourish within this complex world (Fredrickson, 2013). Although the theory originally focused on emotions, its application has been recently extended to positive states such as flow (Sridhar & Lyngdoh, 2019), subjective well-being , flourishing (Fredrickson & Losada, 2005), optimism (Friend et al., 2016) and resilience (Luthans et al., 2006). ...
Article
Although the role of positive emotions is important in sales, personal happiness remains understudied in the selling context. Grounded in broaden-and-build theory, this study aims to examine the relationships among personal happiness, job involvement, job satisfaction and salesperson flourishing. For salespeople, the new demands of a connected world have largely blurred the boundaries between their personal life and work life. It has allowed emotions from their personal life to spill over into their workplace. Data from 137 salespeople in the retail context in India lend support for the proposed serial mediation model. The authors propose that the influence of personal happiness on a salesperson flourishing is mediated by job involvement and job satisfaction. Results of this study shows that personal happiness has a direct influence on the salesperson’s flourishing and is effective only through the mediating influence of job satisfaction and not of job involvement. This study extends the broaden-and-build theory by proposing that personal happiness may influence flourishing at work. The findings illustrate the need for a renewed focus on salesperson’s personal emotions, especially in todays connected workplace where the boundaries between personal and work life are shrinking
... Driven by his/her self-efficacy, a salesperson's BSL is a set of motivation skills that exerts Assessing the drivers and outcomes positive influence on task related processes. Recently, researchers have emphasized the influence of positive psychology and psychological capital on selling behaviors such as adaptive selling behaviors (Friend et al., 2016;Lyngdoh et al., 2018). BSL as a constructive self-regulation mechanism is a positively valenced variable that can drive adaptive selling behaviors in salespeople. ...
Article
Purpose Although the role of self-leadership is important, it remains understudied in business-to-business (B2B) selling context. This study aims to provide insights into the drivers and outcomes of behavioral self-leadership tested through a sample working in pharmaceutical sales in an emerging economy. In accord, the authors investigate the relationships between self-efficacy, behavioral self-leadership, adaptive selling and ultimately sales performance. This study also investigates the moderating role of technical knowledge. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered from 208 salespeople working in pharmaceutical industry. AMOS 21.0 and SmartPLS3.0 were utilized to test the conceptual framework. Findings The study finds that self-efficacy is positively related to behavioral self-leadership that in turn is positively related to adaptive selling and sales performance. In addition, counter intuitive findings were uncovered related to salesperson’s technical knowledge. Those with high technical knowledge exhibited weaker relationship between self-efficacy and behavioral self-leadership, behavioral self-leadership and adaptive selling and that between behavioral self-leadership and sales performance than their counterparts with low technical knowledge. Research limitations/implications This study extends work on self-leadership by exploring the effect of self-efficacy and behavioral self-leadership on sales performance. This study also extends the theory on salesperson’s knowledge by proposing the counter-intuitive effect of knowledge and self-efficacy and knowledge and behavioral self-leadership on adaptive selling and sales performance. Practical implications Sales managers should consider that not all employees indulging in behavioral self-leadership would reap benefits from the same. As such, sales managers should assess the level of technical knowledge of the salesforce and when determining their training programs that develop such self-leadership skills. Originality/value The study is one of the first to consider the drivers and outcomes of behavioral self-leadership and technical knowledge in a B2B sales context. By focusing on the interplay between knowledge and self-efficacy and knowledge and behavioral self-leadership, this study provides greater understanding of the effects of behavioral self-leadership than previously expected by sales researchers.
... For example, Norrish et al. (2013) argued that the implementation of positive education tenets ultimately lead to students' happiness and personal growth. Positive psychological resources and capabilities such as hope, optimism, and resilience exert favorable impact beyond one's academic life to their job satisfaction, commitment, and performance at the workplace (Friend et al., 2016;Luthans & Youssef, 2009;Youssef & Luthans, 2007). Similar findings are noted in hospitality and tourism research. ...
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Taking the perspective of positive education, this study aims to examine the state of hospitality and tourism students’ hope during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also investigates the role of academic program engagement efforts in imparting students’ hope, their academic satisfaction, and loyalty intention to remain in hospitality and tourism as a major and career. The results show that student’s engagement experience is positive despite the crisis. Engagement activities, especially from faculty and the overall campus environment, significantly instilled hope among students. Hope and academic satisfaction were two powerful predictors for student’s major and career loyalty. The study results not only provide a timely snapshot on hospitality and tourism students’ engagement experience, academic satisfaction, and loyalty intention during the COVID-19 pandemic, but also offers a hope-centered framework to guide academic programs on their engagement and student success efforts going forward.
... They further discovered that positive psychological capital has a positive relationship with crowdfunding performance (Anglin et al., 2018). Positive psychological capital is defined as the level of personal or organizational psychological resources in the four aspects of hope, optimism, resilience, and confidence (Avey et al., 2011;Friend et al., 2016). Considering the crucial role of entrepreneurs in startups, we focus on the positive psychological capital of entrepreneurs (Ensley et al., 2006). ...
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Family financing has become a powerful channel for entrepreneurs to obtain entrepreneurial funding. How do family members use intent and quality signals to select new ventures to provide lending support? Building on the signaling theory, this study provides the first quantitative evidence using a sample of 166 samples of family lenders in China. Our findings reveal that psychological capital can support entrepreneurs to obtain family lending. As an intent signal, psychological capital becomes more influential when quality signals, corporate competitive advantage, and firm performance perform more positively. This study emphasizes that family financing support is not only out of love or altruism and extends the literature concerning the influence of positive psychological capital in financial investment decisions.
... Different empirical studies pointed out the psychological capital as a second-order construct, due to the positive interaction between the four psychological capabilities (Roche et al., 2014;Daspit et al., 2015;Friend et al., 2016). Although the PsyCap sub-dimensions are correlated, certain studies, for example, Luthans et al. (2007), have shown that empirically they are independent and have discriminating validity, so people can have different levels of self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience. ...
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This study aims to analyze the relationship between psychological capital profiles and internal learning in teams. The participants in this study were 480 undergraduate students. We performed a cluster analysis using the SPSS and yielded four distinct psychological capital profiles. The student profile with the highest scores in self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resilience (Profile 2-Fully PsyCap) exhibited also the highest scores of internal learning in teams. On the other hand, the student profile with the lowest scores in self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resilience (Profile 1- Empty PsyCap) presented the lowest scores of internal learning in teams. It is also noteworthy that there was no significant relationship between the profile with a positive combination between self-efficacy and hope (profile 4) and the profile that presents the optimism as the only positive psychological capability (profile 3), in the way they relate to internal learning in teams, which led us to reject the second hypothesis of the study. This study reinforces the role of psychological capital in academic settings and suggests that psychological capital profiles can affect internal learning in teams differentially.
... This influence impact the individual personality of the employees and make an adjustment in the organizational work settings (Friend, Johnson, Luthans, & Sohi, 2016). The leadership behavior of the managers also influences the training cycles and motivational psychology of the employees. ...
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Objectives. The relational interconnectivity of leaders and organizational members in the context of personality traits is in limelight due to market pressing need of antecedents’ investigation for project success. This study is about portrayal of big-five personality traits impact on project success in marketing-oriented organizations. In addition, this study is also aimed to explore if leader member exchange plays a role in moderating the relationship between the big five personality traits and project success. Two traits agreeableness and conscientiousness were the focus as per theoretical paradigm. Method. For this purpose, the questionnaire was filled by different public and private organizations. The sample size was 153 respondents (both male and female), collected through convenience sampling due to scattered nature of sample. Results. The study uses a co-relation and regression analysis technique to test the measurement of model. It was found that agreeableness has a significant effect on project success, whereas conscientiousness lacks significant relationship along with absence of moderating relationship. Implications. The managerial implication is marked by the spearhead focus on agreeableness and conscientiousness traits in terms of humanistic capacity building that could install the triggers for project success in marketing-oriented organizations. Keywords. Agreeableness, conscientiousness, leader member exchange, project success.
... Driven by his/her self-efficacy, a salesperson's BSL is a set of motivation skills that exerts Assessing the drivers and outcomes positive influence on task related processes. Recently, researchers have emphasized the influence of positive psychology and psychological capital on selling behaviors such as adaptive selling behaviors (Friend et al., 2016;Lyngdoh et al., 2018). BSL as a constructive self-regulation mechanism is a positively valenced variable that can drive adaptive selling behaviors in salespeople. ...
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Purpose-Although the role of self-leadership is important, it remains understudied in business-to-business (B2B) selling context. This study aims to provide insights into the drivers and outcomes of behavioral self-leadership tested through a sample working in pharmaceutical sales in an emerging economy. In accord, the authors investigate the relationships between self-efficacy, behavioral self-leadership, adaptive selling and ultimately sales performance. This study also investigates the moderating role of technical knowledge. Design/methodology/approach-Data were gathered from 208 salespeople working in pharmaceutical industry. AMOS 21.0 and SmartPLS3.0 were utilized to test the conceptual framework. Findings-The study finds that self-efficacy is positively related to behavioral self-leadership that in turn is positively related to adaptive selling and sales performance. In addition, counter intuitive findings were uncovered related to salesperson's technical knowledge. Those with high technical knowledge exhibited weaker relationship between self-efficacy and behavioral self-leadership, behavioral self-leadership and adaptive selling and that between behavioral self-leadership and sales performance than their counterparts with low technical knowledge. Research limitations/implications-This study extends work on self-leadership by exploring the effect of self-efficacy and behavioral self-leadership on sales performance. This study also extends the theory on salesperson's knowledge by proposing the counter-intuitive effect of knowledge and self-efficacy and knowledge and behavioral self-leadership on adaptive selling and sales performance. Practical implications-Sales managers should consider that not all employees indulging in behavioral self-leadership would reap benefits from the same. As such, sales managers should assess the level of technical knowledge of the salesforce and when determining their training programs that develop such self-leadership skills. Originality/value-The study is one of the first to consider the drivers and outcomes of behavioral self-leadership and technical knowledge in a B2B sales context. By focusing on the interplay between knowledge and self-efficacy and knowledge and behavioral self-leadership, this study provides greater understanding of the effects of behavioral self-leadership than previously expected by sales researchers.
... It is a field of research based on the relationship between the positive quality and mentality, positive emotion, potential development, and happiness promotion of the corresponding individual. Based on this, (Luthans et al., 2010) put forward the concept of positive psychological capital, which could also be called psychological capital (Friend et al., 2016;Gander et al., 2018). Luthans et al. (2010) believed that psychological capital was mainly composed of four structures: self-efficacy, resilience, optimism and hope, which were conceptually independent and had differentiated validity on the basis of empirical evidence. ...
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This study explores the influence of psychological capital on the deviant innovation behavior, with the purpose of realizing the application and development of positive psychology in the field of innovation and creation. First, the data was obtained based on the questionnaire, and the Likert scale was adopted to measure the variables effectively, in which 1 point means “never,” 2 points mean “rarely,” and 5 points mean “always.” Second, the SPSS 26.0 statistical analysis software was adopted, and a statistical analysis was made on the correlation among deviant innovation, psychological capital, work values, and work remodeling. Third, the relationship between psychological capital and deviant innovation behavior was explored using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that the reliability of each scale is good, Cronbach’s α coefficients are all higher than 0.8, and the fitting effect of the four-factor model is the best, proving that the highest differentiation validity can be achieved using the proposed method. Furthermore, there are significant correlations among entrepreneur’s psychological capital, entrepreneur’s work values, and entrepreneurship work remodeling and deviant innovation behavior, among which the psychological capital and work values are the most correlated with deviant innovation. With the psychological capital of entrepreneurs as the adjustment variable and the interaction added, the explanation rate of the level equation is increased from 17 to 24.2%. Therefore, the psychological capital of entrepreneurs plays a very big role in regulating work values and deviant innovation behavior. In the current environment of innovation and entrepreneurship development, it is necessary for entrepreneurs to give full reign to the regulatory role of their own psychological capital, so as to promote the development of self-active deviant innovation activities and encourage employees to actively innovate and create.
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Background & Aims: Job adaptability is essential to the successful employment of nurses, which could be largely influenced by psychological capital. The present study aimed to investigate the association between psychological capital and job adaptability in the nurses at Kashan University of Medical Sciences hospital, Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was conducted on 190 nurses at Kashan University of Medical Sciences hospital, who were selected via stratified random sampling. Data were collected using two questionnaires of psychological capital and job compatibility. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22 using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean psychological capital (5.41±0.77) was above average 4, and the mean job compatibility (3.23±0.43) was above average 3. Pearson's correlation-coefficient indicated a positive, significant correlation between psychological capital and job adaptability of nurses (r=0.43). In addition, the most significant association was observed between psychological capital and value orientation (r=0.43), while the least significant correlation was denoted between psychological capital and autonomy (r=0.15). Conclusion: According to the results, the implementation of programs for the improvement of psychological capital in the nursing community could result in the job adaptability of nurses. Furthermore, a supportive view within hospitals toward nurses and the subsequent perception of being supported on behalf of nurses could effectively enhance their job adaptability.
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As much as 94% of all sales effort results in outcomes that can be perceived as denoting failure. This article presents findings from a systematic review of literature which identifies that, to date, no single review article appears to exist that simultaneously and explicitly considers the antecedents and detrimental effects of such sales failure. A total of 36 topics of interest were identified, with recommendations for future research presented for each. A framework for the measurement of overall sales failure is presented that proposes a synergistic relationship between the selling strategy of the firm, management capability to enact strategy through their teams as well as the skills, aptitude, professionalism and psychological factors associated with salespeople, without which the full sales potential of an organisation cannot be met. A discussion and suggestions for future research is then presented.
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Since its inception in 2007, psychological capital has been gaining more and more attention. Nonetheless, zero studies had been done on the psychometric properties of the 24-item Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) in Malaysia. Therefore, the present study examined the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. A total of 420 Malaysian government employees participated in this study. Findings revealed that the PCQ demonstrated a satisfactory level of psychometric properties in Malaysia after five items were excluded. Hence, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) could be used for Malaysian employees to discover positive contributions to psychological capital in the Malaysian workplace setting.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to reveal important insights by examining the relationships of two different field managers’ monitoring styles with performance through salespersons’ engagement. Design/methodology/approach Data was collected from 318 salespersons’ from 20 pharmaceutical firms. Given the performance-driven nature of the pharmaceutical sales profession, field managers seek to adopt the best monitoring style, which can optimize individual’s performance while providing a healthy work environment. Findings The results from multivariate analysis show the evidence of positive relationship between interactional monitoring and salespersons’ engagement. The results also confirm that engagement partially mediates the proposed relationships. Originality/value Authors assimilate and extend research and theory on field managers’ monitoring, salespersons’ performance and salespersons’ engagement to advance a model of salespersons’ reactions to different monitoring styles based on self-determination theory. Perhaps in no other field, the salespersons-field managers’ relationship is as important as in the field of pharmaceutical selling. The study offers insights about the important consequence of two different monitoring styles; also the study is one of the exceptional efforts to provide evidence regarding the role of engagement in the relationship between two different monitoring styles and salespersons’ performance.
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The resilience of B2B sales forces is crucial in face of severe wide-ranging challenges during a crisis. This study aims to investigate the role of leader communication of the crisis in promoting salesperson resilience during the COVID-19. The data were gathered from 418 salespersons from 36 manufacturing firms in times of the COVID-19. The data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modeling. The results demonstrated the positive relationship between leader crisis communication and salesperson resilience, mediated by salespersons' positive stress mindset. Family strain and core beliefs challenge were found to attenuate the positive linkage between leader crisis communication and salespersons' positive stress mindset. Theoretical and practical implications are presented. This study offers insights to help managers in B2B organizations better understand and implement mechanisms that can foster resilience among their B2B sales forces in the COVID-19 outbreak and other crises.
Thesis
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Die Chancen und Risiken der Digitalisierung für die Möglichkeit der Vereinbarkeit von sinnstiftender Arbeit, Wohlbefinden und Unternehmenserfolg - Wie kann durch Führung und Arbeitsorganisation "gute Arbeit" in einer digitalen Arbeitswelt geschaffen werden? (Überblicksmäßige Betrachtung)
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Purpose The paper aims to decipher, through intertwined external and internal perspectives, how female and male owners of family businesses (FB) that have been affected by the pandemic develop new capabilities to respond to the market's crisis-related needs. Specifically, this study seeks to decipher the role of external support, mediated by the owner's psychological capital (i.e. internal perspective) and moderated by gender, on the development of capabilities related to the market's changing needs, drawing on the dynamic capabilities conceptualization. Design/methodology/approach A sample of responses from 261 Canadian FB owners was generated during the pandemic, and online questionnaires were distributed. Findings Regression analyses and Hayes' PROCESS tool revealed that while external support directly invigorates capability development, external support is also mediated by psychological capital and moderated by gender, so that female owners were found less likely to use external support for capability development than men. These findings are explained by women's traditional responsibility in FB of protecting the family from external circumstances. Nevertheless, both women and men orchestrated external support, due to the higher psychological capital of FB, to develop capabilities that respond to pandemic-related market needs. Originality/value This study explores and demonstrates the unique navigation of FB owners during crises, and the role of the owner's gender in pursuing capability development. The study's value is in interconnecting external and internal perspectives while probing FB during crises. Implications for the ecosystem's conduct toward FB are discussed.
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the impact of a salesperson’s psychological capital (PsyCap) on sales performance through the interplay of work engagement and performance feedback. This study examines the role of thought self-leadership (TSL) as an antecedent of a salesperson’s PsyCap. Design/methodology/approach Grounded in the social cognitive theory and job demands–resources theory, a hypothesized model is proposed. To test the hypothesized model, data on sales professionals were collected from B2B sales organizations, and a structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. Findings The results demonstrate that TSL drives PsyCap in salespeople. The results also suggest an interesting relationship between salesperson’s PsyCap and their sales performance through work engagement as a mediator for PsyCap and sales performance. The moderating effect of performance feedback on work engagement was not significant and thus counterintuitive. Practical implications The results suggest that organizations should invest in training to develop the TSL of their salesforce, which will lead to enhanced performance through personal resources such as PsyCap. Further, the findings have implications for sales organization designs and structure. Originality/value This study augments the extant information on the linkage between a salesperson’s PsyCap and sales performance by suggesting mediation mechanisms and proposing an integrated framework with work engagement. Further, the authors establish TSL as an important cognitive mechanism to strengthen PsyCap in salespeople.
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Öz: Bu araştırmanın amacı, öğretmen algılarına göre okul yöneticilerinin psikolojik sermaye düzeylerini belirlemektir. Araştırma, kesitsel tarama çalışmasıdır. Araştırmanın evrenini, 2019-2020 eğitim öğretim yılında Ankara il merkezi ilçelerindeki resmi okullarda görevli öğretmenler, örneklemini ise bu zaman diliminde Ankara merkez ilçelerindeki resmi okullarda görevli toplam 360 öğretmen oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada okul yöneticilerinin psikolojik sermaye düzeyini ölçmek üzere “Psikolojik Sermaye Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Araştırma verileri Ankara ilinde araştırmacı tarafından toplanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda; öğretmen algılarına göre okul yöneticilerinin psikolojik sermaye düzeylerinin yüksek olduğu bulgusuna ulaşılmıştır. Okul yöneticilerinin psikolojik sermaye düzeylerine ilişkin öğretmen algıları, öğretmenlerin eğitim durumu, yaş ve mesleki kıdem değişkenlerine göre anlamlı bir farklılık gösterirken; cinsiyet ve medeni durum değişkenlerine göre anlamlı bir farklılık göstermemiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: Okul, yönetici, psikolojik sermaye.
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There is consistent empirical support for the benefits of using adaptive selling behaviors with customers. However, the identification of trainable salesperson antecedents remains elusive in practice with respect to what enables salespeople to adapt their behaviors. We suggest that the salesperson’s personal resources provide unique, unexplored opportunities in the sales and marketing literature. Specifically, we examine quiet ego, a positive psychological construct, and assert its potential as an explanatory variable for adaptive selling behaviors. Using a job demands-resources framework, we develop a conceptual model to better understand the effects of quiet ego on selling behaviors and salesperson performance. Further, we examine its effects when moderated by a common demand in sales, role conflict. A cross-sectional study that includes data from business-to-business sales professionals is used to test the proposed arguments in the model. Our findings suggest that quiet ego promotes adaptive selling behaviors in customer interactions and indirectly increases sales performance. However, its effects may be limited based on the level of role conflict experienced by the salesperson. A quiet ego may also provide a cost-effective means to assist salespeople in their selling behaviors.
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Introduction. The subject of this article is the analysis of the requirements for the psychological properties of active sales managers from the point of view of the competence approach. It is assumed that the interaction of working conditions in the organization and the psychological properties of a professional, as well as the requirements for them from the tasks performed, generate a certain set of psychological competencies necessary for the productive activity of an active sales manager. The complex nature of human-to-human activities, as well as the need to perform organizational, intellectual, communicative and coordination tasks, forms a system of requirements for the psychological competencies of representatives of this profession, compliance with which increases the productivity of a professional. The article presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the requirements for an active sales manager from the point of view of psychological competencies. Materials and Methods. Empirical research method - standardized self-reports with Likert scales, correlation and factor analysis. Results. Six main groups of required competencies are identified: value competence, regulatory competence, motivational competence, special competence, communication competence, strategic competence. It is assumed that the balanced development of these groups of competencies in accordance with the requirements of the profession of an active sales manager ensures high productivity of a specialist and his psychological well-being. Discussion and Conclusions. At the end of the article, the results obtained are evaluated from the point of view of their applicability in the training of specialists in key positions of sales departments, new research directions are outlined that allow for a more systematic study of the psychological competence of active sales managers, and it is also concluded that the content of psychological competencies should be taken into account when building educational programs for future sales managers.
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Connie White-Williams,1 Kathleen L Grady,2 Pariya Fazeli,1 Susan Myers,1 Linda Moneyham,3 Karen Meneses,3 Bruce Rybarczyk4 1University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 3School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology Program, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine whether satisfaction with social support and coping effectiveness mediate the relationship between stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) 5 years after heart transplantation. Data were collected from 212 heart transplant patients (80% male, 92% white, mean age 59.9 years) at four United States sites using the Heart Transplant Stressor Scale, Social Support Index, Jalowiec Coping Scale, and Quality of Life Index. Using Baron and Kenny's approach, a series of regression equations for mediation revealed that both satisfaction with social support and coping partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and HRQOL. Understanding the relationships of social support, stress, and coping on patients' HRQOL is important for the development of interventions to provide optimal patient care. Keywords: heart transplantation, social support, coping, stress, mediation
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Data from a salesforce of a national industrial manufacturer were used to test relationships among leadership, role conflict and ambiguity, job satisfaction, and job anxiety. Two alternative models were evaluated. One model proposes that job anxiety leads to dissatisfaction and the other that job anxiety is a consequence of dissatisfaction. Results reveal a converged theoretical model. A need for further theorizing on causal relationships among various satisfaction facets and role variables is apparent. Contrary to previous research findings, no causal linkages are found between job anxiety and satisfaction.
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New developments and trends in selling and sales management are creating demands and opportunities that require adaptation and new approaches on the part of both sales organizations and academic researchers. This paper summarizes critical dimensions of change in the environment that affect the practice of selling and sales management and introduces the papers that follow in this Anniversary Special Issue of JPSSM.
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Previous research reports a relationship between attributions and specific behaviors following a failed sales call. This study investigates the influence of individual differences on both the attribution process and the relationship between attribution and the behavioral intentions of sales representatives following a failure using a sample of financial services salespeople. This research reveals the important roles that optimism and self-efficacy play in shaping salespeople’s attributions for failed sales calls and in their behavioral responses to attributions for failure. Implications for managers and future research are discussed.
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Hiring individuals with the traits to succeed as professional salespeople is critical for the success of selling organizations. Better understanding the roles of individual traits (e.g., conscientiousness, extroversion, and self-efficacy) in explaining sales performance can lead to better hiring decisions. Based on the distal-proximal theoretical framework of motivation, we predict that conscientiousness and extroversion, as distal traits, have a mediated effect on sales performance through the proximal motivational factor of self-efficacy. Using data consisting of 980 responses from salespeople working for one of the largest insurance companies in South Korea, we find strong support for our hypotheses, and our results lend support for the distal-proximal theory. Conclusions, implications for managers and researchers, and directions for future research are discussed.
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This paper posits and tests a model of the individual characteristics of self-efficacy, competitiveness, and effort as potential antecedents of salesperson performance. Based on two studies in different selling contexts, it is observed that whereas effort mediates the relationship between competitiveness and sales performance, self-efficacy has both direct and indirect effects on sales performance. Structural equation modeling results support the proposed model. Implications and conclusions of the studies are presented.
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Orientation: Psychological capital (PsyCap) is a relatively novel construct measured with the Psychological Capital Questionnaire 24 (PCQ-24). Only one published South African study on the instrument exists, providing inconsistent psychometric results, when compared with other United States of America (USA) and non-USA studies. Research purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the internal validity (construct and discriminant validity), reliability and external validity (relationship with theoretically relevant variables, namely stress, burnout and work engagement) of the PCQ-24. Motivation for the study: Multiple studies have underscored the value of PsyCap within the workplace. In order to harness the full potential of the construct in the South African environment, sound measurement thereof, evidenced by a psychometrically sound instrument, is needed. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of employees at managerial and non-managerial levels, from a medium-sized construction company in the Western Cape, South Africa. In addition to PsyCap, perceived stress, work-related burnout and work engagement were measured. Main findings: The results provided preliminary evidence of construct and discriminant validity, reliability and significant relations with external theoretically relevant variables. Practical/managerial implications: Researchers may confidently use the PCQ-24 to measure the construct of PsyCap and investigate relations with workplace outcomes in the South African environment, informing human relations practices. Contribution/value-add: Preliminary evidence of the psychometric properties of the PCQ-24, which measures the construct of PsyCap (consisting of hope, self-efficacy, resilience and optimism) on a South African sample, was provided in this study.
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Aristotle proposed that to achieve happiness and success, people should cultivate virtues at mean or intermediate levels between deficiencies and excesses. In stark contrast to this assertion that virtues have costs at high levels, a wealth of psychological research has focused on demonstrating the well-being and performance benefits of positive traits, states, and experiences. This focus has obscured the prevalence and importance of nonmonotonic inverted-U-shaped effects, whereby positive phenomena reach inflection points at which their effects turn negative. We trace the evidence for nonmonotonic effects in psychology and provide recommendations for conceptual and empirical progress. We conclude that for psychology in general and positive psychology in particular, Aristotle's idea of the mean may serve as a useful guide for developing both a descriptive and a prescriptive account of happiness and success. © The Author(s) 2011.
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Aristotle proposed that to achieve happiness and success, people should cultivate virtues at mean or intermediate levels between deficiencies and excesses. In stark contrast to this assertion that virtues have costs at high levels, a wealth of psychological research has focused on demonstrating the well-being and performance benefits of positive traits, states, and experiences. This focus has obscured the prevalence and importance of nonmonotonic inverted-U-shaped effects, whereby positive phenomena reach inflection points at which their effects turn negative. We trace the evidence for nonmonotonic effects in psychology and provide recommendations for conceptual and empirical progress. We conclude that for psychology in general and positive psychology in particular, Aristotle’s idea of the mean may serve as a useful guide for developing both a descriptive and a prescriptive account of happiness and success.
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Learning and performance goal orientations, two motivational orientations that guide salespeople's behavior, are related to working smart and hard. Working smart is defined as the engagement in activities that serve to develop knowledge of sales situations and utilize this knowledge in selling behavior. It is found that a learning goal orientation motivates working both smart and hard, whereas a performance goal orientation motivates only working hard. The goal orientations also are found to be alterable through supervisory feedback. Furthermore, self-efficacy, salespeople's confidence in their overall selling abilities, is found to moderate some of the relationships with the goal orientations.
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Although the value of positivity has always been recognized, only in the past decade has there been renewed interest and a refocus in both psychology as a whole and in organizational studies. This chapter summarizes the theory-building and research findings to date on positive organizational behavior (POB) and psychological capital (PsyCap). The chapter then concludes by featuring a number of future directions for needed research and extensions of the domain of psychological capital.
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The authors use meta-analysis techniques to investigate the evidence that has been gathered on the determinants of salespeople's performance. A search of the published and unpublished literature uncovered 116 articles (the list of which is available upon request) that yielded 1653 reported associations between performance and determinants of that performance. The results indicate the determinants can be ordered in the following way in terms of the average size of their association with performance: (1) role variables, (2) skill, (3) motivation, (4) personal factors, (5) aptitude, and (6) organizational/environmental factors. When ordered according to the amount of the observed variation in correlations across studies that is real variation (i.e., not attributable to sampling error), the determinants rank as follows: (1) personal factors, (2) skill, (3) role variables, (4) aptitude, (5) motivation, and (6) organizational/environmental factors. To investigate whether the associations between each of the categories of predictors and performance could be partially accounted for by the presence of moderator variables, the results were broken out by customer type, product type, and type of dependent measure used. The results indicate that the strength of the relationship between the major determinants and salespeople's performance is affected by the type of products salespeople sell. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for sales managers and researchers.
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Aims: Studies have shown that gambling is associated with poor health and health risk-taking behaviour. However, little is known about those factors that can influence the association between gambling, health risk-taking and health. Using a population-based School Health Promotion Study of eighth- and ninth-grade Finnish boys and girls (N = 62,956), we investigated the relationships between gambling frequency, health risk-taking and poor health as well as whether social support from parents, friends and school staff could mediate these associations. Methods: Path analysis was used to discover direct and indirect effects of health, health risk-taking and gambling. Results: Social support from parents and school staff decreased gambling among boys and girls, whereas among boys support from friends increased gambling. However, the role of social support as a mediator was very weak. Overall poor health and health risk-taking were associated with increased gambling. CONCLUSIONS GAMBLING SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AN IMPORTANT PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE BECAUSE IT CLUSTERS WITH OTHER UNHEALTHY BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS INTERVENTIONS CONCERNING ADOLESCENT GAMBLING SHOULD ALSO TAKE OTHER SIMULTANEOUS RISK-TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION ALSO SOCIAL SUPPORT FROM PARENTS AND SCHOOL SHOULD BE NOTED WHEN TRYING TO DECREASE ADOLESCENTS' GAMBLING.
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The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology studies the burgeoning field of positive psychology, which, in recent years, has transcended academia to capture the imagination of the general public. The book provides a roadmap for the psychology needed by the majority of the population-those who don't need treatment, but want to achieve the lives to which they aspire. The articles summarize all of the relevant literature in the field, and each is essentially defining a lifetime of research. The content's breadth and depth provide a cross-disciplinary look at positive psychology from diverse fields and all branches of psychology, including social, clinical, personality, counseling, school, and developmental psychology. Topics include not only happiness-which has been perhaps misrepresented in the popular media as the entirety of the field-but also hope, strengths, positive emotions, life longings, creativity, emotional creativity, courage, and more, plus guidelines for applying what has worked for people across time and cultures.
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The focus of this empirical study is on salesperson optimism. First, the extent to which sales managers can enhance their optimism among their salespeople was explored by examining the influence of three leader behaviors (positive feedback, articulating a vision, and individualized support). Second, optimism was associated with three important outcome variables (inrole performance, and helping and sportsmanship organizational citizenship behavior). Data were collected from a sample of 122 salesperson/sales manager dyads from five companies, and hypotheses were tested by fitting a structural equations model. Results suggest that sales managers can enhance the salesperson optimism through individualized support; and that optimistic salespeople were more likely to be productive, and more likely to engage in sportsmanship organizational citizenship behavior.
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The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity. The most surprising conclusion emerging from studies of these children is the ordinariness of resilience. An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of these phenomena suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems. The conclusion that resilience is made of ordinary rather than extraordinary processes offers a more positive outlook on human development and adaptation, as well as direction for policy and practice aimed at enhancing the development of children at risk for problems and psychopathology. The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity.
Article
In this study, the construct of psychological capital (PsyCap) is explored within the quick service restaurant (QSR) industry. PsyCap, a second-order construct composed of hope, optimism, resilience, and self-efficacy, has received little attention in hospitality research despite its relationships with improving attitudes and behaviors. This study tested the relationships among PsyCap, service quality, customer satisfaction, and unit revenues through bivariate and mediational tests. Data were collected from a national chain of QSR employees, mystery shops, customer evaluations, and company records. The results indicate that collective PsyCap is positively related to all variables. Additionally, the results showed that service quality and customer satisfaction fully mediates the collective PsyCap to unit revenues relationship. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Chapter
Positive organizational scholars define positivity as “elevating processes and outcomes” (Cameron & Caza, 2004, p. 731). Thus, a better understanding of positive processes requires the investigation of the explanatory mechanisms that can account for the manifestation of “intentional behaviors that depart from the norm of a reference group in honorable ways” (Spreitzer & Sonenshein, 2003, p. 209). Positivity also focuses on outcomes that “dramatically exceed common or expected performance…spectacular results, surprising outcomes, extraordinary achievements…exceptional performance” (Cameron, 2008, p. 8). This “positive deviance” clearly goes beyond ordinary success or effectiveness.
Article
Resilience in human development is defined in relation to positive adaptation in the context of significant adversity, emphasizing a developmental systems approach. A brief history and glossary on the central concepts of resilience research in developmental science are provided, and the fundamental models and strategies guiding the research are described. Major findings of the first four decades of research are summarized in terms of protective and promotive factors consistently associated with resilience in diverse situations and populations of young people. These factors-such as self-regulation skills, good parenting, community resources, and effective schools- suggest that resilience arises from ordinary protective processes, common but powerful, that protect human development under diverse conditions. The greatest threats posed to children may be adversities that damage or undermine these basic human protective systems. Implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed, highlighting three strategies of fostering resilience, focused on reducing risk, building strengths or assets, and mobilizing adaptive systems that protect and restore positive human development. The concluding section outlines future directions of resilience research and its applications, including rapidly growing efforts to integrate research and prevention efforts across disciplines, from genetics to ecology, and across level of analysis, from molecules to media.
Article
The authors integrate theory developed in several disciplines to determine five cognitive processes through which industrial buyers can develop trust of a supplier firm and its salesperson. These processes provide a theoretical framework used to identify antecedents of trust. The authors also examine the impact of supplier firm and salesperson trust on a buying firm's current supplier choice and future purchase intentions. The theoretical model is tested on data collected from more than 200 purchasing managers. The authors find that several variables influence the development of supplier firm and salesperson trust. Trust of the supplier firm and trust of the salesperson (operating indirectly through supplier firm trust) influence a buyer's anticipated future interaction with the supplier. However, after controlling for previous experience and supplier performance, neither trust of the selling firm nor its salesperson influence the current supplier selection decision.
Article
This article proposes a positive approach to organizational behavior (OB). Although the importance of positive feelings has been recognized through the years in the academic OB and popular literature, both management scholars and practitioners have arguably too often taken a negative perspective-trying to fix what is wrong with managers and employees and concentrating on weaknesses. Positive organizational behavior (POB) follows the lead of recently emerging positive psychology, which is driven by theory and research focusing on people's strengths and psychological capabilities. Instead of just retreading and putting a positive spin on traditional OB concepts, this unveiling of POB sets forth specific criteria for inclusion. Not only does positivity have to be associated with the concept, but it must also be relatively unique to the OB field, have valid measures, be adaptable to leader/management and human resource training and development, and, most important, capable of contributing to performance improvement in today's workplace. The criteria-meeting concepts of confidence/self-efficacy, hope, optimism, subjective well-being/happiness, and emotional intelligence (or the acronym CHOSE) are identified and analyzed as most representative of the proposed POB approach. The implications of these POB concepts for the workplace are given particular attention.
Article
Psychological capital with components of hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and resiliency has recently emerged as a core construct in taking positive psychology to the workplace. A distinguishing feature is that it is "state-like" and thus open to development. We analyze whether such psychological capital can be developed through a highly focused, 2-hour web-based training intervention. Using a pretest, posttest experimental design (n = 187 randomly assigned to the treatment group and n = 177 to the control group), we found support that psychological capital can be developed by such a training intervention.
Article
The concept of customer orientation (CO) is a focal construct in marketing and sales literature. Saxe and Weitz introduced CO to contrast the traditional high-pressure approach to sales (selling orientation). This study synthesizes empirical evidence from 1982 to 2013 to provide insight into the antecedents and consequences of both CO and selling orientation (SO). A conceptual meta-analytic model based on research into interpersonal motive models is proposed and tested using effect sizes from 126,790 salesperson survey responses to advance theory development on our understanding of how SO and CO behaviours affect organizations. Findings show that adaptive selling mediates the impact of both SO and CO which has important practical implications for hiring and training salespeople. Furthermore, this study shows that goal orientations are antecedents of SO and CO and that the impact of SO on job performance varies by customer type.
Article
The authors develop and test a model of service employee management that examines constructs simultaneously across three interfaces of the service delivery process: manager-employee, employee-role, and employee-customer. The authors examine the attitudinal and behavioral responses of customer-contact employees that can influence customers' perceptions of service quality, the relationships among these responses, and three formal managerial control mechanisms (empowerment, behavior-based employee evaluation, and management commitment to service quality). The findings indicate that managers who are committed to service quality are more likely to empower their employees and use behavior-based evaluation. However, the use of empowerment has both positive and negative consequences in the management of contact employees. Some of the negative consequences are mitigated by the positive effects of behavior-based employee evaluation. To increase customers' perceptions of service quality, managers must increase employees' self-efficacy and job satisfaction, and reduce employees' role conflict and ambiguity. Implications for the management of customer-contact service employees and directions for further research are discussed.
Article
A conceptual framework is presented that resolves some of the conflicts and inconsistencies in the various paradigms pertaining to goal setting. Hypotheses about the impact of quota level, expectancy, and self-efficacy on motivation are developed and tested in a laboratory experiment in which the subjects assume the role of salespersons and negotiate with opponents whose roles are simulated by a custom-designed computer program. The results indicate that as quota level is increased, effort increases only up to a point, after which increases in the level of the quota may actually decrease effort. Additionally, the impact of increased quota levels is stronger for subjects who are high in self-efficacy than for subjects who are low in self-efficacy. Finally, information about the level of task difficulty also influences the motivation to expend effort at the task.
Article
Emotions constitute a powerful psychological force that can significantly influence the behavior and performance of salespeople. However, emotions in the workplace still constitute an under-developed area of study, mainly in the field of sales. Sales turnover is also particularly important in relation to sales management due to the nature of sales positions, their historically high turnover levels, and the difficulty involved in filling them. In view of the need to broaden knowledge on how to more successfully retain valuable salespeople, and the fact that B2B selling jobs are not the same across the board, this paper, while controlling the type of selling situation, analyzes the influence of two emotional skills (i.e. eihotional intelligence and resilience) on salesperson propensity to leave their organization, both directly and indirectly, through their impact on work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion. The moderating effect of servant leadership perceived by salespeople on the relationship between emotional exhaustion and intention to leave is also addressed. Information provided by 209 salespeople from 105 enterprises from various industries confirms the hypotheses put forward and highlights the importance of encouraging the development of emotional skills as a way of alleviating work stress and reducing salesperson turnover. In addition, the results confirm the contribution of servant leadership towards reducing the effect of emotional exhaustion on salesperson intention to leave.
Article
Though implicit measures are identified as a valuable technique to measure latent constructs in many domains of inquiry, these measures are seldom used in sales research. This manuscript provides an overview of implicit measurement techniques and examines the potential for expanded application by sales researchers. The authors review the uses and advantages of implicit measures and bring to light specific contexts where implicit measures may provide added contributions to sales research. Specific applications of implicit measurement are identified and sales-related applications are advanced. Further, an exposition and review of the most commonly-used implicit measurement technique in marketing research, the Implicit Association Test, is provided. Based on this review, additional research opportunities for future investigation using implicit measurement in sales research are offered. Free Full Text Download: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/Pfq4CWNvBNAJTcEI63tp/full
Article
Learning and performance goal orientations, two motivational orientations that guide salespeople's behavior, are related to working smart and hard. Working smart is defined as the engagement in activities that serve to develop knowledge of sales situations and utilize this knowledge in selling behavior. It is found that a learning goal orientation motivates working both smart and hard, whereas a performance goal orientation motivates only working hard. The goal orientations also are found to be alterable through supervisory feedback. Furthermore, self-efficacy, sales-people's confidence in their overall selling abilities, is found to moderate some of the relationships with the goal orientations.
Article
Sales researchers are increasingly adopting a multilevel-multisource (MLMS) approach to answer many key questions involving sales managers, salespeople, and customers. MLMS research involves the acquisition and analysis of data collected from two or more sources pertaining to multiple hierarchical levels and presents a number of opportunities and challenges for sales researchers to consider. The authors highlight the benefits and drawbacks of MLMS research and describe various approaches for implementing an MLMS collection and analysis. Additionally, a review of the MLMS studies conducted in the sales domain is provided which summarizes and delineates relationships tested in the extant literature. Based on this review, the authors advance a number of underdeveloped areas of research where MLMS approaches can be applied to further the understanding of the dynamic conditions that typify sales research.
Article
Implicit psychological constructs are effective predictors of behavioral outcomes but are rarely used in organizational settings because of real or imagined problems with measurement validity and administration. To address these concerns, we present a means of assessing implicit constructs quickly and easily by using psychological capital as an example. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
A key assumption of effective international human resource management (IHRM) is that global leaders influence and serve as role models for their followers, regardless of the inherent distance (physical and frequency of interaction) between them in today's global context or the quality of the relationship. Although considerable attention has been devoted to cultural differences between global leaders and their diverse followers and teams, this study investigates the impact that distance and quality of the relationship has on a sample of a Fortune 100 multinational firm's global leaders' level of positive psychological capital (PsyCap) contagion effect on their followers located around the world. The results indicated such contagion at a distance existed, but the quality of the relationship did mediate this effect. Moreover, the potential undesirable effects of distance seemed to be buffered by the global leaders' PsyCap. The potential limitations, needed future research and practical implications for IHRM conclude the article.
Article
The construct of Psychological Capital (PsyCap) focuses on the positive psychological capacities of self‐efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience and their relationship with a range of desirable work attitudes, behaviours and organizational outcomes. There is now almost a decade of accumulated PsyCap research. However, a critical and synthesized analysis of the construct in terms of its theoretical conceptualization and psychometric properties is yet to appear in the literature. Consequently, this article aims to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the PsyCap literature, focusing in particular on issues relevant to the psychometric profile of PsyCap as it is currently assessed. Six directives for advancing PsyCap research are proposed as part of an integrated research agenda aimed towards strengthening the conceptualization and measurement of PsyCap. Practitioner pointsThis article provides a critical and synthesized psychometric‐focused review of the PsyCap construct and its application in the workplace.Several shortcomings of the construct and its primary measure are highlighted.Directives are proposed to further enhance the conceptualization and measurement of the construct and thus enhance its utility in the workplace.
Article
This research delineates and empirically tests how regulatory depletion may affect high-stress employees' service performance on different types of job tasks. Using a laboratory experiment and a survey study, the authors examine (1) whether work stress causes a depletion effect, such that high work stress undermines service employees' performance on tasks requiring self-regulation (e. g., customer complaint handling performance) versus tasks requiring limited self-regulation (e. g., customer-directed extra-role performance); (2) whether the depletion effect can be overcome by supervisory support or employees' engagement in perspective taking; and (3) how these moderating effects might be mediated by employees' feelings of fatigue and intrinsic job motivation. The results confirm regulatory depletion: High-stress employees feel more fatigue and perform more poorly than low-stress employees in tasks requiring self-regulation. However, the depletion effect from work stress is largely attenuated on employees' performance on tasks requiring less or limited self-regulation. The mediated moderation tests further show that the extent of the depletion effect is not uniform. Employees who can replenish their resources from supervisory support or enhance their goal focus by engaging in perspective taking are less affected by regulatory depletion. These buffering effects occur because of enhanced intrinsic job motivation.
Article
The learned optimism paradigm, described by Schulman (earlier in this volume), suggests that teaching salespeople to dispute internal, stable or global attributions for their failures improves their expectancy for success, and consequently helps performance and reduces turnover. In parallel, teaching salespeople to dispute external, unstable or specific attributions for their successes improves salespeople's expectations and performance and alleviates turnover. Acknowledging the enormous practical value of this paradigm, I suggest improvements. Specifically, that locus of causality (internal versus external) need not be disputed, that disputing the stable nature of attributions is more effective than disputing the global nature of attributions, and that emotional therapy can, quite powerfully, supplement attribution therapy in improving salespeople's performance and happiness and reducing their turnover.
Article
Managers and academics alike acknowledge that salespeople can play a pivotal role in intraorganizational knowledge-sharing behaviors with coworkers outside the sales unit (i.e., finance, engineering, production, design, etc.). To this end, this study contributes to the extant sales literature by delineating how and under what conditions salespeople’s knowledge-sharing behaviors are motivated. The study reports two sets of findings that contribute to the sales literature. First, in response to a strong autonomy climate, self-efficacy and coworker relationship quality mediate the relationship between autonomy climate strength and knowledge-sharing behaviors. Second, drawing on situational strength theory, the research finds that knowledge-sharing behaviors benefit from coworker relationship quality under weak but not strong norms. The hypotheses are tested by employing a multilevel modeling technique that uses a sample of 222 salespeople from 38 organizations. Implications for sales theory and practice are discussed.
Article
Understanding what contributes to salesperson turnover helps reduce turnover and its deleterious consequences. This study examines the interactive effects of salespersons’ personal characteristics and coping strategies on turnover intentions. Findings suggest that self-efficacy combined with problem-focused coping significantly reduces salespersons’ turnover intentions—more so than self-efficacy alone. In contrast, while an external locus of control orientation combined with emotion-focused coping significantly increases turnover intentions, the increase is not as great as from external locus of control alone. Neither the combined effect of self-efficacy and emotion-focused coping nor external locus of control and problem-focused coping are found to significantly influence turnover intentions.
Article
Based on Sternberg's (1985) theory of human intelligence, the nature of salespeople's street-smarts—one of three aspects of intelligence this theory defines—is evaluated. It is suggested that salespeople's adapting to their environment, selecting to be in a more appropriate environment and shaping or molding their environment, the three elements of street-smarts, all contribute significantly to not only their performance but also their happiness (satisfaction). Further, it is suggested that although there may be a tendency among salespeople to focus on just one of the three aspects, because people like doing what they are best at, a balance among the three aspects of street-smart intelligence is more desirable. The motivational and personality roots of these forms of intelligence are also examined. Optimistic thinking is suggested to be a core, individual characteristic that fosters salespeople's street-smarts. Consequently, while recruiting salespeople sales management ought to evaluate the optimistic tendencies of the prospective employee. Further, while training and managing salespeople, sales management ought to devote considerable effort towards developing optimism among their employees. Since inexperienced, new recruits may be most amenable to optimism training and since this training may inoculate them from later career pessimism, training and managing optimism is particularly critical for rookie salespeople. Overall, this review paper appeals for an emphasis in sales research on understanding salesperson intelligence and how it can be developed.
Article
This study examined the influence of psychological capital on job search among displaced employees. On the basis of a sample of 179 retrenched professionals, managers, executives, and technicians, we found that psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) was positively related with displaced employees' level of perceived employability, a coping resource. Perceived employability was positively related with problem-focused and symptom-focused coping strategies. Whereas problem-focused coping was positively related with preparatory and active job search, symptom-focused coping strategy was not. The relationship between psychological capital and preparatory and active job search was mediated by perceived employability and problem-focused coping. Implications of our findings are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Authentic leadership has received considerable attention and research support over the past decade. Now the time has come to refine and better understand how it impacts performance. This study investigates the moderating role followers' positive psychological capital (PsyCap) and the mediating role that leader–member exchange (LMX) may play in influencing the relationship between authentic leadership and followers' performance. Specifically, we tested this mediated moderation model with matched data from 794 followers and their immediate leaders. We found that authentic leadership is positively related to LMX and consequently followers' performance, and to a larger degree, among followers who have low rather than high levels of PsyCap. Our discussion highlights the benefits of understanding the roles of relational processes and followers' positive psychological resources involved in the effectiveness of authentic leadership and how they can be practically implemented. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.