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Médias, propagande, nationalismes: La filiation symbolique dans les chants de propagande : Robert Mugabe et Mbuya Nehanda, Ahmed Sékou Touré et Samory Touré

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From the beginning of the 1960s to the beginning of the 1980s, despite the extreme difference of the political context, Ahmed Sékou Touré (in Guinea-Conakry, which just obtained its independence) and Robert Mugabe (who was involved in a guerrilla against Rhodesia’s government) imagined two strategies of symbolic filiation quite similar in propaganda songs. At the radio or in the fields, listened collectively or alone, those songs compared their political leader to an ancestral figure: Samory Touré and Mbuya Nehanda, who were, both of them, fighters against the colonization. The aim of this article is to delineate the process of legitimation illustrated in those texts, and the “imagined communities” induced by the name of those founding fathers.

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RÉSUMÉ Ce texte analyse, au ras du sol, la représentation de l’effondrement du régime socialiste en Guinée à l’aide de textes écrits sur place au début des années 1980, soit restés inédits soit édités à faible tirage. Ce choix de l’ancrage local et des publications locales permet de documenter sur le vif les stratégies d’écriture des Guinéens, face à un régime en pleine déréliction. Abdoulaye Fanyé Touré, Fatima Barry, Commandant Kaba 41, entre autres, ont choisi pour le décrire des stratégies d’écritures variées, manifestant ainsi la complexité des rapports entretenus entre les intellectuels et le pouvoir. Ces versants de la production littéraire et culturelle interrogent le rôle des fictions et de leur rapport au fait politique: d’une part, les fictions servent bien sûr la construction de l’utopie socialiste, en étant un vecteur de propagande particulièrement fort et toujours populaire aujourd’hui, d’autre part, elles ont été un moyen d’effectuer une satire de la dictature, parfois extrêmement féroce, en dénonçant régulièrement les crimes commis notamment dans le Camp Boiro. Cette double articulation constituera nos deux axes de réflexion sur la littérature en contexte d’oppression.
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