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Teacher Team Effectiveness and Teachers Well-being

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Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between how teachers rate the effectiveness of their 'teacher-teams' as well as the experience of their own well-being. Team effectiveness was measured using the Group Development Questionnaire and well-being was assessed through responses on scales derived for estimating emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction. Data were collected from 521 Swedish teachers and preschool teachers belonging to 105 teacher-teams, the response rate was 100%. The results indicate a strong relationship between the effectiveness of the teacher-teams and teachers' well-being, both with regard to levels of emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction. More effective teamwork was associated with lower levels of emotional exhaustion and higher levels of work satisfaction. The practical implications of these observations are discussed with regard to future research.
Teacher Team Effectiveness and Teachers Well-being
Christian Jacobsson*, Maria Åkerlund, Elisabet Graci, Emma Cedstrand and Trevor Archer
Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
*Corresponding author: Christian Jacobsson, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, Tel: +46708431266; E-mail:
christian.jacobsson@psy.gu.se
Received date: June 07, 2016; Accepted date: June 14, 2016; Published date: June 21, 2016
Copyright: © 2016 Jacobsson C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between how teachers rate the effectiveness of
their ‘teacher-teams’ as well as the experience of their own well-being. Team effectiveness was measured using the
Group Development Questionnaire and well-being was assessed through responses on scales derived for
estimating emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction. Data were collected from 521 Swedish teachers and
preschool teachers belonging to 105 teacher-teams, the response rate was 100%. The results indicate a strong
relationship between the effectiveness of the teacher-teams and teachers’ well-being, both with regard to levels of
emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction. More effective teamwork was associated with lower levels of emotional
exhaustion and higher levels of work satisfaction. The practical implications of these observations are discussed with
regard to future research.
Keywords: Teacher team eectiveness; Well-being; Emotional
exhaustion; Work satisfaction
Introduction
Team-based work as an organizational structure in schools and pre-
schools is widespread internationally and currently presents the
standard syllabus in Sweden. Nevertheless, team-based work may be
more or less eective. ere is substantial support for the link between
eectiveness of cooperation in teams and task-related results such as
goal attainment in general [1,2]. Regarding schools, Wheelan and
colleagues [3,4] found a link between how eective teacher teams
cooperates and their pupils’ performance on standardized tests, the
better cooperation among teachers – the higher performance among
pupils. us, the quality of cooperation among teacher teams exerts a
signicant inuence with regard to outcome measures, such as pupils
performance, in schools as well as in other industries. is study will
address another important topic connected to teacher teams, the
relationship between teacher team eectiveness and teachers’
wellbeing. By teacher team eectiveness we mean to what degree the
teams could be described as eective in their cooperation, e.g. having
shared goals and clear roles.
Teaching is generally considered a stressful occupation [5,6]. For
instance, according to the national social insurance agency in Sweden
[7] teachers have a high relative risk for sleeping disorders and also
sick-absenteeism due to psychiatric diagnoses such as burnout. us,
well-being, which implies the positive condition of an individual or a
group, entails a necessary ingredient within this context.
e main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship
between teacher-team eectiveness and members’ levels of emotional
exhaustion and work satisfaction as signs of well-being. Emotional
exhaustion, a chronic state of physical and emotional depletion
accruing from excessive job and/or personal demands and continuous
sometimes referred to as ‘burnout’ [8], is part of the Common Mental
Disorders [9], thereby posing an ever-increasing area of concern for
society. With regard to both individuals’ health and social costs, eorts
eliminate emotional exhaustion are necessary. Ancilliary to the main
purpose it was deemed important to ascertain whether or the ndings
of the present study may t with those of an earlier study wherein the
same research design in a dierent organizational setting,
manufacturing industry was employed [10].
e relationship between the quality of team work and team
members well-being has been relatively in schools and pre-schools
although not in other occupations [11]. Kivimäki et al. [12] found that
poor team climate is associated with depressive disorders in a
nationally representative sample [13] and absence due to sickness of
hospital physicians [12]. So et al. [14] showed that quality of team work
was associated signicantly with greater employee satisfaction and
lower stress in the health services. Finally, Jacobsson et al. [10] found
that eectiveness of team work was positively related to work
satisfaction and negatively related to emotional exhaustion for team
members in manufacturing industry.
Teacher Team Eectiveness
is study uses the Integrated Model of Group Development
(IMGD) and the linked instrument Group Development
Questionnaire (GDQ) [3] as a way of describing and measuring team
eectiveness. e integrated model is an integration of earlier theory
and research on group development across time [15-19]. e validity
of the IMGD and GDQ has been established in a number of studies
[20-23]. IMGD is a model describing four stages of group
development. e stages in are (I) dependency and inclusion, (II)
counter-dependency and ght, (III) trust and structure, and (IV) work
and productivity.
e rst stage is characterized by team member dependency on the
leader, safety concerns, and inclusion issues. e second stage is
distinguished by team members having opposing perspectives,
counter-dependency toward the leader, and tensions in the team. e
third stage is marked by increased trust and focus on nding better
structure and strategies for goal achievement in the team. Finally, the
fourth stage is characterized by the intense focus of team members on
Clinical and Experimental Psychology Jacobsson et al., Clin Exp Psychol 2016, 2:2
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2471-2701.1000130
Research Article Open access
Clin Exp Psychol
ISSN:2471-2701 cep, an open access journal Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000130
achieving the goal(s). Stage IV groups have also established a team
climate of openness and cohesion that facilitates eective work. Stage I
groups spend about 40% working eectively and Stage IV groups about
80%. e remaining time is used for maintenance, and dealing with
interpersonal issues that arise and the like [23]. Available data on
distribution across stages based on 764 groups’ representative of
Swedish working life shows that 29% are in stage I, 21% in stage II,
30% in stage III and 20% in stage IV [24]. Teams in schools and pre-
schools seems to be comparatively well functioning, 20% are in stage I,
17% in stage II, 34% in stage III and 29% in stage IV [24].
Emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction
In the present study, we have chosen to investigate two well-being
related aspects of working life, emotional exhaustion and work
satisfaction.
According to Maslach, emotional exhaustion is considered to be the
key component of burnout [25,26]. In a longitudinal study of
predictors of burnout among teachers, Burke and Greenglass [27]
found that both the role stressors of conict and ambiguity, and lack of
social support were predictors of emotional exhaustion. Not only for
teachers but in general, lack of support from the leader and from
colleagues is associated with burnt out [28,29]. Eective teams are
characterized by the opposite; they are unambiguous and supportive.
High participation in decision making is another key feature of
eective team work. Likewise, low degree of participation is associated
with burnout. Similar to participation, low degree of control is also
associated with stress related problems [28]. Jacobsson and Pousette
[30] found that teachers who coordinated their work with others by
common goals, as eective teams does, had lower levels of burnout
than teachers who were working more alone and focused on
coordinating their own work. On the basis of literature, the following
hypothesis was formulated.
Hypotheseis 1: e more eective the team work, the lower the
levels of emotional exhaustion among teachers
Teachers’ work satisfaction is important because it inuences
teachers’ performance and wellbeing [31,32]. Some of these conditions
that correlate with work satisfaction are constructs that are
characteristics of more or less developed groups. For instance,
Roberson [33] found a relation between goal clarity, which is an aspect
of eective teamwork, and work satisfaction. Parker et al. [34] found in
their meta-analytic review a positive correlation of 0.48 between a
general appreciation of an individual’s work group and work
satisfaction. Based on this research, we formulated the second
hypothesis.
Hypotheseis 2: e more eective the team work, the higher the
levels of work satisfaction amomg teachers
Method
Participants and procedure
is study included teams in pre-schools and comprehensive
schools in a municipally controlled school district and was carried out
using a questionnaire. e questionnaire was distributed to team
members during working hours on their regular work-meetings. e
study covered all team members, belonging to 105 teams, the response
rate was 100%, n=521 respondents. 66 of the team worked in pre-
schools and 39 in schools. e number of team member varied
between 3 and 11, with an average of 5.0 team members/team. e
teams in pre-schools were smaller in size (M=4.2 members) than teams
in schools (M=6.2 members). Gender and age was not examined,
however schools and especially pre-schools are markedly female
dominated. e age of the teams, how long they had been working
together varied much, from 1 month to 192 months (16 years). On
average, the teams had been working together for 20.2 months,
somewhat shorter time in schools (M=18.1) than in pre-schools (21.5).
e team age was calculated from the starting point, how long at least
50% of the members had worked together in the same team.
Measures
Teacher team eectiveness: Group development Questionnaire,
GDQ [21], was used for assessing eectiveness of the teams. e 60-
item GDQ contains four scales that correspond to the four stages of
group development according to IMGD. Each scale contains 15 items
and each item has a Likert-type response scale from 1 (
never true of
this group
) to 5 (
always true of this group
). erefore, the minimum
score on each scale is 15 and the maximum score is 75. is study was
conducted with the Swedish translation of GDQ, GDQ SE3. Cronbach’s
alphas for GDQ SE3 Scales 1, 2, 3 and 4 are 0.77, 0.90, 0.81, and 0.87,
respectively [35]. Sample items for the GDQ is shown in Table 1 and
norm data for GDQ SE3 are shown in Table 2. Norms are based on 764
groups that were representative for Swedish working life.
GDQ scale Sample items
GDQ 1 Members tend to go along with whatever the leader suggests.
There is very little conflict expressed in the group.
We haven’t discussed our goals very much.
GDQ 2 People seem to have very different views about how things should be done in this group.
Members challenge the leader’s ideas.
There is quite a bit of tension in the group at this time.
GDQ 3 The group is spending its time planning how it will get its work done.
We can rely on each other. We work as a team.
The group is able to form subgroups, or subcommittees, to work on specific tasks.
GDQ 4 The group gets, gives, and uses feedback about its effectiveness and productivity.
Citation: Jacobsson C, Åkerlund M, Graci E, Cedstrand E, Archer T (2016) Teacher Team Effectiveness and Teachers Well-being. Clin Exp
Psychol 2: 130. doi:10.4172/2471-2701.1000130
Page 2 of 5
Clin Exp Psychol
ISSN:2471-2701 cep, an open access journal Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000130
The group acts on its decisions.
This group encourages high performance and quality work.
Table 1: Sample items for GDQ.
Scale 1 Scale 2 Scale 3 Scale 4
Max. value 52.8 62.3 74.0 72.2
84 percentile 43.5 43.5 59.5 61.1
Mean. value 37.7 34.8 53.2 54.7
16 percentile 31.8 26.1 46.9 48.3
Min. value 20.3 16.0 30.0 30.0
Stand. dev. 5.8 8.6 6.3 6.3
Table 2: Norms for GDQ SE3 based on 764 Swedish groups.
A group’s overall stage is determined by considering the mean
scores of the four scales for a specic group and comparing them with
mean scores of normative data. During Stage I of group development,
the mean score on GDQ Scale 1 is at its highest, and scores on the
other three scales are relatively low. During Stage II, the mean score of
GDQ Scale 2 is at its highest, and scores on the other three scales
remain relatively low. At Stage III, mean scores on GDQ Scales 3 and 4
begin to increase, and mean scores on GDQ Scales 1 and 2 remain
relatively low. Finally, at Stage IV, mean scores on GDQ Scales 3 and 4
continue to increase, whereas mean scores on GDQ Scales 1 and 2
remain relatively low [36]. To summarize, groups with a low degree of
development have high values on Scales 1 and 2 but low values on
Scales 3 and 4. Groups with a high degree of development (i.e., being
eective team) have the opposite, low values on scales 1 and 2 but high
values on Scales 3 and 4.
Emotional exhaustion: It was measured with the personal burnout
subscale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory [37]. However, aer
having a response-psychological test-panel use the scale in an earlier
study, it was reduced from six to ve items [30]. e excluded item was
about feeling receptive to sickness and was dicult to answer. Of the
remaining ve items, example items are as follows: “How oen do you
feel tired?” and “How oen are you emotionally exhausted?” Scale
responses range from 1 (never) to 5 (always); Cronbach’s alpha was
0.88 according to Jacobsson and Pousette [30].
Work satisfaction: Job satisfaction was measured with a three-item
scale of overall job satisfaction [38]. Sample items are “Based on an
overall assessment, how satised are you with your current work
situation?” and “How well does your company meet your expectations
for how you want it in your work?” e scale responses range from 1
(
not at all
) to 10 (
to the highest degree
). Cronbach’s alpha was 0.91
[30].
Statistical analysis
Pearsons product–moment correlations were calculated in order to
analyze inter-correlations. All analyses were made on group-level,
based on mean-values for the 105 teams included, two-tailed tests were
used.
Results
Means (and standard deviations) for the 105 teams on GDQ scales
were for GDQ scale 1; M=34.5 (SD=6.9), for scale 2; M=31.0 (SD=8.7),
for scale 3; M=56.8 (SD=6.4), and for scale 4; M=57.8 (SD=6.0). Means
(and standard deviations) for emotional exhaustion was; M=2.8
(SD=0.5), for work satisfaction; M=5.7 (SD=1.4).
GDQ-scale 1 and 2 were below the mean compared with Swedish
GDQ norms and the means of GDQ-scale 3 and 4 were above the
Swedish GDQ norms presented in Table 2. e mean values of the 105
teams in the present study compared to Swedish norms, indicate that
the studied teams were somewhat more developed, more eective
working, as groups than the average Swedish team. Mean values for
emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction were at the same levels as
available reference data on Swedish employees [30].
e results presented in Table 3 provide support for hypothesis 1, as
expected, that less signs of emotional exhaustion among group
members should be shown when the team is more eective working
together. e eect sizes were moderately strong, according to Cohen
[39]. e strongest relationship was between GDQ scale 3, trust and
structure, and emotional exhaustion. e results also gave support to
hypothesis 2, that more eective team work is associated with higher
levels of work satisfaction. All four correlations were signicant and in
the same direction as the hypothesis, with eect sizes that were
moderately strong to strong, according to [39]. e strongest
correlation was between scale 4, the occurrence of eective and goal-
directed cooperation in the team, and work satisfaction.
Citation: Jacobsson C, Åkerlund M, Graci E, Cedstrand E, Archer T (2016) Teacher Team Effectiveness and Teachers Well-being. Clin Exp
Psychol 2: 130. doi:10.4172/2471-2701.1000130
Page 3 of 5
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ISSN:2471-2701 cep, an open access journal Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000130
Scale 1 Scale 2 Scale 3 Scale 4
Emotional exhaustion 0.31** 0.38** -0.41** -0.36*
Work satisfaction -0.20* -0.26** 0.42** 0.46**
Table 3: Correlations between GDQ scales 1-4 and work satisfaction and emotional exhaustion, N=105 teams. **Correlation is signicant at the
0.01 level *Correlation is signicant at the 0.05 level.
Discussion
e purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship
between teacher team eectiveness and teachers’ well-being with
regard to emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction using a research
design employed previously. e main ndings indicated a
straightforward link between team eectiveness, as estimated by the
GDQ, both and emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction. us, the
association between the quality of team work and team members’
experience of well-being was evidenced. ese ndings are supported
by those of a previous one performed within the manufacturing
industry [10].
Hypothesis 1: at eective team work is negatively correlated with
emotional exhaustion was conrmed. ere were signicant
correlations with all four scales of the GDQ and the eect sizes were
medium strong to strong [39]. e correlation of 0.38 between scale 2
and emotional exhaustion implies that the greater the conict
dynamics in teacher teams, the greater the extent of emotional
exhaustion among teachers thereby conrming the link between team
work quality and emotional exhaustion/stress from previous ndings
[6,14]. Compared to the earlier study with the same research design
[10], the eect sizes were generally smaller with regard to emotional
exhaustion in manufacturing industry. ese estimations imply that
eectiveness of team work was more important with regard to
emotional exhaustion in schools and pre-schools than in
manufacturing industry.
Hypothesis 2: at eective team work is positively correlated with
work satisfaction was conrmed. We found signicant correlations
with all four scales of the GDQ, with eect sizes that were moderately
strong to strong, according to Cohen [39]. e strongest relationship
was between GDQ scale 4 and work satisfaction, the more eective the
team, the higher the levels of work satisfaction. is result is consistent
with earlier ndings with regard to employees in the health services
[14]. Compared to the other study with the same research design [10],
the eect sizes were generally stronger in manufacturing industry. For
instance, the correlation between GDQ scale 4 and work satisfaction in
manufacturing industry was 0.68, compared to 0.46 in the current
study. is implies that even though eectiveness of team work is
important with regard to work satisfaction in schools and pre-schools,
it is less important than in manufacturing industry.
e present study was limited by its’ cross-sectional design with
data from one municipally controlled school district. Despite not being
specically tested for, it is possible that teacher team eectiveness and
emotional exhaustion mutually reinforce each other, at least to some
degree. An interesting topic for future research should be designing a
longitudinal study that oer more of causal explanations of the links
between teacher team eectiveness, emotional exhaustion and work
satisfaction. An intervention study wherein interventions are focused
on teacher team development may be preferable, and besides this also
measures of emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction across time.
Even though there is only one sample from one school district in the
present study, there are reasons to believe the results are persistent
since they are replicated in a dierent organizational setting [10].
Earlier research has pointed out the link between teacher team
eectiveness and pupils achievements [3,4,40]. e major nding here
is the link between teacher team eectiveness and teacher well-being.
Eective team work is associated with low levels of emotional
exhaustion, a part of Common Mental Disorders, and high levels of
work satisfaction. A practical implication is the prospect that team
development is a relevant focus area, not only for enhancing team
eectiveness, but also enhancing teacher well-being and decreasing
Common Mental Disorder within occupational situations.
Conclusions
e present study examined teacher team eectiveness and its
relation to two aspects of well-being: work satisfaction and emotional
exhaustion. e results indicated that members of eective teacher
teams show higher levels of work satisfaction and lower levels of
emotional exhaustion. ese results imply that membership of an
eective team may promote health and psychological well-being
among teachers.
Disclosure Statement
No potential conict of interest was reported by the authors.
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Citation: Jacobsson C, Åkerlund M, Graci E, Cedstrand E, Archer T (2016) Teacher Team Effectiveness and Teachers Well-being. Clin Exp
Psychol 2: 130. doi:10.4172/2471-2701.1000130
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Clin Exp Psychol
ISSN:2471-2701 cep, an open access journal Volume 2 • Issue 2 • 1000130
... The accumulating burden of teachers is expected to affect their psychological well-being and commitment to the teaching profession (Bermejo, Franco, & Ursúa, 2013). Numerous studies have shown that teachers' well-being is important due to its close association with resiliency and job commitment, satisfaction in teaching, development of positive identities and relationships with others, effectiveness in their teaching profession, as well as teacher retention (Jacobsson, Åkerlund, Graci, Cedstrand, Archer, 2016;Kokores, Johnstone, King, & Jones, 2017;McCallum & Price, 2010). Despite the increasing literature investigating teachers' well-being and its related constructs, a number of limitations could be observed. ...
... Despite the increasing literature investigating teachers' well-being and its related constructs, a number of limitations could be observed. First, most of these studies utilized the traditional approach of focusing on measuring the negative constructs of well-being such as levels of stress, exhaustion, burnout, and ill-being rather than focusing on strengths and positive development of teachers (Calabrese, Hester, Friesen, & Burkhalter, 2010;Fleming, Mackrain, LeBuffe, 2013;Hoy & Tarter, 2011;Jacobsson, Åkerlund, Graci, Cedstrand, Archer, 2016). Although the problem-based standpoint of measuring teacher well-being has been informative, it does not provide a comprehensive understanding of teacher well-being (Duckworth, Quinn, & Seligman, 2009;Kern, Waters, Adler, & White, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Teacher's well-being has shown close association with resilience, job commitment, teaching satisfaction, positive identities and relationship with others, effective teaching and teacher retention. Despite the increasing literature investigating teachers' well-being and its related constructs, a number of limitations can be observed. The focus of these studies are limited to: (1) negative constructs of well-being, (2) unidimensional or one-factor model of well-being, and (3) antecedents and consequences of well-being sample from high-income countries. There is a dearth of studies examining teacher's well-being in low middle income countries marked by poorly functioning educational delivery system, poor working conditions, lack of resources, low salaries, and poor management. Thus, the primary goal of this study is to examine teacher's well-being based on Seligman's PERMA model (positive emotions, engagement, relationship, meaning, and accomplishments) and how it mediates the direct influence and relationship of teachers' implicit beliefs of their ability and teachers' embeddedness to teaching profession. A sample of 547 public elementary and secondary school teachers answered a series of questionnaires that includes Implicit Theory of Intelligence Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Organizational Virtuousness Scale, Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II, and Job Embeddedness Scale. Using mediational analysis, results showed that Engagement, Relationships, and Accomplishments are the most significant mediators between incremental belief of teaching ability and job embeddedness, while Accomplishment is the only significant mediator between Entity belief (Fixed) of teaching ability and teachers' job embeddedness. This implies that teachers who believe that their teaching abilities are changeable through effort and learning are more likely to be engaged in their work and activities, develop healthy relationships at workplace and form affiliation to the school and community, and develop a sense of competence significantly influencing the decision to stay and embed in the teaching profession. On the other hand, teachers who hold entity belief believe in unchangeable ability show persistence, determination, capability in doing daily school activities. The results are relevant particularly in the incorporation of programs and interventions focusing on developing novice and long-term professional teachers in developing their well-being and job embeddedness.
... The scales are measuring the occurrence of more or less effective cooperation in teams and are validated as linked to the integrated model of group development. The Swedish translation of the original questionnaire items has been part of several studies [10,27,28]. Sample item for GDQ 1-dependency and inclusion is: Members tend to go along with whatever the leader suggests, for GDQ 2-counter-dependency and fight: There is quite a bit of tension in the group at this time, for GDQ 3-trust and structure: The group is able to form subgroups, or subcommittees, to work on specific tasks, and for GDQ 4-work and productivity: This group encourages high performance and quality work. ...
... Results are reported as the sum of the 15 items on each scale, ranging from 15 to 75. Cronbach's alpha for scale 1 was 0.77, scale 2 0.90, scale 3 0.81, and scale 4 0.87 [27]. ...
Article
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The present study analyzed the relationship between two models for effective team work, team climate theory and integrated model of group development, measured by TCI and GDQ. 72 members of 9 Swedish management teams answered the short version of Team Climate Inventory, TCI-14, and Group Development Questionnaire, GDQ. The response rate was 100% since the researchers met the managers on their regular team meetings. It was expected that there would be a close relationship between the two ways of describing effective team work, which was confirmed by the results. There were a very close relationship between the GDQ and TCI scales, 3 out of 16 correlations had a medium effect size (-0.40 to -0.43) and 13 had a large effect size (0.51 to 0.76). The strongestrelationship between the two models was displayed between participative safety in TCI and the four scales of GDQ, indicating that participative safety is low in stage I and high in stage IV of the integrated model of group development.
... Positive interpersonal relationships at work have also been shown to predict overall well-being among teachers. Connection to colleagues can foster a sense of belonging and facilitate positive mental health and well-being among teachers (Jacobsson et al., 2016;Hobson & Maxwell, 2017;Owens, 2016). The quality and character of a school in which teachers work also influences teacher well-being (Cohen et al., 2009). ...
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Teacher stress and burnout under non-crisis situations are well-documented challenges. However, during COVID-19, teachers have faced new and unexpected stressors, potentially contributing to rising burnout and attrition. Yet many teachers have also demonstrated great resilience and found effective ways to manage their well-being. To explore teacher well-being during COVID-19, this study used a longitudinal qualitative design that employed recurrent cross-sectional analysis using wo conceptual frameworks including the job-demands-resource model of well-being and the hierarchy of needs theory of motivation. Researchers investigated 25 teacher's well-being during COVID-19 at two time points (June 2020 and March 2021). Both barriers and facilitators of well-being at the individual and contextual levels are discussed.
... Group Development Questionnaire, subscale 4. Group development was measured by a 15-item scale (Wheelan & Hochberger, 1996) and is one of 4 scales in GDQ, scale 4 is measuring the occurrence of effective cooperation in a team and is validated as linked to stage 4 in the integrated model of group development; Work and productivity. The Swedish translation of the original questionnaire items has been part of several studies (Jacobsson, Rydbo & Börresen, 2014;Jacobsson, Åkerlund, Graci, Cedstrand & Archer, 2016;Wheelan & Jacobsson, 2014) and subscale 4 has also been used earlier as a measure of effectiveness of cooperation (Gren, Torkar & Feldt, 2017). Example items are: The group gets, gives, and uses feedback about its effectiveness and productivity; The group acts on its decisions; This group encourages high performance and quality work. ...
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... The formation of an effective team of teachers [2] has 4 stages, shown in figure 2. ...
... In addition, the effect of the personal relationship between the teacher which is made in a group able to find and implement the strategy to take action in improving teaching and learning [17]. Afterward, if the group that has been made runs well, it has an impact on the teacher's satisfaction which can increase their health and psychology prosperity between the teachers [18]. Teacher working group in Sumbang District established based on support from Education Board Banyumas, Regional Coordination, and all the Principal in sub-district Sumbang. ...
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The pedagogical competence describes the capability of a teacher in learning at school and improving teacher’s pedagogical competence needs support from the principal. This study aimed to describe the principal’s strategy in improving teacher’s pedagogical competence. This type of research was qualitative. The data sources were principal and teacher in Sekolah Dasar Negeri 1 Sumbang. Interview and observation were used as instruments to collect the data. The steps of data analysis include data reduction; data validity; data display; and drawing conclusions. The results of this research indicates that the strategies undertaken by principals in improving teacher pedagogical competence include involving the teachers in seminar or training activities; participating in the activities of the teacher working group; and personal guidance based on the results of supervision of learning activities. The key to success in implementing this strategy is to create a conducive school climate.
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Background and Purpose: Teaching at indigenous schools located in rural and outskirt areas is no small feat. Therefore, the teachers at these schools require a consistent and supportive school climate to enhance teacher well-being. As such, this study examines the relationship between the dimensions of school climate and well-being of teachers. It also discusses the application of five dimensions of school climate, namely collaboration, student relations, school resources, decision-making, and instructional innovation. Methodology: Data for this quantitative study was gathered via a set of questionnaires. A total of 291 teachers from indigenous schools along the east coast states of Peninsular Malaysia, which are Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang participated in this study. A descriptive analysis of the findings was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), while an inferential analysis was conducted using PLS-SEM. Findings: The empirical results show a significantly positive correlation between the five previously mentioned dimensions of school climate and teacher well-being. Contributions: The findings of this study affirm the relative importance of school climate and its impact on teacher well-being. This study is significant for the Ministry of Education, indigenous school administrators, teachers, as well as policymakers in developing suitable strategies to improve the school climate and teacher well-being in Malaysian indigenous schools. Keywords: Teacher well-being, collaboration, student relations, school resources, decision-making, instructional innovation. Cite as: Kamarudin, N. A., Ahmad, A., Abdul Halim, A. S., Abdullah, R., & Kamalrulzaman, N. I. (2022). The correlation between school climate dimensions and teacher well-being in Malaysian indigenous schools. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 292-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp292-315
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The purpose of this research mainly investigates the level of psychological capital in Chinese university EFL lecturers. And the related level of aspects of psychological capital – optimism, hope, self-efficacy, and resilience. 556 Chinese university EFL teachers in Zhejiang province have involved in this study and there is a high level of psychological capital. The mean value for the four dimensions, hope, and resilience, belong to the moderator level, while; efficacy and optimism are high levels. And then some discussions are proposed.
Article
The university academicians who form the backbone of the higher education set-up need better policies, training programmes, managerial support and frequent satisfaction measures to ensure their productivity, motivation and commitment to work are enhanced. The benefits of a high job satisfaction have been well-documented, but there is a definite gap in its measurement in academia. An exhaustive literature review across nine countries has shown that job satisfaction of academicians remains a lagging area of study. This article is based on a doctoral dissertation that measured the job satisfaction of 350 teachers of four higher education institutions of India using the teacher job satisfaction questionnaire (TJSQ) developed by Paula Lester. The sample was selected randomly with proportionate stratified sampling based on designations across four institutes of higher learning: Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, and Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. The findings suggested the teachers are satisfied with their jobs with the highest satisfaction reported with teaching responsibility, advancement opportunities and work itself. However, working conditions, pay and recognition were the most-cited causes for dissatisfaction. Factor analysis showed some interesting results where the number of factors remained the same at nine but their nature was slightly different. Further analyses of personal, institutional and socio-economic factors through regression models revealed interesting insights. It was also observed that these findings resonate with those observed globally among teachers, showing a need for teacher development across the world.
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This study focuses on the relation between levels of group development and three health-related aspects of working life: work satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and sick leave. This article presents a study with 30 groups in a manufacturing company. Data were collected from 274 group members of the 30 groups, using Group Development Questionnaire, self-reported measures of work satisfaction and emotional exhaustion, as well as company data on occurrence of sick leave occasions. The results indicate a strong relationship between levels of group development and work satisfaction, a moderately strong relation with emotional exhaustion, and a weaker or less clear relation with sick leave. Practical implications are discussed and future research suggested.
Article
Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of burnout and job satisfaction among Saudi national critical care nurses. Background: Burnout is caused by a number of factors, including personal, organisational and professional issues. Previous literature reports a strong relationship between burnout and job satisfaction among critical care nurses. Little is known about this phenomenon among Saudi national critical care nurses. Methods: A convenience sample of 150 Saudi national critical care nurses from three hospitals in Hail, Saudi Arabia were included in a cross-sectional survey. Results: Saudi national critical care registered nurses reported moderate to high levels of burnout in the areas of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Participants also reported a feeling of ambivalence and dissatisfaction with their jobs but were satisfied with the nature of their work. Conclusions: Saudi national critical care nurses experience moderate to high levels of burnout and low levels of job satisfaction. Burnout is a predictor of job satisfaction for Saudi national critical care nurses. Implications for nursing and health policy: These results provide clear evidence of the need for nurse managers and policy makers to devise strategies to help nurses better cope with a stressful work environment, thereby also improving job satisfaction among Saudi national critical care nurses.
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This study draws upon survey and administrative data on over 9,000 teachers in 336 Miami-Dade County public schools over 2 years to investigate the kinds of collaborations that exist in instructional teams across the district and whether these collaborations predict student achievement. While different kinds of teachers and schools report different collaboration quality, we find average collaboration quality is related to student achievement. Teachers and schools that engage in better quality collaboration have better achievement gains in math and reading. Moreover, teachers improve at greater rates when they work in schools with better collaboration quality. These results support policy efforts to improve student achievement by promoting teacher collaboration about instruction in teams.
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The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between teacher perceptions of faculty group effectiveness and development and actual levels of productivity in 10 elementary, middle, and high schools. The results suggest that a strong relationship exists. Faculty groups functioning at higher levels of development have students who perform better on standard achievement measures.
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The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the length of time that work groups had been meeting and the verbal behavior patterns and perceptions of group members about their groups. The verbal behavior patterns and perceptions of 180 members of 26 work groups were examined. Perceptions of 639 people in 88 work groups also were explored. Significant relationships and differences were noted between the length of time that work groups had been meeting and the verbal behavior patterns and perceptions of group members. Specifically, members of groups that had been meeting longer made significantly less dependency and fight statements and significantly more work statements. They also perceived their groups to be functioning at higher stages of group development. The results of this study lent further support to traditional models of group development. Verbal behavior patterns of members vary significantly in groups of different durations. Member perceptions of their group’s development also vary significantly in groups of different durations.
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The authors investigated the relationship between perceived effectiveness of elementary school faculty groups as a whole and student performances on standardized tests. Participants included the principal and all teachers, referred to as the faculty group, in 61 elementary schools. Members of the faculty group in each school completed the Group Developmental Questionnaire, an instrument that assesses the developmental level of work groups. The authors obtained data regarding the percentage of 4th-grade students who met the state proficiency standard in citizenship, reading, science, mathematics, and writing in each school. Results suggest that school demographics (staff size, rural or urban location, and district poverty level) significantly influenced student outcomes. In addition, the manner in which faculty members who worked together as a group significantly influenced student outcomes in schools with similar demographic profiles. Findings suggest that if faculty members work together to become more trusting, more cooperative, and work oriented, student learning and performance can be affected positively. Therefore, the authors recommend interventions designed to help faculty groups work together effectively.
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The purpose of this exploratory study is to visually map the dynamics of work groups using a method that emerged from chaos/complexity research. The verbal statements of members of 16 work groups were categorized using the Group Development Observation System. A Wavelet Transform Test was used to produce visual representations of the dynamic interaction patterns in each group's data string. Overall, the patterns that emerged in all 16 groups were similar in shape but different with regard to color, overall tone, and visual clarity. The groups were divided into three tiers based on these visual differences. Significant differences were noted among the tiers. The results support the concept that groups are complex adaptive systems and that the generated images provide a broader perspective of these systems, which may help researchers to explore human groups in more depth.