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GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC cancer base no. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon

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... Of the various human cancer types, there is an alarming increase in head and neck cancers (HNCs) across the globe. In 2016, HNCs were positioned as the ninth most common type of cancer (1), and in 2018, they were ranked seventh most common malignancy worldwide (2). There is a constant increase in the global burden of HNCs and it is estimated that these cancer types will result in 13 million cancer deaths by the year 2030 (3,4). ...
... HNCs occur in various anatomical sites of which about 90% are of the squamous cell carcinoma type arising from epithelialmucosal lining (1). The sites where such carcinomas occur include the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and sinonasal cavity (8). ...
Article
Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are seeing an increasing trend in their prevalence among both genders and is the seventh most common cancer type occurring at the global level. Studies addressing both the cancer cell physiology and individual differences in response to a specific treatment modality should be understood for arriving at an effective treatment and management of the HNCs. In this article, we discuss the trends in HNC research and their various approaches starting from 2D in vitro models, which are the traditional experimental materials to recently established Cancer-Tissue Originated Spheroids (CTOS) distinctly contributing towards personalized or precision medicine.
... Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a deadly cancer taking place in the nasopharynx epithelium, especially in the fossa of Rosenmüller [1]. Additionally, NPC is an uncommon cancer type and the presence of NPC displays distinct geographical distribution such that the majority of new cases (71%) are reported in southeast and east Asia [2]. In China, approximately 42,100 new NPC cases, including 23,320 deaths, were reported in 2013 which accounts for 1.14% of new cancer cases and 0.96% of cancer-associated deaths in that year [2,3]. ...
... Additionally, NPC is an uncommon cancer type and the presence of NPC displays distinct geographical distribution such that the majority of new cases (71%) are reported in southeast and east Asia [2]. In China, approximately 42,100 new NPC cases, including 23,320 deaths, were reported in 2013 which accounts for 1.14% of new cancer cases and 0.96% of cancer-associated deaths in that year [2,3]. Over the past decades, epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence and mortality of NPC have decreased significantly [4]. ...
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Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a deadly cancer, mainly presenting in southeast and east Asia. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play essential roles in cancer progression. Exosomes are critical for intercellular communication. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the functional lncRNAs in NPC and its relevant mechanisms. Methods Data from public databases were utilized to screen for functional lncRNAs in NPC. Functional and mechanical experiments were performed to determine the role of lncRNAs in NPC and its relative molecular mechanisms. Exosomes derived from NPC cells were isolated to determine their function in tumor-associated macrophages. Results LncRNA TP73-AS1 was increased in NPC cells and tissues and was associated with a poor prognosis. TP73-AS1 overexpression promoted proliferation, colony formation, and DNA synthesis of NPC cells while TP73-AS1 knockdown showed opposite roles. TP73-AS1 could directly bind with miR-342-3p. MiR-342-3p overexpression attenuated the effect of TP73-AS1 in NPC cells. Furthermore, TP73-AS1 was transferred by exosomes to promote M2 polarization of macrophages. Lastly, exosomal TP73-AS1 enhanced the motility and tube formation of macrophages. Conclusions Together, this study suggests that TP73-AS1 promotes NPC progression through targeting miR-342-3p and exosome-based communication with macrophages and that TP73-AS1 might be an emerging biomarker for NPC.
... varian cancer ranks the "seventh" amongst the most prevalent female cancers worldwide (1). Every year, 239,000 new cases are detected and 152,000 deaths are reported annually world over (2). Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTs) although rare, follow an aggressive course contributing to ovarian cancer deaths if not intervened timely (3,4). ...
... The novel findings pertain to the reported incidence, the most common histologic type, survival rate, and risk factors influencing the patient survival. As per our hospital data, the incidence of MGCOTs was reported to be 4.5% of all ovarian malignancies, whereas in the Asian population the literature reports the incidence as 8-19% of all carcinoma ovary cases (2,5,6). Pure dysgerminoma is reported to be the most common histological subtype, accounting for 35% to 54% of the cases followed by immature teratoma and endodermal sinus tumor (8,9,13). ...
Article
Background: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTs) are rare female cancers, constituting up to 10% of ovarian cancers. Dysgerminoma is the most common histological variant. Surgical removal of the tumor with optimal debulking is the treatment of choice. Multidrug chemotherapy following surgery offers high remission rates. Considering the prevalence of these tumors in adolescent and young females, fertility-sparing treatment is of paramount importance. Methods: The data of all patients with ovarian malignancy admitted at a tertiary-care-teaching hospital from September 2009-March 2019 were analyzed. Ten patients of MOGCTs were treated in this period. The clinical features, radiological and biochemical findings, and management and treatment outcome were evaluated. Results: The median age of patients was 23 years. Histological subtypes included immature teratoma (n=3), endodermal sinus tumor (n=4), and dysgerminoma (n=3). Tumor markers namely AFP, βHCG, and LDH increased in all except the patients with immature teratoma. Two patients with dysgerminoma were in the second trimester of pregnancy. All patients except one underwent surgery followed by BEP chemotherapy. Two patients had developed metastasis within six months of treatment and died. In seven patients, no evidence of disease was reported till date. Conclusion: Management of antenatal patients with dysgerminoma by surgery followed by BEP chemotherapy has favorable prognosis. Fertility-sparing surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy offers great advantage in young girls. However, risk stratification based on prognostic factors should be implemented in order to individualize the treatment for achieving higher survival rates. The option for oocyte-cryopreservation prior to surgery must be discussed with patients desiring future fertlity.
... Similar trend was also observed for serum creatinine. Serum electrolytes concentration; Na + , K + , Cland HCO 3 recorded slight varying degrees of changes across all treated groups at p≤0.05 compares to the positive and normal control. From our results, HCC induced animals treated with Ganoderma lucidium, STC30, Liv 52 Hb and combined treatment showed varying degree of renal function improvement by improving glomerular filtration rate (GFR). ...
... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for approximately 782,000 new cases and 746,000 deaths worldwide each year based on 2012 estimates [3]. Eighty-five percent of cases are in developing countries, the highest incidence rate reported in areas where hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic. ...
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Kidneys are vital organ involved in the elimination of waste and toxins from the body and maintenance of homeostasis among other functions. Following the entrance of pathogen or xenobiotics into the body, the immune system respond and in most instances, this responses are out of proportion due to release of pro-inflamatory cytokines and the hyper response of the immune system may end up attacking certain organs of the body and hence, altering the physio-biochemical role of such organ. This study investigated the effect of some natural products commonly used in the management of hepatitis and it associated biochemical alterations on other key systems of the body. Albino Wistar rats weighing 60 to 120g were used for this study. The animals were divided into seven (7) groups of five (5) animals each. Group 1 served as the normal control and were not induced while animal in group 2 to 7 were all induced for Hepatocellular carcinoma using CCl4. Group 2 served as positive control and where not treated while animals in
... Worldwide breast cancer is ranked as the fifth cause of death among all forms of cancers, and the second most common cancer next to lung cancer. 1,2 In addition, globally more than 1.1 million women were newly diagnosed, leading to 1.6% deaths annually from it. 3,4 Now it is an emerging public health danger, as the incidence of breast cancer is rapidly increasing in Africa. ...
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Background: There is wide global variance in survival from breast cancer, both in developed and developing country. However, the effect of estrogen receptor status has not been widely evaluated in Ethiopia where the incidence of breast cancer is rapidly increasing. Hence, the current study aimed to determine the effect of estrogen receptor status on the overall survival of breast cancer patients who were treated at Black Lion Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods: In this institution-based retrospective cohort study a total of 368 study participants were included with a one-to-one ratio of estrogen receptor negative to estrogen receptor positive. The main outcome of interest for this study was death due to breast cancer. The authors compared the women with estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer for overall survival rate using log rank test. The incidence density rate of mortality was calculated for each exposed and non-exposed variable. The effect of estrogen receptor status on breast cancer mortality was estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The incidence density rate of mortality among breast cancer patients for estrogen receptor positive were found to be 5.48 (95% CI=3.94-7.64) per 1,000 person years observation; while for estrogen negative receptor status the mortality rate was found to be 10.47 (95% CI=8.19-13.37) per 1,000 person years observation. In the Cox regression analysis after ful adjustments for confounder variables, the mortality event risk was 32% higher among estrogen receptor negative (HR=1.32; 95% CI=1.08-2.91) as compared to estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients. Conclusion: We have found that the incidence density rate of mortality among breast cancer patients was significantly higher in the estrogen receptor negative groups. Therefore, clinicians should give careful attention to the impact of estrogen receptor negative status on the overall outcome of clients.
... In Nigeria, prevalence rates for female genital neoplasia are estimated at 10.7% [2] and 8.7% [3] in the northern and southern region of the country respectively, indicating the public health relevance of these cancers in the country. Worldwide, gynaecological cancers are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women, and the commonest cause of cancer-related death in females after breast cancer [4]. A diagnosis of genital neoplasia has a deleterious impact on a woman's life due to fears concerning cancer recurrence, impact on sexuality and death [5]. ...
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Background: Globally, it has been established that gynaecological malignancies are a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis and treatment of female genital cancers are associated with marked psychological distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Literature has shown that gynaecological cancers have a significant impact on the mental health and quality of life of affected women, either from the direct effect of the disease itself or from the sequelae of cancer treatment/management. Objective: The study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety, and correlates quality of life among gynaecological cancer patients in Lagos, Nigeria. Method: Systematic random sampling was used to select 91 gynaecological cancer patients. The study was conducted at a teaching hospital in South-West Nigeria. The General Health Questionnaire, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, Visual Analogue Scale of Pain, Oslo Social Support Scale and a Socio-demographic Questionnaire were administered. Results: Prevalence rates were 25.3% and 8.8% for depression and anxiety respectively. Correlates of depression were, duration of illness, pain, tumor site and social support. Monthly income was the only risk factor for anxiety. Correlates for quality of life include; depression, pain, GHQ scores, monthly income, social support and age. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that gynaecological malignancies have a significant negative impact on the mental health and quality of life of affected women. Therefore, it is pertinent to develop strategies to promote mental health and well-being among women living with neoplasia of the reproductive tract.
... Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide with greater than 80% found in endemic areas of hepatitis B in Africa and E. Asia. The World Health Organisation (WHO) 2012 reports an age-standardised death rate of 38-100/100,000 inhabitants [1,2]. 70-90% develop on a background of cirrhosis. ...
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The specific genetic abnormality that leads to Hepatocellullar Carcinoma (HCC) is not yet known. Carcinogenesis and cancer progression does not only evolve from the mutation of DNA codings but from any effect on its expression i.e. epigenecity. There are several levels of epigenetic dysregulation involved in carcinogenesis and the stepwise progression towards metastasis or incurable disease. The advancement of next generation DNA sequencing has increased the understanding of the genetic and molecular pathology of liver cancer. By avoiding the confounding influence of consecutive genetic backgrounds, age, and cohort effects, epigenetic studies on monozygotic twins with HCC would improve the understanding of HCC. Unlike genetic events, epigenetic alterations are reversible and thus potentially considered to be an alternative option in cancer treatment protocols. Mechanisms of epigenetic control may also offer an alternative path to acquiring stable oncogenic traits. Electronic searches of the medline (PubMed) database, Cochrane library, and science citation index were performed to identify original published studies on liver epigenome, hepatic carcinogenesis and familial hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim was to briefly report on how monozygotic twins would be an excellent model for elucidating the disturbances of the hepatic epigenome in the manifestation of familial hepatocellular carcinoma.
... In India, EC is the 6 th most common cancer with incidence of 5.04% [2]. Moreover, it results in around 47,000 new cases each year with yearly mortality of up to 42,000 [4]. A variant of EC, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), accounts for 85% of global cases and is the most common type of EC in the Indian subcontinent [5][6][7]. ...
Article
Background: Patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (LAESCC ) have decreased quality of life (QoL) and, thus, require palliative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The present study was performed to evaluate the QoL in patients with LAESCC undergoing palliative EBRT. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, observational study performed over a period of 18 months (from December 2018 to May 2020) in the Department of Radiation Oncology. Seventy patients with LAESCC received EBRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions, at 3 Gy per fraction over 2 weeks). Patients were followed-up at monthly intervals for 3 months. The dysphagia and odynophagia scores were calculated at baseline and follow-up visits. The QoL was assessed with 18-item EORTC QLQ-OES questionnaire at baseline and 3 months. Results: Over the study period, significant decrease in mean dysphagia and odynophagia score was observed (p-value < 0.0001). On post-hoc analysis, significant decrease in both dysphagia and odynophagia score was observed between baseline and at the end of study and between various follow-up visits (p-value < 0.0001). Moreover, there was a significant increase in mean body weight (p-value < 0.0001). At 3 months, there was a significant decrease in dysphagia (p-value < 0.0001), eating (p-value < 0.0001), reflux (p-value = 0.005), pain (p-value < 0.0001), and saliva (p-value = 0.01) domains of EORTC QLQ-OES18 questionnaire. Conclusion: In patients with LAESCC, EBRT leads to significant decrease in dysphagia and odynophagia, and increase in body weight. These changes indirectly lead to improved QoL.
... Ovarian cancer accounts for about 239,000 new cases and 152,000 deaths worldwide every year. 1 According to GLOBOCAN 2018 data, there were 13,310 (3.8%) new cases of ovarian cancer in Indonesia, with a mortality rate of 7,842 (3.8%) and ranks third most cases that occur in women after breast cancer and liver cancer. 2 Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant tumors, accounting for 90% of all cases of ovarian cancer. ...
... Pancreatic cancer is the eleventh most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and is the seventh leading cause of cancer-related death. 1 It can arise from both exocrine (95%) and endocrine portion (5%) of the pancreatic gland. 2 The most common histology is ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, which accounts for around 80% of all pancreatic cancers, 3 while 65% of the cases arise in the pancreatic head, 15% in the body or tail, and 20% involve the gland diffusely. 4 Authors: ...
Article
Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is one of the commonly diagnosed cancers and is a leading cause of cancer mortality in the population. The prognosis of patients even after undergoing a complete resection is generally poor, with a median survival of 13–20 months and a 3-year survival of 30%. Therefore, adjuvant therapies including adjuvant chemoradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy are given in an effort to improve survival. In the authors’ centre, all patients undergoing resection are given adjuvant chemoradiation followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity and treatment outcome (patterns of failure, overall and disease-free survival) of patients undergoing adjuvant therapy in resected carcinoma pancreas. Adjuvant chemoradiation was well tolerated by most patients with resected carcinoma pancreas and all patients completed chemoradiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with high haematological toxicity, similar to previously published literature. However, treatment interruptions were higher and only 77% patients completed adjuvant chemotherapy. The adjuvant gemcitabine, given on Days 1, 8, and 15, for a 4-weekly schedule was poorly tolerated by the authors’ patient population and there were only fewer interruptions in patients who were switched to the 3-weekly schedule. Inclusion of a greater number of patients and longer follow-up of this study is required to clearly assess the patterns of failure and survival outcomes.
... Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2 nd most common cancer in females and the 3 rd most common cancer in males (Ferlay et al., 2013). This disease is the most common malignancy in men with 75 years of age and over. ...
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Colorectal cancer (CRC), which is also referred to colorectal adenocarcinoma, occurs when the growth of cells goes out of control in the colon or rectum. A number of histological colorectal carcinoma are listed, such as mucinous, signet ring cell, and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The present study included fifty tissue blocks (16 females and 34 males) of patient groups with CRC and thirty five tissue blocks of colon tissue (ulcerative colitis) which were used as control group. The mean age of patients group was 51.44±16.67 years. The majority of patients with colonic carcinoma were above the age of 40, accounting for 80%, while 20% of cases were below the age of 40 years. A recto-sigmoid location is the most common site for colonic tumors accounting for 60%. Grade of tumor was well differentiated in 56%, and the following features were observed: The tissue appears with multi-layering, back to back arrangement (little intervening stroma), loss of polarity, loss of goblet cells, and invasion of stroma and presence of nuclear criteria of malignancy: hyperchromatism, high N/C ratio visible nucleoli and abnormal mitosis. The present results also showed that in grade I lesion, most of tumor retains glandular pattern, moderately differentiated in 28%, and tumor is nearly equally composed of glandular and solid patterns. However the poorly differentiated was 16% with same cellular criteria of malignancy but almost all the tumor was composed of solid areas. The present findings divided the stage of tumor patients into: 22% stage I; 66% stage II, and 12% stage III.
... Figures show that 14.1 million new cases were seen worldwide in 2012, with 8.2 million cancer-related deaths being reported. If the increase in cancer diagnoses continues, it is estimated that the annual number of new cases will reach 22 million by 2030 [2]. Cancer is the second most commonly reported cause of death in Turkey after cardiovascular diseases [3]. ...
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Introduction: Side-effects are frequently encountered in classic chemotherapy. However, the recent development of targeted treatments has resulted in a diminution of these. The most common side-effects are dermatological. Aim: To investigate cutaneous changes occurring in patients using classic and targeted chemotherapeutic agents, and the prevalence of these changes in the two groups. Material and methods: One hundred twenty-eight volunteer oncological patients using chemotherapeutic agents were included in this prospective study. Two subgroups were established, patients using classic and those using targeted chemotherapeutic agents. Results: Xerosis was the most common side-effect, being seen in 93 (72.7%) of the 128 patients. Other common side-effects included alopecia, pruritus, mucositis, skin pigmentation, and palmar-plantar erythema. The most common side-effects in the classic chemotherapeutic group were xerosis seen in 71 (75.5%) patients, pruritus in 50 (53.2%), alopecia in 49 (52.1%), and nail changes in 43 (45.7%). The most common side-effects in the targeted chemotherapeutic group were xerosis seen in 22 (64.7%) patients, nail changes in 17 (50%), alopecia in 15 (44.1%), and pruritus in 13 (38.2%). Conclusions: The most common cutaneous side-effects were less prevalent in the patient group using targeted chemotherapeutic agents than in the classic group. Various side-effects associated with chemotherapeutic use which had not been previously reported were also identified in this study. Classic chemotherapeutic agents caused more serious side-effects requiring discontinuation of treatment than targeted chemotherapeutic agents.
... The latest global data has shown that the cancer rate reached 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million deaths in 2018 [7]. On the African continent, cancer already represents between 10 and 20% of the condition treated, and a nearly 100% rate of increase is expected by 2030 [8]. Cancer mortality is proportionately higher in Africa than elsewhere in the world, and it is becoming a scourge, which is occurring more and more in low and middle-income countries. ...
Article
Cancer is among the deadliest diseases in the world, especially in developed countries where modern treatments are not available to everyone. In North Africa, and especially in Algeria, few herbal treatments against cancer have been documented despite the richness of flora in these countries. This research aim to documents the medicinal plants used by patient to fight cancer in the northwest of Algeria. Data were collected through ethnobotanical surveys engaging 211 cancer patients in hospitals (departments of medical oncology) in two of the largest provinces in northwest Algeria (Tiaret and Tlemcen). The data were organized into usage reports (UR), while the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) was calculated to evaluate agreement among informants. The patients investigated were mainly women, of middle age (41-50 years) and illiterate. In total, 53 medicinal plants used against several types of cancer have been identified. These plants are dominated by Lamiaceae, Apiaceae and Rosaceae. The leaves and powder of plants are most often used in traditional preparations often mixed with honey. The plants most often cited in the survey were Aristolochia longa, Aquilaria malaccensis, Ephedra alata subsp. alenda, while the most often treated cancer were breast, cervical, colorectal and stomach. 23 plants are not known as a treatment against cancers in North Africa, while 25 plants already known as treatment for cancer were cited here to treat specific new types of this disease.
... Karcinom dojke je najčešća maligna bolest kod žena. U većini razvijenih zemalja broj oboljelih je u stalnom porastu [13]. ...
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Introduction: Quality of life represents the overall satisfaction or dissatisfaction with one's own life. Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women in Europe, North America and other Western countries, while its incidence is constantly increasing. Aim: The main aim of the study was to examine the quality of life of patients with breast cancer at the University Hospital Foča and the General Hospital Trebinje. Material and methods: The research was conducted on a sample of 120 patients in the University Hospital Foča and the General Hospital Trebinje from May to August 2019. The chosen study design is the cross-sectional study. A general questionnaire on the basic sociodemographic indicators of the respondents, a modified Short Questionnaire on Health Perception (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire), a questionnaire on the quality of life SF-36v2 (Short form SF 36 ver 2) and the Beck Depression Scale (BDI) were used in the research. Results: The average value, of the maximum possible 100 points, by which patients assessed their physical component of quality of life is 55.3 points, of which physical functioning was assessed with 52.7 points, limitation due to physical health with 60.5 points, physical pain with 45.3 points and general health with 56.8 points. Beck's depression scale found that the largest number of patients with breast cancer do not have depression, 96 of them (80%), 21 patients (17.5%) have a mild form of depression, 2 patients (1.7%) have moderate depression, while only 1 patient (0,8%) has a severe form of depression. Conclusion: Patients with breast cancer had average values in the domain of the physical and mental component of quality of life. It has been determined that the majority of patients do not have depression.
... Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide [1]. In 2018, the Global Cancer Observatory (GLOBOCAN) reported that about 1.8 million individuals were diagnosed with CRC worldwide, and about one million deaths had occurred [2]. ...
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Purpose Obesity is an independent risk factor for worse outcomes in various surgical settings. Whether obesity is a prognostic factor for postoperative morbidity and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) is inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the impact of obesity on short-term postoperative outcomes in CRC patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Methods Data of a total of 23,898 CRC patients aged ≥ 20 years and undergoing laparoscopic resection were extracted from the US National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database and analyzed. The study endpoints were in-hospital mortality, any postoperative complications, infection/sepsis, acute kidney injury (AKI), deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary embolisms (PE), and extended hospital stay. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between patients’ obesity status (morbid obese: BMI > = 40 kg/m²; obese: BMI 30–39.9 kg/m²) and the study outcomes. Results In 23,898 CRC patients undergoing laparoscopic resection, the prevalence of obesity prevalence was 11.8%. After adjustment, the results revealed that morbid obesity was significantly associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality (aOR = 2.06, 95%CI: 1.11–3.83), AKI (aOR = 1.78, 95%CI = 1.34–2.36), DVT/PE (aOR = 2.88, 95%CI = 1.70–4.88), and extended LOS (aOR = 1.21, 95%CI = 1.02–1.43), while non-morbid obesity was significantly associated with more DVT/PE (aOR = 2.12, 95%CI = 1.32–3.41) as compared with non-obesity. Conclusion In patients with CRC undergoing laparoscopic surgery, morbid obesity is strongly associated with worse postoperative outcomes, including increased in-hospital mortality, postoperative AKI and DVT/PE, and extended LOS. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of obesity status in risk stratification for laparoscopic CRC surgery.
... Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer death in the world, accounting for around 1.9 million new cases and almost 935,000 deaths in 2020 [1]. Given current demographic projections, the global burden of CRC is anticipated to increase by 60% to over 3 million new cases and 1.6 million cancer deaths annually by 2040 [2]. The incidence of CRC varies widely across geographic regions with the highest incidence in higher income countries [3]. ...
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Current evidence suggests that 30–50% of cancers are attributable to established lifestyle risk factors. Cancer-screening has been identified as an opportunity for delivering advice on lifestyle behaviour change for cancer prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of promoting advice on the latest evidence-based lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention at the time of colorectal cancer screening at two hospitals in Lyon, France. This feasibility study included 49 patients (20 men and 29 women) who were invited for colonoscopy. Patients received a leaflet with lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention, accompanied with a logbook to plan and monitor their behavioural changes. Feedback from patients, hospital staff, and researchers was received via evaluation questionnaires (n = 26) completed after testing the educational material for at least two weeks and via two focus group discussions (n = 7 and n = 9 respectively) organized at the end of the study. All interviewed patients were interested in lowering their cancer risk, and the majority felt ready to change their lifestyle (88%), although most did not know how to decrease their risk of cancer (61%). All patients found the educational material easy to understand and sufficiently attractive and 50% of the patients reported having achieved at least one of the healthy behaviours recommended within the two weeks following the intervention. All hospital staff and almost all patients (92%) involved found that the screening program and the visits planned for colonoscopy was an appropriate moment to provide them with the educational material. This feasibility study has shown that the content, paper-based format, and time of delivery of the intervention were adequate. Health professionals seem to be willing to provide lifestyle recommendations, and patients appear interested in receiving advice for lowering their cancer risk during screening visits.
... Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second one in women worldwide (1). Recently, lung cancer diagnosis has greatly improved due to the wider use of total body computed tomography scan (CT scan) and metabolic diagnostic tools such as 18-F-fluodosossyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG). ...
... Breast cancer is the major cause of malignant tumors among females [1] and one of the most important causes of death [2]. The number of breast cancer survivors (BCS) has increased in recent decades due to early detection and advances in treatment modalities [3][4][5]. ...
Article
Introduction: Available treatments for hot flashes in patients with breast cancer are not always tolerable or effective for all patients. Methods: Patients diagnosed to have primary breast cancer were randomly allocated to receive 10 mg of escitalopram, placebo, or progressive muscle relaxation therapy. Patients were asked to report the frequency and duration of hot flashes during day and night, at baseline and after ten weeks of treatment, and completed the menopause rating scale. Results: Eighty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive escitalopram (n = 26), PMRT (n = 28), and placebo (n = 28). PMRT and escitalopram could effectively decrease number and duration of diurnal and nocturnal HFs in patients with breast cancer, with a better effect observed from escitalopram. They could both decrease the total score of MRS. Conclusion: Both escitalopram ad PMRT can reveal nocturnal and diurnal HFs in terms of frequency and duration in patients with breast cancer.
... Breast cancer is the major cause of malignant tumors among females [1] and one of the most important causes of death [2]. The number of breast cancer survivors (BCS) has increased in recent decades due to early detection and advances in treatment modalities [3][4][5]. ...
Article
Abstract Introduction Available treatments for hot flashes in patients with breast cancer are not always tolerable or effective for all patients. Methods Patients diagnosed to have primary breast cancer were randomly allocated to receive 10 mg of escitalopram, placebo, or progressive muscle relaxation therapy. Patients were asked to report the frequency and duration of hot flashes during day and night, at baseline and after ten weeks of treatment, and completed the menopause rating scale. Results Eighty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive escitalopram (n = 26), PMRT (n = 28), and placebo (n = 28). PMRT and escitalopram could effectively decrease number and duration of diurnal and nocturnal HFs in patients with breast cancer, with a better effect observed from escitalopram. They could both decrease the total score of MRS. Conclusion Both escitalopram ad PMRT can reveal nocturnal and diurnal HFs in terms of frequency and duration in patients with breast cancer.
... For instance, in 2012, the incidence of colorectal cancer in South Korea was 45/100,000 persons, higher than that of Japan (38.4/100,000 persons), the Netherland (38.5/100,000 persons), Australia (43.2/100,000 persons), and New Zealand (43.5/100,000 persons). However, meat consumption was as low as one-half to two-thirds of the level of these countries (Ferlay et al., 2013;Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], 2016). The association between the consumption of cooked meat and the incidence of cancer has been documented predominantly in case-control, cohort, and food frequency questionnaire studies, making it difficult to conclude that a high level of meat intake is the main cause of colorectal cancer. ...
Article
At this point in time, the evidence of a link between well-done meat intake and the incidence of cancer is stronger than it was 20 years ago. Several cohort and case-control studies have confirmed this evidence, and have shown a higher odd ratio and increased exposure to heterocyclic amines (HCAs) among those who frequently consume red meat. However, in most epidemiological studies, dietary assessment, combined with analytical data, is used to estimate the intake of HCAs, which has many inconsistencies. In addition, there is a lack of findings indicating a substantial correlation between various factors, like types of raw meat, types of meat products, and cooking methods that directly or indirectly influence the occurrence of cancer. Although numerous mitigation strategies have been developed to reduce HCAs levels in meat, there is still a high prevalence of carcinogenesis caused by HCAs in humans. The aim of this review is to summarise conflicting reports, address shortcomings and identify emerging trends of cutting-edge research related to HCAs.
... Esophageal cancer remains the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide [1,2]. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for over 90% of all esophageal cancer cases in East Asia, whereas adenocarcinoma is the dominant histological subtype in Western countries [3]. ...
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Background In Japan, standard treatment for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) includes preoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus cisplatin followed by esophagectomy. However, its efficacy is unclear in patients with recurrent disease with < 6 months of chemotherapy-free interval (CFI) after preoperative chemotherapy followed by esophagectomy and in those with ≥ 6 months of CFI and poor pathological response to prior preoperative chemotherapy. Method We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of fluorouracil plus platinum in patients with recurrent ESCC who received preoperative chemotherapy followed by curative esophagectomy. Results Among 105 patients with recurrent ESCC after preoperative chemotherapy followed by esophagectomy, a total of 55 patients received fluorouracil plus platinum for recurrent disease. Patients with a CFI < 6 months ( n = 20) had significantly shorter overall survival (OS) (median, 7.1 vs 14.5 months, P = 0.008) compared with those with a CFI ≥ 6 months ( n = 35). Multivariate analysis showed that OS was worse in patients with a CFI < 6 months or a tumor regression grade (TRG) ≤ 1a. Furthermore, in patients with a CFI ≥ 6 months, TRG ≤ 1a was associated with significantly shorter OS (11.1 months vs. not reached, P = 0.001). Conclusion Fluorouracil plus platinum was ineffective for recurrent ESCC in patients with a CFI < 6 months and in those with a CFI ≥ 6 months and a TRG ≤ 1a. Alternate regimens including nivolumab or pembrolizumab might be considered for the treatment for recurrence in these patients.
... Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of morbimortality worldwide (1). According to demographic projections and temporal profiles, its global incidence is expected to increase by 60%, leading to more than 2.2 million new cases and 1.1 million deaths by 2030 (2). The cancer pathogenesis is complex and has not been completely understood. ...
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Introduction: The study of allelic and genotypic frequencies contributes to determining the distribution of genetic variants in different populations and their possible association with biomarkers. This knowledge could improve the decision-making process regarding the management of some diseases such as colorectal cancer (CRC), in which the detection of clinical biomarkers such as dental agenesis could be crucial in clinical practice. Objective: To evaluate the available scientific evidence on the prevalence of KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF and AXIN2 mutations and their possible association with dental agenesis in people with CRC. Materials and methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases using the following search strategy: type of studies: observational studies reporting the prevalence of KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF and AXIN2 mutations in people diagnosed with CRC and their possible association with dental agenesis; publication language: English and Spanish; publication period: 2010-2020; search terms: “Genes”, “RAS”, “Kras”, “PIK3CA”, “BRAF”, “AXIN2”, “Mutation”, “Polymorphism”, “Colorectal Neoplasms”, “Colorectal Cancer”, used in different combinations (“AND” and “OR”). Results: The initial search yielded 403 records, but only 30 studies met the eligibility criteria. Of these, 11, 5, 5 and 1 only reported the prevalence of PIK3CA, KRAS, BRAF and AXIN2 mutations, respectively; while 8 reported the prevalence of more than one of these mutations in patients with CRC. The prevalence of KRAS (p.Gly12Asp), PIK3CA (p.Glu545Lys), and BRAF (p.Val600Glu) mutations ranged from 20.5% to 54%, 3.5% to 20.2%, and 2.5% to 12.1%, respectively. There were no findings regarding the association between the occurrence of these mutations and dental agenesis. Conclusions: KRAS mutations were the most prevalent; however, there is no evidence on the association between dental agenesis and the occurrence of KRAS, PIK3CA and BRAF germline mutations in individuals with CRC.
... It is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. 2 In Ethiopia, about 7% of mortality is due to cancer. 3 The annual incidence of cancer is around 60,960 cases, and the annual mortality is over 44,000. ...
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Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor and the leading cause of cancer death in over 100 countries. Despite the high burden of difficulty, the survival status and the predictors for mortality are not yet determined in Ethiopia. Studies related to this area are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the survival status and predictors of mortality among breast cancer patients in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study design was carried out from September 2015 to August 2020 among 482 women who had breast cancer in Northwest Ethiopia. A systematic sampling technique was employed to select the required representative sample. The Cox regression model was used to identify the predictors of mortality among breast cancer patients. Results: For this study, 482 participants had followed for 8824 person-months total analysis time or at-risk time. In our findings, the overall survival of breast cancer patients at the end of two and five years was 54.24% and 25.8%, respectively. In the multivariable Cox regression model, age, stage of BC, menopausal status, and surgical therapy were significant predictors of death. Conclusion: The overall survival after two years was 54.24%, and after five years was 25.8%. This result is lower than the recently published report and indicates that in LMIC, especially in rural cancer centers, the infrastructure and resources for routine screening mammography are often unavailable. Therefore, there is a need to promote early diagnosis of BC at each level of health-care delivery point.
... ancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide and the risk of developing cancer is increasing in both developed and developing countries (Akbari et al., 2017, Ferlay et al., 2015. Cancer has become the second-largest group of chronic non-communicable diseases and the third most common cause of death after heart diseases, accidents, and other natural phenomena (Farhood et al., 2018). ...
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Background: Considering the incidence of malnutrition, a multidisciplinary approach with targeted nutrition is vital to improve the quality of care in cancer patients. This study aimed to investigate the overall nutritional status of Iranian cancer patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study in 70 cancer patients was conducted in Shohada-e Tajrish Hospital from February to April 2019. The cancer patients were assessed by demographics and Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) utilized as a common tool to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with different types of cancer. Results: Overall, 20.0% and 70.0% of the patients had normal body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obese, respectively. Moreover, 30.0% and 60.0% of the participants reported poor and normal intake, respectively. Males were more affected by malnutrition. Approximately 8.0% of the participants lost more than 10.0% of their weight; however, a vast majority of the patients maintained their weight. Conclusion: The high prevalence of malnutrition among the studied cancer patients demonstrated the necessity of nutritional care to improve possible malnutrition for better treatment results.
... There are 7 lakhs new cases and 3 lakhs death observed per annum because of cancer [6] . The most common cancer found in the UK is breast, lung, colorectal, and prostate in 2008 [7] . According to recent information the incidence of new cancer cases was reported approximately 1,898,16o in the United States as well as death cases because of cancer reported 608,570 in 2021. ...
Article
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Cancer is the unwanted growth of the cell, which is developed trillion of the cells. It may be either Cancerous or Non-Cancerous. The etiology involves the propagation of Cancer, defective DNA, or Mutation in DNA because of distinct Factors (Physical, Chemical, Biology, and Others). There is various kind of cancer (such as Carcinoma, Sarcoma, Myeloma, leukaemia and Lymphoma, etc.). The sign and symptoms involve in Cancer (Such as fever, loss of appetite, weight loss, thickening or lump in the body and unusual upset stomach or difficulty and swelling). Nowadays the treatment is used in the treatment of cancer (such as Gene therapy, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation, Immunotherapy, and Stem cell transplant). Cancer is an ancient disease, that evidence obtained from Egyptian papyri. In 2021 Epidemiology study of Cancer represent the data related to the Incidence of Cancer higher in Men compare to Women, specially (Prostate and Breast and remaining other). There are lots of Chemical compounds and Monoclonal antibodies developed in the Laboratory to treat various kinds of cancer. Which some chemical compounds and Monoclonal antibodies had been granted Approval by FDA in 2020 for Marketing. We are represented in this paper, FDA-approved compound 2020 with its pharmacological study, chemical structure, and the dose of a compound that is available in the Market.
... P rostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer and the fifth cause of death among men worldwide, mainly in low-and-middle-income countries. 1 Several risk factors for PC have been identified, such as age, PC family history, and African American ethnicity; 2 however, the link between PC and lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. 3 PA is an important, modifiable, and preventive factor associated with a lower risk of colon, endometrium, and post-menopausal breast cancer. ...
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Objective: To evaluate the association between life-course leisure-time physical activity (PA) and prostate cancer (PC) among males living in Mexico City. Materials and meth-ods. Information from 394 incident PC cases and 794 popula-tion controls matched by age (± 5 years), was analyzed. Using leisure-time PA information at different life stages, life-course PA patterns were constructed. The association between PA and PC was estimated using an unconditional logistic regres-sion model. Results: Three life-course PA patterns were identified: low PA (71.0%), moderate PA (22.0%), and high PA (7.0%); this last pattern was characterized by higher levels and consistent PA practice. Compared with inactive males, those in the high PA pattern (OR: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.26-0.93) had significantly lower PC odds. Conclusion: Intense and regular PA could reduce the possibility of PC. These results are in accordance with PA World Health Organization rec-ommendations.
... [9] Furthermore, stomach cancer was the 5 th most common cancer and the 3 th main death cause worldwide in 2012. [10] As stated by 2008-2009 report of Cancer Registry System in Iran, stomach cancer is the third most common cancer in Iran. [11] Around the world, colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of death after lung and stomach cancers. ...
Article
Background: Spatial disease mapping is a widespread tool in ecological analysis to obtain accurate estimates for incidence, relative risks (RRs), prevalence, or mortality rates regarding to increase the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer in Isfahan in recent years. This study aimed to inspect the RR of GI cancer in Isfahan counties using empirical and full Bayesian model. Materials and methods: Data of this ecological study were GI cancer cases which registered in health-care system of Isfahan University of Sciences during 2005-2010. We applied shared component model to model the spatial variation incidence rates of the GI cancers. We compared three models such as Gamma-Poisson, lognormal, and Besag, York, and Mollie (BYM) Bayesian. WinBUGS and GIS 10.1 software were used. Results: According to the fitted model, BYM model had best fit to the data. However, in general, ranks of RRs in most counties are identical; counties with higher RR in one map have higher RR in other maps. Geographical maps for three cancers in women were smoother than men. Isfahan has high RR in women, whereas this point is slightly different in men. Daran, FreidoonShahr, and Isfahan are cities which have high RR in esophagus, stomach, and colon cancer, respectively. Conclusions: Lognormal and BYM maps had very similar results. Despite some differences in estimation values, in nearly all maps arias Isfahan had high RR in GI cancer. It is recommended to promote the use of screening programs and increase awareness of people in high RR areas to reduce the incidence of GI cancer.
... In the same year, approximately 600,000 deaths resulting from colorectal cancer were recorded worldwide, with an estimated 70% occurring in low and middle-income countries [2,3]. The numbers of newly recorded cases increased to 1.36 million in 2012 with 55% of the cases occurring in more developed regions of the world, and 694,000 deaths from the disease were recorded the same year [4]. In 2017, an estimated 135,000 persons in the United States were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and approximately 50,260 individuals died from the disease in the same year [5]. ...
Article
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Objectives: Early detection of colorectal cancer through periodic screening has proved to be effective in reducing the incidence rate and mortality from colorectal cancer. Available records indicate racial and ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer screening in the United States. In this paper, a retrospective cross-sectional study to examine how family income, health insurance status, language of interview, length of stay in the US, perceived health status, level of education, and having a usual place for medical care affect colorectal cancer screening among African-born immigrants in the United States is presented.
... Lung cancer is the first cause of cancer death among males and the second leading cause of cancer death (after breast cancer) in females across the world [1]. In Egypt, the lung cancer incidence is about 4.9% of all cancers in both sexes, representing about 7.3% of male cancers and 1.6 % of female, and the mortality rate 6.5% represents the fourth cause of cancer death (Globocan fact sheet, Egypt 2020) [2]. ...
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Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Thereby, new treatment strategies as targeting nano-therapy present promising possibilities to control the aggressiveness of lung cancer. Dual CD44 and folate receptors targetable nanocapsule based on folic-polyethylene glycol-hyaluronic (FA-PEG-HA) were fabricated to improve the therapeutic activity of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) toward lung cancer. In this study, we fabricate 4-MU Nps as a hybrid polymeric (protamine) protein (albumin) nanocapsule, then functionalized by targeting layer to form [email protected] Nps with encapsulation efficacy 96.15%. The in vitro study of free 4-MU, 4-MU Nps and [email protected] Nps on A549 lung cancer cells reveal that the 4-MU Nps and [email protected] Nps were more cytotoxic than free 4-MU on A549 cells. The observed therapeutic activity of [email protected] Nps on urethane-induced lung cancer model, potentiality revealed a tumor growth inhibition via apoptotic mechanisms and angiogenesis inhibition. The results were supported by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) of transforming growth factors (TGFβ1) and serum HA, histopathological analysis as well as immunohistochemical Ki67, CD44, Bcl-2 and caspace-3 staining. Moreover, [email protected] Nps exhibited a promising safety profile. Hence, it is expected that our developed novel nano-system can be used for potential application on tumor therapy for lung cancer.
... Such cells cannot respond to normal regulatory mechanisms that ensure the intercellular cooperation required in multicellular organisms. Consequently, they continue to proliferate, thereby robbing nearby normal cells of nutrients and eventually crowding surrounding healthy tissue (Ferlay et al., 2013). There is a steady increase in incidence of cancers as observed in most developed and developing countries. ...
Article
The study is aimed at divulging the hepatoprotective nature of stem bark extract of Detarium microcarpum against Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in male wistar rats. Fifty-four male wistar rats g 140 ± 20 g were divided into nine groups of six rats per group. Group I, II and III served as normal, negative and standard drug control respectively while group IV to IX were treated with different doses of the extract and fractions. All treatments were carried out by oral gavages for fourteen consecutive days. Assays of liver biochemical parameters, lipid profile parameters, antioxidant enzymes/total antioxidant status, haematological profile and histopathological examination were carried out. Results obtained showed that, DEN administration induced hepatocellular damage in the rats, characterised by significant (p<0.05) elevation of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; decreased total bilirubin, total protein, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol; decreased antioxidant and non-antioxidant enzymes activities and haematological parameters when compared with the normal control group. However, oral post-treatment with stem bark extract, fraction-I and fraction-II of Detarium microcarpum in a dose-dependent manner compared to the negative control group restored all the parameters with significant (p<0.05) restoration observed in fraction-II. Detarium microcarpum stem bark may be effective for ameliorating DEN-induced hepatocellular damage in male Wistar rats and therefore, may be further investigated for the molecular mode of action.
... It isn't unexpected to relate "cancer" to a perilous disease and consider it "morally infectious", in any event, maintaining a strategic distance from to articulate its name (Michelone APC). 1 Cancer is the subsequent driving reason for death internationally, and is responsible for an expected 9.6 million death in 2018. Comprehensively, around 1 out of 6 death is ex-pected to cancer (Ferlay J). 2 Within the forecasted changes in population demographics in the next two decades, even if current global cancer rates remain unchanged, the estimated incidence of new cancer will rise to 21.4 million by 2030(American Cancer Society). 3 Moreover previous studies suggest that depression and poor quality of life are often psychological consequences in patients living with cancer, and cancer patients face the double challenge of difficulties to manage the physical as well as psychological effects of cancer (Montazeri A). 4 WHO defines QoL as individual perception of life, values, objectives, standards and interests resides in the frame work of culture. ...
Article
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ABSTRACT Background: Cancer is a challenge for majority of population’s health-related quality of life (HRQoL), This study aimed to analyze the impact of clinical characteristics and social determinants of health on the QoL of a cohort of persons diagnosed and/or treated for cancer. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 155 with various stages of cancer at different stages of their disease. Data were obtained using questionnaires QLQ-C30 from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), which include a set of functional and symptomatic scales. Results: Out of 155 subjects, large proportion were diagnosed with Oral cancer 67(43.2%) and Breast cancer 23(14.8%). The mean of global health status/QoL was 52.34 (SD= 23.34). Quality of life was significantly associated with some functional scales as role functioning (P≤0.001), social function, (P=0.00), and symptom scales as pain (P=0.00), loss of appetite (P=0.004) and financial impact (P=0.02) as well as associations were noted in relation to socio demographic characteristics. The highest functional status was cognitive functioning (54.58±27.68). Conclusions: The cancer diagnosis has become more prevalent and carries significant changes to the method of living with physical and emotional changes in term of quality of life (QoL) because of inconvenience, torment, disfigurement, reliance and loss of confidence. Keywords: Cancer Patients, Quality of Life, EORTC QLQ-30 Scale, cognitive functions, HRQoL
... Lung cancer is a public health problem and causes more deaths than any other cancer. [1][2][3] We expect to have 130,000 deaths in the United States in 2021, and more than 60,000 deaths per year have been registered in Latin America (LATAM). 4,5 Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States (18% of the population), and there are more than 20 countries with Hispanic populations in LATAM. ...
Article
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Lung cancer is a public health problem and causes more deaths than any other cancer.1-3 We expect to have 130,000 deaths in the United States in 2021, and more than 60,000 deaths per year have been registered in Latin America (LATAM).4,5 Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States (18% of the population), and there are more than 20 countries with Hispanic populations in LATAM. Disparities in the diagnosis and clinical outcomes of Hispanic patients with lung cancer compared with non-Hispanic White (NHW) patients are well documented. Hispanics have disadvantages in social determinants of health: access to care, health insurance, cultural differences, and immigration status. Moreover, there are also genetic and other biological differences that need to be considered. Hispanics in LATAM have some extra hardships; most of them live in countries classified as low- and middle-income countries. In this editorial, we comment on disparities in genetics, biomarker testing, and therapy outcomes in Hispanic patients with lung cancer in the United States and abroad, which significantly affect access to precision medicine and survival.
... Globally, cervical cancer comprises 12% of all cancer in women .Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in developing countries (Ferlay et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in developing countries. Cervical cancer is a deadly disease once it reaches the invasive stages but out of all the female genital tract cancers, it is the only preventable cancer if detected in its early stages and the disease is almost 100% curable with accurate screening and early detection. Traditional screening for cervical cancer is done with papanicolaou smear test, colposcopic examination and colposcopic directed biopsy for histopathology.
... Australia and New Zealand have some of the highest rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the world [1]. In 2019, CRC was the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second commonest cause of cancer death in Australia. ...
Article
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Background Increasing participation in the Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) is the most efficient and cost-effective way of reducing mortality associated with colorectal cancer by detecting and treating early-stage disease. Currently, only 44% of Australians aged 50–74 years complete the NBCSP. This efficacy trial aims to test whether this SMS intervention is an effective method for increasing participation in the NBCSP. Furthermore, a process evaluation will explore the barriers and facilitators to sending the SMS from general practice. Methods We will recruit 20 general practices in the western region of Victoria, Australia to participate in a cluster randomised controlled trial. General practices will be randomly allocated with a 1:1 ratio to either a control or intervention group. Established general practice software will be used to identify patients aged 50 to 60 years old who are due to receive a NBCSP kit in the next month. The SMS intervention includes GP endorsement and links to narrative messages about the benefits of and instructions on how to complete the NBCSP kit. It will be sent from intervention general practices to eligible patients prior to receiving the NBCSP kit. We require 1400 eligible patients to provide 80% power with a two-sided 5% significance level to detect a 10% increase in CRC screening participation in the intervention group compared to the control group. Our primary outcome is the difference in the proportion of eligible patients who completed a faecal occult blood test (FOBT) between the intervention and control group for up to 12 months after the SMS was sent, as recorded in their electronic medical record (EMR). A process evaluation using interview data collected from general practice staff (GP, practice managers, nurses) and patients will explore the feasibility and acceptability of sending and receiving a SMS to prompt completing a NBCSP kit. Discussion This efficacy trial will provide initial trial evidence of the utility of an SMS narrative intervention to increase participation in the NBCSP. The results will inform decisions about the need for and design of a larger, multi-state trial of this SMS intervention to determine its cost-effectiveness and future implementation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12620001020976 . Registered on 17 October 2020.
... Normal CEA values can be found in almost 50% of cancers before surgical resection and often do not increase during recurrences [5]. The primary objective of a surveillance protocol of CRC patients is to improve survival rates [6]. ...
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Background: The Septin 9 test analyzes the methylation status of the SEPT9 gene, which appears to be hypermethylated in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). This has been validated as a colorectal cancer screening test. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity found, the justification was to use it as a biomarker tool for monitoring minimal residual disease after radical surgery and recurrence. Methods: A prospective study was carried out at the Fundación Jiménez Díaz University Hospital extracting peripheral blood from 28 patients and 4 healthy donors. Free circulating DNA was obtained and subsequently a PCR reaction to quantify the number of methylated genes. Samples were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at five to seven days, one and three months after surgery. Results: A total of 32 preoperative samples were analyzed. The sensitivity of the test to detect CRC was 55.6% and specificity was 100%. There were 22 postsurgical samples obtained at 5-7 days after surgery, the sensitivity to detect tumor recurrences was 100% and specificity was 75%. There were 21 samples analyzed 1 month after surgery exhibiting a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.7%, respectively. At 3 months, 31 postsurgical samples were analyzed and the sensitivity and specificity were 66.7% and 80%. Conclusions: Detection of methylation of Septin 9 gene in circulating plasma DNA, obtained from a peripheral blood sample, may be a useful, non-invasive and effective method for detecting minimal residual disease and could therefore predict CRC tumor recurrences. The optimal time in our series to obtain the best prediction results based on Septin 9 methylation levels was one month after surgery. Despite these considerable findings, a study with more patients is necessary to obtain more robust conclusions.
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RESUMEN Introducción: En el escenario de resistencia hormonal del cáncer de próstata, los pacientes con buen estado general o asintomáticos pueden beneficiarse de la inmunoterapia activa en el tiempo a la progresión. Objetivo: Evaluar la seguridad, inmunogenicidad y efecto clínico del preparado vacunal anti-receptor 1 de factor de crecimiento epidérmico humano (HER-1). 1 Esta obra está bajo una licencia https://creativecomm ons.org/licenses/b y- nc/4.0/deed.es_ES Revista Cubana de Oncología. 2021 (Sep-Dic);19(3):e_153 Métodos: Se elaboró un reporte preliminar del ensayo clínico Fase I, aleatorizado a dos grupos de dosis: 400 y 800 μg de vacuna subcutánea de dominio extracelular (DEC- HER-1); las cinco primeras dosis cada 14 días (inducción) y luego cada 28 días, hasta un año de mantenimiento. Se compararon las variables de 10 pacientes asintomáticos con cáncer de próstata metastásico inmunizados (p < 0,05). Se realizó análisis y clasificación de los eventos adversos. Se identificaron los títulos de anticuerpos IgG anti-HER-1en sueros inmunes que reconocen a la línea tumoral A431 y la determinación de las células supresoras derivadas de mieloides. Resultados: La media de edad fue 74 años (62-79), predominó el color blanco de piel y Gleason 7. Se registró un total de 49 eventos adversos (13,6 % relacionados), y los de intensidad severa y muy severa con peligro para la vida (31,8 %), ninguno con relación de causalidad. Se observó progresión clínica y bioquímica en el 50 % de los pacientes al año de seguimiento. En 2/10 pacientes al día 112 se detectaron títulos de anticuerpos anti-HER-1de 1/600. Se consideró no reconocimiento de sueros inmunes a la línea tumoral A431. No se alcanzó la mediana de supervivencia. Conclusiones: La administración de la vacuna fue segura, aunque no se evidenció la inmunogenicidad esperada. No se observó beneficio en la respuesta clínica y/o bioquímica. No existen diferencias significativas entre grupos de dosis. Palabras clave: cáncer de próstata; factor de crecimiento epidérmico; vacuna de cáncer; toxicidad. ABSTRACT Introduction: In the context of hormonal resistance in prostate cancer, patients in a good general state or asymptomatic may benefit from active immunotherapy in the time to progression. Objective: Evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and clinical effect of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER-1) vaccine preparation. Methods: A preliminary report was developed for the Phase I clinical trial, randomized to two dose groups: 400 and 800 μg of extracellular domain subcutaneous vaccine (ECD- HER-1), the first five doses every 14 days (induction) and then every 28 days until one year of maintenance. A comparison was made the variables for ten immunized asymptomatic patients with metastatic prostate cancer (p < 0.05). Adverse events were analyzed and classified. Identification was carried out of anti-HER-1 IgG antibody titers in immune serums that recognize tumor cell line A431, determining myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Results: Mean age was 74 years (62-79), with a predominance of white skin color and Gleason score 7. A total 49 adverse events were recorded (13.6% related). Of these, 31.8% were severe or very severe and life-threatening, and none showed a causal relationship. Clinical and biochemical progression was observed in 50% of the patients after one year's follow-up. On day 112 anti-HER-1 antibody titers of 1/600 were detected in 2/10 patients. Non-recognition of immune serums to tumor cell line A431 was considered. Mean survival was not achieved. Conclusions: Administration of the vaccine was safe, but the expected immunogenicity was not obtained. Benefit was not observed in the clinical and/or biochemical response. No significant differences were found between the dose groups. Key words: prostate cancer; epidermal growth factor; cancer vaccine; toxicity.
Chapter
This chapter describes aging and the resultant effects of aging. According to WHO report 8.8 million people died from cancer worldwide in 2015. The incidence of cancers increases with age. This increase incidence may be due to biological factors, prolonged exposure to carcinogens and incidence of mutations etc. Cancers in elderly may have poor biological vulnerability, presence of various co-morbidities and poor tolerance of therapy hence treatment got compromised. Elderly cancer patients also are neglected in various trials and strong data lacks for optimal management. Other important aspect is psychosocial state of these patients. Discipline of Psycho-oncology deals with patients with cancer, their lifestyle related difficulties, negligence by self, family members and society, Lack of emotional support, poor financial assistance and treatment monitoring etc. leading to various psychological problems. This chapter will address issues of cancers in elderly including disease biology, disease characteristics, management, their quality of life etc. with reference to elderly patients suffering from cancer.
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Background: Establishing a link between diet and cancer is an epidemiological challenge, and such relationships have not been thoroughly investigated. Objectives: We aimed to explore the presence of a possible relationship between diet and colorectal cancer. Material and Methods: This case–control study was conducted at the Government Medical College, Jammu, a regional cancer center in Jammu and Kashmir in North India. We collected the dietary information from 1 year prior to the date of diagnosis for a total of 100 patients with colorectal cancer, 100 hospital controls, and 100 healthy controls. Data were collected by administering the food frequency questionnaire as a part of a personal interview. Data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The risk of colorectal cancer among men who consumed alcohol was greater than that among the healthy controls (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.27–5.31). Similarly, risk was greater among those who consumed hot tea (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 0.99–3.31). The odds of developing colorectal cancer were 4–19 times higher with the consumption of red meat, while of consumption of fruits, vegetables, wheat and pulses with rice once a day conferred significant protection to participants in both the control groups. Consumption of dairy products and ghee also seemed to confer protection against colorectal cancer, ranging from 39% to 95% and 77% to 85%, respectively. The odds of consumption of pickled foods were significantly higher among those with colorectal cancer as compared to the healthy controls (OR: 2.0–3.63). Conclusions: The consumption of certain foods and beverages such as alcohol, hot tea, red meat, and pickles is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Thus, our results suggest that the risk of developing colorectal cancer is associated with dietary habits and that effective prevention is possible.
Article
The main aim of the study was to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of Kayan Karpam (KK) against Benzo(a) Pyrene (B(a)P) induced lung carcinogenesis in experimental mice. In this study, we evaluated the impact of KK as an effective antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent against B(a)P, a possible carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. All mice were randomly assorted into five groups. Group I mice served as control (Control), group II mice were received KK at the dosage of 250mg/kg b.wt. for 16 weeks. Groups III-VI received B(a)P at the dosage of 50mg/kg b.wt. weekly twice orally for the first 4 weeks. Further, along with B(a)P, group IV received KK, as like group 2 for 16 weeks, group V mice received B(a)P, as like groups 3 and 4, along with KK starting from the 9th week of the experimental period. We observed, that carcinogen induced mice treated with different treatment regimens of KK showed a potent chemopreventive action. Significant (P<0.05) increases in cellular enzymatic antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GPx and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants like GSH, vitamins E and C were noted in KK treated mice. Highly significant reductions were observed in the levels of lipid peroxidative by products and lung cancer marker enzymes like AHH, ᵧ-GT, 5’-ND and LDH in the mice administered with KK. Supplementation with KK to tumor bearing mice normalized the expression patterns of pro- and anti- apoptotic proteins (p21, Bax, Bcl-2), modulated NF-κB, and reduced the levels of COX-2. These findings further suggest the view that the Indian medicinal plants present in KK are promising sources of potential drugs against lung cancer.
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Relatório das Diretrizes para Detecção Precoce do Câncer de Mama com a aprovação da Conitec. Lista completa de elaboradores é a mesma das diretrizes mama. Disponível em: http://conitec.gov.br/images/Relatorios/2015/Relatorio_DDT_CancerMama_final.pdf 155 páginas
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Background: The assessment of small foci of atypical glands in prostatic needle biopsy specimens is a key diagnostic challenge in routine histopathology for pathologists. Due to the presence of mimickers of prostate carcinoma, at times making a definitive diagnosis becomes difficult. The use of immunomarkers like α‑Methyl Acyl Co A Racemase (AMACR), p63 and High Molecular Weight Cytokeratin (HMWCK/34betaE12) has made it easier for us to reach the diagnosis in such cases. Material and methods: All the cases which were received in the Department of Pathology, JNMCH, AMU from January 2015 to December 2018 were categorized into four histomorphologic groups on the basis of histopathology, and immunohistochemistry was applied on all the cases which were rendered ‘suspicious’ on histomorphology. Result: One hundred twenty-one prostatic specimens were received. Out of which, 13 biopsies were found to be inadequate for analysis and hence were not included in the study. Out of the rest 108 cases, (1) 52 were benign, (2) 19 were premalignant, (3) 25 were carcinoma and (4) 12 were signed as ‘suspicious’ on histopathology. These 12 suspicious cases were true cut needle biopsies which were considered appropriate for applying immunomarkers along with control cases. Out of 12 suspicious cases, 8 cases (66.7%) were negative and 3 cases (25%) were weakly positive for p63, 1 case showed moderate immunostaining. HMWCK was completely negative in 7 cases (58.33%), 3 cases (25%) showed weak positivity, 1 case showed moderate and 1 case showed strong positivity. While 5 cases (41.67%) were negative and 7 cases (58.33%) were positive for AMACR mostly showing moderate to strong positivity Conclusion: The application of immunomarkers helped us to reach a definite diagnosis in 10 out of 12 cases, which were otherwise difficult to classify. Judicious use of immunomarkers can help in differentiating mimickers of prostate carcinoma from true cancer cases and assist in reaching a definitive diagnosis.
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In recent decades, there has been an increase in hereditary colorectal cancer cases in individuals under 50 years of age. Several studies have revealed similar pathologies in both molecular and clinical variations of hereditary colorectal neoplasms. We subdivided those new pathologies derived from the two groups in which hereditary colorectal cancer is classified: polyposis syndromes and non-polyposis syndromes.
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Children with leukemia usually suffer from many health problems and complications as a result of the disease process or the course of treatment. Aim of the Study: Was to assess the knowledge and home practices of family caregivers having children with leukemia.
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O câncer torna-se cada vez mais um grave problema de saúde publica mundial. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os efeitos anticancerígenos da vitamina C injetável sobre células tumorais, difíceis de serem tratadas com os métodos usuais disponibilizados pela medicina, Este estudo caracteriza-se como uma revisão sistemática, de caráter transversal e de natureza qualitativa e exploratória, realizada no mês de agosto de 2016 a Fevereiro de 2017, no qual foram consultados os bancos de dados da Scielo, Lilacs e Pubmed. Foi possível verificar com base aos estudos realizados, que as células cancerígenas mostraram-se sensíveis a administração da vitamina C injetável, enquanto as normais não foram atingidas, o tratamento mostrou-se eficaz em camundongos onde a vitamina C reduziu o tumor de forma significativa, e em pacientes com câncer de ovário que receberam injeções com elevadas concentrações de vitamina C, foi possível observar grandes melhoras do quadro quando comparado com os efeitos colaterais da quimioterapia. Conclui-se que, mediante os resultados obtidos, fica evidenciado que a vitamina C injetável pode ser considerada um excelente mediador no tratamento do câncer. Palavras-chave: Antioxidante, Câncer, Vitamina C.
Chapter
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