Article

Critical Discourse Analysis in Education: A Review of the Literature, 2004 to 2012

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  • Normandy Schools Collaborative
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Abstract

This article reviews critical discourse analysis scholarship in education research from 2004 to 2012. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases. Second, we completed an analytic review template for each article and encoded these data into a digital spreadsheet to assess macro-trends in the field. Third, we developed schemata to interpret the complexity of research design. Our examination of 257 articles reveals trends in research questions, the theories researchers find useful, and the kinds of interactions that capture their attention. We explore areas in the field especially ripe for debate and critique: reflexivity, deconstructive–reconstructive stance toward inquiry, and social action. We compare the findings with an earlier review published in 2005, reflecting on three decades of critical discourse analysis in education research.

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... Perhaps due to space limitations for publishing, a lack of practice in paradigmatic reflexivity, or a host of other potential reasons, many researchers either fail to fully theorize their position on discourse or take one stance in their study's framing and operationalize another in the analysis. Rogers and et al. (2016), who reviewed articles that used critical discourse analysis (CDA) in educational research more generally (not just within the field of education policy), pointed out that nearly 75% of the education policy studies that comprised a subset of their larger corpus had either minimal or no description of their analytic procedures. 1 Similarly, Saarinen's (2008) review of dis- course analytic studies in higher education policy found that only half of the 15 studies she reviewed articulated a theoretical stance on discourse, even implicitly. ...
... Although the tenets of CDA as laid out by Fairclough and Wodak (1997) include a view of discourse as socially mediated action (which can also be seen to align with post-structuralist tenets, which we discuss further below), other approaches that take the moniker CDA and cite these same scholars adopt more of a structuralist stance. CDA of education policy generally examines policy texts (sometimes defined beyond individual, written texts) in order to link educational issues to macro-level structures such as economics, race, or gender/sexuality (see Rogers et al. 2005Rogers et al. , 2016 for extensive reviews of CDA in educational research more broadly). CDA in education policy research is thus often concerned with how power and related relations (e.g. ...
... What we have found in our review (which is consistent with similar, more focused reviews, e.g. Rogers et al. 2005Rogers et al. , 2016Saarinen 2008), is that studies applying discourse analysis to studies of education policy often gloss over justifications for their specific theoretical and methodological approaches as well as omit explicit definitions of 'policy' Table 9. Policy-discourse relationship Type 6: 'Policy discourse' as unified entity. ...
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Discourse has featured in studies of educational policy as an analytic and methodological tool, theoretical frame, realm of implication, and even a foundational definition of educational policy itself (e.g.) Despite the centrality of discourse as a frame for exploring educational policy and its implications, the ways that discourse is defined or operationalized in educational policy research are often left implicit which can lead to murky relations to larger onto-epistemological questions of how we construct findings from data as well as the nature of policy. In this interpretive analysis, we synthesize a corpus of 37 peer-reviewed journal articles that bring together educational policy and analyses of discourse from varying theoretical and methodological perspectives in order to better understand the breadth and scope of how discourse is defined and operationalized in studies of educational policy, including in ways that are sometimes incommensurate with authors' stated theoretical and methodological positions. After first laying the theoretical groundwork for analyses of discourse in the field of educational policy, we then illustrate how discourse analysis is used differently, and sometimes inconsistently, within contested paradigmatic landscapes. We conclude with an argument for discussions across theoretical frameworks and methodological paradigms about how the concept of discourse lends itself to different epistemological vantage points on educational policy.
... Η συνάντηση του πεδίου της εκπαίδευσης και γενικότερα της εκπαιδευτικής έρευνας με την ανάλυση λόγου μετρά ήδη αρκετές δεκαετίες, ενώ διαφαίνεται μια προοδευτικά αυξανόμενη αξιοποίηση της συγκεκριμένης μεθοδολογικής πρότασης στην εκπαιδευτική έρευνα (Keller, 2013. Rogers et al., 2016. Tseliou, 2015. Προσεγγίσεις ανάλυσης λόγου που υιοθετούν μια «κριτική ματιά» στη μελέτη της εκπαιδευτικής συνθήκης φαίνεται να έχουν μια σχετικά σημαντική δημοφιλία στο χώρο της εκπαιδευτικής έρευνας (βλ., Rogers et al., 2016 για μια σχετική ανασκόπηση). Από την άλλη πλευρά, λιγότερο μοιάζει να έχουν αξιοποιηθεί προσεγγίσεις ανάλυσης λ ...
... Tseliou, 2015. Προσεγγίσεις ανάλυσης λόγου που υιοθετούν μια «κριτική ματιά» στη μελέτη της εκπαιδευτικής συνθήκης φαίνεται να έχουν μια σχετικά σημαντική δημοφιλία στο χώρο της εκπαιδευτικής έρευνας (βλ., Rogers et al., 2016 για μια σχετική ανασκόπηση). Από την άλλη πλευρά, λιγότερο μοιάζει να έχουν αξιοποιηθεί προσεγγίσεις ανάλυσης λόγου, όπως η λογοψυχολογία, που εστιάζουν περισσότερο στην εμπειρική μελέτη του τρόπου με τον οποίο οι συμμετέχοντες στην εκπαιδευτική συνθήκη χρησιμοποιούν το λόγο στο πλαίσιο των ζωντανών αλληλεπιδράσεών τους κατά την εκπαιδευτική διεργασία (Tseliou, 2015). ...
... Παράλληλα, στο χώρο της εκπαιδευτικής έρευνας, μοιάζει να υπάρχει ένα είδος αυξανόμενης προοδευτικά δημοφιλίας των προσεγγίσεων ανάλυσης λόγου, τύπου «από επάνω προς τα κάτω». Σε μια πρόσφατη ανασκόπηση, οι Rogers et al. (2016) αναφέρουν 257 δημοσιευμένες μελέτες που υιοθετούν την κριτική ανάλυση λόγου στο χρονικό διάστημα μεταξύ 2008 και 2012 σε διαφορά με τις 46 μελέτες που είχαν εντοπιστεί σε προηγούμενη ανασκόπηση (Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, Mosley, Hui, & O'Carro, 2005) και οι οποίες δημοσιεύτηκαν κατά το χρονικό διάστημα 1983-2003. Από την άλλη πλευρά, περιορισμένη μοιάζει να είναι η αξιοποίηση λογοαναλυτικών προσεγγίσεων που εστιάζουν στην ενδελεχή μίκρο-ανάλυση των γλωσσικών, διαδραστικών πρακτικών και στοχεύουν στο να αναδείξουν με λεπτομέρεια τις λεπτές αποχρώσεις της αλληλεπίδρασης κατά τη φυσικά εκτυλισσόμενη παιδαγωγική πράξη. ...
Chapter
Στόχος της παρούσας εργασίας είναι να δώσει μια ενδεικτική εικόνα των δυνατοτήτων της ανάλυσης λόγου και συγκεκριμένα της λογοψυχολογίας, μιας προσέγγισης από το πεδίο της κριτικής κοινωνικής ψυχολογίας, για την εμπειρική εξέταση ερωτημάτων που αφορούν τη σχέση μεταξύ γλώσσας και εκπαίδευσης. Η αναγνώριση του κομβικού ρόλου της γλώσσας στην εκπαίδευση, αλλά και η παραδοχή ότι ιδεολογία και ιστορία διαμορφώνουν τα εκπαιδευτικά κείμενα, διατρέχουν σημαντικό μέρος του έργου του Β. Δ. Αναγνωστόπουλου. Αντίστοιχες παραδοχές βρίσκονται στον πυρήνα της «στροφής στο Λόγο» στο χώρο της εκπαίδευσης, στο πλαίσιο της οποίας έχουν υιοθετηθεί επιστημολογικές προσεγγίσεις όπως αυτή του κοινωνικού κονστρουξιονισμού και έχουν αξιοποιηθεί μεθοδολογικές προσεγγίσεις όπως αυτή της ανάλυσης λόγου. Παρά το γεγονός ότι οι κριτικές προσεγγίσεις ανάλυσης λόγου αξιοποιούνται από την εκπαιδευτική έρευνα εδώ και δεκαετίες, πολύ περιορισμένη παραμένει η αξιοποίηση προσεγγίσεων όπως αυτή της λογοψυχολογίας. Στην παρούσα εργασία, μετά από μια σύντομη αναφορά στις βασικές αρχές του κοινωνικού κονστρουξιονισμού και τις συνέπειες της υιοθέτησής του στο χώρο της εκπαίδευσης, αλλά και των βασικών προσεγγίσεων ανάλυσης λόγου, συζητώ τις δυνατότητες αλλά και τους περιορισμούς της υιοθέτησης της πρότασης της λογοψυχολογίας από την εκπαιδευτική έρευνα. Συγκεκριμένα μετά από μια σύντομη παρουσίαση των βασικών θέσεων της λογοψυχολογίας, αλλά και ενδεικτικών παραδειγμάτων από τις λίγες έρευνες που έχουν αξιοποιήσει τη λογοψυχολογία στο χώρο της εκπαίδευσης, υποστηρίζω ότι η περαιτέρω αξιοποίησή της ενέχει δυνατότητες για την εμπειρική μελέτη τόσο της ζωντανής, αλληλεπιδραστικής, επικοινωνιακής συνθήκης του «εδώ και τώρα» της παιδαγωγικής πράξης, όσο και των ζητημάτων που αφορούν στην ιστορικότητα και στις ιδεολογικές διαστάσεις της εκπαίδευσης.
... More specifically, CDA has been widely used in education and education policy (Rogers et al., 2016). While our discussion here is necessarily brief, we direct the reader to a comprehensive literature review carried out by Rogers et al. (2005Rogers et al. ( , 2016, which provides a critical synthesis of CDA in education research and a useful review of the history of CDA in education research. ...
... More specifically, CDA has been widely used in education and education policy (Rogers et al., 2016). While our discussion here is necessarily brief, we direct the reader to a comprehensive literature review carried out by Rogers et al. (2005Rogers et al. ( , 2016, which provides a critical synthesis of CDA in education research and a useful review of the history of CDA in education research. In education policy, analysts have used CDA to investigate both the substance and role of language in each phase in the life cycle of a given policy from the construction of a policy problem, through varied aspects of the policy-making process, to the reaction, representation, implementation and critique of existing policies. ...
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This article introduces the first of a two-part Special Issue on Discourse Perspectives and Education Policy. This first special issue is focused on critical discourse analysis and education policy. Within this article, we provide a brief overview of discourse analysis generally and critical discourse analysis specifically. We highlight some of the ways in which policy researchers have applied the theories and methods associated with CDA and note the methodological and substantive contributions of this work. Then, we provide an overview of the six papers included within this special issue, noting each paper’s key points and explicit links to policy. We conclude by pointing to future directions for research at the intersection of education policy and discourse studies.
... I sought out scholars who troubled the European roots of CDA with Chicana feminist theory and eastern epistemologies, for example. Mónica Pini, a professor of Cultural and Media Studies at the Universidad de San Martín (UNSAM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina invited me to contribute a chapter to her book which focused on critical discourse studies (Rogers, 2009a(Rogers, , 2009b. This invitation resulted in a multi-year collaboration which included me earning a Fulbright to be a CDA scholar at UNSAM. ...
... Resende, 2010;López-Bonilla & Fragoso, 2013;Mora, 2015;Bolivar, 2016;Álvarez Valencia, 2016). It was also within this time period that I sought out opportunities to have my CDA research translated into Spanish for Discurso & Socieded (Rogers, 2009a(Rogers, , 2009b(Rogers, , 2010. It became visible to me that the work of translation has historically been shouldered by Latin American scholars not by those in the global North and this has resulted in inequitable flows of knowledge. ...
Chapter
This chapter describes how scholars use their knowledge of CDA/CDS to make a difference in the world. The work of twenty-one scholars (along with their autobiographies) ranging from well known figures in the field such as Ruth Wodak, Teun van Dijk, David Machin, Theo van Leeuwen, and Rebecca Rogers to lesser known (and often emerging scholars), is described in detail in the authors’ own words (or in words written by one of us and approved by them). These descriptions show how CDA/CDS reaches the world in myriad ways such as through political books aimed at wide audiences, being an expert witness in a Neo-Nazi case, being board members of anti-racist associations, co-founding a discussion and research group for social justice educators, using dance to teach intercultural communication and counter anti-immigration rhetoric, song writing, organizing events to commemorate Holocaust Memorial Day, being involved in social media movements, and most importantly (and most mentioned) incorporating critical approaches into teaching. The chapter concludes by encouraging continued connections of CDA/CDS work that reaches the world around us.
... Furthermore, critical discourse and inquiry, becoming increasingly popular ways to frame teaching and learning in higher education (Rogers et al., 2016) with a focus on collaborative discussion and problem-solving across leadership preparation instruction (Jenkins, 2020), were also emphasized strategies for the CPED instructors as noted across seven syllabi course overviews. Students from this CPED program are also expected to become skilled in a type of critical discourse -the two-way change process of leadership (Fairholm, 2014) -within the principal investigator's change leadership course. ...
... In terms of cultivating LSE, the case study evaluation findings demonstrate that the CPED program supports candidates in specific ways. Response trends highlighted the ways the program, with an emphasis on scholarly inquiry (e.g., Cunningham et al., 2019;Rogers et al., 2016) of field-based problems of practice (e.g., Hamann & Trainin, 2018;Lenihan et al., 2015) as was transformational for graduates as educational leaders. As viewed through LSE (Hannah et al., 2013), the findings illuminated how leaders are self-motivated to take action when they perceive they have critical thinking processes. ...
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This single case study is a qualitative inquiry into the cultivation of doctoral candidates and graduates on their efficacy as leaders in using inquiry as to approach problems of practice in daily work. The study examined a doctoral program in educational leadership at one large public university in California, USA. The case study methods included artifact analysis, an examination of field notes, and semi-structured one-on-one phone interviews. The data analysis of all sources revealed three themes related to participants’ leader self-efficacy in using scholarly inquiry on problems of practice in the field. Findings indicate that the participants grew in their leader self-efficacy, transformed, and confident in their sense of self as an educational scholar-practitioner to enact change. As a result of their experience in a Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED) program, graduate participants also highlight the focus on inquiry processes to solve problems of practice as vital to educational leadership. Conclusions highlight considerations for similar programs when evaluating how they prepare graduates to impact education beyond coursework. Further research should emphasize how programs are addressing problems of practice for social justice to impact educational leaders in the field upon program completion.
... In a recently published special issue of Education Policy Analysis Archives (Lester, Lochmiller, & Gabriel, 2016), we highlighted the utility of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for attending to policy issues writ large. Notably, CDA has been widely used in education research (Rogers et al., 2016) and could perhaps be characterized as the dominant discourse analytic approach used by education policy scholars (Lester, White, & Lochmiller, in press). Yet, it is important to note that CDA, which encompasses a diverse set of approaches, is located within the broad and diverse landscape of discourse analysis; that is, there are a multitude of theories and analytic perspectives that policy scholars might draw upon when working at the intersection of education policy and discourse analysis. ...
Article
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In this article, we introduce the special issue focused on diverse perspectives to discourse analysis for education policy. This article lays the foundation for the special issue by introducing the notion of a third generation of policy research ? a strand of policy research we argue is produced at the intersection of education policy and discourse analysis. We also very briefly discuss discourse analysis writ large, noting that there is no single definition or orientation. Then, we present the six articles included in the special issue, highlighting the ways in which they offer contemporary understandings of the varying applications of discourse analytic perspectives to the study of education policy. We conclude by discussing key policy and methodological implications, as well as future directions for policy scholars working at the intersection of education policy and discourse analysis.
... The critical discourse analysis has enabled us to deconstruct these differences to understand that decisions made about meaning in RE have implications for how RE departments address issues of power, identity, agency and difference. From a traditional CDA perspective, this alerts us to the potential for misuse of power, misrepresentation of identity and difference or constraint on autonomy and so it would seem reasonable to conclude with some elaboration of these themes, however, Rogers et al (2016) explain how, over time, CDA results have become much more inclusive of reconstructive frameworks. As a result, in the findings from contemporary CDA studies, in addition to a critical analysis of power structures, there is likely to be a discussion of the potential for agents within those structures to affect change through identifying social relations which have the potential for leading to 'emancipatory ends' (Rogers et al. 2005). ...
Article
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This paper explores what some have described as a ‘crisis in meaning’ in religious education (RE). One region, Northern Ireland, is chosen as a focus for exploring the question of meaning-making as it provides an example of ‘agreed ambiguity’ – where a common syllabus for RE is believed to be ascribed different meanings by different schools. The web pages of RE departments were used as a data source, and a critical discourse analysis method was employed to investigate how a sample of departments construct meaning in RE. The findings identify three dominant discourses in relation to RE in the sample: Christian Community, Cultural Hegemony and Personal Quest. It is noted that when giving meaning to RE, schools show commonality and difference across three key areas: ‘stake and interest’; ‘pupil agency’; and ‘dealing with difference’. In conclusion, it is noted that, where freedom is given to schools to construct meaning in RE, it is possible to sustain a common curriculum across schools with very different views of the subject, however, this flexibility has implications for issues of power, identity, autonomy and difference which may require mitigation. It is suggested critical education may be a valuable partner in this work.
... Thus, MCA grounds its findings entirely in the micro-level or interactional data, whereas CDA links the micro-level data to more macro-level structures of discourse and power. This leads to MCA outcomes that are nuanced accounts of micro-level trends, whereas CDA evaluations foreground either the micro-level findings or the ideological focus of the study (Rogers et al., 2016). CDA's critical point of view does provide a unique insight into evaluation work. ...
Article
This paper presents Membership Categorization Analysis (MCA) as a useful qualitative methodology in evaluation study. MCA is closely connected to Conversation Analysis and is most frequently used in Sociology studies. MCA provides evaluators unique insights into the boundaries different categories (e.g. teachers, students) place on themselves and their actions. The paper includes an illustrated example of the value added of MCA in an evaluation of an early childhood educator improvement program.
... Critical literacy and NLS have developed methodologies around practices and meaning making that can support critical teachers and action researchers in their efforts to promote practices of critical consciousness and agency in their TESOL pedagogies (Lau, 2013). The research method of most dominance within these frameworks of TESOL has been critical discourse analysis (CDA), given its wide applicability in studying text and talk as social and linguistic practices that constitute and reify one other, especially within the context of power relations (Rogers et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
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(*Free to download at: https://www.academia.edu/43648371/Critical_Pedagogy_and_TESOL) In the late 1990s, prominent strands of engaged scholarship for TESOL shifted its focus from cognitive theories of second language learning to critically conscious paradigms interrogating the social contexts of schooling. Committed to the potential of Freirean “humanizing” pedagogies, grounded relationships of dignity, care, and teacher-activism, subsequent scholarship has leveraged critical pedagogies for social change in and outside the language classroom. In this chapter, we outline shared concepts of critical pedagogies in TESOL, examples of their intersections with English language teaching, and the tension therein. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field. Resources for further exploration are provided.
... 300) converge (in this case, the instructional design and dual ecologies of in-class and online participation). DA is an established framework for in-depth understanding of occurrences in educational settings (Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, Mosley, Hui & Joseph, 2005;Rogers, Schaenen, Schott, O'Brien, Trigos-Carrillo, Starkey & Chasteen, 2016). As these authors indicate, DA has been widely used "to make sense of the ways in which people make meaning in educational contexts" (Rogers et al., 2005: 366). ...
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This article presents a pedagogical design for teacher education that combines flipped materials, in-class instruction, and telecollaboration (also known as virtual exchange) for foreign language teacher education. The context of this study is a course on technology and language learning for future teachers in which the flipped classroom concept was applied to technology-infused collaborative teacher training between future ESL/EFL instructors located at two partner universities (one in the USA, one in Europe). The three main teaching approaches (flipped materials, in class, and telecollaborative, or “FIT”) were symbiotic in that each structure reinforced the other through reception, discussion, and reflection as a means to help the student teachers bridge the gap between theory and practice. We apply classroom ethnographic discourse analysis to data sources (face-to-face and online discussion groups, student e-portfolios) to look at uptake of ideas, conceptual understanding, and successful transfer of new knowledge, and thereby identify whether the design provides significant learning opportunities for the future teachers. Although most studies of telecollaboration in language teacher education look principally at output, this approach allows an in-depth look at the learning process as knowledge is developed collaboratively between the participants.
... Apart from looking at it from a linguistic perspective, Van Dijk also looks at it from a social cognition perspective; see how discourse can be formed and what influences writers when writing a discourse (Sriwimon & Zilli, 2017). There are several indicators seen in this social cognition, namely knowledge, culture, opinions, and attitudes (Rogers et al., 2016;Mohammed et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This study aimed to describe the dimensions of the text of the Teun A Van Dijk' model in the text discourse online news “the decline in refinery profits threatens to increase oil prices”. The rise of online media news coverage regarding the decline in refinery profits threatening the increasing oil prices interests the researchers in analyzing the discourse because the author considers that no mass media is completely neutral and objective. This research used a qualitative descriptive method with Teun A Van Dijk’s theoretical framework of critical discourse analysis, because the Van Dijk’s model also looks at the social cognition of the unit of observation and the social context in which the unit of observation occurs. The result of the research revealed that most of the dimensions of the text structure were met. Social analysis that is obtained was the decrease in refinery profits will cause new problems in public social life. For the textual analysis of macrostructure elements, the topic described a common theme of this online news which is "petroleum". In this news discourse, several elements of the microstructure were found in the form of background, detail, intent, coherence, conditional coherence, sentence form, and presuppositions.
... Et samlet review av CDA forskning, i forbindelse med ulike problemstillinger i skolen, viser at mennesker trekker på tilgjengelige forståelser og kunnskapssystemer når de beskriver forskjeller hos mennesker. Det blir derfor nødvendig med et bredt spekter av diskurser og sosiale praksiser for å oppnå endring i forhold til metoder og pedagogiske opplegg som skal kunne møte mangfoldet av elever (Rogers et al., 2016(Rogers et al., , p. 1202. ...
Thesis
Inclusion has for a long time been an important purpose in the Norwegian school, expressed through the famous notion of “a school for all”. We have committed ourselves to work for inclusion through the Education Act, curricula and other important policy documents. Still, research indicates that the Norwegian school has not developed according to this purpose (Bachmann & Haug, 2006, p. 88; Hilt, 2016, pp. 10-11), and that there are different understandings of what inclusion means in circle (Lillejord, 2015). School leaders and teachers are key actors in the educational work and curricula development of the school and have a duty to act according to the principles of inclusion. This makes it interesting to investigate how these two groups understand inclusion, and which discourses of inclusion that can be traced in school leaders and teachers, stories. The theoretical framework for this research project is critical discourse analysis, which is a suitable approach for studying how language contribute to the reproduction of excluding practices (Fairclough, 2003). To answer the research question of my thesis, I have collected material using qualitative method and semi-structured interviews. Through a critical discourse analysis, I have identified three discourses that are central to how the concept of inclusion is understood and practiced in school: the individualfocused discourse, the marginalization discourse, and the bureaucratic organizationdiscourse. Through discussions and reflections on the findings of this paper, I show how the three discourses are expressed through different understandings and practices related to inclusion as a concept. These ways of understanding the concept of inclusion are generally based on a premise about individuals who deviate from what is considered “normal”, as well as their shortcomings. This understanding can be understood in context of the education act and national guidelines for the educational system, that is legislative texts that focus on the individual. The discourses interconnect and construct a standard practice for individual pupils in the school. Conclusively, the interplay between these discourses creates a standardized pedagogical practice that excludes students from the academic and social community.
... This integrative review examined research related to video games and learning in South Africa. No review is exhaustive (Rogers et al. 2016), and this article does not claim to have exhausted all studies conducted on video games and learning in South Africa. For example, the current review excluded book chapters, which may have changed the findings. ...
Article
This study is a review of video games studies completed in South Africa. This paper looked at existing research on video games in South Africa in order to understand the research approaches used, and the learning outcomes found in respect to findings from studies in the western world. Interestingly, the study shows similarities in the learning outcomes, yet a great emphasis on educational games targeted to address issues relevant to South Africa. This research also reveals that context, as argued in sociocultural theory, shaped the content of the games designed, populations studied, type of game to associate with video games, and learning.
... While there is extensive literature on the theoretical and methodological scope of CDS (e.g. Flowerdew & Richardson, 2018;Wodak & Meyer, 2016), the interest of CDS in education is still relatively new (Rogers et al., 2016). is study falls under the tradition of CDS studies on neoliberal discourses in education, namely, the commodification of grades and English language learning (e.g., Fairclough, 1992). ...
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This qualitative study explores and identifies how parents and teachers address implementation of a gradeless system for teaching primary students English (EFL) and its effects on their academic development as experienced in a private school in Chile. Analysis of interviews and a focus group serves as a basis for obtaining insight about parent and teacher perceptions regarding changing to a gradeless system and how it poses challenges to academic development conceptions and practices. The study specifically focuses on how assessment is linked to the idea of success and the commodification of education through different conceptual metaphors. The data was analysed in light of a Discourse-Historical Approach (Reisigl & Wodak, 2001, 2016) facilitated using corpus linguistics methods (concordance lines and frequency lists). Results indicate clear contradicting perspectives about implementing a gradeless system. On the one hand, parents and teachers alike are concerned about jeopardizing their children’s future academic prospects by depriving them of numerical assessments since they believe that it positively fosters competition among students. On the other hand, parents and teachers are relieved at how embracing a gradeless system has improved their children’s emotional wellbeing. Both stakeholders expressed the negative effects that numerical assessments had on their children and themselves since it led to student competition and, consequently, increased student stress, frustration, and anxiety. Overall, the study strengthens the need to conceptualize EFL education differently to prioritize academic and humanistic formation of individuals over standardized and marketed development.
... La perspectiva del ACD fue seleccionada por su utilidad en el contexto discursivo elegido, dado que los textos de las canciones son exponentes y expresión de la cosmovisión ideológica sobre la igualdad entre hombres y mujeres que se va consolidando y asentando a través de la música reggaetonera y, como tales, son textos que constituyen un discurso ideológico y político y pueden ser analizados con esta metodología (Fairclough 2008), también desde un enfoque educativo (Rogers et al. 2016). ...
... The work to process and organize media message meaning was considered as the media frames. As with most social issues such as education, MOOCs' public perception is likely influenced by media representation (McCombs & Shaw, 1972;Rogers et al., 2005;Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007). The increasing use of transnational research design allows us to test the social system's influence on news discourses and unravel the institutional level frames (Benson, 2013). ...
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Una de las diferencias más llamativa entre los cursos online masivo en abierto o MOOC y las innovaciones anteriores de la tecnología educativa es el interés y la participación sin precedentes del público en general. Este estudio presenta un análisis comparativo del debate público en torno a los MOOC en diferentes países, enfocándose los contenidos mediáticos en los periódicos nacionales relacionados con los MOOC en China y España. Se identifican los temas más importantes en los principales periódicos en ambos países relacionados con los MOOC entre los años 2012 y 2019, llevándose a cabo un análisis en 456 artículos sobre su contenido, examinando si existe una interpretación distinta desde el idioma y la cultura diferente. Los resultados indican que la cobertura de los MOOC ha cambiado significativamente en los ocho años en ambas naciones, siendo el año 2014 el año con la mayor publicación periódica sobre el tema de los MOOC en ambos países. Desde entonces, el número total de artículos muestra una clara tendencia descendente en China, y los periódicos españoles empezaron a reducir la cobertura de los MOOC, pero vuelve a aumentar a partir del año 2017. El enfoque del discurso MOOC en periódico chino y español es diferente al periódico inglés, mientras que los artículos en España se centran en la utilización de los MOOC en formación profesional y empleo, en China, el enfoque parece moverse hacia las regulaciones y las políticas en la Educación en Igualdad del siglo XXI.
... As regards education policy and CDA/CDS, in 2017 Education Policy Analysis Archives published a Special Issue on the intersection of education policy and DA (largely focusing on issues within the US). The introductory chapter by Lester, Lochmiller and Gabriel (2017) highlights the usefulness of CDA/CDS when attending to educational policy issues (citing Rogers et al., 2016;see Sect. 6.3.3) and declares that CDA/CDS is the "dominant discourse analytic approach" used by education policy scholars (2017: 2). ...
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This chapter clarifies and underscores the importance of interdisciplinarity in CDA/CDS research, and then provides an overview of its salient and well-known connections to other areas of scholarship. While we do not claim to capture every area that CDA/CDS has influenced or been influenced by, we cover those that explicitly make a connection to, and/or integrate, CDA/CDS perspectives and theories, and we also note when the relationship is two-way. Our discussion will include the following fields: critical applied linguistics, education, anthropology/ethnography, sociolinguistics, gender studies, queer linguistics, pragmatics and ecolinguistics. For each one, we describe the major focus of research as well as important concepts and how they connect to, or derive from, CDA/CDS. We then provide examples of work in each of these areas including a detailed list of references for each section for those interested in knowing more.
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In this article, factors contributing to the poor perceptions and inferior status of vocational education in Hong Kong are discussed. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is employed as the methodology in examining the discursive construction of vocational education in the policy context. A total of five policy documents published between 1970 and 2015 are included. Our findings show that the socioeconomic transformation of Hong Kong in recent decades, massification of higher education, and cultural factors such as parental expectations are pertinent to the stigmatization observed in vocational education. This article discusses the implications from the findings and concludes with possible solutions for the future development of vocational education in Hong Kong under the novel vocational and professional education and training (VPET) initiative launched by the government.
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As critical discourse analysis/studies move into the second decade of the 21st century, there is a need to reflect on their evolution and envision their future development. In this paper, CiteSpace and VOSviewer are employed to gain holistic insights into CDA/CDS research and capture the recent research foci. The Web of Science core collection database is a prominent resource for collecting data. It was found that (1) CDA has broadly absorbed the theories of other disciplines and increasingly developed into a super-discipline; (2) corpus building, the advent of computer technology, and the development of linguistic analysis software have provided effective analytical tools for critical discourse research, making it possible for overall and partial analyses to complement each other and for complementary qualitative and quantitative approaches to be used to enhance the thoroughness and precision of research; and (3) the research methods for conducting CDA tend to be diverse and comprehensive.
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In this article, I leverage the sociological insights of Randall Collins to examine contemporary accounts of “fun teaching” in teacher education: the pervasive mood of “fun,” “energy,” and “enthusiasm” in North American education faculties and popular teacher professional development literature. Focusing on Collins’ micro-sociological account of emotional energy in face-to-face interaction, I ask: What are the situational dynamics of “fun” teaching? Why have the related discourses of “fun,” “energy,” and “enthusiasm” become the obligatory mood of teaching and teacher education? As a starting point, I examine the highly-trafficked teacher professional development resource, “Teach like a PIRATE” (Burgess, 2012 Burgess, D. (2012). Teach like a PIRATE: Increase student engagement, boost creativity, and transform your life as an educator. Dave Burgess Consulting. [Google Scholar]), and consider how an interaction ritual chains approach helps us understand underlying conceptions of “fun” as a situational dynamic. I conclude by outlining the implications of our current focus on “fun teaching” in a digitally-mediated world for scholars working in teacher education.
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Recent policy emphasis on market mechanisms to drive up the performance of education systems has resulted in rising fees and increased competition in higher education in England, and in the creation of different types of self-governing state-funded schools run independently of municipal authority in compulsory schooling. University sponsorship of Charter Schools in the US raises issues which this article examines in relation to university sponsorship of academies in England. The article provides a quantitative overview of university sponsorship of academies over the last decade and explores how the policy context has shaped the discursive construction of sponsorship by the institutions concerned. Different patterns of sponsorship linked to institutional position and differentiated discourses of ‘sponsorship’ consistent with ‘academic entrepreneurship’ are identified. The discursive function of sponsorship is argued to extend to a legitimation of the policy itself reflected in increasing government pressure on universities to sponsor academies.
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This chapter provides background to some of the methodological perspectives taken up in this volume, with a general emphasis on discourse analysis and a more particular emphasis on critical discourse analysis, discursive psychology, and conversation analysis. Of these approaches, policy scholars have used critical discourse analysis extensively, and thus it represents the dominant approach to language-based policy research. We describe how the analyst approaches their work within each of the selected methodological perspectives, provides insights into the key features of the approach. We integrate examples from the published literature to illustrate how policy scholars can use these approaches to study education policy.
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While access to technology presents language learners with a view of the second language (L2) and culture that is very broad and current, foreign language curricula tend to be outdated and much narrower in scope, and they usually do not incorporate critical perspectives. Following the lead of researchers who seek to use education as a bottom-up method of achieving social justice, this case study of two students used Web 3.0 resources (especially Facebook [FB]) to integrate critical pedagogy (CP) and critical discourse studies (CDS) into an intermediate foreign language course. The purpose was to raise students’ critical awareness of sociopolitical issues while enhancing their agency and involvement. The students were trained in using CDS to study L2 discourses and in engaging collaboratively in dialogues in class and on FB. Close analysis of four major themes in the two students’ nuanced responses on eight data collection tasks over the semester shows that although they did well on the departmental assessments of expected progress, they also became comfortable at different rates and to varying degrees with CP/CDS and the dynamic nuances of language and culture. In this way, they developed a cohesive understanding of the ideologies embedded in L2 discourse.
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Preemptive censorship occurs when educators avoid particular books because they dislike the ideas or values the books contain or fear the controversy the books may evoke. Although not as blatant as other forms of censorship, preemptive censorship has the unfortunate consequence of restricting children’s access to ideas and information. Moreover, preemptive censorship violates students’ intellectual freedom and right to read. In this study, we employ critical discourse analysis to examine discussions by preservice teachers and school librarians as they responded to a controversial children’s book. Our analysis of the discussions revealed that many preservice educators maintain a protective view of children, fear the negative reactions of parents, and would choose to engage in preemptive censorship rather than create controversy in their classrooms and schools. We conclude by recommending ways that teacher educators can support preservice teachers and school librarians in their efforts to promote the professional value of intellectual freedom.
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The aims of this research were to explore the relationship between parents and the UK gov- ernment within primary education and to critically analyse neo-liberal modes and technologies of governmentality within the testing regime. This article focuses on the Let Our Kids Be Kids campaign, which was an online protest by parents. The protest aimed to force the UK govern- ment to stop the new Standard Assessment Tests due to be taken by primary school children in the summer of 2016. The research considers, via a critical discourse analysis approach, the potential tension between the government and the Let Our Kids Be Kids protest. The analysis focuses on how the parents positioned themselves as either complying with or rejecting gov- ernment educational policy. The research findings concentrate on four themes: the paradox of parent power, the discourse of success, the educational experience and the emotional effects of testing. Whilst the campaign sought to challenge the government’s testing regime, the neo-liberal rhetoric that the purpose of education is for future employment was maintained by both sides, with the protesters adopting the same neo-liberal discourse to justify an opposing position. Ultimately, for parents to challenge the government within education, the neo-liberal discourse that supports the current education policies needs to be recognised and addressed.
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This study offers an insight into the experiences of three newly qualified English primary teachers and their pupils as they sought to develop dialogic teaching in lessons. It draws upon a range of literature from the field of classroom talk, with a particular focus on the work of Robin Alexander to underpin teacher/researcher professional discussion and analysis of periodic video recordings of talk in these classrooms. Supplemented by teacher interviews, the research examines the extent to which a dialogic approach to teacher professional development might facilitate teacher self‐evaluation as a means of developing a more dialogic classroom. In doing so, it seeks to exemplify key talk moves (dialogic bids) that these teachers used to open up dialogic spaces in lessons. The research concludes that raising teacher awareness of such talk moves through professional discussion and reflection upon teaching can provide teachers with a metacognitive resource for talking about and furthering dialogic teaching practices.
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This paper reports a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) exploring the nature, causes and epistemic effects of knowledge recontextualization in the ‘official’ Key Stage Five History curriculum in England. “Recontextualization” refers to inevitable changes that occur to knowledge as it is ‘pedagogized’, due to the value-laden practices and contexts which enact and shape curriculum-making. Five accredited examination specifications and three ‘generative’ policy documents were analysed using Fairclough’s methods and interpreted through a Bernsteinian theoretic lens. Five problematic forms of knowledge recontextualization will be discussed: canonization; commodification; de-diversification; knowledge made static; and epistemic inconsistency. The application of CDA to everyday ‘official’ curriculum artefacts illuminates the role of micro-level ‘language-in use’ in bringing particular constructions of subject knowledge into being. It is suggested that not all these recontextualizations were intentional, nor fully explainable through macro and meso structural factors. Some had been enacted ‘by accident’ in the contingencies of fragmented and negotiated local practice. Epistemic and discursive ‘literacies’ are suggested as key to engendering agentic practice within the official curriculum-making community, as well as enabling teachers to select and pedagogically mediate specifications in line with local epistemic aims.
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Despite advances in multilingual education (MLE) scholarship, education in most African societies remain characteristically congruent with colonial normative monolingual and transitional multilingual policies, which limit the use of native language(s) as media of instruction to early primary schooling. This contributes to poor educational and social outcomes far below the projected benefits of MLE. Convinced that the complex relationships between language and education have been discerned, MLE scholarship has become increasingly advocacy oriented to corresponding policies and practices, with purportedly widespread resistance from parents, policymakers, and educators. This focused ethnographic inquiry into the perspectives of parents, educators, researchers, and policymakers on MLE finds mixed messages in MLE advocacy that foment localized resistance to and disincentivize full native language-based MLE (NLB-MLE) policy changes. Specifically, transitional multilingualism, a compromise with NLB-MLE opposition, entails inherent instrumentality and linguistic hierarchy, which undermines the fundamental principles of linguistic and cultural diversity that is the hallmark of NLB-MLE. Considering the colonial, political, and scientific sources of transitional multilingualism, the findings support a reconfiguration of the intellectual anchorage, social agenda, and discursive scope of MLE scholarship to address the strategic challenge, which transitional multilingualism poses to NLB-MLE policy shift and its pedagogical and cultural promises.
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The rising popularity of dual language education programs resembles gentrification in policy spaces where the influx of privileged newcomers coincides with some form of pushing out of the former beneficiaries or their interests, which can include the promotion or exclusion of certain program models. Using critical discourse analysis, we examined state policy documents regarding these programs for a trend in the U.S. toward what we call fiftyfication or 50:50 eclipse, that is, subtle or obvious privileging of the 50:50 model (equal language allocation) over equitable models that allocate more instructional time in the partner (non-English) language. Since quantitative research has consistently documented several advantages of equitable over equal language allocation, we argue that it is problematic to educational equity to find marginalization of equitable allocation in state policy documents. Such fiftyfication functions as part of what we term programmatic gentrification, one of three processes where programs, program options, and public discussion begin to provide less attention and benefit to marginalized communities than are provided to more privileged communities. Beyond the recognized case of Utah, we found six states whose policy documents contained contradictions and assertions that privileged 50:50. Delaware and Georgia emerged as heavily fiftyfied because they silenced or misrepresented relevant research, significantly privileged English-dominant students, reinforced intersectional English hegemony, and unethically overemphasized feasibility to rationalize fiftyfication. We discuss (a) consequences of this policy discourse for educational equity, (b) future research needed, and (c) ways the field can counteract 50:50 eclipse.
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Disabled bodies are highly stigmatised by society and socially constructed as undesirable and malfunctioning bodies. Yet, little is known about the sexuality of people with disabilities. Analysing 21 online testimonies from a sex volunteer service for the disabled in Taiwan, we explore the complexity of their sexual lives. We illustrate how their bodies are constructed as asexual and undesirable that, in turn, produces structural violence against them while regulating their sexual desire. Although such regulation is powerful, people with disabilities still find ways to subvert it.
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Media reports have detailed the growing prevalence of incidents of racism and racial violence in K-12 schools and districts throughout the United States. The public nature of these incidents often requires a formal response from school and district leadership in the form of a press release, letter, or public statement. This study is an analysis of 140 press releases, emails, letters, and social media posts that educational leaders made in response to incidents of anti-Black racial violence occurring between 2014 and 2019. Using critical discourse analysis, the author finds that institutional leaders regularly responded to these incidents by prioritizing the reputation of the school or district, rather than the needs of the victims of racial violence. Leaders engaged in the organizational practice of institutional boundary making by positioning the incidents as unrepresentative of the larger community, instead of acknowledging the structural roots of anti-Blackness within their communities. Due to the endemic nature of anti-Black racism, the author argues that educational leaders must acknowledge the predictable nature of these incidents and proactively prepare to respond swiftly and decisively. Leaders’ responses should be meaningful, action-oriented, and equity-minded, ultimately leading to organizational transformation, rather than simply protecting the image of the schools and districts that they lead.
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In 2014, the United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights reported that only 2% of English Learners (ELs) were enrolled in gifted programs compared to 7% of non-ELs. With ELs emerging as the fastest growing population of learners in the United States, it is of concern that EL representation in gifted and talented education continues to lag behind both traditional populations of learners and other underserved populations of learners. Therefore, the underidentification of gifted ELs constitutes a problem. Although “all gifted is local,” gifted identification is typically determined at the state level, which in turn informs what is expected of school districts. One state that has identified commensurate numbers of gifted ELs is Colorado. Of note, Colorado has a definition, regulations, and guidelines that included gifted ELs, with districts required to address gifted ELs through program plans. The specific references to and requirements for identifying gifted ELs in Colorado’s state and district documents provide an opportunity to examine how the authors represented gifted ELs in official documents. Critical Discourse Analysis of these documents revealed four identity-forming discourses of gifted ELs. The findings reveal gifted EL identities as formed by Colorado’s (a) definitions and designations, (b) accountability, (c) identification processes and procedures, and (d) stakeholder interactions. These four discourses are a view of gifted ELs as an underrepresented population of culturally, ethnically, and linguistically diverse learners who benefit from targeted identification processes and procedures enacted through stakeholder interactions and accountability.
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Many governments have launched the top-down early childhood curriculum (ECC) reforms to enhance the accountability of early childhood education and care (ECEC) services. The present discourse analysis of latest ECC policies across four diverse but representative countries – Australia, China, New Zealand, and Singapore – aims to examine the effects of neoliberalism and contextualization through within- and cross-case analyses. Our findings revealed that despite the mutual interactions and similarities, neoliberal ECC policies had been developed in context-specific ways across countries. Children's agency had been commonly valued to recognize its essential role in effective learning, which was constructed in play, social interaction, and community participation. Moreover, Australia and New Zealand emphasized the development of the culturally competent child on top of children's holistic development, without segregating children's learning into domains. These findings demonstrate the confounding effect produced by the diverse shaping forces in terms of defining the ideal ECC across countries – ‘curriculum hybridization’.
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Although work placement mentoring has been examined extensively in research, there are no studies drawing on critical discourse analysis combined with discourse theory, aiming to examine the discursive construction of quality aspects. Seven mentor pairs in Swedish teacher training schools were interviewed individually during student work placement. Focus group interviews were conducted with eleven student teachers. The results reveal a consensus on a general level. The significant discrepancies are intertwined to different subject positions among student teachers and mentors, thus linked to different role expectations. A likely explanation can be found in the differences between professional and academic knowledge traditions.
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This qualitative study builds on earlier research on language and identity by focusing on how Canadian Generation 1.5 university students enact their identities through talk-in-interaction. Drawing on (applied) Conversational Analysis (CA) to analyze critically the production and management of social institutions in talkin-interaction in tandem with Membership Categorization Analysis (MCA) to examine the cultural resources individuals draw on to describe, identify, or make reference to other people and themselves, I undertake a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of data from semistructured interviews with four Generation 1.5 students conducted in a large, public, English-medium university in British Columbia. Rather than approaching the interview as a neutral technology that seeks to discover “truths,” I theorize the interviews as meaning-making ventures in themselves, adopting a reflexive orientation that recognizes that data are situated representations co-constructed through interaction with the interviewer. The study reports on how these students, in response to the interactionally occasioned constraints “inhabiting” our talk, produced identities that aligned with select “scholarly representations” from the applied linguistics literature that casts Generation 1.5 students in the middle. The study reveals how identity, power, and social issues are produced and managed in talk-in-interaction and how insights from M/CA might address matters of social justice in educational contexts.
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In How to Do Things with Words, Austin (1975) described marriages, sentencings and ship launchings as prototypes of performative utterance. What's the appropriate speech act for launching an academic journal? First editions of journals tend to take a field as formed a priori, as having " come of age " , and state good intents to capture its best or most innovative work. Yet journal editing, refereeing and production is itself generative textual and pedagogic practice. It has a didactic function for contributing authors and a broader epistemological task of shaping disciplinary and subdisciplinary fields for its possible readership. Such fields are, Bourdieu (1988) reminds us, not decontex-tualized collections of ideas or articulations of " normal science ". Rather each is " structured social space. .. a field of force. .. in which various actors struggle for the transformation or preservation of the field " (Bourdieu, 1998, p. 40). The making of journals entails complex political economies of multinational journal and book publication, accelerated and intensified by on-line production and distribution. Journals become linguistic markets of exchange and valuation that have subsequent bearing on young scholars' and researchers' lives, promotion and performativity within increasingly corporatized university work. However they may indeed capture the best work in a field, at the same time journals act as gate-keepers of field and career, orthodoxy and heresy. This said, it would be true to form to kick off debate and discussion for this inaugural edition of Critical Discourse Studies by querying the theoretical and political grounds for our work, by " unlaunching " the ship in question (though Austin never mentioned it, the decommissioning of ships is probably also a kind of un-performative, as is divorce or upholding a legal appeal). The purpose of these brief notes is to hold up to scrutiny what has come to count as " the critical " in discourse studies. In a recent piece in the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, I noted several challenges for critical discourse studies. While we must begin from the caveat that there is no unitary or single approach at issue here, the question I raised was whether our work is capable of moving beyond its powerful historical bases in neo-Marxian ideology critique and poststructuralist deconstruction towards a normative reconstruction of social institutions and relations (Luke, 2002). The task at hand, I argued, is to begin describing and documenting those affirmative discourses, textual and language practices that showed some evidence and capability of redressing material and discourse inequalities. The very raison d'etre of critical discourse studies is to engage in ways of criticizing and second-guessing prevailing and dominant ways of naming the cultural and natural worlds as a means for questioning social, economic and political power. It therefore involves naming, describing and explicating through varied analytic metalanguages and specialized approaches, none of which are fully transparent. A first common strand, then, is a normative supposition about the need to disrupt and denaturalize the workings of power and knowledge, and to query existing distributions of material and discourse resources among human communities. Second, critical discourse studies is political in its assumption that the actual " discourse work " of critiquing and renaming discourse itself can have consequences in the worlds of material and social relations (other than the production and circulation of more articles and the utilization of more trees and bytes). The first point is nothing new and has been on the table for well over three decades since at least 1968. But the second is a spectre for critical scholarship, as persistent queries about the political efficacy of cultural studies, literary and cultural poststructuralism and postcolonialism remind us. This was epitomized in the April 2002 forum at the University of Chicago on " Whether Theory Matters " , held post-9/11 in the midst of the US/Iraq conflict. That the leading academics attending couldn't agree was reported dutifully and dryly in the New York Times (Eakin, 2002). How can discourse studies avoid the spectre of political and social inconsequence? Critical discourse studies is characterized by several analytic and epistemological moves. Whether we are looking at face-to-face conversational exchanges, online communications, political speeches or legislation, news and media texts – we make interpretive links between quotidian, everyday texts and larger institutional and social configurations, often making inferences about the relationship of discourse change and material change. To do so entails a series of " shunts " , often in no particular order or sequence – from text analysis to social analysis, from the analysis of discourse to implications about its consequential conditions of production and deployment , from some order of discourse analytic metalanguage to social, cultural and political theory, broadly defined. To be up front about it, it is these moves that many editors and referees look for in submitted articles. The point here is that if critical discourse studies as an interpretive and scholarly activity wants to be a mode of political action, it is indeed contingent upon its capacity at political analysis and social theory. Nor should it be surprising that all of the contemporary theoretical models that such studies tend to draw upon also have their own analytic moves from description to explicit forms of normativity. These range from the Habermasian constructs of universal pragmatics to Foucauldian discussions of the possibilities of heterotopias, from Laclau's take on the construction of hegemony to Beck's models of self-reflexive subjectivity. It is this will towards the normative that puts the " critical " in critical discourse studies, as much as any analytic predisposition towards ideology critique and text decon-struction per se. By contrast, work in ethnography of communication, interactional sociolinguistics and applied linguistics is often based upon liberal and pluralistic notions of cultural and linguistic equality, tolerance, and rights. Accordingly, much of this work struggles to move coherently from linguistic and text description to preferred social scenarios, featuring a " bolt on " social agenda rather than one built into analytic vocabulary and epistemic stance from the onset. My point is that we cannot readily 2
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While research literature affirms the potential for social networking sites (SNSs) to democratise communication, their impact on micro-level, academic relations at university level has not been explored sufficiently in developing countries. The literature on SNSs (especially Facebook) has emphasised its appropriation for the marketing of university programs to prospective students and enhancing institutionallevel contact between university administration and students. As such, the impact of SNSs on micro-level (educator-learner and learner-peer) relations and relational power remains speculative. Mindful of how discursive types and discourses inform the construction of social power, this study employs critical discourse analysis (CDA) and educator-learners Facebook conversations to expose the exercise of relational power and social learning in these interactional spaces. Facebook postings are examined to explore academic relations and associated learner challenges like limited meaningful engagement with peers and content, superficial learning and general academic underpreparedness. The findings suggest the prevalence of formal authoritative (or hierarchical) discourses, few informal liberating (horizontal) discourses, nascent peerbased collaboration and limited learner engagement with theory. These phenomena generally point at first year students' under-developed study skills and less sophisticated literacies. The challenges and potential for transformative learning are explored and possibilities for effective engagement suggested.
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In this article, the New London Group presents a theoretical overview of the connections between the changing social environment facing students and teachers and a new approach to literacy pedagogy that they call "multiliteracies." The authors argue that the multiplicity of communications channels and increasing cultural and linguistic diversity in the world today call for a much broader view of literacy than portrayed by traditional language-based approaches. Multiliteracies, according to the authors, overcomes the limitations of traditional approaches by emphasizing how negotiating the multiple linguistic and cultural differences in our society is central to the pragmatics of the working, civic, and private lives of students. The authors maintain that the use of multiliteracies approaches to pedagogy will enable students to achieve the authors' twin goals for literacy learning: creating access to the evolving language of work, power, and community, and fostering the critical engagement necessary for them to design their social futures and achieve success through fulfilling employment.
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This paper describes and analyzes the use of Augusto Boal's Theater of the Oppressed (TO) as a form of academic and social support used in a recruitment and retention program for bilingual teachers in the Southeastern United States. We use critical discourse analysis to understand how TO works to disrupt monologic relationships and reestablish dialogue between teachers and others in their professional lives. Focused on power dynamics and communication between a bilingual paraprofessional and an adversarial parent, our analysis examines actors' changing stances as they role-play different possible approaches to the conflict. Findings suggest awareness of both the language tools that structure individual relationships and the larger forces shaping what different individuals can and cannot say, providing teacher-participants with options for approaching interactional conflict in new ways - to take up confident, expansive roles and to project new futures for themselves and others.
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In this article, I present a qualitative analysis of third graders' experiences with a unit from their district-mandated commercial reading curriculum in which the children made strong connections between a fictional account of a Depression-era farm family's economic hardships and their own 21st century lives in a city with one of the highest childhood poverty rates in the United States. The language of the curriculum revealed class-privileged assumptions and an instrumental, competency-based approach to literacy that provided no official space for resonance between reader and text around the issue of poverty. Employing depth hermeneutics, a form of critical discourse analysis, I discuss analyses of three texts: the literature selection, the children's written responses, and the teacher's edition for that unit. My findings reveal that (1) the curriculum portrays economic struggle as a temporary condition, located only in historical or national disaster contexts, even as the children's stories relate life within systemic, multigenerational poverty; (2) the teacher's edition includes language, images, and structures that disregard the possibility that children may respond with personal experiences of poverty; and (3) the children's responses engaged with the story thematically and aesthetically in ways that far surpassed the curriculum's expectation of surface-level, text-bound, inferential response. I also explore how the disconnection between the children's responses and the language of the curriculum was exacerbated by a high accountability policy context in which their teacher felt pressure to adhere to the pacing guides of the curriculum. Implications for research and practice include the importance of analyzing complex interactions between curriculum, policy, and the material realities of children's lives; the need to hold commercial curricula accountable for recognizing and engaging the experiences of children living in poverty; and the academic and moral imperative to include the lived knowledge of students and the emotional dimensions of response in what counts as successful literacy engagement.
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Informed by Foucault's analytics of power, this critical discourse analysis focuses upon the discursive construction of minority and low-income family identities, primarily using text from interviews of Texas school leaders within the neoliberal context of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Qualitative content analysis was used to discover whether the discourses of school leaders, through their construction of minority and low-income family identities, supported or countered ideologies of racism and/or classism. The analysis revealed that school leaders discourses both support and counter classism and racism. The themes of the dominant discourse were congruent with marketplace ideological presumptions of choice, individualism, meritocracy, and a level playing field. Induced by multiple power/knowledge relations, the dominant discourse of school leaders constructed deficit identities for low-income and minority families. There was also a counter discourse, drawing from a subordinated discourse of systemic inequities and social justice, that contested and resisted the construction of deficit identities for traditionally underprivileged families. Intertextuality between the dominant and counter discourses of school leaders and leading educational leadership journals was also found.
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In most parts of the world today, the goal of providing all children with free and Universal Primary Education (UPE) has received broad national and international support and some educational systems have evolved from predominantly ‘fee-charging’ towards ‘fee-free’ status in recent times. In Ghana, for example, the endorsement of Education for All (EFA) and millennium development goals (MDGs) agreements coupled with commitment to internal constitutional reforms have resulted in the initiation of the Free Compulsory Universal, Basic Education (fCUBE) policy. Dishearteningly however, in many low-income countries (including Ghana), verbal commitments to these laudable social goals do not appear to be translated into the needed changes in policy and practice. This article draws on a case study of the fCUBE policy implementation to provide insights into the complexities involved in operationalising UPE policy initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa. The methodological approach involved the critical discourse analysis of interviews with Ghanaian education officials who mediate policy at the ‘meso-level’. Owing to the commitments of the fCUBE policy to enhancing the educational opportunities and outcomes for the socially and economically disadvantaged, the paper sees it (i.e. the fCUBE policy) as deeply rooted in social democracy. However, it is argued that as long as there is a blurring in meaning of the intentions encapsulated in its title, primary education in Ghana cannot be said to be ‘free’, ‘compulsory’ and ‘universal’. It is concluded that accentuating policy purposes in low-income countries is not inherently problematic but that the challenges lie with how the intentions and provisions of policy are conceptualised and operationalised in context.
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The Fraser Institute Report Card of school rankings has won the hearts of parents and the press. For over a decade, the rankings have been particularly burdensome for low-ranking (usually low socio-economic status, high-poverty) schools when parents of highachieving children move them to higher-ranking schools. In February 2010, after defending parents' rights to access the rankings, Victoria's Times-Colonist newspaper decided not to publish them. Using critical discourse analysis, this article explores the rankings' long media reign and the Times-Colonist's abrupt decision to stop publishing them. Discourse about the rankings is shaped by multiple factors including the relationship between the press and educators, as well as the nature of societal discourse- in particular, how powerful institutions create what Foucault calls "regimes of truth."
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Analyzing Public Discourse demonstrates the use of discourse analysis to provide testimony in public policy consultations: from environmental impact statements to changes in laws and policies.
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In this study, Bartlett presents a theoretical and descriptive development in the discipline of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) extending the recent trend away from critiques of hegemonic practices and towards the description of alternative and minority practices that has been labelled Positive Discourse Analysis (PDA). Through an in-depth case study of intercultural development discourse, the book goes beyond the top-down model of power in CDA and the oppositional approach of PDA to develop a model of power in language as multifaceted and potentially collaborative. This model is used to analyse the particular circumstances of the case study, but is primarily presented as a framework for practical applied linguistic contributions within a wide range of sociocultural contexts. Drawing on social and linguistic theory and methods from a range of functional and applied approaches to language, the book explores the connections between language form and social function, the contextual constraints on discursive action and the potential for the renegotiation of existing discourses and social practices.
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In this study we take up challenges regarding researcher positionality, representation, and the construction of difference as a launching point to reflexively analyze our own practices within a research project exploring multilingualism, multiliteracies, and teacher development. Our data were drawn from a teacher study group we facilitated during the first phase of a two-year study. We draw on poststructuralist understandings of discourse, power, and performativity and use elements of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to conduct a close thematic reading of two moments of discomfort in one study group meeting, and we critique our own complicity in the discursive production of difference. Further, we engage tools of process drama to theorize how we might have structured and responded to interactions differently during one of these same moments in order to address these challenges more successfully. We conclude by arguing for approaches and interpretive tools for researchers that could help to reimagine as well as respond both ethically and analytically to issues of representation in language and literacy research.
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In this article, Elizabeth Marshall and Kelleen Toohey use critical discourse analysis to examine educators- efforts to incorporate funds of knowledge from the communities and families of Punjabi Sikh students in a Canadian elementary school. Using MP3 players, students first recorded and then translated their grandparents- stories of life in India into picture books to serve as cultural resources in their school community. In retelling their grandparents- stories, students drew on a multiplicity of ancestral, globalized, and Western discourses in their textual and pictorial illustrations. The authors examine what happens when the funds of knowledge that students bring to school contradict normative, Western understandings of what is appropriate for children and how school might appropriately respond to varying community perceptions of good and evil.
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Building on Bernstein's concept of recontextualization, Foucault's theory of discourse, Halliday's systemic-functional linguistics and Martin's theory of activity sequences, this book defines discourses as frameworks for the interpretation of reality and presents detailed and explicit methods for reconstructing these frameworks through text analysis. There are methods for analyzing the representation of social action, social actors and the timings and spatial locations of social practices as well as methods for analyzing how the purposes, legitimations and moral evaluations of social practices can be, and are, constructed in discourse. Discourse analytical categories are linked to sociological theories to bring out their relevance for the purpose of critical discourse analysis, and a variety of examples demonstrate how they can be used to this end. The final chapters apply aspects of the book's methodological framework to the analysis of multimodal texts such as visual images and children's toys.
Foucault's concept of governmentality frames a critical discourse analysis of Grade Level of Achievement (GLA) Reporting in Alberta. GLA requires teachers to report to the provincial government a whole number that represents their judgment of each student's achievement in meeting the mandated curricular outcomes in grades 1 to 9 language arts and mathematics. Foucault's notion of governmentality guides the analysis as results are illuminated within three prominent themes: homogeneous, efficient effects of power; visibility; and identity. GLA is of interest and import due to the scope of the project, the unique requirements, not solely test-based, and the myriad of ways the data gathered could be used to influence future directions. GLA is significant, micropolitically, in the way it distributes power by involving the subjects directly. The results of this analysis will serve to provide teachers, administrators and policy makers with a way to reconsider their professional agency and identity within a culture of accountability.
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This article discusses the comparative application of critical discourse analysis to student and teacher editions of the two most widely used high school American literature textbooks by Christian publishers, examining them through the lens of critical theory. The study examined all parts of the student and teacher editions, excepting literary works, for messages about race, ethnicity, gender, social class, and physical and mental ability. The study found that both textbooks contained significant discrimination and omission concerning human difference.
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Critically oriented forms of discourse analysis have focused largely on oppression and injustice. Signaling a new turn in the field, scholars have called for an analytic focus on moments of liberation and agency, referring to this orientation as “positive discourse analysis” (PDA). In this research, we turn our attention to a case study of agency and leadership in teacher education. We analyze the discursive contours of a workshop designed and presented at an Educating for Change Curriculum Fair by a preservice teacher, whom we refer to as Leslie, about culturally relevant teaching. Arguing that PDA is not a new approach but a shift in analytic focus, we draw on the tools of narrative analysis, critical discourse analysis, and multimodal analysis. This turn toward the “positive” provided us with insight into the discourses processes associated with agency: how Leslie accepts and extends invitations for agency, uses problems to extend learning, uses narratives and counter-narratives and creates multiple storylines for herself and others. We call for further research that considers agency across contexts so that we might be better able to identify agentic stances and deepen such acts.
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This critical instrumental case study examines a transformative world language learning approach to a unit on culture in an introductory Japanese class in a public high school. Couched in recent post-9/11 language “policy” debates, which strikingly lack mention of religion, spirituality, or environmental issues of climate change and sustainability, this study examines how a transformative world language learning approach develops and identifies students' environmentally based spirituality and how students articulate such “ecospirituality” in their emerging, standards-based Japanese writing. Critical analysis of written, interview, and classroom data reveals that a transformative world language learning approach may be effective in bridging traditional written literacies with “ecospiritual literacies” in the world language classroom. It also provides a lens for students' socio-dialogic learning of environment-related vocabulary and their subsequent use of it in their Japanese writing. Finally, this study suggests that while students rejected identities of religiosity, they embraced and articulated identities of ecospirituality.
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This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the “test plus release” policy, the authors show how the government has achieved hegemonic power by shaping public opinion through the national testing contexts. Drawing on a critical discourse analysis of educational policy texts from the government and top 10 print media sources, this paper analyses how discourses on “accountability”, “the right to know” and “the fairness of the tests” have been produced, reproduced and recontextualized to favour particular perspectives. The authors also examine how government and influential print media discourses interact with political and cultural factors such as “acclaiming the evaluative state”, “education fever” and “meritocratic beliefs” to achieve public consent for the new “test plus release” policy.
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It is imperative to take account of the many faces of justice when exploring the elements of a curriculum for justice. Justice is not only about equity, equality and fairness, but about creating spaces where people can learn to prioritise a significant Other and practise doing so. The curriculum needs to provide a space where the legal, restorative face of justice and its ethical face could coincide. Firstly, we argue that a sole focus on justice as reasonableness might reinforce the notion of "separate but equal", and that through a leveling of difference, we might opaquely strengthen difference without an inclination to care deeply for those whose background might differ from ours. Secondly, we argue that the legal and ethical faces of justice are not mono-tonal, but that these faces constitute many complexions based on the body holding it (or the person who attempts to make sense of these faces). In this article we will attempt to understand how we make sense of girls' voices on cultural and religious practices. Weimaginethat understanding how we understand Others might place us in a better position to provide guidelines to develop curriculum spaces for profound justice; i.e. justice that is based on reasonableness and, more importantly, on care.
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In this article, the author takes a close look at the discursive ways that Black and Latina preservice teachers reconcile tensions between their racial and linguistic identities and the construction of teacher identities in the current context of preservice teacher education in the United States. Through the study of language as representative of teacher identities, the author presents a critical discourse analysis of the language and literacy practices of Black and Latina preservice teachers—all nonstandard language and dialect speakers—across diverse contexts within and beyond the university and school setting. This examination of their literacy and language practices elucidated a move beyond marginalization and inferiority toward agency and linguistic hybridity.
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An analysis of what appears initially to be a typical literature circle discussion about the book Shiloh illuminates larger issues of the influence of class and gendered discursive practices. Drawing on critical discourse analysis, the author suggests that the ways these fifth-grade students enact class and gender roles actually positions them outside of desired literacy behaviors.By understanding how students' language practices are shaped and influenced beyond the text, teachers can help students engage in more productive discussions and can create a more positive classroom environment for learning.
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This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis ( CDA ). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA scholarship. Second, we completed an analytic review template for each article and encoded this data into a digital spreadsheet to assess macrotrends in the field. Third, we developed schemata to interpret the complexity of issues related to research design. Our examination of 76 literacy-focused empirical studies and theoretical papers in scholarly journals reveals trends in the questions that researchers find interesting enough to pursue, the theories they find useful, and the kinds of interactions that capture their attention. Our findings demonstrate that CDA scholarship has been conducted in many areas of literacy studies, including policy, academic writing, the preparation of literacy teachers, professional development, textbook content, curricular design, assessment, and bilingual education. We explore four foundational areas in the field that are especially ripe for debate and critique: context, reflexivity, social action, and deconstructive- reconstructive stance toward inquiry. In the discussion, we compare the findings of this literature review with an earlier review published in 2005, reflecting on three decades of CDA in literacy studies. We identify directions for future scholarship.
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The American Graduation Initiative stands as the cornerstone of the Obama administration's higher education agenda. To investigate the state of the politics of education in the Age of Obama, this article employs critical discourse analysis to unveil the hidden meanings and ideological commitments inherent in Obama's policy discourse. Read within and against the backdrop of what Apple (20064. Apple , M. W. 2006. Educating the “right” way: Markets, standards, God, and inequality , 2nd ed., New York, NY: Routledge. View all references) called the era of conservative modernization, Obama's policy discourse relies on a logic of abstraction that serves to promote a falsely “postracial” society in which hegemonic notions of education are perpetuated.
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In this article, I present a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of two discourses in learning disabilities (LD) – the academic research literature on emotions of students labeled as LD and retrospective autobiographies from adults labeled as LD writing about their emotions as students. Drawing mainly on Foucaultian explanations of power, I investigate how these two discourses differentially position persons labeled as LD as human subjects. I raise research and theoretical concerns to further interpret power as discursively and historically situated and point out opportunities for resisting ways the dominant positivist, scientific discourse positions students labeled as LD.