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Abstract

To address the pressing problems associated with biodiversity loss, changes in awareness and behaviour are required from decision makers in all sectors. Science-policy interfaces (SPIs) have the potential to play an important role, and to achieve this effectively, there is a need to understand better the ways in which existing SPIs strive for effective communication, learning and behavioural change. Using a series of test cases across the world, we assess a range of features influencing the effectiveness of SPIs through communication and argumentation processes, engagement of actors and other aspects that contribute to potential success. Our results demonstrate the importance of dynamic and iterative processes of interaction to support effective SPI work. We stress the importance of seeing SPIs as dynamic learning environments and we provide recommendations for how they can enhance success in meeting their targeted outcomes. In particular, we recommend building long-term trust, creating learning environments, fostering participation and ownership of the process and building capacity to combat silo thinking. Processes to enable these changes may include, for example, inviting and integrating feedback, extended peer review and attention to contextualising knowledge for different audiences, and time and sustained effort dedicated to trust-building and developing common languages. However there are no ‘one size fits all’ solutions, and methods must be adapted to context and participants. Creating and maintaining effective dynamic learning environments will both require and encourage changes in institutional and individual behaviours: a challenging agenda, but one with potential for positive feedbacks to maintain momentum.
ORIGINAL PAPER
Science-policy interfaces for biodiversity: dynamic
learning environments for successful impact
Rob Tinch
1
Estelle Balian
1
Dave Carss
2
Driss Ezzine de Blas
11
Nicoleta Adriana Geamana
9
Ulrich Heink
5
Hans Keune
3
Carsten Nessho
¨ver
5
Jari Niemela
¨
8
Simo Sarkki
7
Maxime Thibon
10
Johannes Timaeus
6
Angheluta Vadineanu
9
Sybille van den Hove
1
Allan Watt
2
Kerry A. Waylen
4
Heidi Wittmer
5
Juliette C. Young
2
Received: 21 January 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 /
Published online: 22 June 2016
Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016
Abstract To address the pressing problems associated with biodiversity loss, changes in
awareness and behaviour are required from decision makers in all sectors. Science-policy
interfaces (SPIs) have the potential to play an important role, and to achieve this effec-
tively, there is a need to understand better the ways in which existing SPIs strive for
effective communication, learning and behavioural change. Using a series of test cases
across the world, we assess a range of features influencing the effectiveness of SPIs
Communicated by Rob Bugter, Paula Harrison, John Haslett and Rob Tinch.
This is part of the special issue on ‘BESAFE’.
&Rob Tinch
robtinch@gmail.com
1
Median, Carrer Vista Alegre 20, 08197 Sant Cugat del Valles, Spain
2
NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Midlothian EH26 0QB, UK
3
INBO, Rue de la Clinique 25, 1070 Anderlecht, Belgium
4
Social, Economic and Geographical Sciences Group, James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen AB15 8QH,
UK
5
UFZ- Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
6
Verein zur Erhaltung der Nutzpflanzenvielfalt, Mondrianplatz 11, 36041 Fulda, Germany
7
Cultural Anthropology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, PO Box 1000, 90014 Oulu,
Finland
8
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences,
University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
9
University of Bucharest - Research Center in Systems Ecology and Sustainability, Splaiul
Independentei 91-95, 050095 Bucharest, Romania
10
Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel, Tunis, Tunisia
11
CIRAD - French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development, 34398 Montpellier,
France
123
Biodivers Conserv (2018) 27:1679–1702
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1155-1
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Conservation practitioners have long sought to address the challenges of science uptake in policy and practice for more feasible and repeatable organizational models to overcome divergent interests, power structures, and professional incentives between science disciplines and policy implementation (Guston, 2001;Nel et al., 2016;Tinch et al., 2016;Toomey et al., 2017;Turnhout et al., 2012Turnhout et al., , 2013Wyborn et al., 2019). The ecosystem services concept has the potential to appeal to a wide group of stakeholders that extend beyond conservation scientists and practitioners. ...
... Several factors have been recognized as enablers of successful science-policy interfaces, including the establishment of clear objectives, the appropriate inclusion of stakeholders, and sufficient resources (Tinch, 2016;Wyborn et al., 2019;Van den Hove, 2007;Miller and Wyborn, 2018;Sarkki et al., 2015;Washbourne et al., 2019). Our findings for GE-21 resonates with the established theory and empirical evidence. ...
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... Esto es debido a la integración de las visiones y conocimientos científicos y políticos enfocados hacia una misma dirección. En particular su enfoque es cada vez más utilizado en la solución de problemas ambientales complejos (Mathez-Stiefel et al., 2020;Mubialiwo & Quevauviller, 2014), involucrando a los sectores políticos en la protección, conservación y manejo de recursos naturales y los impactos humanos en el medio ambiente (Tinch et al., 2018) (Figura 1). ...
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... Crucial to this is the monitoring of migration patterns and return rate across the species' range, information that will enable more realistic and robust population models to be implemented (Bauer et al., 2018). Second, local practices should be more strongly linked with global targets through peer-to-peer technology and information sharing (Tinch et al., 2018). This could include, for example, an international platform mobile app building on the extreme citizen science idea (Fritz et al., 2019;Pejovic and Skarlatidou, 2020) where data on hunting bags and population status can be shared (top-down) alongside photos and hunting reports (bottom-up) along the entire flyway. ...
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... Beyond that, understanding the expertise, motivations, and limitations of all actors was paramount, mirroring the literature (Brugger et al., 2016;Cvitanovic et al., 2016;Evans and Cvitanovic, 2018;Marshall et al., 2017). Our findings underline the pivotal roles of building and maintaining trust and long-term relationships (Balvanera et al., 2017;Cvitanovic et al., 2021b;Lacey et al., 2018;Newig et al., 2019;Tinch et al., 2018) suggesting that their attainment is of inherent value for KE. Hence, trust is critical as both an input and an outcome of successful KE. ...
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... In the linear model, careful stage management is required to avoid upsetting the unidirectional image of science → policy (rather than science ↔ policy) (Karhunmaa, 2020). This often means that good science-policy practitioners are seen as those able to communicate and translate between science and policy, including through building and maintaining high-trust relations that enable iterative exchanges between science and policy (Bednarek et al., 2018;Tinch et al., 2018;Young et al., 2014). In turn, such exchanges help practitioners to understand what would make for useful knowledge in a specific decision-making context, as well as what other actors and sources of knowledge influence that context. ...
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... Much of the research in the past scrutinised the role of the media in communicating science to the public (e.g. Crouzat et al., 2018;Tinch et al., 2018). However, the role of media in communicating the awareness of conservation particularly on heritage sites has rarely been studied. ...
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