The tenth European Consensus Conference on Hyperbaric Medicine took place in Lille, France, 14-16 April, 2016, attended by a large delegation of experts from Europe and elsewhere. The focus of the meeting was the revision of the European Committee on Hyperbaric Medicine (ECHM) list of accepted indications for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), based on a thorough review of the best available research and evidence-based medicine (EBM). For this scope, the modified GRADE system for evidence analysis, together with the DELPHI system for consensus evaluation, were adopted. The indications for HBOT, including those promulgated by the ECHM previously, were analyzed by selected experts, based on an extensive review of the literature and of the available EBM studies. The indications were divided as follows: Type 1, where HBOT is strongly indicated as a primary treatment method, as it is supported by sufficiently strong evidence; Type 2, where HBOT is suggested as it is supported by acceptable levels of evidence; Type 3, where HBOT can be considered as a possible/optional measure, but it is not yet supported by sufficiently strong evidence. For each type, three levels of evidence were considered: A, when the number of randomised controlled trials (RCT) is considered sufficient; B, when there are some RCT studies in favour of the indication and there is ample expert consensus; C, when the conditions do not allow for proper RCT studies but there is ample and international expert consensus. Finally, the conference also issued 'negative' recommendations for those conditions where there is evidence not to use HBOT and HBOT is considered as not indicated with a Type 1 recommendation. Table 1 is a concise summary of the conclusions reached by the ECHM 2016 Consensus Conference. There were no Type 1A indications for HBOT identified by the conference, indicating that much clinical research is still required to clarify the role of HBOT in clinical practice. A full report is being prepared for publication.