ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Food materials and biomolecular hosting the preparation of nanomaterials has achieved considerable attention in recent years. This work demonstrates a facile, rapid, low cost, and environmentally preparation of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) under ultrasonic irradiation temperature using natural honey as a capping and reducing agent. The effect of the Ag+ concentration, reducing agent, and ultrasonic time in synthesis of Ag-NPs has been investigated. Well-defined spherical Ag-NPs with a mean particle size of about 11.8 nm have been prepared due to the ultrasonic process. The use of honey as a food capping/stabilizing and reducing agent provides green attributes to this study. Ag-NPs capped by honey biomolecules exhibited antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. This suggested method is general and can be extended to other noble metals, such as gold, palladium, and copper and may possibly find various additional application from medicine to industry.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Copyright © 2016 American Scientific Publishers
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Article
Journal of
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Vol. 16, 7989–7993, 2016
www.aspbs.com/jnn
Honey-Based and Ultrasonic-Assisted Synthesis of Silver
Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Activities
Reza Kazemi Oskuee1, Azhar Banikamali23, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz2,
Hasan Ali Hosseini4, and Majid Darroudi56
1Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3Neurogenic Inflammation Research Centre, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences,
Mashhad 9177948564, Iran
4Chemistry Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran, Iran
5Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
6Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Food materials and biomolecular hosting the preparation of nanomaterials has achieved consider-
able attention in recent years. This work demonstrates a facile, rapid, low cost, and environmentally
preparation of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) under ultrasonic irradiation temperature using
natural honey as a capping and reducing agent. The effect of the Ag+concentration, reducing agent,
and ultrasonic time in synthesis of Ag-NPs has been investigated. Well-defined spherical Ag-NPs
with a mean particle size of about 11.8 nm have been prepared due to the ultrasonic process.
The use of honey as a food capping/stabilizing and reducing agent provides green attributes to
this study. Ag-NPs capped by honey biomolecules exhibited antibacterial activity against pathogenic
bacteria. This suggested method is general and can be extended to other noble metals, such as
gold, palladium, and copper and may possibly find various additional application from medicine to
industry.
Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles, Honey, Ultrasonic Synthesis, Antibacterial.
1. INTRODUCTION
Food and biomolecules templating the synthesis of
nanoparticles has achieved considerable attention in recent
years due to their availability, biocompatibility, eco-
friendly, low cost, and low toxicity.1–5 Silver nanoparticles
(Ag-NPs) are one of the main metal and commercialized
nanoparticles. Ag-NPs have attracted much attention dur-
ing the past decays due to their potential applications
in medicine and industry.6–13 Many methods for fab-
ricating of Ag-NPs have been reported such as wet
chemical reduction,14 biological reduction,15 photochem-
ical reduction,16 UV-irradiation,1718 electrochemical,19
-ray irradiation,20 microwave,21 and laser ablation
technique,22–25 Therefore, investigating a simple method for
low-cost, eco-friendly, large-scale, and controlled growth
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
of Ag-NPs at normal physical and chemical conditions
is essential. Recently, honey has been used in green
synthesis of different nanomaterials as reducing, stabiliz-
ing, and capping agent and it is a suitable natural mate-
rial to apply green chemistry rules in nanoscience and
nanotechnology world.226–28 Honey is a sweet viscous
fluid which is fabricated by honeybees and it is basi-
cally consist of carbohydrates, enzymes, vitamins, minerals
and antioxidants.29 Honey-mediated and ultrasonic-assisted
synthesis of Ag-NPs has many advantages over other
biosynthesis methods, including avoidance of elaborate
processes e.g., drying and extraction of plant materials
and/or the maintenance of cell cultures. In this work, we
reported a simple method for the synthesis of well-defined
Ag-NPs that has the advantages of being a facile and
green process, food-directed, and of low cost. Silver nitrate
was used as the silver ions source at different ultrasonic
J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2016, Vol. 16, No. 8 1533-4880/2016/16/7989/005 doi:10.1166/jnn.2016.13031 7989
Honey-Based and Ultrasonic-Assisted Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Activities Oskuee et al.
irradiation times, silver cations concentration, and honey
contents. The obtained samples were characterized through
UV-vis spectroscopy, PSA, and TEM and their antibacterial
effects were then examined by MIC method.
2. MATERIALS AND METHOD
2.1. Materials and Reagents
Chemicals were analytical grade and used as received
without any further purification. AgNO3(99.98%, Merck
Figure 1. UV-vis spectra of Ag-NPs synthesized under different conditions; silver concentrations (A), honey concentrations (B), and ultrasonic
irradiation times (C).
KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) and honey (Soltani, Iran)
were used as silver precursor and capping/reducing agent,
respectively. All glassware used in this work was cleaned
with a fresh solution of HNO3/HCl (3:1, v/v) and
washed thoroughly with double distilled water and dried
before use.
2.2. Synthesis of Ag-NPs
A modified method of Majid’s30 was adopted to synthe-
size Ag-NPs using natural honey. Colloidal Ag-NPs were
7990 J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16, 7989–7993,2016
Oskuee et al. Honey-Based and Ultrasonic-Assisted Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Activities
Figure 2. Particle size distribution of Ag-NPs synthesized in optimum
conditions; silver concentrations (0.3 M), honey concentrations (20 wt%),
and ultrasonic irradiation times (30 min).
prepared by reducing silver nitrate with ultrasonic waves
in the presence of natural honey. Briefly, 20 ml of sil-
ver nitrate solution (0.1 M) containing honey (20 wt%)
was exposed to high-intensity ultrasound irradiation under
ambient conditions for 20 min. Ultrasound irradiation was
carried out with a ultrasonic liquid processors (Hielscher
UP400S Sonicator, Germany, 24 kHz) immersed directly
into the reaction solution. For investigation of the role
of silver nitrate and honey concentrations in synthesis of
Ag-NPs, the experiment was also applied at different con-
centrations of silver nitrate and honey.
2.3. Characterization
The optical absorption properties of synthesized Ag-NPs
were characterized using a UV-vis spectrophotome-
ter (Lambda 35, PerkinElmer, USA) over the range
of 300–800 nm. The synthesized Ag-NPs were also
characterized using transmission electron microscopy
(TEM, LEO 12AB, Germany). The particle size distri-
butions of nanoparticles were determined using a par-
ticle size analyzer (PSA, Malvern, UK). The particle
size of nanoparticles was determined using the UTH-
SCSA Image Tool Version 3.00 program and their
Figure 3. TEM image (A) and its particle size distribution (B) of Ag-NPs synthesized in optimum conditions.
particle size distribution was calculated by SPSS software
Version 18.
2.4. Measurement of Minimum Inhibitory
Concentration (MIC)
MIC means minimum concentration of test material that
inhibits the growth of bacteria. MIC was determined
in 3 different bacteria including Staphylococcus aurous,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli. Fifty micro-liters per
wells from each bacterium culture (106CFU/ml) were
poured in a sterile 96-well plate. Then serial dilutions of
nanoparticle solution were prepared in the media from
stock solution and added to the 96-well plates and incu-
bated at 37 C overnight. MIC was calculated using the
optical density of each well after 24 hrs.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Five aqueous samples containing different concentrations
of silver nitrate (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 M) and 20 wt%
honey are irradiated for 20 min. Depending on the silver
ions concentrations, the reaction solutions display a spec-
trum of yellow to dark brown colors. The UV-vis spec-
troscopy is a suitable route for displaying the presence
of metal NPs.3132 The optical observations illustrated that
these values varied at different experimental parameters
from 464 to 472 nm. Presence of one surface Plasmon res-
onance (SPR) bands in this region confirmed a spherical
shape of the Ag-NPs.33 While, there is a weak characteris-
tic UV-vis absorption peak of Ag-NPs after sonication for
Ag+concentration of 0.05 M (Fig. 1(A(a))), the SPR peak
at 464 nm displays the formation of Ag-NPs. Gradually
higher Ag+concentrations, from 0.1 to 0.4 M, increase
the corresponding peak intensities (Fig. 1(A(b–e))), with
concomitant red shifts from 468 to 472 nm. In order to
study the effect of honey concentration on synthesis of
Ag-NPs, samples containing 10 to 40 wt% of honey with
J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16, 7989–7993, 2016 7991
Honey-Based and Ultrasonic-Assisted Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Activities Oskuee et al.
constant concentration of silver nitrate (0.3 M) are synthe-
sized under ultrasonic irradiation for 20 min. Colloidal Ag-
NPs synthesized at lowest honey concentration (10 wt%)
appear yellow, showing a SPR band with max at 468 nm
(Fig. 1(B(a))).
As the concentration of honey is increased to 40 wt%,
the color of the solution gradually changes to dark brown,
displaying a red shift to 472 nm with continuous increase
in its intensity (Fig. 1(B(b–d))). As shown in these
results, when the initial Ag+and honey concentrations are
increased, Ag-NPs with smaller sizes and higher yields
are fabricated. To study the effects of reaction time on
Ag-NPs formation, samples with various times of ultra-
sonic irradiation e.g., 10, 20, 30, and 40 min are synthe-
sized. Depending on the ultrasonic irradiation times, the
reaction solutions display a spectrum of yellow to dark
brown colors. As the reaction time, the positions (max )
of the characteristic SPR peaks do not change signifi-
cantly (Fig. 1(C(a–d))). Upon increasing the irradiation
times, the SPR band intensities are remarkably increased,
rendering higher yields of Ag-NPs. It was subsequently
found that, in the honey solution, ultrasonic irradiation
played a key role in formation of Ag-NPs. Therefore, it
is possible to control the size and quantity of the Ag-NPs
by varying the ultrasonic irradiation parameter such as
irradiation time applied to the Ag+solutions. Formation
of small nanoparticles is also verified by optical proper-
ties of Ag-NPs due to the presence of SPR bands with
amax at about 450 nm. Thus, it can be assumed that
we have obtained colloidal silver solution having a parti-
cle size in nanoscale range (as determined by TEM). The
particle size distribution of prepared Ag-NPs in aqueous
honey solution was estimated by dynamic light scattering
(DLS) to evaluate the variation in particle size distribu-
tion. Figure 2 displays that the particle size of the Ag-NPs
ranged between 50 and 250 nm. Figure 3 illustrates a typ-
ical TEM image and its particle size distribution of the
synthesized spherical Ag-NPs and indicates the dominant
size of Ag-NPs about 118±490 nm with PDI =0439.
This is attributed to the high ‘surface area to volume’ ratio
and the quantum confinement effect caused by extremely
reduced size (i.e., electron confinement in a small
area).3034
The MIC values of prepared Ag-NPs against tested
microorganism were shown in Table I. The MIC value of
E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus was 19.46 ppm which
means better antibacterial activity of Ag NPs comparing
to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Tab l e I . The MIC for different bacteria.
Bacteria MIC (ppm)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40
Escherichia coli 19.46
Staphylococcus aureus 19.46
4. CONCLUSION
In ultrasonic assisted chemically route, colloidal Ag-NPs
can be synthesized by “green” chemistry method using
silver nitrate and honey as silver precursor and as a
reducing/stabilizing agent, respectively. Sono-chemically
reduction method revealed a suitable potential for prepar-
ing desired particle size and concentrations of colloidal
Ag-NPs. The concentrations of silver nitrate and honey
and ultrasonic irradiation time are the main effective
parameters in synthesis of Ag-NPs. As ultrasonic irra-
diation time increase, Ag-NPs become smaller and their
concentrations are enhanced. The results of this work indi-
cated a potential application of Ag-NPs in the inhibition
of oral microorganism infections and using in surgical
devices, instruments and wound healing bandages.
Acknowledgment: This study is the result of an
M.Sc.thesis(Mr.A.Banikamali) and has been finan-
cially supported by the Vice Chancellery of Research of
Mashhad University of Medical Sciences.
References and Notes
1. M. Darroudi, M. Hakimi, M. Sarani, R. K. Oskuee, A. K. Zak, and
L. Gholami, Ceram. Int. 39, 6917 (2013).
2. M. Darroudi, S. J. Hoseini, R. K. Oskuee, H. A. Hosseini,
L. Gholami, and S. Gerayli, Ceram. Int. 40, 7425 (2014).
3. M. Darroudi, Z. Sabouri, R. K. Oskuee, A. K. Zak, H. Kargar, and
M. H. N. A. Hamid, Ceram. Int. 40, 4827 (2014).
4. M. Darroudi, Z. Sabouri, R. K. Oskuee, A. K. Zak, H. Kargar, and
M. H. N. A. Hamid, Ceram. Int. 39, 9195 (2013).
5. M. Darroudi, M. Sarani, R. K. Oskuee, A. K. Zak, and M. S. Amiri,
Ceram. Int. 40, 2863 (2014).
6. R. Burgess, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 149, 257
(2009).
7. O. V. Salata, Journal of Nanobiotechnology 2, 3 (2004).
8. V. K. Sharma, R. A. Yngard, and Y. Lin, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.
145, 83 (2009).
9. G.-L. Wang, X.-Y. Zhu, Y.-M. Dong, H.-J. Jiao, X.-M. Wu, and Z.-J.
Li, Talanta 107, 146 (2013).
10. S. Yeo, H. Lee, and S. Jeong, Journal of Materials Science 38, 2143
(2003).
11. R.Zamiri,A.Zakaria,M.B.Ahmad,A.R.Sadrolhosseini,
K. Shameli, M. Darroudi, and M. A. Mahdi, Optik 122, 836 (2011).
12. R. Zamiri, Z. Azmi, M. B. Ahmad, K. Shameli, M. Darroudi, M. A.
Mahdi, and M. S. Husin, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced
Materials 12, 1879 (2010).
13. R. Zamiri, Z. Azmi, M. B. Ahmad, M. Darroudi, K. Shameli, and
M. A. Mahdi, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials
12, 1083 (2010).
14. K. Shameli, M. B. Ahmad, W. Z. W. Yunus, N. A. Ibrahim, and
M. Darroudi, International Journal of Nanomedicine 5, 743 (2010).
15. A. Miri, M. Sarani, M. R. Bazaz, and M. Darroudi, Spectrochimica
Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 141, 287
(2015).
16. A. S. Kutsenko and V. M. Granchak, Theor. Exp. Chem. 45, 313
(2009).
17. M. Darroudi, M. B. Ahmad, K. Shameli, A. H. Abdullah, and N. A.
Ibrahim, Solid State Sciences 11, 1621 (2009).
18. M. Darroudi, M. B. Ahmad, A. K. Zak, R. Zamiri, and M. Hakimi,
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12, 6346 (2011).
19. B. Yin, H. Ma, S. Wang, and S. Chen, The Journal of Physical
Chemistry B 107, 8898 (2003).
7992 J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16, 7989–7993,2016
Oskuee et al. Honey-Based and Ultrasonic-Assisted Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Activities
20. M. Darroudi, M. Ahmad, M. Hakimi, R. Zamiri, A. Zak,
H. Hosseini, and M. Zargar, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater. 20, 403
(2013).
21. G. A. Kahrilas, L. M. Wally, S. J. Fredrick, M. Hiskey, A. L. Prieto,
and J. E. Owens, ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering 2, 367
(2014).
22. R. Zamiri, A. Zakaria, H. Abbastabar, M. Darroudi, M. S. Husin,
andM.A.Mahdi,International Journal of Nanomedicine 6, 565
(2011).
23. M. Darroudi, M. B. Ahmad, R. Zamiri, A. H. Abdullah, N. A.
Ibrahim, K. Shameli, and M. S. Husin, J. Alloys Compd. 509, 1301
(2011).
24. M. Darroudi, M. B. Ahmad, R. Zamiri, A. H. Abdullah, N. A.
Ibrahim, and A. R. Sadrolhosseini, Solid State Sciences 13, 520
(2011).
25. R. Zamiri, B. Z. Azmi, M. G. Naseri, H. A. Ahangar, M. Darroudi,
and F. K. Nazarpour, Applied Physics A: Materials Science and
Processing 105, 255 (2011).
26. S. J. Hoseini, M. Darroudi, R. K. Oskuee, L. Gholami, and A. K.
Zak, Adv. Powder Technol. 26, 991 (2015).
27. D. Philip, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular
Spectroscopy 73, 650 (2009).
28. R. Venu, T. S. Ramulu, S. Anandakumar, V. S. Rani, and C. G. Kim,
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
384, 733 (2011).
29. D. W. Ball, J. Chem. Educ. 84, 1643 (2007).
30. M. Darroudi, A. K. Zak, M. R. Muhamad, N. M. Huang, and
M. Hakimi, Mater. Lett. 66, 117 (2012).
31. M. Darroudi, M. B. Ahmad, and M. Mashreghi, Jour-
nal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials 16, 182
(2014).
32. A. Frattini, N. Pellegri, D. Nicastro, and O. D. Sanctis, Mater. Chem.
Phys. 94, 148 (2005).
33. J. Xie, J. Y. Lee, D. I. C. Wang, and Y. P. Ting, ACS Nano 1, 429
(2007).
34. J. R. Morones and W. Frey, Langmuir 23, 8180 (2007).
Received: 17 November 2015. Accepted: 29 March 2016.
J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16, 7989–7993, 2016 7993
... Entretanto esses métodos possuem custos elevados, consomem muita energia e utilizam, normalmente, reagentes nocivos para o meio ambiente (GONZÁLEZ FÁ et al., 2017). A síntese verde de AgNPs a partir de produtos e matrizes naturais realizada em ultrassom é uma técnica que possui muitas vantagens sobre outros métodos de biossíntese, incluindo a prevenção de processos elaborados, como a manutenção de culturas celulares e/ou secagem e extração de materiais vegetais (VENU et al., 2011;OSKUEE et al., 2016). ...
... Nesse contexto, uma vez que o mel apresenta em sua composição compostos capazes de reduzir e estabilizar a prata, além de ter uma atividade antimicrobiana natural, o mesmo tem grande potencial para ser empregado na síntese de AgNPs benéficas a saúde humana (SONG; KIM, 2009;BALL, 2007;VENU et al., 2011;OSKUEE et al., 2016, DARROUDI et al., 2014. Diversos micorganismos, entre eles: Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis e Candida kruzei, vem adquirindo resitência a vários antimicrobianos (vancomicina, penicilina, oxacilina, miticilina) e antifungos (fluconazol, voriconazol) convencionais (VIEIRA; NASCIMENTO, 2017; BERMAN; KRYSAN, 2020; KERN; RIEG, 2020). ...
... A síntese das AgNPs foi realizada utilizando a metodologia empregada por Oskuee et al. (2016). As suspensões coloidais foram preparadas por redução da Ag + por compostos fenólicos e açúcares presentes no mel, com auxílio de ultrassom. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nos últimos anos, as nanopartículas de prata (AgNPs) têm atraído muita atenção devido às suas largas aplicações em diferentes campos como biotecnologia, microeletrônica, armazenamento de informação óptica, medicina e conversão de energia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo sintetizar nanopartículas de prata a partir de amostras de mel de abelhas Apis mellifera produzidos na cidade de Santarém-Pará, Brasil. Além disso, avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dessas amostras, obtidas em dois períodos distintos (seco e chuvoso), frente a patógenos de interesse clínico: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococus epidermidis e Cândida krusei. Todas as amostras apresentaram estabilidade, homogeinidade e diâmetro hidrodinâmico médio de 600 nm, tendo uma grande área superficial. Apresentaram índice de polidispersividade (PdI) médio de 0,36 e 0,28, utilizando méis do período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente. O potencial Zeta foi negativo para 5 amostras do período seco. As linhagens de S. aureus, S. epidermides e C. krusei foram sensíveis à todas as AgNPs sintetizadas, sendo que as CMI para S. aureus e S. epidermides variaram de 0,17 a 10,79 mg mL-1 e para C. krusei de 0,08 a 10,79 mg mL-1. De acordo com estudos as AgNPs sintetizadas se mostram mais ativas em bactérias Gram negativas do que Gram positivo. No entanto, os elevados valores de CMI obtidos neste trabalho estão associados aos maiores tamanhos das nanoparticulas sintetizadas. Palavras-chave: Apis melífera. Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococus epidermidis. Candida krusei. Abstract In recent years, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted a lot of attention due to their wide applications in different fields such as biotechnology, microelectronics, optical information storage, medicine, and energy conversion. The present work aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticles from honey samples from Apis mellifera bees produced in the Santarém-Pará, Brazil. In addition, to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these samples, obtained in two distinct periods (dry and rainy), against pathogens of clinical interest: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococus epidermidis and Candida krusei. All samples showed stability, homogeneity and an average hydrodynamic diameter of 600 nm, with a large surface area. They had an average polydispersity index (PdI) of 0.36 and 0.28, using honeys from the dry and rainy periods, respectively. The Zeta potential was negative for 5 samples from the dry period. The strains of S. aureus, S. epidermides and C. krusei were sensitive to all synthesized AgNPs, with the MIC for S. aureus and S. epidermides ranging from 0.17 to 10.79 mg mL-1 and for C krusei from 0.08 to 10.79 mg mL-1. According to studies, the synthesized AgNPs are more active in Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive. However, the high MIC values obtained in this work are associated with the larger sizes of the synthesized nanoparticles. Keywords: Apis mellifera. Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococus epidermidis. Candida krusei.
... Hence, a surface-protecting stabilizing agent that can form complexes with the Cu-NPs is mandatory [40]. Honey is a natural food and a sweet viscous liquid consisting of carbohydrate, enzymes, vitamins, minerals and antioxidant [37,41]. The monosaccharides, proteins, amino acid and vitamin C in honey could help in reducing and stabilizing the nanoparticles [9], although little is known of the contributing factors for these capacities [38,42]. ...
... The monosaccharides, proteins, amino acid and vitamin C in honey could help in reducing and stabilizing the nanoparticles [9], although little is known of the contributing factors for these capacities [38,42]. The use of honey as reducing and stabilizing agent is convenient as it does not require drying, extraction of plant materials and cell culture maintenance [41]. ...
Article
In this study, a comparative study of effect using honey on copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) via simple, environmentally friendly process and inexpensive route was reported. Honey and ascorbic acid act as stabilizing and reducing agents with the assistance of sonochemical method. The products were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The reddish brown colour demonstrated the formation of Cu-NPs and UV-visible proved the plasmon resonance of Cu-NPs. XRD also confirmed a highly pure Cu-NPs obtained with absence of copper oxide in which the structure is crystalline. The spherical size of the Cu-NPs was acquire in the presence of honey which is 3.68 ± 0.78 nm with narrow particle distribution. The antibacterial activity was seen against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria which are Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). At higher concentration of Cu-NPs, they were more effective in killing both bacteria. The Cu-NPs without and with honey exhibited toxicities toward normal and cancerous cells. However, Cu-NPs without honey showed more potent killing activity against normal and cancer cells.
Chapter
Honey is one of the most nutritional natural products that not only provides us healthy nutrition but also has a potential to be an alternative treatment option for different pathologies from microbial infection to metabolic disease. Honey is a byproduct of flower syrup produced by honeybees and possesses an intricate chemical composition that varies with botanical sources and geographical locations. This chapter is aimed to provide readers an understanding of complex composition, biological activities, adverse effect, and therapeutic benefits of honey. Honey possesses many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-cancer, and anti-metastatic effects, suggesting potential therapeutic roles in many human pathologies. Flavonoids and polyphenols in honey are the two active ingredients, which are of therapeutic importance in many diseases. In conclusion, honey may be developed as a natural therapeutic agent for many pathologies, and extensive studies are therefore recommended.
Article
Full-text available
A study on the effect of size and shape of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) by varying the amount of honey has been done using a facile green synthesis method with the presence of ultrasonic assistance. Several amount of different % w/v of honey (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% w/v) that contain carbohydrate which are mainly glucose and fructose, and other polyhydroxyl groups act as stabilizing agent and a weak reducing agent supported by ascorbic acid were used to produce the Cu-NPs. The synthesized Cu-NPs were characterized using UV-visible, XRD and HRTEM to prove the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The best amount of honey used to produce Cu-NPs with uniform particle size and shape is at 15 % w/v. The size is 3.81 ± 1.135 nm and it shows a consistence spherical shape using HRTEM analysis image. UV-visible supported the results from the HRTEM. And XRD shows good diffraction pattern for pure Cu-NPs. It proves that honey has the ability to act as stabilizing agent in controlling the size and shape of nanoparticles.
Article
Full-text available
Nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. Their unique size-dependent properties make these materials superior and indispensable in many areas of human activity. This brief review tries to summarise the most recent developments in the field of applied nanomaterials, in particular their application in biology and medicine, and discusses their commercialisation prospects.
Article
In this work, we have applied thermal lens (TL) technique to measure thermal diffusivity of clay suspensions containing metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) prepared by chemical reduction method in different concentration. This study carried out with diode laser (wavelength 514 nm, power 80mW) as the excitation source and Intensity stabilized He-Ne laser as a probe beam. The results show that thermal diffusivity of fluid increases when Ag-NPs concentrations increase.
Article
The thermal lens (TL) technique is used to study thermal diffusivity of silver nano-fluid containing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of a particular size from about 30.5 to 4.2 nm at Montmorillonite (MMT) as an inorganic matrix in aqueous solution. In this technique a diode laser (wavelength 514 nm, power 80mW) and intensity stabilized He-Ne laser were used as the excitation source and probe beam, respectively. Experimental results showed that the thermal diffusivity values of nanofluids decreases when the particle size of Ag-NPs decreases.
Article
Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully prepared using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser, λ = 1064 nm, with laser fluence of approximately about 360 mJ/pulse, in an aqueous gelatin solution. In this work, gelatin was used as a stabilizer, and the size and optical absorption properties of samples were studied as a function of the laser ablation times. The results from the UV–vis spectroscopy demonstrated that the mean diameter of Ag-NPs decrease as the laser ablation time increases. The Ag-NPs have mean diameters ranging from approximately 10 nm to 16 nm. Compared with other preparation methods, this work is clean, rapid, and simple to use.
Article
Photochemical synthesis was used to obtain silver nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. The structural and optical properties of the composite material were studied by electron and IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. The chemical reactions in polyvinyl alcohol in the preparation of the nanoparticles were studied.
Current clinical diagnostics and therapeutics platforms are often limited by borderline sensitivity or efficacy levels. These limitations result from low or minimal specificity for the intended target cell or organ, span a multitude of physiological disorders and result in nominal success rates for diagnosis or treatment in many cases. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer or viral infections require next generation medical methods. Nanotechnology has the potential to significantly address diagnostics and therapeutics sensitivity and resulting unwanted side effects by providing extremely precise reagents and tools that allow for unparalleled detection and treatment at the clinical level. This is accomplished through extremely controlled nanofabrication methodologies which result in the generation of molecularly defined nanoscale materials and devices that harbor known physical properties unique to each material in question and useful for particular medical applications. The further precise targeting of these materials to specific sites within the body allows for an added layer of accuracy and potency. Research in this area is quickly advancing to the point of providing a comprehensive portfolio of nanotechnology-based diagnostic and therapeutic platforms that will be unparalleled in sensitivity, specificity and elimination of unwanted side effects.
Article
Metal nanoparticles combined with environmentally sensitive polymers can lead to enhanced nanometer-sized switches. We present a silver nanoparticle synthesis method that uses poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) as the nucleating, capping, and stabilizing agent. The synthesis is performed at room temperature by sodium borohydride-mediated reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a fully hydrated polymer. The resulting metal nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution comparable to or better than those achieved with other synthesis methods. The silver particles can be thermally precipitated by the collapse of the PNIPAM shell and resolubilized with fast response times, as shown by surface plasmon spectroscopy. The silver-PNIPAM composite allows for combined surface plasmon and thermal switching applications.
  • M Darroudi
  • Z Sabouri
  • R K Oskuee
  • A K Zak
  • H Kargar
  • M H N A Hamid
M. Darroudi, Z. Sabouri, R. K. Oskuee, A. K. Zak, H. Kargar, and M. H. N. A. Hamid, Ceram. Int. 39, 9195 (2013).
  • M Darroudi
  • M Ahmad
  • M Hakimi
  • R Zamiri
  • A Zak
  • H Hosseini
  • M Zargar
M. Darroudi, M. Ahmad, M. Hakimi, R. Zamiri, A. Zak, H. Hosseini, and M. Zargar, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater. 20, 403 (2013).
  • A Miri
  • M Sarani
  • M R Bazaz
  • M Darroudi
A. Miri, M. Sarani, M. R. Bazaz, and M. Darroudi, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 141, 287 (2015).