Conference PaperPDF Available

Development of a Smart, Low-cost and IoT-enabled System for Energy Management

Conference Paper

Development of a Smart, Low-cost and IoT-enabled System for Energy Management

Abstract

With the advent of the Internet comes not only the opportunity to send and receive data from our peers or fellow humans, but also the opportunity to send and receive data from our devices. This concept is known as the concept of Internet of things (IoT), and it proposes immense opportunities, part of which can be applied to solving the growing issue of power/energy management. The consumption of electricity has skyrocketed in recent years, and methods which are costly and of harm to the environment are also mostly used in electricity generation. Therefore, energy monitoring, management and efficiency is of utmost importance to improve the power sector of any economy. A solution to the growing issue of energy monitoring and management is a cheap and smart electricity socket that could show the users the amount of energy they spend at every point in time for each of their devices (in monetary terms). The socket allows users to set limits to their power usage by switching their devices on and off remotely. A database of home appliances is also set up to enable awareness on the various energy profiles for different devices and appliances and proffer energy efficient alternatives to such devices based on usage and region, using intelligent web systems. The Smart Socket makes use of the IoT concept of Smart Metering to measure key energy consumption data and will send instantaneous data to a web server to be saved to a database and accessed by permitted users. This project primarily addresses the need for access to data and proper information in making informed decisions concerning energy management and usage.
Development of a Smart, Low-cost and IoT-enabled
System for Energy Management
Olayinka S. Omole, David Akpobasah and Aderemi A. Atayero
Dept. of Electrical and Information Engineering
Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
olayinka.omole@gmail.com
AbstractWith the advent of the Internet comes not only the
opportunity to send and receive data from our peers or fellow
humans, but also the opportunity to send and receive data from
our devices. This concept is known as the concept of Internet of
things (IoT), and it proposes immense opportunities, part of
which can be applied to solving the growing issue of
power/energy management. The consumption of electricity has
skyrocketed in recent years, and methods which are costly and of
harm to the environment are also mostly used in electricity
generation. Therefore, energy monitoring, management and
efficiency is of utmost importance to improve the power sector of
any economy. A solution to the growing issue of energy
monitoring and management is a cheap and smart electricity
socket that could show the users the amount of energy they spend
at every point in time for each of their devices (in monetary
terms). The socket allows users to set limits to their power usage
by switching their devices on and off remotely. A database of
home appliances is also set up to enable awareness on the various
energy profiles for different devices and appliances and proffer
energy efficient alternatives to such devices based on usage and
region, using intelligent web systems. The Smart Socket makes
use of the IoT concept of Smart Metering to measure key energy
consumption data and will send instantaneous data to a web
server to be saved to a database and accessed by permitted users.
This project primarily addresses the need for access to data and
proper information in making informed decisions concerning
energy management and usage.
KeywordsEnergy management, Internet of Things, Intelligent
Systems, Smart Homes, Home Automation, Smart Sockets.
I. INTRODUCTION
The pursuit of energy efficiency as part of everyday life is a
necessary objective, both from an economic and ecological
point of view. Our standard of living is based on the
consumption of electricity, a limited and costly to generate
resource whose consumption has skyrocketed in recent
decades. Energy management is one of the major issues
affecting the power sector of any economy. Many individuals
are ignorant about how much power their devices consume and
hence use these devices indiscriminately. A system that could
show the users the amount of energy they expend at every
point in time (in monetary terms), and also allow them set
limits to their power use by switching their devices on and off
remotely would be a good solution to the energy management
issue. This solution is the use of Smart Metering technology in
Smart Sockets, which would monitor important power and
energy readings, store the gathered information and send such
information via a network to an Internet server to be accessed
by Smartphones, Tablets and Personal Computers. The sockets
are also capable of switching the devices connected to them on
and off remotely. A database of home appliances and devices is
also developed to be used by every stakeholder in the power
industry and the general public to enable awareness on the
various energy profiles for different devices and also proffer
energy efficient alternatives to such devices.
A. Significance/Motivation
The problem of energy management is especially a huge
one in developing economies like Nigeria, as the generation
and distribution companies are not able to attend fully to the
needs of the nation in terms of power generation and
distribution. The aim of the proposed metering and database
solution would be to ensure that every citizen is aware of their
power usage and are empowered to take steps to reduce their
energy consumption, hence also reducing the amount of money
they spend buying electricity. The sockets can also be used for
home automation by enabling it to switch connected devices on
and off remotely, and also enabling it to switch off
automatically when above a particular energy spend. This will
further drive energy conservation.
B. Aim/Objectives
The aim of this project is to apply the concept of Internet of
Things to solve an age- old problem of energy management
using a developed IoT (Internet of Things) Metering and
Automation device and a Cloud based Open Access Home
Appliances Database.
The developed smart metering device will accomplish the
following major objectives:
To design and develop a cheap and functional
alternative to existing expensive smart meters, which
are about $150 (~N45,000 as at this writing).
The developed metering device will have a simple
connection, which can be used to measure total energy
use at connection points.
aaa@covenantuniversity.edu.ng
401
3rd International Conference on African Development Issues (CU-ICADI 2016)
ISSN:2449-075X
Copyright © 2016 by Covenant University Press
Accurate energy consumption data will be measured as
the sockets will measure real power and cost of power.
The device will store energy consumption data to a
web database to be used by individuals or
organizations.
A Simple Graphical User Interface (GUI) will be
developed by which data from the Smart Meter can be
accessed by personal computers, tablets and
smartphones over an Internet connection.
The socket will be able to be switched ON/OFF
remotely.
The developed database will achieve the following
objectives:
It will be a web database of domestic appliances and
their ratings and it will be accessible by all
stakeholders in the power industry.
It will have an Application Programming Interface
(API) on which other rich applications can be built.
It will have a minimalistic and easily accessible GUI,
so as to enable ease of use to all key stakeholders.
It will be open access and will be able to be
contributed to by any stakeholder in the power
system.
C. Energy Management
Energy management involves the planning and operation of
energy production and consumption units. Energy management
is necessary for resource conservation, cost savings and climate
protection. Energy efficiency is an energy reduction technique
that encourages energy customers to use less energy and still
enjoy the same services. For example, using LED (Light
Emitting Diode) lights in place of the more common
incandescent bulbs to provide the same amount of illumination
is an example of practicing Energy Efficiency. Energy
efficiency results in reduced energy cost, and also reduces
greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency is said to be one
of the pillars of sustainable energy, along with renewable
energy [2]. According to the International Energy Agency,
improved energy efficiency in various sectors could reduce the
world's energy needs in 2050 by a third, and help control
global emissions of greenhouse gases [1]. In some countries
energy efficiency is also seen to have a national security
benefit because it can be used to reduce the level of energy
imports from foreign countries and may slow down the rate at
which domestic energy resources are depleted. Energy
conservation is also a management scheme that involves
reducing or going without an energy service to reduce
consumption. An example of energy conservation is switching
off of light bulbs and using day lighting instead during the day
in homes and companies. The proposed energy management
solution utilizes both techniques of energy reduction discussed
above in its operations to ensure quality energy control and
cost savings.
D. Energy Usage in Nigeria
Even though, Nigeria is an energy-rich country, we have
acted more as an energy store rather than an energy utilizing
country over the years, up until now. The only major sources of
energy utilized for generation are coal, crude oil, natural gas
and hydro [3]. This, among other reasons has caused power
supply to the citizen to be epileptic and inconsistent. Over the
years, energy consumption in Nigeria has been on the rise.
Figure 1 shows the Electricity consumption (in kilowatt-hours
per capita) in Nigeria from the 1970s up till 2011 as obtained
from data from the World Bank.
Our current consumption, while seeming normal when
compared to some other developing African nations, is far less
than our counterparts in developed economies, as seen in
Figure 2.
A report showed that the global average electricity
consumption for households with electricity was roughly 3,500
kWh in 2010 [4], while in Nigeria, it was about 570 kWh. This
emphasizes that there is a huge energy gap that needs to be
filled if Nigeria is to claim its position as the giants of Africa.
One way to improve on the power network and provide better
quality of service in the energy sector is to implement energy
reduction, conservation and efficiency programs. The low
Fig. 1. Energy consumption per capita in Nigeria
Fig 2. Energy consumption in Nigeria per capita compared to
developed economies [Source: World Bank]
402
3rd International Conference on African Development Issues (CU-ICADI 2016)
ISSN:2449-075X
Copyright © 2016 by Covenant University Press
energy per capita also affords the citizens with no option but to
employ energy efficiency and conservation programs so as to
maximize the little amount of energy available to them.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
A. Smart Sockets and Meters
AC (Alternating Current) sockets are devices that allow
electrically operated equipment to be connected to the primary
alternating current (AC) power supply in a building. A smart
socket is a power socket that communicates with the user via a
network or communication interface such as the internet, or via
SMS. It works like a smart meter and communicates energy
consumption details to the user to see real time and also stores
these consumption details in a database.
A smart meter is an electrical meter that records
consumption of electric energy in intervals of an hour or less
and communicates that information at least daily back to the
utility or user for monitoring, billing and informational
purposes. Smart meters enable twoway communication
between the meter and the central system. Unlike home energy
monitors, smart meters can gather data for remote reporting.
Smart Meters differs from traditional automatic meter reading
(AMR) in that it enables two-way communications with the
meter.
Various research and design work has been done on Smart
metering. van Gerwen et al [5] in their research work on Smart
Metering highlighted that countries like the USA and other
countries in Europe have implemented Smart Meters to
improve energy efficiency and management, which shows that
the concept is feasible. They explain that Smart Metering
technology (also referred to as Automated Meter Reading) is
mature and can be implemented. Their paper shows that the
basic functions of Smart Meters are to: measure electricity,
remotely switch customers (devices) on or off and to remotely
control the maximum electricity consumption. According to
them, the communication infrastructure for Smart Meters may
include: Power Line Carrier (PLC), A wireless modem (GSM
or GPRS), An existing permanent internet connection (ADSL).
Others have also investigated ways in which a single
metering connection can be used to monitor and control
various load sources from a single connection point. For
example, Barsocchi et al [6] in their work; ‘Smart Meter Led
Probe for Real-Time Appliance Load Monitoring’
experimented on a concept known as Non-Intrusive Appliance
Load Monitoring (NIALM) to obtain appliance specific time
and power draw characteristics of devices by disaggregating
the information collected at the main break level. They were of
the opinion that Home Automation networks may become the
primary tools for smart energy management in the near future.
They stated that an extension of the original MIT
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) NIALM method can
be used to recognize signatures in devices such as spikes in
power draw and types of devices. Their solution is based on the
use of optical sensors of the modern smart meters. It infers the
domestic electric consumption from the readings of the smart
meter’s LED flashes, and using a Finite State Machine (FSM),
it recognizes the most common appliances used in domestic
activities. They focused on the non-intrusiveness of their
system and developed a simple single device to get real time
information about the energy consumption and usage of
domestic appliances. As a proof of concept, they tested the
proposed power monitoring solution to infer when the
Electrical Microwave Oven in a home was on/off for a period
of 6 (six) months, and recorded closely-accurate results. In
conclusion, they were able to present a NIALM system that
monitors the usage of a domestic appliance in order to
recognize the associated activity of the user.
B. Web Applications
A web application is a Software Application that is stored
on a remote server and is delivered to the final user through a
Web Browser.
A comprehensive database application of Home Appliances
and their energy ratings is not currently available on the
internet. Even though some energy and utility companies have
tried at various times to post information about home
appliances and their energy ratings, such as Wholesale Solar
[7], there is no consolidated collection showing the cost
implications of usage and energy ratings of the different home
appliances.
III. SYSTEM DESIGN
The design of the complete Energy Management System
has been broken down into two (2) functional parts which
would incorporate the metering, control and database aspects.
The system design architecture is shown in Figure 3.
The design of the socket is based on the use of an open
source Microcontroller board, the Arduino Uno R3, which is
based on the ATmega328 MCU. It possesses an ESP8266 Wi-
Fi module for communication, ACS 712 current sensing
module and a voltage sensing unit for measuring consumption
data.
Fig. 3. System Architecture for Energy Management System
403
3rd International Conference on African Development Issues (CU-ICADI 2016)
ISSN:2449-075X
Copyright © 2016 by Covenant University Press
A. Hardware Design
The hardware design involves all the components and tools
used to design the Wi-Fi Based Smart Metering/Sockets
System. There are four Units/Interface involved in the
hardware design stage; Metering Unit, Control Unit,
Processing Unit and Communication Interface. The block
diagram in Figure 4 gives an overview of this stage and the
flow of metering information.
The metering unit is responsible for measuring the amount
of load connected to the meter and forwarding it to the
processing system for the necessary computation to be done
with it. The metering system uses a Voltage and Current
Sensor connected to the Arduino to measure average active real
power. A current sensor is a sensor that detects electric current
in a wire, and generates a signal proportional to it.
The Automation and Control Unit coordinates the
automatic switching of load connected to the smart socket.
This is achieved by the use of a relay module. The Arduino
Uno coordinates the switching of the relay hence switching
whatever device is connected to the socket ON/OFF. A relay is
an electrically operated switch.
The processing unit takes the values of quantities generated
from the metering system and performs computation on them.
The CM (Central Microcontroller) Block serves as the core of
this system. The Arduino Uno was chosen as the
Microcontroller as it is open source, affordable and can be
easily adopted to interface with other components.
Microcontrollers are electronic circuits that can be
programmed to carry out a vast range of tasks. The Arduino
Uno can be programmed using the Arduino IDE (Integrated
development environment) and using the Arduino language,
which is a variant of the C Programming language.
The communication interface is the main point of
interaction between the Smart Meter and the Online Database.
Communication is achieved by the use of a Wi-Fi module with
a Microcontroller to send and receive information to and from
the Server. The major component of the communication
system is the Wi-Fi Module. The Microcontroller is
responsible for sending the appropriate Attention Commands
(AT) to the WiFi Module.
B. Software Design
This comprises of all the elements and technologies used
in the development of the server side and frontend of the
Energy management solution. It mainly comprises of the
development involved in the creation of the following:
Database to save customer energy usage
API (Application programming interface) to enable the
meter to save readings to a database and enable the
Admin interface pull data from the database.
Customer Access Module or Admin Interface for users
to view meter readings
Home Appliances Database (HADB) comprising of
various Home Appliances and their energy profiling
and costs based on customer usage.
A database management system (DBMS) is a computer
software application that interacts with the user, other
applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze
data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the
definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of
databases. The database contains information sent by the meter
and required by the user to understand how much energy they
use and how much it costs. An online service called
Thingspeak© was used to create a database to store the values
of current, voltage and time and then serve that data to the user
admin panel via it’s API.
An API (application program interface) is a set of routines,
protocols, and tools for building software applications. The
API specifies how software components should interact and
APIs are used when programming graphical user interface
(GUI) components. The API used was built on the
Thingspeak© service and was used to build other components
of the system including the Graphical User Interface (GUI) for
the user to view energy usage readings and to program the
Microcontroller.
The Customer Access Module is responsible for
interpreting results from the database which contains
information from the Smart Socket to the user in a Graphical
User Interface. It is built using web technologies: HTML, CSS,
PHP and Javascript.
The Home Appliances Database Module involves the
construction of a web application which would hold
information about various home appliances and their energy
profiles. It is built using web technologies such as HTML,
PHP, Javascript, CSS and Laravel. An Admin backend is
developed which aids to serve a supervisory role for adding,
editing and removing appliances from the database using a
GUI.
Fig. 4. Hardware Sub-System Block Diagram
404
3rd International Conference on African Development Issues (CU-ICADI 2016)
ISSN:2449-075X
Copyright © 2016 by Covenant University Press
IV. CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING
Figure 5 shows how the various components in the Smart
Socket system interact with each other.
A. Phase 1
The Smart Socket system was first constructed and tested
on a breadboard using a 9v battery as the power source and a
DC motor as the load on which energy usage readings were
gotten from. The ACS 712 current sensor was connected in
series with the DC Motor load and was connected to the
Arduino to collect current readings. The readings gotten were
displayed on the Arduino IDE (Integrated Development
Environment) serial monitor.
The voltage sensor unit consisting of a voltage transformer
and 2 resistors of 10k Ohms and 100k Ohms was also tested.
B. Phase 2
At this phase, the relay was tested separately and was used
to switch a 5v Relay ON and OFF via the serial monitor.
C. Phase 3
After the current reading connections were confirmed, the
ESP8266 connection to the Arduino was implemented. The
ESP 8266 enabled the system for communication over the
internet via WiFi. The Customer Access module was also
developed in this phase to grant users access to the reading via
the Admin User Interface as a replacement to viewing via the
Serial Monitor as in Phase 1.
The readings from the constructed system are monitored
via the Customer Access Module as shown in Figure 6.
An export of the database showing some values gotten
from the smart socket during testing are shown in Table 1.
D. Authors and Affiliations
V. HOME APPLIANCES DATABASE DEVELOPMENT
A. Phase 1
This involved setting up the MySQL relational database
which had the various tables required for the Home Appliances
Database system. A web application called Phpmyadmin was
used to set up the MySQL database.
B. Phase 2
At this phase, the frontend (which is what the users sees) is
developed using HTML, CSS and Javascript. The Admin
frontend is first developed for admins to upload and edit
appliances and their alternatives. After the admin frontend
development, the user end was developed for users to view
appliances, their energy ratings and alternatives.
C. Phase 3
This involved using PHP to do the server-side
programming and add the functionality for the various parts of
the software. The Laravel framework for PHP was installed
and set up to enable faster prototyping. Controllers, Models
and Views were then created for the various aspects of the
application.
Fig. 5. Block diagram of Smart Socket
Fig 6. Example of a figure caption. (figure caption)
TABLE I. DATABASE ENTRIES OF SMART SOCKET
405
3rd International Conference on African Development Issues (CU-ICADI 2016)
ISSN:2449-075X
Copyright © 2016 by Covenant University Press
VI. CONCLUSION
The system developed allows monitoring of power
consumption, with the aim of providing intelligent energy
consumption information. In the domestic environment, the use
of Smart Metering provides more information and control over
the electricity consumed, to the user. By means of the Smart
Metering prototype developed, users are able to discover their
consumption habits. With this information, users can develop
strategies to make their consumption more efficient and thus,
most environmentally-friendly.
The project is able to accomplish the objectives defined in
the ‘Aim and Objectives’ section as shown below:
The total cost of the project is about $28 as compared to
the price of $99 of the average Smart sockets, which
enables it to accomplish purchase cost reduction.
It can be connected to devices via a common socket,
which enables it have a simple connection.
It makes use of voltage and current sensors and a timer,
which enables it capture key energy consumption data.
It possesses a WiFi shield and a data logger on a web
database which enables it store energy consumption
data to be used by various persons.
It possesses a simple GUI on a web server by which
consumers can access their energy consumption data.
It possesses a Relay for automatic switching of the
devices connected to it.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would like to acknowledge my family and friends for all
their support, prayer and aid during the course of this project. I
would also like to acknowledge my project partner Akpobasah
David, for his efforts and commitment to bringing the project
to fruition.
I most especially acknowledge and recognize my
supervisor and mentors during the course of this program, Prof.
AAA. Atayero and Mrs. T.O. Takpor for all their support and
teachings and encouragement all through the time I worked
with them. My sincere appreciation goes to all the lecturers and
students of the department of Electrical and Information
Engineering.
REFERENCES
[1] Sophie Hebden, "Invest in clean technology says IEA report".,
Scidev.net. 2006
[2] “Efficient energy use”. Wikipedia.org. 2016.
[3] Adeyemi A. Ogundipe. “Electricity Consumption and Economic
Growth.
[4] Wilson, Lindsay. “Average household electricity use around the world”
2016.
[5] van Gerwen, Rob, Saskia Jaarsma, and Rob Wilhite. "Smart metering.
“Leonardoenergy. org. 2006.
[6] “How Much Power Do Your Appliances Use?". Wholesale Solar. 2016.
[7] Antoni Miquel, Román Belda, Ismael de Fez, Pau Arce, Francisco
Fraile, Juan Carlos Guerri, Francisco Martínez, Sergio Gallardo. “A
power consumption monitoring, displaying and evaluation system for
home devices”.
[8] A “Internet of Things". Wikipedia.org. 2015
[9] Julius Quarshie Azasoo. “Design of a GSM Based Smart Metering
System”.
[10] Li Quan-Xi1, Li Gang. “Design of remote automatic meter reading
system based on ZigBee and GPRS”. School of Computer Science &
Technology Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, China.
[11] Rob van Gerwen, Saskia Jaarsma and Rob Wilhite. “Smart Metering”.
KEMA, The Netherlands. 2006
[12] Paolo Barsocchi, Erina Ferro, Filippo Palumbo, and Francesco Potort.
“Smart meter led probe for real-time appliance load monitoring”.
Information Science and Technologies Institute - National Research
Council of Italy.
406
3rd International Conference on African Development Issues (CU-ICADI 2016)
ISSN:2449-075X
Copyright © 2016 by Covenant University Press
... However, despite the significance attached to electricity, it is estimated that approximately 45% of the electricity generated in Nigeria is wasted or it cannot be accounted for. This is due to energy theft, unavailability of proper energy management policy, public illiteracy on the importance of electricity, and the need for efficient utilization of available energy (Omole et al., 2016). Nigeria's electricity demand is growing faster than the country's population. ...
Article
Full-text available
1.0 Introduction Electricity as a form of energy is inevitable for human survival. As human activities increase and new technologies evolve, the importance of electricity cannot be over emphasized. The standard of living and per capital income of any nation largely depends on the availability and consumption of electricity (Oyedepo, 2012). As energy consumption is steadily increasing, there is a continuous demand to optimally increase the generation capacity. Increasing generation capacity often requires complex processes and control, with costly fuel and sophisticated equipment. This invariably leads to high tariff and billing system as well as an increase in greenhouse gas emission effects. However, despite the significance attached to electricity, it is estimated that approximately 45% of the electricity generated in Nigeria is wasted or it cannot be accounted for. This is due to energy theft, unavailability of proper energy management policy, public illiteracy on the importance of electricity, and the need for efficient utilization of available energy (Omole et al., 2016). Nigeria's electricity demand is growing faster than the country's population. The electricity per capita of Nigeria, which is 137.2 KWh per capita, is one of the lowest in the world. ARTICLE INFORMATION ABSTRACT This paper presents a model for low-cost demand-side management infrastructure using cloud-based technology and internet of things to facilitate the implementation of smart grid in Nigeria. The electricity market has experienced a rapid increase in demand attributed to unprecedented growth in human population, urbanization, and industrialization. Accordingly, utilities are faced with the challenge of meeting daily energy demand. Research has shown that 45% of electricity generated are wasted or cannot be accounted for. Energy management is thus a major issue affecting the power sector of Nigeria. Efficient utilization of energy is therefore crucial for sustainable development both from an economic and ecological perspective. The proposed Smart, Low Cost and IoT-enabled power distribution board can be adopted and implemented as part of energy conservation measures to reduce energy demand in domestic building and mitigate the energy crisis in the country. With the IoT based smart board energy management, users can get personalized recommendation of actions for energy conservation and load shifting, and have control over the energy use and the billing system.
... Namun penyebarannya harus bersifat real-time dari aplikasi di bawah arahan sedikit atau tidak langsung dari interaksi manusia (Sheng, Mahapatra, & Member, 2015). Sebuah sistem yang dapat menunjukkan kepada pengguna jumlah energi yang mereka habiskan pada setiap waktu, dan juga memungkinkan mereka menetapkan batas penggunaan daya mereka dengan mengaktifkan dan menonaktifkan perangkat mereka dari jarak jauh akan menjadi solusi yang baik untuk masalah penggunaan energi pada manajemen (Omole, Akpobasah, & Atayero, 2016). Penggunaan perangkat yang dikelola dengan baik dapat memengaruhi biaya perusahaan agar lebih efisien dan memiliki peluang untuk memperpanjang umur perangkat. ...
Article
Full-text available
Menerapkan Internet of Things pada perangkat elektronik bukanlah cara yang mudah jika tidak dikelola dengan baik, terutama di sebuah ruang lingkup perusahaan. Itu karena beberapa perusahaan menaruh perhatian pada tanggung jawab mereka jika perangkat diterapkan. Perusahaan itu sendiri perlu mengelola perangkat Internet of Things yang mempengaruhi pengeluaran perusahaan dan membuat sebuah penggunaan energi yang lebih baik, efisien, dan bijaksana..Sebuah sistem yang dapat menunjukkan kepada pengguna jumlah energi yang mereka keluarkan pada setiap waktu dan juga memungkinkan mereka menetapkan batas penggunaan daya mereka dengan mengaktifkan dan menonaktifkan perangkat mereka dari jarak jauh akan menjadi solusi yang baik untuk energi masalah manajemen. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), muncul sebagai salah satu metode yang sering digunakan dalam banyak hal untuk memecahkan masalah dengan menghasilkan suatu prioritas berdasarkan kriteria dan alternatif. Untuk menangani masalah yang ada, penulis akan membuat sebuah penelitian mengenai metode AHP yang diimplementasikan pada sebuah aplikasi manajemen Internet of Things untuk menentukan perangkat mana yang memiliki prioritas untuk dinyalakan. Sistem akan memberikan peringkat pada perangkat berdasarkan bobot akhir yang dihasilkan, sehingga pengguna lebih mudah dalam mengelola perangkat Internet of Things yang terintegrasi.
... The same concept can be used for building envelope components, which is studied in this paper. There are also other examples of GUIs designed for energy smart homes using energy simulation tools, which show the applicability of such GUIs in improving the energy performance of buildings (Omole et al. 2016, Helal et al. 2005, Kim et al. 2011. ...
Article
Full-text available
Energy simulation tools can provide information on the amount of heat transfer through building envelope components, which are considered the main sources of heat loss in buildings. Therefore, it is important to improve the quality of outputs from energy simulation tools and also the process of obtaining them. In this paper, a new Building Energy Performance Assessment Tool (BEPAT) is introduced, which provides users with granular data related to heat transfer through every single wall, window, door, roof, and floor in a building and automatically saves all the related data in text files. This information can be used to identify the envelope components for thermal improvement through energy retrofit or during the design phase. The generated data can also be adopted in the design of energy smart homes, building design tools, and energy retrofit tools as a supplementary dataset. BEPAT is developed by modifying EnergyPlus source code as the energy simulation engine using C++, which only requires Input Data File (IDF) and weather file to perform the energy simulation and automatically provide detailed output. To validate the BEPAT results, a computer model is developed in Revit for use in BEPAT. Validating BEPAT's output with EnergyPlus "advanced output" shows a difference of less than 2% and thus establishing the capability of this tool to facilitate the provision of detailed output on the quantity of heat transfer through walls, fenestrations, roofs, and floors.
... Systems with control capabilities typically have a graphical user interface (GUI) that helps the user to monitor and control the operation/performance of different units in smart homes. Such control systems can be as simple as smart sockets that can measure energy consumption, transmit data to a web server for users, and are equipped with a relay that can turn on/off the appliances connected to that socket (Omole et al. 2016). Furthermore, the hardware that controls the appliances can be as simple as an Arduino kit that is connected to a fan or any other appliance in a house (Nikam et al. 2016). ...
Article
With advancement in sensor, control, and communication technologies, homes can now be equipped with more intelligent lighting, HVAC, entertainment, and safety/security systems, as well as appliances with many advanced features, including high energy efficiency. In particular, with computers becoming an integrated part of homes and smart phones offering remote communication with home systems, we are entering a new era in the home industry, an era of smart homes. This paper presents a categorization of smart homes based on their area of focus, such as energy, information and communication, security, health, environmental, home entertainment, and domestic appliances. However, the main objective of this paper is to review different types of energy smart homes in more detail under three major groups, including homes with energy-monitoring systems, systems with control capabilities, and systems with advanced data-processing capabilities. Smart homes with energy-monitoring systems merely provide the total or granular energy-consumption data of the house by using equipment such as in-home displays, whereas systems with control capabilities also include a control unit that can send proper signals for either passive or active measures, such as appliance on/off commands. In contrast, systems with advanced data-processing capabilities include an advanced central processing unit that can provide more complicated analysis results, such as systems that are equipped with an optimization algorithm to optimize the temperature or appliance schedules based on the residents’ comfort level and energy cost. Communication networks in smart homes and associated challenges for their design are also discussed in this paper.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Non-intrusive load monitoring of domestic appliances has received steady interest in the last twenty years, first because of interest from energy companies interested in usage statistics for power balancing and, more recently, in order to assist users in tuning their habits for reduced power consumption. We discuss how this concept can be used in real-time with a cheap, easy-to-install device based on Arduino to monitor the usage of domestic appliances and thus the activities of persons inside their home. The device is presented, complete with free software and hardware, and a proof-of-concept web-based user interface is depicted that is able to discriminate very simple activities.
Invest in clean technology says IEA report"., Scidev.net
  • Sophie Hebden
Sophie Hebden, "Invest in clean technology says IEA report"., Scidev.net. 2006
Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth
  • A Adeyemi
  • Ogundipe
Adeyemi A. Ogundipe. "Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth.
A power consumption monitoring, displaying and evaluation system for home devices
  • Antoni Miquel
  • Román Belda
  • Ismael De Fez
  • Pau Arce
  • Francisco Fraile
  • Juan Carlos Guerri
  • Francisco Martínez
  • Sergio Gallardo
Antoni Miquel, Román Belda, Ismael de Fez, Pau Arce, Francisco Fraile, Juan Carlos Guerri, Francisco Martínez, Sergio Gallardo. "A power consumption monitoring, displaying and evaluation system for home devices".
Average household electricity use around the world
  • Lindsay Wilson
Wilson, Lindsay. "Average household electricity use around the world" 2016.
Design of a GSM Based Smart Metering System
  • Julius Quarshie
Julius Quarshie Azasoo. "Design of a GSM Based Smart Metering System".
Smart Metering " . KEMA, The Netherlands
  • Rob Van Gerwen
  • Saskia Jaarsma
  • Rob Wilhite
Rob van Gerwen, Saskia Jaarsma and Rob Wilhite. " Smart Metering ". KEMA, The Netherlands. 2006
A "Internet of Things
A "Internet of Things". Wikipedia.org. 2015