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Vol. 72 | No. 6 | Jun 2016 International Scientific Researches Journal
Luis A. Rendón Martínez1, Armando A. Ortega-Salas2, Miguel A. Hurtado Oliva1, Pablo
Piña Valdez1y Mario Nieves Soto1*
1Facultad de Ciencias del Mar. Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa. Paseo Claussen s/n, Col.
Los Pinos, Mazatlán, Sin. México.
2Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM. Calz. Joel M. Camarena s/n,
Mazatlán 82040, Sinaloa, Mé
*Corresponding author: Mario Nieves Soto.
Cultivation of Striostrea prismatica in Mexico.
Striostrea prismatica (Gray, 1825) represents one of the most popular and artisanal fisheries in
the rocky coast, but now cultivation of stone oyster in a call channel for shrimp is a new method
to calculate their growth, condition index and survival. A total of 1 500 juveniles were seeded
with a length of 19.1 ± 3.2 mm, width of 16.2 ± 3.19 mm, height of 3.97 ± 1.36 mm and 1.0 ±
0.54 g weight. They were placed in 70-60 organisms Nestier type baskets, seeds were collected
from the oyster shells which were discarded by fishermen. Temperature was the most important
variable, combined with salinity and food availability in seasons, coupled with low
concentrations of seston which had a negative correlation with growth and consistent with the
increase in the condition index and rates high growth. Survival rate was 73.03%. The model
parameters von Bertalanffy growth are L= 142.63; k= 0.0489 and t0= -2.198. At the end,
height and average weight was 73.53 ± 15.38 mm and 31.56 ± 17.17 g, which although is less
than the minimum catch size proposed in NOM 90 mm, the results show that the fattening of
juvenile oyster is appropriate for the fishery resource, applicable and effective for strategy
Condition index; cultivation; growth; seed; Striostrea prismatica.
Vol. 72 | No. 6 | Jun 2016 International Scientific Researches Journal
Stone oyster is a bivalve mollusk sessile of marine benthic life. It is distributed from Baja
California, Mexico to Northern Peru. It is attached to rock formations in surf waves, usually in
river mouths and estuaries, at depths of one to fifteen meters [1].
It represents a resource of high commercial value and has been a source of employment
for a large number of fishermen in the Northwest of Mexico. Currently the fishery is in the status
of exploited at maximum sustainable [2]; most likely due to the increase in fishing effort,
extraction size below the minimum capture, also part of the spectrum of multi-specific coastal
fisheries and the lack of fishing regulations, among others. It is an artisanal fishery which is done
by free diving [3], where the catch directly affects the recruitment of the population, the
incidence of seeds in the shells, being extracted for marketing and be thrown out of the sea.
It has been determined their reproductive cycle [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]; changes in the
biochemical composition [10], mortality and growth under natural conditions [3]; development of
diet for broodstock diets [11], induced spawning and larval rearing [12] and the calculation of a
size at first maturity [13].
There are papers related to oyster culture, although other species, for this species, little or
no information, will attempt to make a comparison work, although it should be noted that they
have different habitats, reproductive behavior, biochemical composition, among others [14] [10],
[7], [15], [16], [17].
Water temperature plays an important role in reproductive biology of oysters [18], several
studies report optimum temperatures for growth ranging from 18 to 32 ° C [19]; [16]; [15]. When
the water temperature increases from 23 to 27 ° C this species enters its stage of gametogenesis
for later spawning with temperatures above 30 ° C [7]; [10]. The availability of food and the
quantities of organic and inorganic material in the water column represent one of the most
important variables in the biology of mollusks [20]; [21]; [22]; [23]; [24]; [25]; [26]. It is
necessary to highlight the importance of this species whose extraction represents one of the most
popular and artisanal fisheries along with C. corteziensis bear much of the catch in the Pacific
Vol. 72 | No. 6 | Jun 2016 International Scientific Researches Journal
coast of Mexico, is also a native species with great potential in aquaculture. This study evaluated
the feasibility of oyster seed culture Striostrea prismatica collected from discarded shells of the
Obtaining seed
Seeds shucked oysters were collected of the fishery products (Fig. 1a). It was counted and the
length, width and height of the shell with a precision vernier 0.01 mm and individual weight with
a vernier (0.2 mm Mitutoyo, CD 8 "-CS) and an electronic scale (Ohaus, Scout Pro 200×0.01g)
was recorded. They were placed in Nestier baskets (50x50x10 cm), four per module and a dead
box, which was the first one, which was covered with polystyrene as a means of flotation. About
1 500 seeds, arranged in 6 modules were sown. They were seeded at an initial density of 70
organisms per basket and decreased to 60 from the second month, to reduce stress density.
Although there are studies on the natural environment showing that support a density up to 176
oysters / m2[27]. An anchoring system cement reinforced rod was used. Cultivation was carried
out on a call channel for seeding shrimp in the estuary "the Salinitas", connected to the sea by a
pipe 40 inches, separated by a sandy barrier 25m long (Fig. 1b).
Environmental variables
Daily monitoring of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, dissolved solids and the
percentage of oxygen saturation was made. A multiparameter probe (YSI 2030 Pro, Ohio 45387)
and a potentiometer (Hanna HI98128, Rhode Island 02895) was used. 4 L of water culture for
determination of chlorophyll afilter (Whatman GF / F) measured by spectrophotometer by the
extraction method 90% acetone [28], seston and the percentage of organic matter used were
collected was made by weight differences with filtered water, dried and calcined in an oven
muffle (550 ° C / 3.5h) [15].
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Biometry and condition index
Monthly baskets were cleaned. A sample of 50 organisms was taken and compared the total
increases in length, width, height and total weight. Survival was recorded from 100% down
compared to the dead bodies at the end. This same sample was taken 10 organisms to assess the
condition index, from total body weight, the weight of the soft tissue and the shells. The soft
tissue was dried in an oven at 80 ° C for 48 hours to determine the dry weight. The condition
index was determined by the following equation: [C.I. = (P1 / P2) × 100] where P1 = dry weight
of the fabric and P2 = dry weight of the shell [29].
Statistic analysis
Normality and homogeneity of variance of the data groups was tested environmental variables
were analyzed with analysis of variance one-way, also applying post hoc Tukey analysis, just as
the biometry (length, width, height and weight) and the condition index (CI) [30]. A correlation
analysis of order Spearman rank among the environmental variables (temperature, oxygen,
salinity and pH) and food availability (chlorophyll a, organic matter and seston) compared to the
monthly average growth, increases was made in length (ΔL) and weight (ΔP) and CI. Length-
weight, width-weight, height-weight ratio was calculated. Growth in length was also determined
at the time by von-Bertalanffy equation; the constants of the model were estimated by maximum
likelihood. Analyses were performed using the statistical package STATISTICA v8.0 (Stat Soft
Environmental variables
Oxygen ranged from 0.28 to 15.01 mg / L in July, November registered the lowest average with
2.35 ± 0.79 mg / L and July increased 6.11 ± 3.18 mg / L (P <0.05). Salinity had a peak of 32.4
in August and a minimum of 0.9 ‰ in November, November, the lowest average 4.4 ‰ ± 5.89
and more average in July 29.55 ±2.22 ‰ (P <0.05). The water temperature ranged from 35.1 in
August with a minimum of 18.6 ° C in November, November has the lowest average with 22.62
± 3.11 ° C, and the highest August with 32.89 ± 1.69 ° C (P <0.05). The pH recorded in October
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at the start of cultivation, the lowest average with 8.2 ± 0.1, and March the highest average 8.8 ±
0.1 (P <0.05).
Availability of seston, chlorophyll aand organic matter
Seston had a peak of 207.96 in April and a minimum of 26.9 mg / L in March, with an average of
83.17 ± 36.05 mg / L. The percentage of organic matter peaked in January of 60.77 and a
minimum of 4.4% in October with an average of 30.14 ± 10.66%. Chlorophyll ahad a maximum
of 42.99 in July and 3.96 mg / m3in November and an average of 10.53 ± 6.11 mg / m3was
obtained (Fig. 2).
Growth, survival and condition index
Of the 400 days of culture, a total of 1 500 juveniles were collected for fattening; the average size
± SD sowing initial were 19.1 ± 3.2 mm, long, 16.2 ± 3.19 mm width, 3.97 ± 1.36 mm high and
1.01 ± 0.54 g weight. At the end the average length sizes were 15.4 ± 73.5 mm, 49.2 mm wide
11.8 ± 16.3 ± 3.8 mm high and 31.6 ± 17.2 g total weight (Fig. 3). The daily growth rate in length
was 0.15 mm, 0.09 mm in width, 0.03 mm in height and 0.08 g wt. March has the highest
increase over the remaining months except February where the largest increase in height is
presented (Fig. 4). The cumulative mortality was 26.97%, the highest mortality was in December
and January with 4.49 and 11.24%.
Parameters von-Bertalanffy model were calculated using the maximum likelihood method
which generates response surface by the negative natural logarithm of the likelihood and the
interaction of two parameters associated with a probability Chi2. The following parameters were
obtained: infinite length (L) = 142.63; Growth constant (k) = 0.0489 and theoretical growth start
time (t0) = - 2.1983. Leaving the following equation: Lt (mm) = 142.63 (1-e-0.0489 (t + 2.1983)).
The results in weight ratios relative to the length, width and height, show that for the first
two, the data at a potential type model fit, while the latter is adjusted to an equation of linear type,
an allometric growth is checked with negative slope b values below 3, the equations described as:
W = 0.0035 *Length2.05,R2= 0.75; W= 0.0025 * Wide 2.31,R2= 0.81 and W= 2.06 * Height-8.1,
R2= 0.67 for the three relationships, respectively.
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The condition index ranged from 7.48 in October and 1.22 in January, and an overall
average of 2.94 ± 1.1, the lowest average was October to the end of culture with 2.11 ± 0.79 and
November with the highest average 4.06 ± 1.05 (P <0.05) ( Fig. 5). The condition index is a good
estimator of the gametogenic activity.
Interactions Spearman correlation with the variables described and biometrics, as well as
monthly increases in length, weight and condition index were performed. Pairs of variables with
coefficients positive correlation (P <0.05) were found as corresponding to the increases in size
and weight with respect to temperature. The condition index on the percentage of organic
material showed a negative correlation coefficient (P <0.05). Positive correlations between
chlorophyll aand growth to the length, width and height were found and a negative correlation
between seston and growth in length, width, height, weight and weight increase (P <0.1) (Table
It is indisputable the need to develop mitigation measures that adhere to the guidelines
and proposed management strategies for a fishery, in this case the stone oyster. In addition to the
need to exploit native species for aquaculture, which on the one hand reduce the effect of
overfishing and the other a large number of recruits who are discarded by the fishery of this
resource advantage. This is the first study to use stone oyster seed cropping systems; it allows us
to observe their viability and relationships with environmental variables. There are related works,
although they refer to species that currently bear much of the oyster production of the Mexican
Pacific coast such as Crassotrea. gigas and C. corteziensis and other species of bivalves like
Mytilus galloprovincialis,Argopcten ventricosus and Pteria sterna [31]; [16]; [25]; [32]; [26];
[21]; [33]; [17]; [34]. S. prismatica in Ecuador have conducted studies evaluating feed for
broodstock conditioning systems, larviculture and reproductive cycle [11]; [12]. In Mexico,
recent studies show that the ban governing the fishery is out of phase at least by area [9].
The water temperature is a variable of great importance in the development of bivalve
culture. The record of temperature variation reported in this paper is within the range recorded for
the area of breeding and maturation of the species [6], although due to the characteristics of the
Vol. 72 | No. 6 | Jun 2016 International Scientific Researches Journal
variations of this place were considerable. Seen in the months of November and December where
increases in weight were lowest and coincides with the steepest decline in this variable, the same
is observed in September where were recorded two months prior to this, higher temperatures, this
may be associated with thermal stress suffered by this species native to the area, but it is less
adapted to fluctuating conditions of temperature, limiting this variable represents during culture
is confirmed. C. gigas for optimal growth temperature is 20 to 25 ° C and above 30 ° C cause
death [35]. C. corteziensis for optimum growth temperature is between 28 and 30 ° C and thermal
tolerance can reach around 32 ° C [16]. Moreover, [33] recorded values between 19 and 25.4 ° C
temperature for a culture of C. gigas in Northern Sinaloa and reach commercial size in seven
months of seeding, although high summer temperatures conducive to physiological stress and
growth decreases [21]; in this work we found slow growth and a decline in the condition index
after the considerable increase in temperatures in the summer season, we can confirm that the
thermal tolerance of this species is 32.8 on monthly average.
A variable temperature is associated with salinity; it influences the metabolic activity of
these mollusks. Sudden variations in salinity prevent the oysters have tolerance to variations in
other environmental variables such as temperature [36]. In this work endured salinity
concentrations during the second month of culture under 5 ups, for the supply of fresh water from
rainfall, a decline seen in the growth rate, because in these conditions oysters, experience a loss
of sensation in the mantle, decreased heart rate and loss of motion in the ciliary activity that limit
their power [37]. This remained stable until summer, at concentrations of marine conditions.
The percentage of organic matter and chlorophyll aare important environmental variables
that affect gonadal development and storage of energy for growth and are indicative of the
availability of food [23]; [16]; [32]; [26]; [24]. Seston is associated with mass mortalities of
oyster culture [26]. The chlorophyll aconcentration reached the peak in July, when the condition
index percentages were the highest and seston concentrations were lowest. The transport of
organic and inorganic material caused by rains increased the content of seston and organic matter,
when concentrations were high, the condition index was slightly affected, not growth rates, which
showed significant declines, mainly due to under these conditions, they close their shells
avoiding this food. In the natural environment, banks of stone oyster for long periods remain
Vol. 72 | No. 6 | Jun 2016 International Scientific Researches Journal
buried due to hauling sandy substrates by movements of marine currents, which on one hand
increases the natural mortality [3], although in many cases can last up a month or more under
such substrates in a state presumably minimal metabolism, allowing the population to stay and
also avoid being removed by fishing, oysters subjected to adverse conditions of temperature and
salinity, can withstand periods of prolonged adverse situations the environment, as if they were
drugged [37]. This suggests an example of adaptation to the conditions of the culture medium
which was available using the survivability of the species.
The condition index (C.I.) has been a measure of the physiological state of many
organisms; oysters may also be related to the stage of reproduction, growth and health, [8], [32].
In a study comparing the condition index of C. gigas cultivated in a lagoon and beyond conclude
that a lower rate of condition experience more stress changes and differences in water quality
[26]. In M. squamosos, decreases in the condition index are related to spawning and abrupt
changes observed in this are caused by the formation and loss of spawning gametes [38]. A
significant decrease was observed in January, attributable to stress due hurricane: decreased
temperature, oxygen concentration, salinity and increase the acidity of the water, including 50%
of the percent cumulative mortality was recorded in this date. You cannot ignore that living
things are structural, functional and self-regulating systems that have mechanisms of adaptation
to signals received from the external and internal environment [39], a close to the reality of
commercial projects indicator is a final cumulative mortality 30-40% [31]. The C.I. increases
until July and is consistent with the increase in the concentration of chlorophyll a, to reduce the
remaining months, this decline coincides with a rise in temperatures seasonal period, these are
higher due to the shallowness of the place.
Growth is important in cropping systems of this depends on profitability. The minimum
catch size for stone oyster is 90 mm [2], which also coincides with a recent study of size at
maturity [13]. In this paper the size in length at the end was less than the minimum size, but is
similar to the commercial sizes of other species [35], this is a species whose environmental
conditions where it develops are very different from the culture medium where and it remained
mainly represents one of the first attempts at cultivation of one of the native stone oyster species
in the area and which affects a fishery with a visible lack of regulation.
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Environment variables, availability of seston, chlorophyll aand organic matter were good to have
enough growth, survival and condition index from oysters cultured of seeds attached to shells
discharged by fishermen. It is also an alternative employment for fishermen union members in
cooperatives and a strategy management of the fishery.
Acknowledgements. We are grateful to the support of CONACYT for the scholarship 202596
first author. To the "Sociedad Cooperativa Veteranos de la Revolución" for land use and to the
"Sociedad Cooperativa Ostioneros Ribereños de Mármol" for technical support.
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Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. Ecotrópicos. 1999. 12(2): 83-90.
39. Martínez-Guzmán G. Control de la reproducción y producción de semillas de bivalvos en
sistemas controlados. In: Lovatelli, A., Farías A. y Uriarte I. Eds. Estado actual del cultivo
y manejo de moluscos bivalvos y su proyección futura: factores que afectan su
sustentabilidad en América Latina. Taller técnico de la FAO, Puerto Montt, Chile. FAO
Actas de pesca y acuicultura No. 12, Roma. 2008. 267-275.
Vol. 72 | No. 6 | Jun 2016 International Scientific Researches Journal
Table 1. Values of Spearman correlation between increases in sizes (ΔL) and weight (ΔW) and C.I.
regarding the different variables in the cultivation of stone oyster S. prismatica in “las salinitas”,
Sinaloa, México. October 2013 to October 2014.
S (ups)
Chlorphyll a
*P<0.05; ** P<0.1
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Fig. 1. (a) Seed attached to an adult shell oyster (green line: alive seed. and red line: dead
seed). (b) Study area.
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Average ± s.e. of the annual variation in food availability, organic matter and seston for growing
stone oyster S. prismática; different letters indicate significant differences (P<0.05).
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Length wide height (mm)
Weight (g)
ab ab
efg gg
ghi hi
Length _______
Wide --------
Height ............
Weight __ __ __ __
Fig.3. Average growth ± s.e. in length, width, height and weight of stone oyster S.
prismatica, under culture conditions in the estuary "The Salinitas", Sinaloa, Mexico,
different letters indicate significant differences (P<0.05).
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Fig 4. Monthly increases in size (ΔL) and weight (ΔW), and monthly averages of
temperature, salinity and pH of an stone oyster cultivation S.prismatica, in a water supply
channel for shrimp farm with the estuary conditions “las Salinitas”, Sinaloa, México.
ΔL (mm), ΔW (g), pH
Measurement date
Lenght Wide Height Weight
pH Temperature Salinity
Vol. 72 | No. 6 | Jun 2016 International Scientific Researches Journal
Oct.13 Nov.13 Dec.13 Jan.14 Feb.14 Mar.14 Apr.14 May.14 Jun.14 Jul.14 Aug.14 Sep.14 Oct.14
Condition index (%)
Fig.5. Average ± s.e. the percentage of condition index during the months of cultivation of
stone oyster S. prismatica, different letters indicate significant differences (P<0.05).
... Los resultados del crecimiento de la ostra en este estudio, fueron superiores a los obtenidos por Rendon et al. (2016), quienes realizaron un cultivo de S. prismatica en un canal de abastecimiento de agua de una camaronera en México y hallaron que el crecimiento fue lento debido a las grandes fluctuaciones en los parámetros fisicoquímicos, principalmente temperatura, salinidad y disponibilidad de alimento. En este estudio, se observó que dichos parámetros fueron relativamente estables durante el periodo de cultivo, lo que pudo favorecer al mayor crecimiento de las ostras. ...
... Our results on oyster growth were superior to those obtained by Rendon et al. (2016), who cultured S. prismatica in a water supply channel of a shrimp farm in Mexico, and found that growth was slow due to large fluctuations in physicochemical parameters, mainly temperature, salinity, and food availability. We observed that these parameters were relatively stable in our study during the culture period, which may have favored the increased growth of the oysters. ...
... We observed that these parameters were relatively stable in our study during the culture period, which may have favored the increased growth of the oysters. On the other hand, Bermúdez (2006), Cavero & Rodríguez (2008), Lodeiros et al. (2001), Rendon et al. (2016, and Robles et al. (2020) indicate that the growth and survival of bivalve mollusks in suspended culture depend on several factors such as food availability, water temperature, presence of epibionts, predators, competitors for space and food, and the effects of continuous movement produced by waves and currents. Maintenance and cleaning of the culture systems are carried out to minimize the negative effect of these factors and to ensure their correct functioning. ...
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El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar tasas de crecimiento y supervivencia, así como rendimiento en las etapas de engorde de la ostra S. prismatica en sistema de cultivo suspendido en función de los cambios estacionales de algunos parámetros oceanográficos (temperatura, salinidad y clorofila-a). En febrero 2019, se instaló un long line en las coordenadas geográficas 3°38’36,7’’S y 80°36’53,6’’O, frente a Nueva Esperanza (Tumbes). Se inició la investigación con 1.600 semillas producidas en el Laboratorio Costero de Tumbes (Imarpe), cuyas dimensiones de valva fueron: longitud 9,3 ± 0,9 mm, altura 9,1 ± 0,7 mm y espesor 1,8 ± 0,3 mm, distribuidas en 4 linternas de 4 pisos; se empleó densidad de 100 ostras por piso. La fase de cultivo se realizó en 518 días, durante los cuales se realizaron 17 muestreos biométricos. Al final de la fase de cultivo, los promedios en longitud, altura y espesor fueron: 82,6 ± 10,6 mm; 86,2 ± 10,3 mm y 37,9 ± 6,6 mm; con tasas promedio de crecimiento de 4,3 mm.mes-1, 4,5 mm.mes-1 y 2,1 mm.mes-1. La supervivencia fue 56,0%. El análisis de varianza indicó que ambos parámetros no presentaron diferencia significativa (ANOVA, F=1,14; p=0,29). El rendimiento fue de 1: 0,1365 (1.000 kg de peso total rinde 136,5 kg de peso del cuerpo). Las condiciones oceanográficas térmicas y halinas, así como la disponibilidad de alimento (clorofila-a) fueron favorables para su crecimiento durante el experimento.
... Environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, and primary productivity undoubtedly influence the performance of oyster cultures (Bayne et al., 1993;Hawkins et al., 1996;Hawkins et al., 1998;Rendón-Martínez et al., 2016). However, the effect of other abiotic factors, such as the need for substrates in the culture environment, have not been evaluated to the best of our knowledge regarding their biological performance. ...
... Loor (2012) also recorded slow growth of S. prismatica juvenile (without artificial substrate) cultured in a shrimp farm reservoir. On the other hand, compared to other ostreids, The only documented grow out study with S. prismatica to our knowledge, was carried out by Rendón-Martínez et al. (2016), who cultivated juveniles of 19.1 ± 3.2 mm shell length (collected from adult oysters). After 400 days of culture, the oysters had a growth similar to that achieved in our investigation. ...
... From this same point of view, Rendón-Martínez et al. (2016) showed that temperature is an important factor for the growth of S. prismatica, especially in places where the availability of food is not a limitation, which coincides with the conditions of our study. Survival of oysters from all treatments grown in Ayangue Bay was slightly lower compared to the spat grown in the shrimp reservoir. ...
The interest in developing a more diverse mollusk aquaculture in the tropical eastern Pacific has increased in recent years. In this region, the rock oyster Striostrea prismatica is being extracted and consumed massively. The species lives attached to large rocks, which offer firmness and stability in their high-energy environment. For aquacultural research purposes, we seek to simulate those natural conditions through artificial fixation of spat with an epoxy adhesive. Spat (initially metamorphosed on pieces of shell of 0.5 mm²) with a size of 14.00 ± 1.85 mm in dorso-ventral length were artificially fixed on substrates: shells, stones, and plastics. In addition, individual non substrate animals from de same cohort were also grown and used as a control. The performance of these spat in suspended culture at sea and estuarine area, together with the environmental variables of each growing site were registered. In the two culture sites and for all treatments, the animals were confined in black polypropylene culture systems. After 12 months, artificially fixed animals (regardless of substrate) had significantly higher lengths (≈80 mm) and dry tissue masses (≈3 g) compared to non-substrate animals (≈46 mm and ≈0.90 g, respectively). ANOVA did not show significant differences between the sites (blocks) for survival, shell and tissue increases, despite the different environmental conditions characteristic of both areas. Therefore, our study shows that the strategy of artificially fixing the spat is a necessary activity to ensure the good performance of S. prismatica for its cultivation in the sea or in estuarine areas.
... Despite its cultural importance and consumption, research efforts to foster its production in captivity are scarce. However, it was possible to find a few works in Mexico (Rendón-Martínez et al., 2016), Nicaragua (Hernández et al., 2006), Ecuador (Argüello-Guevara et al., 2013;Lodeiros et al., 2017;Loor, 2012;Loor & Sonnenholzner, 2016;Rodríguez-Pesantes et al., 2020 and Peru (Robles et al., 2020). ...
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The biochemical nature and composition of fatty acids (FA's) in microalgae influence the nutritional quality and efficiency of this food source in bivalve larviculture. This research analyses the effect FA's content of Chaetoceros gracilis and Tisochrysis lutea on the FA's composition, growth and survival of Striostrea prismatica larvae. We analysed the FA's profiles of the microalgae, and the tissue of the larvae during a S. prismatica larviculture at day 1 (“D” larvae), day 8 (umbonate larvae) and day 22 (pediveliger) post fertilization (PF). Larvae growth and survival were evaluated during two phases: phase I from day 1 to day 8 PF and phase II from day 9 to day 22 PF. In phase I, we recorded a daily growth rate of 4.76 μ−1, while in phase II we recorded increases of 13.24 μ−1. In phase I, survival was 36.6%, and decreased further to 9.3% at the end of phase II. The sharp decrease in survival and low growth during phase I could possibly be explained by a specific nutritional deficiency of the microalgae diet (absence of FA's 15:0, 20:4n‐3, 20:4n‐6 and 22:5n‐ 3), especially if we consider the starting FA's profile of the “D” larvae. The larvae showed a high nutritional requirement for palmitic, stearic and oleic FA's and long‐chain PUFA's, especially 20:5n‐3 and 22:6n‐3. The absence of these FA's in the diet and their presence in the larval profile suggest that S. prismatica could have the ability to synthesize these FA's; however, more research is needed to corroborate this hypothesis.
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The reproductive cycle in oysters has been the object of several studies in temperate zones. However, little information is available for tropical and subtropical species. This study shows the seasonal changes in the gonadal index (GI) of two species of oysters, Crassostrea iridescens and Crassostrea corteziensis, which differ markedly in their habitat and time of reproduction. Both oysters were sampled at 45 days intervals in the Northwest coast of Mexico between November 1989 and October 1990. Gonadal and somatic tissue per individual were dried for three days at 90°C, weighed and recorded. The gonadal index (GI) applied in this work was calculated from: GI = Wg/Ws. Where Wg is the average gonadal tissue dry weight, and Ws is the average somatic tissue dry weight. Seasonal variations in the gonadal state were evident for the two species. C. iridescens exhibited only a single maximum in the year, while C. corteziensis two peaks. This situation is presumably related to the contrastable environmental conditions that prevail in the sites where each species inhabit.
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We report differences in growth, condition, and survival of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the Cortez oyster C. corteziensis cultivated in a semi–arid lagoon in northwestern Mexico (Las Guásimas, Sonora) during summer and winter, periods corresponding to juvenile development at the production sites. Three sampling stations were established to determine variations in temperature, salinity, seston, chlorophyll a content, oxygen concentration, and pH at the coastal system. Growth rates and condition indices were higher during winter and cumulative mortality was higher in summer. This was the pattern for both species though significant differences were noted only for C. gigas. The Pacific oyster showed faster growth in winter and slower in summer than the Cortez oyster. While food availability was not a limiting factor in any season, differences in growth, condition, and survival were related to temperature, which ranged from a maximum of 32.7°C in summer to a minimum of 12.7°C in winter. Low temperatures are propitious for C. gigas, since high temperatures cause physiological stress. The Cortez oyster has the ability to adapt its metabolic functions to variations in temperature with no differences in growth and condition during the extreme seasons. The Pacific oyster exhibited better adaptation to variations in conditions at sites like Las Guásimas, but high temperature is a limiting factor for cultivation. Autumn is a propitious period to begin cultivating C. gigas, while the native C. corteziensis can be cultivated year–round.
El ostión de roca Striostrea prismatica es una especie de valor comercial presente en la zona tropical de la costa del Pacífico mexicano. La Carta Nacional Pesquera reconoce esta especie como Crassostrea iridiscens (Hanley 1854); sin embargo, éste es un sinónimo de S. prismatica (Huber 2012). La talla media de madurez sexual (l 50) se estimó a partir de seis modelos sigmoides para 83 hembras y 121 machos, los organismos fueron muestreados en el litoral de Nayarit durante el periodo 2008-2010. La selección del mejor mo-delo se realizó con base en el criterio de información de Akaike corregido (aic c). El mejor modelo para las hembras fue el de Brouwer y Griffiths (l 50 = 9.1 cm de longitud total, lt), y para los machos el de Gompertz fue el más aceptado (l 50 = 9 cm lt). En ambos sexos, la diferencia entre aic c fue menor a dos. Acorde con la inferencia multimodelo, los cinco modelos se utilizaron para estimar el global por sexo. En hembras, el valor de fue 9.0 cm y el de 8.8 a 9.1 cm y en machos fue 8.9 cm, de 8.7 a 9.0 cm. Los valores de ambos sexos coinciden con aquellos registrados en la Carta Nacional Pesquera. En el presente trabajo no hay un claro "modelo ganador", por lo que la inferencia multimodelo es útil en el cálculo de un modelo global. Palabras clave: Modelos sigmoideos, selección de modelos, criterio de información, modelo global. Multi-model inference: Estimation of mean size at sexual maturity for the tropical rocky oyster Striostrea prismatica from Nayarit, Mexico The rocky oyster Striostrea prismatica is an important commercial species found off shores in the Mexican Pacific. The National Fishery Chart recognizes this species as Crassostrea iridiscens (Hanley 1854); although it isa synonym of S. prismatica (Huber 2012). The mean size at sexual maturity (l 50) was estimated using six sigmoid models for 83 females and 121 males, those organisms were sampled along the coast of Nayarit from 2008 to 2010. The best model was selected using the bias-corrected Akaike information criterion (aiC C). The best model for females was Brouwer and Griffiths (l 50 = 9.1 cm total length, Lt), and the Gompertz model for males (l 50 = 9 cm Lt). For both sexes differences among aiC C was less than two. According to the multimodel inference approach, the model-average for each sex was estimated, using all five models. For females, was 9.0 cm and varied from 8.8 to 9.1 cm, while for males was 8.9 cm, was 8.7 to 9.0 cm. For both sexes values of agree with the value reported in the National Fishery Chart. In the present work there is no clear "winner model", but nonetheless the multimodel inference approach is a useful method for estimating the mean size at sexual maturity.
The effects of environmental variability (el Niño 1997/1998) on three Caribbean bivalves (pteria colymbus, Pinctada imbricata and Pinna carnea) were studied based on time series (1994 to 1998) of temperature, salinity, particulate organic matter (pom), larval and spat abundance. Monthly condition and gonad production cycles over a 12 months period are used to investigate whether these processes are coupled with recruitment. The findings clearly show that El Niño 1997/1998 increased Pom, decreased salinity and had little effect on temperature. In contrary to the Pacific, these changes in the study area were not caused directly, hut by increased precipitation and no significant effects on larval or spat abundance were observed. The findings show similarities for the two closely related pearl oysters (Pteria colymbus and Pinctada imbricata), such as conrrelated larval and spat abundance cycles, and a negative correlation between temperatures and spat (whereas temperature was positively correlated with Pinna carnea spat). However, due to fewer spat peaks and a lower mean spat abundance, the uncoupling of gonad production and spat abundance, as well as less continuous gametogenic activity, a different reproductive strategy for Pteria colymbus is indicated.
1.1. The glycogen content of the mantle tissue reached a maximum in the summer (May–July) with levels of 41.0–53.5% of the dry tissue weight.2.2. Seasonal changes in glycogen synthetase activity showed that the I-activity (independent of G6P) increased up to 10-fold in June as compared with December. The measured I-activity of glycogen synthetase was sufficient to account for the accumulation of mantle glycogen in the summer.3.3. The I-activity of glycogen synthetase declined rapidly in July of each year. A possible role for the inhibition of glycogen synthetase by high levels of tissue glycogen is suggested.4.4. The I-activity in the mantle tissue of mussels on the shore was higher than that for animals starved in the laboratory for 2–3 days. The differences were minimal in early May but increased markedly in late May–July. Starved mussels returned to the shore showed an increase in I-activity of glycogen synthetase.5.5. Injection of 30 μmol glucose into the adductor muscle increased the concentration of glucose in the mantle fluid to 2.0–2.5 mM. A similar injection of 60 μ mol glucose resulted in a time-dependent increase in the I-activity of glycogen synthetase.6.6. Injection of mussels with mammalian insulin or anti-insulin serum had no effect on the activity of glycogen synthetase. Our results are at variance with those of other workers who have used the mammalian hormone in molluscan studies (see Discussion).
Nine temperatures (16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, and 32 °C) within the natural range of distribution of the Cortez oyster Crassostrea corteziensis were tested in a first experiment to determine the optimal temperature for growth and survival. Based on these results, a second study assessed two temperatures above this range (34 and 36 °C) to determine upper median lethal temperature for the species. The species was thermo-tolerant between 16–32 °C, grew faster and larger at 24 to 30 °C, and had optimal growth at 28–30 °C. The lower tolerance of the species appears far from the lowest value tested (16 °C). In contrast, the upper tolerance temperature was near 32 °C, since 100% spat mortality occurred within 96 h at 34 and 36 °C. These results are being used to develop a protocol for large-scale hatchery culture of the species in Mexico.