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Theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ): his-story.

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The letters T, R, I, Z in TRIZ (/ˈtriːz/); are the English acronym for the Cyrillic words (Russian: Tеория решения изобретательских задач) which pronounce phonetically as: Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch, and which, translated, mean Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems. Today, TRIZ is commonly used to refer to the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, a slight variation of the literal translation. TRIZ is one of the most comprehensive systematic innovation and creativity methodology available to mankind; it was invented by Genrich Saulovich Altshuller. Sooner or later and preferably sooner, almost everyone who seriously studies TRIZ, begin getting intrigued about its history. History is often regarded as ‘His-story’, ‘his’ being a representative term for mankind. However, today the connotation of “his” is used in a broader sense, with it being significant of anything or any phenomenon that has a story connected to it. So, what is so important about history? After all, it has already happened. There is nothing we can do to change it-hence, what is the big deal? Actually, a vital part of a successful future is the understanding the successes and failures of the past. History is not just chronicles about dead people. It is the DNA of the world today. This article is by no means a comprehensive digest of TRIZ his-story, but rather it focuses on the most significant millstones in the 3 eras of TRIZ evolution. The authors strived to give a fairly good representation of particularly significant events, individuals and achievements of TRIZ evolution. Key words: Altshuller, creativity, history, invention, TRIZ.
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IJISET - International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 2 Issue 7, July 2015.
www.ijiset.com
ISSN 2348 7968
Theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ): his-story.
Diana Starovoytova Madara
Department of Manufacturing, Industrial and Textile Engineering,
School of Engineering, Moi University,
El dor et, Keny a.
Abstract
The letters T, R, I, Z in TRIZ (/ˈtrz/); are the English
acronym for the Cyrillic words (Russian: Tеория
решения изобретательских задач) which pronounce
phonetically as: Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh
Zadatch, and which, translated, mean Theory of the
Solution of Inventive Problems. Today, TRIZ is
commonly used to refer to the Theory of Inventive
Problem Solving, a slight variation of the literal
translation. TRIZ is one of the most comprehensive
systematic innovation and creativity methodology
available to mankind; it was invented by Genrich
Saulovich Altshuller. Sooner or later and preferably
sooner, almost everyone who seriously studies TRIZ,
begin getting intrigued about its history. History is often
regarded as ‘His-story’, ‘his’ being a representative term
for mankind. However, today the connotation of “his” is
used in a broader sense, with it being significant of
anything or any phenomenon that has a story connected to
it. So, what is so important about history? After all, it has
already happened. There is nothing we can do to change
it-hence, what is the big deal? Actually, a vital part of a
successful future is the understanding the successes and
failures of the past. History is not just chronicles about
dead people. It is the DNA of the world today. This article
is by no means a comprehensive digest of TRIZ his-story,
but rather it focuses on the most significant millstones in
the 3 eras of TRIZ evolution. The authors strived to give a
fairly good representation of particularly significant
events, individuals and achievements of TRIZ evolution.
Key words: Altshuller, creativity, history, invention,
TRIZ.
1. Introduction
Sooner or later, and better sooner, almost everyone who
seriously studies TRIZ, starts questioning about history of
TRIZ: was TRIZ development based on a dedicated
research or it was an accident, why there are so many
different TRIZ tools, what is the sequence of their
development and were they developed solely by the
inventor or there were some other contributors and if so
who they are and so on...
This article is by no means a comprehensive synopsis of
TRIZ his-story; such extensive historical studies are
already being conducted by V. Petrov [1, 2] and V.
Souchkov [3] who presented exceptionally detailed
account of development of major TRIZ techniques. In
contrast, the focus of this paper is not on chronological
correctness, but rather on most significant millstones and
people contributed to TRIZ evolution. The presented
information was acquired from the two core above
mentioned resources ([1, 2, and 3]) as well as from other
reputable published resources available at the time of the
study (both in Russian and in English). The manuscript is
superficially divided into 3 stages of TRIZ evolution, so
called Classical, Kishinev and Ideation eras. The authors
strived to give a fairly good representation of particularly
important events, people and achievements.
Views on TRIZ development among G. Altshuller and his
students apparently vary, which is evident from a number
of his books [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. The situation resembles that of
Jesus Christ who also had a lot of followers. The followers
resolved the differences of opinion by writing not a history
but a number of gospels. To avoid unnecessary
discrepancies, neither the “gospel” from Genady
Filkovsky - a student in the Altshuller's first School of the
Inventive Creativity (Baku, 1970-1971) no the “gospel”
from Yevgeny Karasik- member of the Altshuller's
"kitchen cabinet" (1973-1981) was considered in this short
paper. Nevertheless interested parties can access the
summary of the two gospels in English via reference [9,
10].
2. TRIZ evolution overview
TRIZ has an interesting history [11]. Genrich Saulovich
Altshuller the inventor of TRIZ, was born October 15th,
1926 in Tashkent, former Soviet Union and died
September 24th, 1998 in Petrozavodsk, Russia. He was
only 17 years old when he made his very first patented
invention (scuba diving thermo-retaining apparatus) [12].
His passion for inventions led him to pursue a career as a
mechanical engineer. In 1946 G. Altshuller was a
successful young, Jewish inventor and a patent officer in
the "Inventions Inspection" department of the Caspian Sea
flotilla of the Soviet Navy. His primary responsibility was
to assist inventors in filing patents, but because he himself
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was an exceptional engineer and inventor, he was often
asked for help in solving problems encountered during the
innovation process. In his patent work G. Altshuller saw
that chemists, biologists, physicists and engineers were
unknowingly repeating each other’s work because they
never looked to see if anyone outside their own area had
similar problems and answers to those problems. G.
Altshuller saw that science and technology had become a
Tower of Babel. Each wrote patents in their own scientific
language and technical terminology, and similar problems
were solved with analogous solutions but no-one, until G.
Altshuller noticed that there was a huge duplication of
work. G. Altshuller sought to extract knowledge from
inventions, compile that knowledge in usable form, and
make the knowledge available to inventors in any area or
discipline [11].
By identifying and categorizing the patterns in innovative
solutions, G. Altshuller realized that one could gain access
to solutions that would normally be "unavailable" due to
one's specialization or narrow field of vision. G. Altshuller
set out to categorise all those solutions in patents to
identify all the innovative ways to solve any problem. His
objective was to find out if inventive solutions were the
result of chaotic and unorganized thinking or there were
certain regularities and patterns which governed the
process of creating new ideas and inventions. G.
Altshuller categorized these patents in a novel way.
Instead of classifying them by industry, such as
automotive, aerospace, etc., he removed the subject matter
to uncover the problem solving process. He found that
often the same problems had been solved over and over
again using one of forty fundamental inventive principles.
Realizing that an innovation represents a fundamental
change to a technological system - and is therefore subject
to analysis - G. Altshuller turned his attention to the patent
field, screening over 400,000 patents from all over the
world. After investigating, he found that only 0.3% of all
patented solutions were really new, which meant that they
used some newly discovered physical principle such as
the first radio receiver or the first film photo camera. The
remaining 99.7% of inventions used some already known
physical or technological principle but were different in its
implementation (for instance, both a car and a conveyer
belt may use the same principle: aircushion). He identified
patents that constituted "inventive" achievements, and
began a rigorous analysis of these. After analyzing the
groundbreaking patents, he identified a common set of
inventive principles and processes used across numerous
areas of technology. He realized that a problem requires an
inventive solution if there is an unresolved contradiction
in the sense that improving one parameter impacts
negatively on another. He later called these “technical
contradictions". G. Altshuller codified these inventive
principles to make them useful across various areas of
technology, engineering and business. In addition, it
appeared that a great number of inventions complied with
a relatively small number of basic solution patterns.
Therefore, G. Altshuller concluded that the vast majority
of new inventive problems could be solved by using
previous experience - if such experience is presented in
explicit way, for instance in terms of principles and
patterns. This discovery produced a tremendous impact on
further studies which let to development of the basic
principles of invention.
Assuming that methods existed to help people solve
creative problems, G. Altshuller went to the library and
began researching. He found studies based upon the
notion that, since innovation is a product of the human
mind, the process of innovation can be enhanced using
psychological techniques. Several methods (such as
brainstorming) had been developed to overcome
psychological inertia - that is, to help people generate
ideas "outside the box". But G. Altshuller soon began to
realize the difficulty of obtaining objective information on
the innovation process through psychological means, as
the results were neither measurable nor reliable. In
contrast, he reasoned, that technical information is
objective in nature. While there are no tools that allow us
inside the human mind to study the process of innovation,
the results of this process can be easily observed by
studying the inventions themselves, or the patent literature
associated with them. G. Altshuller noticed inventive
problems could be codified, classified, and solved
methodically, just like other engineering problems" [14].
The results of his efforts formed the theoretical basis of
TRIZ and laid the groundwork for the problem-solving
tools that would afterwards be developed. Later, as a
consequence of ‘glasnost’, several of G. Altshuller’s
students emigrated to the USA, Scandinavia, Israel,
Germany and other countries, consequently TRIZ has
been introduced and spread all over the world. Some of
the TRIZ experts have worked on the development of
software applications. As the TRIZ methodology grew
over the next four decades, the patent research continued;
by the mid-1980s over 2.0 million patents had been
investigated, which represent roughly 10% of all patents in
the world [15].
2.1. Specifics of TRIZ evolution
In the evolution of TRIZ, three stages can be
distinguished: (1946-1985) - Classical, (1984-1992) -
Kishinev, and (1992-today) - Ideation era. Fig.1 illustrates
these stages. The account of most significant events,
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individuals and developments is followed according to
these eras.
Figure 1: TRIZ evolution [16]
2.1.1 Classical Era (1946 – 1980’s)
During this period, the conceptual foundation of TRIZ was
formulated, and many methods and tools were developed,
but not integrated. Also, a large body of engineering
knowledge was accumulated. However, all results were
produced in a descriptive form appropriate only for the
manual use of TRIZ. For this reason, as well as the general
state of apathy in the former Soviet Union which resulted
in reluctance to change and resistance to innovation, TRIZ
had only limited practical application. Following is a
reflection of most important events and individuals of the
era: 1) G. Altshuller started developing TRIZ and
conducting his first TRIZ training sessions.
At this time he realized a key role of
resolving a technical contradiction in order to
come up with an inventive solution.
2) In 1948, Altshuller wrote a letter to Soviet
leader, Iosiff Stalin, with a sharp critique of
Soviet system of inventiveness. As a result
he was sentenced to 25 years and send to the
Rechlag labour camp (Vorkuta) as a political
prisoner [12].
3) In 1952, while in prison, a step-by-step
procedure of problem solving was developed
and was meant as "Instructions to Inventors".
G. Altshuller gave it the name ARIZ in 1970.
4) In 1954, following Stalin's death in 1953, he
was released and rehabilitated. After coming
from prison, because of resistance by the
State Committee of Inventive Affairs and the
Society of Inventors (Altshuller was an
intellectual Jew), G. Altshuller went
underground, writing science fiction stories
under the pen name H. Altov [17]. At that
time the method was studied only by a small
group of intellectual’s elite. [18]
5) G. Altshuller and R. Shapiro published the
article “About Technical Creativity” in the
journal Questions of Psychology, # 6, 37-49.
1956 [19]. It was the first official TRIZ
publication, which introduced such concepts
as technical contradiction, ideality, inventive
system thinking (currently known as “System
Operator” or “Multi-Screen Diagram of
Thinking”), the law of Technical System
Completeness, and Inventive Principles. The
same year the first algorithm to support a
process for inventive solving problems was
introduced, which included 10 steps and the
first 5 Inventive Principles (which later in
1963 became sub-principles of more general
40 Inventive Principles as known today).
Extensive research on discovering new
Inventive Principles begins.
6) The term “ARIZ” was introduced, thus an
improved algorithm was titled “ARIZ”. The
algorithm included 18 steps and 7 inventive
principles (with 39 sub-principles) [4].
7) G. Altshuller published the first system of
the Laws of Technical Systems Evolution.
8) The next algorithm version included 18
steps, 31 inventive principles, and the first
version of the Matrix for Resolving
Technical Contradictions with generalized
technical parameters (16x16 parameters).
9) The next version of ARIZ included 25 steps,
35 inventive principles, and the Matrix for
Resolving Technical Contradictions (32x32
parameters). At this time, in addition to
developing a tool for inventive problem
solving, G. Altshuller and his associates put
considerable attention to the development
and teaching techniques for Creative
Imagination Development [20] (e.g. Method
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of Focal Objects, Fantograma, Operator
“Size-Time-Cost”).
10) G. Altshuller also introduced definition of an
“Ideal Machine”.
11) G. Altshuller established AZOIIT
(Azerbajdzhan Public Institute for Inventive
Creativity) which becomes the first TRIZ
training and research centre in the USSR. In
parallel, G. Altshuller establishes OLMI (a
Public Laboratory of Invention
Methodology)-the first public open source
initiative targeted at uniting efforts on
developing TRIZ nationwide.
12) ARIZ-71 included 35 steps, 40 inventive
principles (with 88 sub-principles), and the
Matrix for Resolving Technical
Contradictions with 39x39 parameters (it is
the same matrix for resolving technical
contradictions which is still in the wide use
today). ARIZ-71 was a major step in TRIZ
development. It introduced Operator “Time-
Size- Cost”, the first version of the Method
of Little Men, and included references to
physical effects for solving inventive
problems.
13) At the same time, development of a Database
of Physical Effects [21] had begun by Yuri
Gorin, which linked generic technical
functions with specific physical effects and
phenomena.
14) Establishing a St. Petersburg (ex USSR)
School of TRIZ under chair of V.
Mitrofanov, probably the most influential
school of TRIZ in the former USSR.
15) A new approach to solving inventive
problems was introduced: Substance-Field
Modelling (also known as Su-field
Modelling) and the first 5 Inventive
Standards (which were later extended to 76
Inventive Standards [22]) were published by
G. Altshuller.
16) ARIZ-75B included 35 steps, and introduced
several new major TRIZ concepts.
17) G. Altshuller realized that to find most ideal
technical solutions, it was not enough to use
the Matrix of Resolving Technical
Contradictions, which he considered
although a refined, but still a variation of the
trial and error method. Thus the Matrix of
Resolving Technical Contradictions was
excluded from the main text of ARIZ (only
used as additional material), and all
operations on solving inventive problems
were targeted at formulation and elimination
of a physical contradiction.
18) ARIZ-77 included 31 steps, and introduced
the concepts of a physical contradiction at
micro-level, a pair of conflicting
components, operational time and
operational zone. Although the Matrix of
Resolving Technical Contradictions still
remained as a part of ARIZ as an additional
material, its use was limited.
19) 18 Inventive Standards were presented.
20) Altshuller publishes “Creativity as an Exact
Science”, which is still considered as his
major book [6]. At the same time Altshuller
defined a Theory of Technical Systems
Evolution (abbreviated TRTS in Russian) as
a separate subject for study, and identified a
number of Life Lines of Technical Systems
which later became known as “9 Laws of
Technical Systems Evolution”.
21) In 1980 the first TRIZ Specialist conference
took place in Petrozavodsk, Russia [23].
22) TRIZ receives publicity in the former USSR.
Many people become devotees of TRIZ and
of G. Altshuller; the first TRIZ professionals
and semi-professionals appear.
23) G. Altshuller is highly proficient in
developing TRIZ due to the large number of
seminars conducted, the various TRIZ
schools established, and individual followers
who join the ranks, allowing for the rapid
testing of ideas and tools. TRIZ schools in
St. Petersburg, Minsk, Novosibirsk, and
others become very active under G.
Altshuller's leadership.
24) The strong development of classical TRIZ
results in the first serious attempts to move
TRIZ beyond the strictly technological
domain (the book “Life Strategy for a
Creative Individual”, children's education,
"subversion" analysis, Theory of Evolution
of Organizations, etc.).
2.1.2. Kishinev Era (1982-1992)
The second period, often called the Kishinev Era (1982-
1992), started when a number of outstanding pupils,
headed by one of them Boris Zlotin, an accomplished
inventive problem solving expert, established, along with
Alla Zusman, a TRIZ technical school in Kishinev. This
school provided various forms of training, but also
continued research on TRIZ. The school’s objective was
to integrate the individual TRIZ methods, tools, and
accumulated knowledge, and to present TRIZ in a form
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acceptable for an international audience and for
computerization. Also, they wanted to develop TRIZ as a
technology for dealing with all stages of the inventive
problem solving process, since the original TRIZ was
focused mostly on the concept development stage.
1) The accomplishments of the Kishinev TRIZ
School included [24]:
a. over 6,000 students taught, more
than 4,000 technological problems
solved or facilitated, development
of a methodology for solving
scientific problems and for
identifying possible causes of
failures as well as potential failures,
identified numerous lines of
evolution, published nine books on
TRIZ (three together with G.
Altshuller), contributed monthly to
popular magazines on the practical
application of TRIZ, launched a
monthly contribution to Russian
newspapers on TRIZ for children,
published numerous other articles
on the TRIZ methodology,
developed the basic patterns of
evolution of organizations,
developed recommendations for
using students' unresolved real-life
problems as a teaching process,
developed educational programs for
various audiences at a range of
technical levels and provided
analytical services for business
organizations among others.
2) By 1989, the extensive experience of the
Kishinev TRIZ School in teaching and
problem solving allowed Zlotin and Zusman
to define the main limitations of the classical
TRIZ methodology. These include [25]:
a. Its non-rigorousness (i.e., many
analytical skills that were required
for the successful application of
TRIZ tools had not been
transformed into documented rules,
algorithms and recommendations).
b. A limited amount of the TRIZ
knowledge-base had been
documented and was available for
study and use.
c. Each tool had been developed
separately and as a result the tools
did not form an integrated system.
d. Problems of different types had to
be treated differently, but there were
no clear recommendations for
which tool to use for a particular
type of problem or situation.
e. The tools did not support all stages
of the problem-solving process. For
example: problems had to be pre-
formulated in TRIZ terms before the
tools could be applied.
3) As a result of the above limitations, TRIZ
was characterized by the following:
a. Considerable education (from 100
to 250 hours) was required to
effectively utilize TRIZ.
b. Extensive practice (from 1 to 5
years) was required to become self-
sufficient in the methodology.
c. Making TRIZ available for mass
utilization posed an overwhelming
challenge.
4) In addition, these same drawbacks made the
process of computerizing TRIZ -- which had
already begun - very difficult.
5) Given the above considerations, Zlotin and
Zusman determined to advance the TRIZ
methodology in the following directions:
a. Develop integrated tools so that all
types of problems can be treated in
the same manner.
b. Add the "missing" tools so that
TRIZ supports all stages of the
problem-solving: problem
identification, formulation, and
categorization; identifying and
utilizing the appropriate tools;
evaluating results; planning the
implementation.
c. Restructure and extend the TRIZ
knowledge base to take advantage
of computerization.
d. Continue development of the lines
of technological evolution and on
problem-solving tools.
e. Reveal patterns of evolution in non-
technological areas.
6) This work resulted in the following
accomplishments:
a. A new, comprehensive version of
ARIZ, which is much more rigorous
and suited to computerization.
b. A problem formulation process, first
for mental use and then for
computerization.
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c. A System of Operators that
incorporates the entire existing
TRIZ knowledge base.
d. Substantial extension of the TRIZ
knowledge base (twice as many
operators, many additional
examples, added technical
applications of effects).
e. A complete problem-solving
process (later called the Ideation
Process).
7) A prototype of the Innovation Workbench
software system, which incorporates the
complete problem-solving process.
8) A software prototype for personnel
management.
9) ARIZ-82 included 34 steps, and introduced
the concepts of “X-element” and a mini-
problem, a table of Typical Conflicts,
Principles for Resolving Physical
Contradictions, Method of Little Men. The
Matrix of Resolving Technical
Contradictions and 40 Inventive Principles
were completely excluded from ARIZ.
10) G. Altshuller positioned ARIZ as a tool for
solving “non-standard” inventive problems,
while the remaining, “standard” inventive
problems can be solved with Inventive
Standards. It becomes clear that Inventive
Standards were not separate stand-alone
patterns for solving problems, but they
mapped the Laws and Trends of Technology
Evolution. Therefore newly emerging
Inventive Standards incorporated the lines of
technical systems evolution.
11) Rather extensive research on Inventive
Standards as well as on the Laws and Trends
of Technology Evolution was conducted by
the TRIZ community.
12) A system of 54 Inventive Standards was
presented.
13) G. Altshuller also initiated a new research
into Biological Effects [8] which he
considered as analogies of Physical Effects.
14) Extensions of TRIZ applications in other
areas rather than technology began, such as
arts [26] and mathematics [27].
15) A major step in TRIZ evolution: appearance
of ARIZ-85C [28, 29]. Even today, it is the
only officially accepted version of ARIZ. It
included 32 steps, and introduced a number
of new rules and recommendations, as well
as put a special focus on using time, space,
and substance-field resources to obtain most
ideal solutions.
16) References to Inventive Standards were
introduced in several parts of ARIZ.
17) The system of Inventive Standards was
organized into 5 classes, included 76
Inventive Standards (which is still remains in
use today).
18) In addition to the Database of Physical
Effects, the Databases of Geometrical [30]
and Chemical effects [31] were developed.
19) G. Altshuller concluded that ARIZ- 85C was
a complete tool for solving inventive
problems, and did not need to be improved
further very much since its application had
been tested at thousands of real problems and
proven to be effective. Now he considered
further evolution of ARIZ and a Theory of
Technical Systems Evolution as a major step
towards OTSM (a Russian abbreviation for a
“General Theory of Powerful Thinking”).
20) In parallel, a group of TRIZ experts
including B. Zlotin, S. Litvin and V.
Guerassimov developed Function-Cost
Analysis (FCA) [32] for analyzing technical
systems and products, and a new extended
version of TRIZ was titled “FCA-TRIZ”
(currently Function-Cost Analysis is mostly
referred as Function Analysis, and the term
FCA-TRIZ is not in the wide use assuming
that FCA is a part of TRIZ).
21) At the same point in time, research was
conducted on the TRIZ Laws and Trends of
Systems Evolution, which resulted in
identifying a number of specific trends and
lines of technology evolution.
22) An “officially” accepted version of FCA-
TRIZ at that time included: ARIZ-85C,
Databases of Physical, Chemical, and
Geometrical effects, 76 Inventive Standards,
a system of Laws of Technology Evolution,
Function Analysis, and Functional
Idealization (also known as “Trimming”).
23) New techniques Alternative Systems
Merging, Subversion Analysis, Functional
Analysis of Inventive Situations were
proposed. Application of TRIZ tools was
extended to the area of patent circumvention.
24) For the first time in the history of TRIZ,
Russian ‘perestroika’ allowed TRIZ to be
applied commercially. Consequently, it is
estimated that TRIZ has been taught to about
50,000 Russian engineers [33].
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25) G. Altshuller switched his attention from
developing technical TRIZ to studying
creative personality. Together with his
associate, I. Vertkin, they studied an
enormous amount of biographies of
outstanding creative people and started
developing a “Theory of Creative Personality
Development” (abbreviated TRTL in
Russian), which identifies what types of
contradictions creative people face during
their lifetimes and how they resolve these
contradictions.
26) A version of TRIZ for children was
developed, and numerous experiments were
conducted in schools and preschools.
27) If in the past TRIZ was mostly identified
with ARIZ (both words used to be almost
synonyms), which organized the use of
different TRIZ techniques together, now
some TRIZ techniques were often used
independently (e.g. Inventive Standards,
Physical Effects, etc).
28) In 1986, the situation changed dramatically.
G. Altshuller's illness limited his ability to
work on TRIZ and control its development,
thus he almost discontinued his work on
technological TRIZ.
29) The first TRIZ software “Invention
Machine™” was released by Invention
Machine Labs (later evolved to
“TechOptimizer™” and “Goldfire
Innovator™” by Invention Machine Corp.
[34]), which included Function Analysis, 40
Inventive Principles, Matrix of Resolving
Technical Contradictions, 76 inventive
Standards, Databases of Physical, Chemical,
and Geometric Effects, and Feature Transfer
(Alternative Systems Merging). The software
brought back the Matrix of Resolving
Technical Contradictions as an independent
tool due to its simplicity of use by TRIZ
beginners (a modern version of software also
includes Semantic Search Engine to index
patent and document information according
technical functions, and the Database of
Effects now includes thousands of entries).
30) At the same time a Database of
Technological Effects [35] was demonstrated
which links technical functions with specific
technologies.
31) N. Khomenko started massive research
within OTSM [36], which introduces
principles and develops skills with domain-
independent “powerful” thinking for kids
and adults.
32) Russian TRIZ Association is established.
33) In 1990 Russian-language “Journal of TRIZ”
is launched (discontinued in 1997 due to
financial constrains, and re-launched in
2005) [37].
34) The pioneering research, its rapid progress,
and the initial prototype computer tools of
the Kishinev school’s efforts, caught the
attention of Zion Bar-El, an engineer and a
wealthy entrepreneur in the areas of high
technology and innovation. He immediately
recognized the colossal potential of TRIZ
and decided to build a company to utilize it
in the American industrial environment.
Detroit, the capital of the American
automobile industry was wisely chosen for
the location of the company; there, orders
and projects from several leading automobile
companies were already waiting. Ideation
International Inc. was born. Consequently,
almost the entire TRIZ Kishinev School team
was relocated (with their families) to the
United States, becoming part of Ideation
International Inc.
2.1.3. 1992 and Beyond - the third period, called
the Ideation Era.
The rapid deterioration of the economic situation in the
former USSR forced many competent TRIZ specialists to
immigrate into the U.S., Israel and other countries and
start promoting TRIZ individually. Others found
international partners and established TRIZ companies,
e.g. as mentioned above, Ideation International Inc. - an
American company incorporated in 1992. During the
following years, Ideation accomplished the following:
1) Translated and repackaged an extensive
amount of information on TRIZ
2) Became familiar with the U.S. marketplace,
Learned the requirements of potential TRIZ
users, Adapted TRIZ to the American
engineering process
3) Delivered products and services to numerous
industrial companies
4) Trained hundreds professionals in the
methodology
5) Established educational programs to help an
individual become self-sufficient in TRIZ
and develop further mastery
6) Developed a family of software tools and
installed thousands of copies
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7) Continuously advanced the Ideation/TRIZ
methodology (I-TRIZ)
8) TRIZ was used to solve a number of
complex and difficult inventive problems in
US for the car manufacturing, aerospace,
textile, wood and petrochemical industries.
For example, a novel containment ring for an
airplane engine fan was invented for Allied
Signal, and a new type of brake system for a
golf cart was invented for the automotive
division of Rockwell International.
9) G. Altshuller and I. Vertkin published the
book “A Life Strategy of a Creative Person”
[6], in which they summarized their work on
the Theory of Creative Personality
Development.
10) A new TRIZ-based software package
Innovation Workbench™ was released in the
US by Ideation International [38], which
included the first TRIZ technique for causal
modelling of inventive situations: Problem
Formulator and a restructured database of
Inventive Operators, based on Inventive
Principles, Inventive Standards and Physical
Effects (currently Ideation International
offers a range of various TRIZ related
software packages).
11) A database of Biological Effects was
published by V. Timokhov [39].
12) Software (IM-Lab, TechOptimizer 2.5,
TechOptimizer 3.0) was developed
by Invention Machine Corporation, USA
13) Software (Ideator, Improver, Eliminator,
Ideation Work-Bench, AFD) was developed
by Ideation International Incorporated, USA
14) In 1995 the Altshuller Institute for TRIZ
Studies was established in Boston, USA.
15) The Russian TRIZ Association becomes
International TRIZ Association.
16) The Online TRIZ Journal is launched in
1996 [40].
17) In 1998, G. Altshuller had passed away
suffering from complications from
Parkinson’s disease and further centralised
coordination of TRIZ developments almost
stopped[41].
18) In 1999, 14 of the world’s top 18 TRIZ
specialists worked at Ideation International
Inc. [42]. Ideation's TRIZ specialists built
upon G. Altshuller's earlier work and
Classical TRIZ to create Modem TRIZ
(ITRIZ) In addition, Ideation International
Inc. developed software (known as I-TRIZ
software) that cover some of the
complexities of TRIZ methodology. This
allows people to begin solving problems
more quickly. The Innovation Workbench
software (IWB) is the most sophisticated toot
developed to date. It combines a structured
TRIZ knowledge base with analytical tools
(e.g., ISQ and Problem Formulator) [43].
19) Different organizations with TRIZ expertise
developed their own versions of TRIZ
(TRIZ+, xTRIZ, CreaTRIZ, and OTSM-
TRIZ among others), thus a set of TRIZ tools
developed under a guidance of G. Altshuller
before 1998 is now titled “Classical TRIZ”
to avoid confusion [44].
20) Creax (Belgium) releases the first version of
“Innovation Suite” software [45].
21) Research and applications of TRIZ in other
areas rather than technology continued (most
developed today are TRIZ for Business and
Management [46], OTSM-TRIZ for kids [47]
and TRIZ for Pedagogy [48]).
22) Although officially abandoned from classical
TRIZ, new versions of the Matrix for
Solving Technical Contradictions emerge
(e.g. Matrix 2003 [49]), as well as
adaptations of 40 Inventive Principles for the
use in different application areas (business,
arts, architecture, specific industries, etc.)
[40].
23) A simplified version of TRIZ, Systematic
Inventive Thinking (SIT) [50] and its
variations (e.g. ASIT: Advanced Systematic
Inventive Thinking [51] and USIT: Unified
Structured Inventive Thinking [52]) are
introduced (although not very much
supported by the majority of the TRIZ
community due to oversimplification and
elimination of some key TRIZ concepts).
24) European TRIZ Association (ETRIA), TRIZ
France Association, and Italian TRIZ
Association APEIRON are established.
25) A number of new tools emerge to help with
complex problem analysis and management,
which still remained a weak part of TRIZ:
Root Conflict Analysis (RCA+)[53] for
decomposing inventive problems, Problem
Flow Technology, Problem Networking [36]
for managing complex problems involving
networks of contradictions.
26) New tools based on previous studies emerge,
such as Hybridization [54] (further
development of Alternative Systems
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ISSN 2348 7968
Merging), Functional Clues [55],
Anticipatory Failure Determination (AFD)
[38], Function-Oriented Search [56],
Inventive Standards for Business Systems,
and Radar Plot for Mapping Trends of
Systems Evolution.
27) New experimental versions of ARIZ appear,
but their use is limited due to complexity and
necessity to be tested on a larger number of
problems.
28) There is a proposal for a system of 150
Inventive Standards [1].
29) Different systems of the Trends of
Technology Evolution emerge, and new lines
of systems evolution are introduced: for
instance, a current version of Directed
Evolution [57] by Ideation International
presents 400 lines of technical systems
evolution.
30) A number of attempts are undertaken to
integrate TRIZ with modern methods of
Quality Management (e.g. Quality Function
Deployment - QFD), and such systems as Six
Sigma (e.g. TRIZ is used within Design for
Six Sigma - DFSS).
31) The Japan TRIZ Society is established in
2007, which main focus is proliferating
TRIZ to younger people. The approaches
used: (a) to challenge the atmosphere of the
current era for younger people, (b) to present
TRIZ in the form acceptable to the
background of the younger people, (c) to
make TRIZ easier to understand/accept, (d)
to let them practice rather than to let them
study the knowledge, (e) to expand the
applicable areas of TRIZ, etc.
3. Concluding remarks
Our view of history shapes the way we view the present,
and therefore it dictates what answers we offer for existing
problems. History teaches values. If it is a true history, it
teaches true values; if it is a pseudo-history, it teaches
false values. In this spirit, the authors have strived to avoid
inconsistencies and contradiction with previous
researches. In this regard only very few verified dates are
indicated, rather the information spread within specific
eras of TRIZ evolution. In parallel, the authors also
attempted to stay true and put some zest into the past.
Nevertheless, we invite our readers to send their
comments and constructive criticism (if any).
References
[1] V. Petrov, History of Developing Standards, Tel-Aviv, 2003
(In Russian), http://www.trizland.ru/trizba/pdf-books/trizba-
6-24.pdf
[2] V. Petrov, History of developing the Algorithm of Solving
Inventive Problems: ARIZ, Tel-Aviv, 2006 (in Russian).
[3] Valeri Souchkov, A brief history of TRIZ, May 2008,
www.xtriz.com/BriefHistoryOFTRIZ.pdf
[4] G. Altshuller, How to Work on an Invention: About a
Theory of Inventiveness. Azbuka Ratsionalizatora, Tambov,
1963 (In Russian).
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Rabochy. 1969, 1973 (in Russian), translated to English:
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innovation, and Technical Creativity, Worchester,
Massachusetts: Technical Innovation Center, 1999
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Creativity
[7] Altshuller, Genrich, And Suddenly the Inventor Appeared.
2nd ed. Worcester, ME: Technical Innovation Center. Inc.
Translated by Lev Shulak. Originally published under
Altshuller' pen name, H. Altov, 1996
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Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. Translated by
Anthony Williams, 1984.
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[10] Genady Filkovsky.Anti Triz Journal.
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[11] Terninko, John, Alla Zusman, and Boris Zlotin. Svstematic
Innovalion: An Introduction to TRIZ. Boca Raton: CRC
Press. 1998
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[13] www. Altshuller.ru/Full biography (15.10.1926-24.09.1998)
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of Inventive Problem Solving. Southfield, MI: Ideation
International Inc. 1996
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webmaster@ideationtriz.com © 2006-2012 Ideation
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innovation.com
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St. Petersburg, 1977 (in Russian)
[21] Yu. Gorin, A Pointer to Physical Effects for Solving
Inventive Problems, Baku, 1973 (in Russian) as an Exact
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ISSN 2348 7968
Science: The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems,
Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1984, 1988
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Tools for Failure and Risk Analysis: An Introduction to
Anticipatory Failure Determination (AFD) and The Theory
of Scenario Structuring, Ideation International Inc., 1999
[24] Website of ICG T&C, www.xtriz.com
[25] Website of Gen3 Partners, USA, www.gen3.com
[26] Yu. Murashkovsky, Biography of Arts: Foundations of a
Theory of Arts Systems Evolution, Skandinavia,
Petrozavodsk, 1997 (in Russian)
[27] V. Tsourikov, “Mathematical Effects: a new Part of
Information Collection in TRIZ”, in Journal of TRIZ, v.2,
#1, 1991, 48-55 (in Russian)
[28] G. Altshuller, Algorithm for Solving Inventive Problems
ARIZ-85C, 1985 (in Russian)
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for New Ideas: From Insight toTechnology, Kishinev, Karta
Moldavenyaske, 1989 (in Russian)
[30] I. Vikentiev, A Spatial Geometrical Operator, St.
Petersburg, 1987 (in Russian)
[31] Yu. Salamatov, “Achievements at Molecular Level:
Chemistry helps with solving complex inventive problems”,
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Russian)
[32] V. Gerasimov and S. Litvin, FCA (Function-Cost Analysis)
and Methods of Technical Creativity, St. Petersburg, 1988
(in Russian)
[33] European TRIZ Association website, www.etria.net
[34] Website of Invention Machine Corporation, www.invention-
machine.com
[35] S. Litvin & A. Lyubomirski, “About the Database of
Technological Effects”, in the Journal of TRIZ, v. 1, #2,
1990, 22-27 (in Russian)
[36] N. Khomenko, TRIZ as a General Theory of Powerful
Thinking (OTSM), collection of articles, 1992-2003,
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[37] International TRIZ Association website, www.matriz.ru
[38] Website of Ideation International, USA, www.ideation-
triz.com
[39] V. Timokhov, Biological Effects: Help for a Biology
Teacher, Riga, NTZ Progress, 1993 (in Russian)
[40] Website of the TRIZ Journal, www.triz-journal.com
[41] www. wikipedia/ G. Altshuller/
[42] Ideation/TRIZ Methodology: IWB Self-Sufficiency in
Inventive Problem Solving (2001). Southfield, MI: Ideation
International Inc.
[43]Timothy P. Schweizer, Luther College.
www.luter.edu/schweizer/
[44] B. Zlotin, A. Zusman, G. Altshuller & V. Philatov, Tools of
Classical TRIZ, Ideation Int. Inc., 1999
[45] Website of Creax, Belgium www.creax.com
[46] D. Mann, Hands-on Systematic Innovation for Business and
Management, Lazarus Press, 2004.
[47] T. Sidorchuk, Thoughtivity for Kids: Developing Creativity,
Imagination, Problem Solving and Language in Ages 3-8
Through TRIZ and Other Innovation Methods, Goal-QPC
Inc., 2006
[48] A. Gin, Principles of Pedagogical Technology, Vita Press,
Moscow, 1999 (in Russian)
[49] D. Mann, S. Dewulf, B. Zlotin, A. Zusman, Matrix 2003,
Ieper, Creax Press, 2003
[50] Website of SIT, Israel, www.sitsite.com
[51] Website of ASIT, www.start2think.com
[52] USIT on Wikipedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unified_Structured_Inventive_
Thinking
[53] V. Souchkov, "Root Conflict Analysis (RCA+): Structuring
and Visualization of Contradictions," in Proc. ETRIA TRIZ
Future 2005 Conference, Graz, November 16-18, 2005,
Leykam Buchverlag, 2005.
[54] V. Prushinskiy, G. Zainiev, & V. Gerasimov, Hybridization:
the New Warfare in the Battle for the Market, Ideation
International, Inc., 2005
[55] A. Pinyayev, Functional Clues, in the TRIZ Journal,
December 2006, http://www.trizjournal.
com/archives/2006/12/08.pdf
[56] S. Litvin, “New TRIZ-based Tool: Function-Oriented
Search (FOS)”, in the TRIZ Journal, August 2005,
http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2005/08/04.pdf
[57] B. Zlotin and A. Zusman, Directed Evolution: Philosophy,
Theory and Practice, Ideation International Inc., 2001.
Author Dr Di ana Starovoytova M adara is a senior lecturer
in the Department of Manufacturing, Industrial and Textile
Engineering, School of Engineering, Moi University,
Kenya. She has been teaching Undergraduate and
Postgraduate programs at Moi University for more than 22
years. She is a regi stered Graduate Engineer and a
regi stered Lead Expert in Environmental Impact
Assessment at NEMA , K enya.
Her recently published papers can be accessed through
Google page: DIANASTAROVOYTOVA/academia.
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There are approximately 2000 management texts published every year. The paper describes the outcome of a research programme, starting in 1996, aimed at distilling 'best practice' from these and other public domain business literature. The foundations of the research emerge from definitions of 'best practice' identified and distilled from TRIZ. The paper describes the factors common to both technical and business applications of the TRIZ philosophy, method and toolkit. It then describes a more fully integrated business and management methodology, constructed from TRIZ foundations, but now integrating ideas and concepts from Cybernetics research and Complexity Theory. A final section of the paper then goes on to examine some of the individual situation definition and solution generation tools found in the resulting new methodology. Given their broad level of applicability, specific focus is placed on the new business conflict-elimination matrix, discontinuous trends of evolution, and a definition tool - originating outside TRIZ - aimed at helping users to obtain a better understanding of complex people situations.
Article
One of the major obstacles for a worldwide TRIZ implementation is a contradiction within TRIZ itself. On the one hand, based on Altshuller's five levels of Invention Classification, the best solutions belong to Levels 4–5, which require dramatic changes in the design of a Product or Process, or even the Action Principle. On the other hand, the TRIZ mini-problem approach requires minimal changes in the initial Product or Process, to make implementation of the solution easier. Usually, it takes years to actualize a new Action Principle. As a part of the TRIZplus methodology, we developed a new paradigm shift — Function-Oriented Search (FOS) — to help solve this contradiction. The main idea of this approach is to find an existing Technology (Product or Process) and transfer it to the Initial Problem, as a Solution. Thus, we can offer a new and very effective Action Principle to solve the initial problem; we also do not need to spend a lot of time and effort proving the effectiveness of this new solution and putting it into practice, because the Technology already exists.
A Spatial Geometrical Operator
  • I Vikentiev
I. Vikentiev, A Spatial Geometrical Operator, St. Petersburg, 1987 (in Russian)