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Jump performance and force-velocity profiling in high-level volleyball players: a pilot study.

Jump performance and force-velocity profiling in high-level volleyball
players: a pilot study.
Broussal-Derval A. 1, Delacourt L. 1, Samozino P. 2, Morin, J.B. 3
1: FFVB (Paris, France), 2: LIBM (Chambéry, France), 3: LAMHESS (Nice, France)
Jump performance is the most important physical determinant of volleyball (VB) performance, at
all levels of play (Ziv and Lidor, 2010). Research and practice have long sought to improve players
jump height through specific strength training (Newton et al., 2006). Recently, the concept of
optimal force-velocity (FV) profile has been related to jump performance: in addition to maximal
lower limbs power (Pmax), a well-balanced FV profile is a key factor (Samozino et al., 2014). We
investigated jump performance, Pmax and FV imbalance in pre-professional and professional VB
Using a simple method based on five loaded squat jumps, we determined Pmax and the FV
imbalance (FVimb), i.e. the % difference between a player’s actual and optimal FV profiles
(Samozino et al., 2014) in the following groups: young elite (32 females, 22 males), professional
(6 females, 8 males), professional in beach-VB (5 males).
In both female and male players, jump height increased with the level of play (from 26.6 cm in
young females to 37.8 cm in pro beach-VB males), as did Pmax (from 23.2 to 31.0 W/kg). All the
groups tested showed on average a FVimb towards a deficit in maximal force capability. This
FVimb was very similar between groups: -37 and -34% for female young and professional players,
and -34 and -33% for male young and professional players, respectively. Interestingly, these
FVimb were very variable within groups (coefficients of variation of 37 to 150%). Additional
computations showed that on average, 10.4 % better jump heights (range: 0-38%) could be
expected in these players should FVimb be reduced, all other things (e.g. Pmax) being equal.
This pilot study provides a descriptive reference for young and professional high-level VB players,
and paves the way for more individualized training programs. Indeed, we observed that the
majority of players had a force deficit (negative FVimb), which means that, ceteris paribus, a
force-oriented training program would result in improved jump performance in most players.
However, the interest of this approach is that some players had an optimal FV profile and even a
velocity deficit (high within-group variability), which means they would benefit from a different
strength training than the majority of their teammates. This study supports the interest of an
individualized FV profiling and strength work to improve jump height in VB players.
Newton RU, Rogers RA, Volek JS, Hakkinen K, Kraemer WJ. (2006). J Strength Cond Res, 20,
Samozino P, Edouard P, Sangnier S, Brughelli M, Gimenez P, Morin JB. (2014). Int J Sports Med,
35, 505-510.
Ziv G and Lidor R. (2010). Scand J Med Sci Sports, 20, 556-567.
... Optimal F-V profiling has been related to jump performance among world class athletes in cycling, fencing, taekwondo, athletic sprinting, 22 rugby, 25 track and field, 23 volleyball, 26 elite female soccer, 27 and such specific positions as football goalkeepers. 28 Moreover, a previous study has designed a F-V IMB category according to the magnitude and direction of the imbalance. ...
... ± 5.9 N/kg; V 0 = 3.2 ± 0.6 m/s), 28 and the majority of 73 young male and female elite and professional volleyball players (F-V IMB from 37% to 34%). 26 The amount of ballistic actions (change of direction, sprinting, or jumping quickly) that goalkeepers and volleyball players require may explain the predominance of velocity qualities. ...
Jumping ability has been identified as one of the best predictors of dance performance. The latest findings in strength and conditioning research suggest that the relationship between force and velocity mechanical capabilities, known as the force-velocity profile, is a relevant parameter for the assessment of jumping ability. In addition, previous investigations have suggested the existence of an optimal force-velocity profile for each individual that maximizes jump performance. Given the abundance of ballistic actions in ballet (e.g., jumps and changes of direction), quantification of the mechanical variables of the force-velocity profile could be beneficial for dancers as a guide to specific training regimens that can result in improvement of either maximal force or velocity capabilities. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical variables of the force-velocity profile during jumping in different company ranks of ballet dancers. Eighty-seven female professional ballet dancers (age: 18.94 ± 1.32 years; height: 164.41 ± 8.20 cm; weight: 56.3 ± 5.86 kg) showed high force deficits (> 40%) or low force deficits (10% to 40%) regardless of their company rank. Our results suggest that dance training mainly develops velocity capabilities, and due to the high number of dramatic elevations that dance performance requires, supplemental individualized force training may be beneficial for dancers. The individualization of training programs addressed to the direction of each individual's imbalance (high force or low force) could help dancers and their teachers to improve jump height and therefore dance performance.
... There is also great variability regarding the FV deficit/dominance. While the aforementioned studies report a 45-137% imbalance of the optimal FV profile, studies on football and volleyball players report velocity-dominant profiles (FV imbalance = 33-65%) [91,92]. ...
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Traditional neuromuscular tests (e.g., jumping and sprinting tasks) are useful to assess athletic performance, but the basic outcomes (e.g., jump height, sprint time) offer only a limited amount of information, warranting a more detailed approach to performance testing. With a more analytical approach and biomechanical testing, neuromuscular function can be assessed in-depth. In this article, we review the utility of selected biomechanical variables (eccentric utilization ratio, force–velocity relationship, reactive strength index, and bilateral deficit) for monitoring sport performance and training optimization. These variables still represent a macroscopic level of analysis, but provide a more detailed insight into an individual’s neuromuscular capabilities, which can be overlooked in conventional testing. Although the aforementioned “alternative” variables are more complex in biomechanical terms, they are relatively simple to examine, with no need for additional technology other than what is already necessary for performing the conventional tests (for example, even smartphones can be used in many cases). In this review, we conclude that, with the exception of the eccentric utilization ratio, all of the selected variables have some potential for evaluating sport performance.
... Comme illustré dans la figure 2, le « déficit forcevitesse » informe sur l'entraînement à mener (qualité musculaire à développer en priorité, ampleur du déficit, etc…) et l'application crée une base de données individuelle pour le suivi de cet entraînement. La fédération française de volleyball et de nombreux clubs de basketball utilisent par exemple l'application dans le suivi des qualités physiques des joueurs, et la programmation individualisée des charges d'entraînement (Broussal, Delacourt, Samozino, & Morin, 2016;Jiménez-Reyes, Samozino, Brughelli, & Morin, 2017). Tellement simple et économique qu'une validation rigoureuse était nécessaire, pour rassurer chercheurs et entraîneurs à qui la culture technologique impose que généralement un outil précis est nécessairement coûteux, et vice versa, un « gadget » pour iPhone ne peut être fiable. ...
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La performance sportive est influencée par les capacités musculaires et physiques des athlètes. Les mesures de référence en laboratoire permettent d’évaluer les productions de force, vitesse, puissance dans des mouvements de saut, de sprint et de musculation, ou encore de biomécanique de la foulée de course, qui comptent parmi les déterminants biomécaniques de la performance sportive. Cependant, bien qu’historiquement développées « sur le terrain » notamment par les travaux d’Étienne-Jules Marey, ces techniques n’étaient pas accessibles au plus grand nombre de pratiquants et praticiens. Grâce au développement récent d’appareils photos et caméras haute fréquence (240 images/s) intégrés dans les smartphones et tablettes du fabricant Apple, des applications ont été inventées et validées par comparaison avec des mesures de référence. Elles utilisent des modèles biomécaniques validés par ailleurs pour calculer force, vitesse, puissance mécanique et performance en saut, lors d’une accélération en sprint, estimer la force maximale lors de mouvement de musculation ou des variables biomécaniques de la foulée de course et leur asymétrie. Le ratio coût/précision/simplicité élevé de ces applications a permis de générer des connaissances sur la performance sportive, mais également des avancées dans l’entraînement sportif qui auraient été impossibles sans la levée de ce verrou technologique.
... An interesting finding of this study is that all the participants were velocity dominant (imbalance from the optimal FV relationship in vertical jump was 2-82%; on average 43%), which means that velocity dominance in vertical jump could be: (a) a general adaptation to volleyball training, or (b) necessary predisposition to play volleyball at this level. This is in accordance with a study conducted on male and female elite volleyball players, who also showed exclusively velocitydominant profiles (FV imbalance = 33-37%) (Broussal et al., 2016). A few other studies also reported high homogeneity toward velocity dominance of various athletes such as young ballet dancers (FV imbalance = 42-51%) (Escobar Álvarez et al., 2020), trained male track and field athletes (sprinters and jumpers; FV imbalance = 44 ± 16% for sprinters and 46 ± 14% for jumpers) (Jiménez-Reyes et al., 2014) female soccer players (FV imbalance = 65 ± 16%) (Marcote-Pequeño et al., 2019). ...
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The force-velocity (FV) relationship allows the identification of the mechanical capabilities of musculoskeletal system to produce force, power and velocity. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of the mechanical variables derived from the force-velocity (FV) relationship with approach jump, linear sprint and change of direction (CoD) ability in young male volleyball players. Thirty-seven participants performed countermovement jumps with incremental loads from bodyweight to 50-100 kg (depending on the individual capabilities), 25-meter sprint with split times being recorded for the purpose of FV relationship calculation, two CoD tests (505 test and modified T-test) and approach jump. Results in this study show that approach jump performance seems to be influenced by maximal power output (r = 0.53) and horizontal force production (r = 0.51) in sprinting, as well as force capacity in jumping (r = 0.45). Only the FV variables obtained from sprinting alone contributed to explaining linear sprinting and CoD ability (r = 0.35-0.93). An interesting finding is that sprinting FV variables have similar and some even stronger correlation with approach jump performance than jumping FV variables, which needs to be considered for volleyball training optimization. Based on the results of this study it seems that parameters that refer to horizontal movement capacity are important for volleyball athletic performance. Further interventional studies are needed to check how to implement specific FV-profile-based training programs to improve specific mechanical capabilities that determine volleyball athletic performance and influence the specific physical performance of volleyball players.
  • Ru Newton
  • Ra Rogers
  • Js Volek
  • K Hakkinen
  • Wj Kraemer
Newton RU, Rogers RA, Volek JS, Hakkinen K, Kraemer WJ. (2006). J Strength Cond Res, 20, 955-961.
  • Ziv G Lidor
Ziv G and Lidor R. (2010). Scand J Med Sci Sports, 20, 556-567.
  • P Samozino
  • P Edouard
  • S Sangnier
  • M Brughelli
  • P Gimenez
  • J B Morin
Samozino P, Edouard P, Sangnier S, Brughelli M, Gimenez P, Morin JB. (2014). Int J Sports Med, 35, 505-510.
  • R U Newton
  • R A Rogers
  • J S Volek
  • K Hakkinen
  • W J Kraemer
Newton RU, Rogers RA, Volek JS, Hakkinen K, Kraemer WJ. (2006). J Strength Cond Res, 20, 955-961.