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... With the modern-day climate change requiring new agrarian solutions, this and other millets are regaining importance because of their adaptability to sub-optimal to poor growing conditions. There have, for instance, been calls to start cultivation of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) or sorghum (Sorghum) in the Po valley 1 , in northern Serbia, in the Czech Republic (Hermuth et al. 2016) and elsewhere in Europe, and also in Asia and Africa 2 , to counter crop failure caused by drought. ...
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"The spread of millet is a spectacular display of the power of human interaction. The adaptability and resilience of the plant may have been the main reasons for its successful integration into pre-existing farming systems. This innovation was a cog in the wheel of the economic, political and social transformation in Bronze Age Europe."
... With the discovery of cytoplasmic male sterility in the 1950s, the commercial production of grain sorghum was completely replaced by hybrids [47]. At present, a significant proportion of grain, biomass, and forage production is based on hybrids in Germany [48]. To enhance the value of this crop for ethanol production, the same genetic mechanism can be utilized to improve the concentration of soluble sugars in grain sorghum varieties. ...
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Sweet, grain, and dual-purpose sorghums differ in a number of important traits, including biomass production, total solutes in the stem juice, and sugar accumulation across the stem. Ten dual-purpose hybrids, two sweet genotypes, and two grain landraces of sorghums were characterized under temperate environmental conditions to determine their potential for bioethanol production. Five sorghum hybrids (Ganymed, Hannibal, Tarzan, Merlin, and Zerberus) performed better with respect to cane yield, juice yield, potential sugar, and ethanol yields compared to sweet and grain genotypes. While the sweet genotype KIT1 produced the highest sugar concentration in the stem, the lowest concentration was produced by the grain landrace Razinieh. The study showed that plant height, leaf number, leaf weight, cane yield, and juice yield were positively correlated with the sugar yield in fresh stalk. Sugar accumulation was higher in the central internodes of all genotypes. Clustering analysis showed that sweet genotypes are located more closely to dual-purpose hybrids than grain landraces. We discuss the results with respect to the potential of dual-purpose sorghum hybrids for bio-economy in Germany.
... Subsequently, herbicide-resistant cultivars were used as the restorer line for the development of herbicide-resistant foxtail millet cultivars (Wang et al. 1996). In 2014, a new prospective cultivar of S. italica, Ruberit, was bred in the Czech Republic suitable for biomass, human consumption and livestock nutrition (grain and forage) (Hermuth et al. 2016). ...
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Millets are considered nutri-cereals which play a crucial part in overcoming malnutrition and have a significant role in improving the status of human health. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), also known as Italian millet or German millet, belongs to Poaceae family and is cultivated globally, including in India. It is also a staple food and feed in several regions of Asia and Africa. There is a great genetic diversity with a large number of germplasm collections maintained in countries like China, Japan, the USA and India. The crop is nutritionally superior as the grains contain high amounts of proteins, essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins and micronutrients like iron and zinc. Thus, foxtail millet can be useful for biofortification programs aimed at combating malnutrition. Foxtail millet is a relatively drought-tolerant crop and hence genomic interventions can be in place for genetic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance. Recent advancements in a draft genome sequence of this millet has spawned great enthusiasm in unraveling genetic and genomic intricacies, genome-wide molecular marker development, genomics-assisted breeding, identification and validation of stress-associated gene families. There have been great research efforts in the creation and facilitation of genomics databases. In this chapter, we present an overview of the importance, genetic diversity, potential and genomics interventions for foxtail millet improvement.
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This handbook offers a quick and easy reference guide for individuals and organisations that are involved with the production of food, from both agriculture and horticulture. It is designed to be used as a reference book that answers basic questions about how food is produced from plants, and aims to demystify the subject of growing food. The focus is firmly on the technical aspects of food crops; animal husbandry, agrochemicals and genetic engineering are only briefly mentioned. The book is divided into three sections: Principles and Practices used in Agriculture and Horticulture Description and Characteristics of the Main Food Crops Naming and Classification of Plants, Seed Purchase Procedures, Conversion Tables and Statistics, Planning and Assessing Agricultural Projects With its strong international flavour, the manual is designed to accessible for those who normally speak or read English as their second language, using simple English terminology and phrasing, with thorough explanations and numerous cross references to the terminology, acronyms and technologies used.
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One factor that limits commercial expansion of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Central High Valleys of México is its susceptibility to stem and head blight, a disease caused by Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme). Because of the lack of information on quality of seed harvested from plants infected with this fungus, in 2003 an experiment was set up in Montecillo, State of México, under irrigated field conditions. Twenty-four cold tolerant genotypes (hybrids, parental lines, and the variety VA-110) were assessed with three inoculation treatments: 1) injection of the pathogen in suspension (5X104 conidia mL-1); 2) injection with sterile water; 3) absolute control, without inoculum or injection, in a complete randomized blocks design with three replications. Harvested seed was assessed based on physiological quality (germination of normal and abnormal seedlings, dead seeds, vigor, and seedling dry matter production), physical quality (100-seed weight, volumetric weight, and number of seeds per gram), and sanitary quality (frequency of diseased seedlings). Also, tests were conducted to confirm the presence of F. verticillioides as the source of inoculum and transmission by seed. The seed harvested from the group of hybrids exhibited better physical quality characteristics than the groups of parents and VA-110, but these advantages were not reflected in better characteristics in terms of physiological or sanitary quality variables. The characteristics of seed quality of the group of hybrids were more similar to the group of male parents than to the group of female parents. As an average of the 24 genotypes, the seed harvested from plants inoculated artificially with F. verticilloides exhibited lower germination rate, vigor and 100-seed weight than those from the control plants, but there was no effect in seedling dry matter production or in percentage of diseased seedling. Artificial inoculation and injection with water had similar effects on most of the characteristics related to harvested seed quality. In the Central High Valleys of México, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum are the causal agents of this disease in sorghum.
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Sorghum grain production in sub-Saharan Africa is constrained by the fact that farmers’ choice of improved varieties is limited. Hybrid cultivars have been shown to be more productive for grain than pure line and landrace varieties hence their development can enhance productivity and food security. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine combining ability of 18 sorghum lines, the level of heterosis and cultivar superiority of experimental hybrids in tropical lowland and mid-altitude environments. Eight cytoplasmic male-sterile lines were crossed with 10 male-fertile lines in accordance with the North Carolina II mating scheme to generate 80 experimental hybrids. The hybrids, parents and two standard check varieties were evaluated in replicated row-column α-designs across six environments in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Cultivar superiority was assessed using the cultivar superiority index (Pi). Results indicated significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences among genotypes for both grain yield potential and secondary traits. Hybrids were predominant in the top 20 ranking for grain yield, and displayed up to 285% standard heterosis. Overall hybrid mean yield was significantly higher than that of parents and standard check varieties, which was attributed to high levels of average heterosis and standard heterosis, respectively. Grain yield data were positively and significantly correlated with head length and number of leaves plant−1, suggesting an improvement in grain yield potential as the number of leaves and head size increase. General combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for all traits, implying that both additive and non-additive gene effects were important. Both GCA and SCA effects significantly interacted with site effects demonstrating the need for multi-location testing of potential cultivars. However, the top grain yielders were generally stable across environments. Parents ICSV700, ICSR165, S35, IMDP97, ICSA4, ICSA724, and ICSA26 with positive and significant GCA effects, which also revealed significant SCA effects in crosses for grain yield were identified as potential materials for inclusion in the hybrid breeding programme.
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Grain mould causes qualitative and quantitative loss to grain in sorghum. Grain mould resistance is a complex problem as grain mould is caused by complex of fungi and the resistance is governed by many traits. Breeding efforts during the last 3 decades to develop grain mould resistance in high yielding genotypes have not paid many dividends. We developed a strategy to breed for grain mould resistance in high yielding back ground. Twenty five crosses between elite lines and grain mould resistant genetic stocks (susceptible×resistant/moderately resistant and moderately resistant×resistant crosses) were evaluated in F1, and derivatives performing superiorly for grain mould resistance in F2–F4 at physiological maturity were advanced. The early generation material F2s (10) and F3s (125) in 6 locations (representing rainy-season-sorghum growing 6 states of India where grain mould is one of the major biotic stresses), and later generations F4s and F5s in 3 locations (one location, Parbhani is a hot spot for grain moulds and 2 locations, Hyderabad and Coimbatore in epiphytotic conditions) were evaluated. Only 25 selections out of 384 derivatives in F4 were superior over locations for grain mould resistance at physiological maturity and harvest maturity (Our simultaneous studies in RILs for grain mould resistance across years and locations have shown that the variation obtained for grain mould resistance at physiological maturity is genetically governed and the grain mould score further gets compounded at harvest maturity depending on rainfall received after physiological maturity). These superior lines were advanced and further evaluated in F5 and F6 for grain mould resistance and grain yield. During 2007, out of 25 F5 derivatives, 12 were on par (scored 3.1–4.4) with resistant check, B 58586 (3.2 score) where as susceptible check, 296 B registered a score of 7.5. GMN nos. 41, 52, 59, and 63 performed on par with resistant check, B 58586 for grain mould resistance over 9 environments. Since we selected for grain mould resistance in early generations at physiological maturity in multi-locations, we could identify superior lines for grain mould resistance. Most of these lines are high yielding and on par with elite check, C43 for grain yield. These lines are distinct for DUS testing traits from grain mould resistant check, B 58586.
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Millets are a major food source in arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Millets are good sources of energy. They provide protein, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, dietary fibre and polyphenols. Typical millet protein contains high quantity of essential amino acids especially the sulphur containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine). Processing millet by milling removes the bran and germ layers that are rich in fibre and phytochemicals, causing significant loss. The millets are source of antioxidants, such as phenolic acids and glycated flavonoids. Millet foods are characterized to be potential prebiotic and can enhance the viability or functionality of probiotics with significant health benefits. The nutritional significance of millets demands for an examination of the nutritional characteristics and functional properties of different millet cultivars as well as developing value added products from millets.
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Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is a multifunctional crop that can be successfully grown in areas where water supply is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate sorghum genotypes for biomass performance and drought resistance in field conditions in Italy. Data from a survey conducted on 75 lines and two hybrids revealed that tropical sorghum landraces can achieve high yields (33–51 t ha−1 under irrigation, and 20–29 t ha−1 under rain-fed conditions) of total aboveground dry biomass. Performance under rain-fed conditions was significantly associated with green leaf area retention (r: −0.47; P: 0.001), plant height (r: 0.50; P: 0.001), and maturity (r: 0.61; P: 0.001). Differences in biomass production potential could explain the observed dry matter yield variability in sorghum materials under water stressed conditions. A stay-green source (SDS 1948-3) along with two senescent types (IS 23509 and IS 33350) were identified and could be of great interest in drought resistance breeding research. The need for developing drought tolerant sorghum hybrids in order to increase and stabilize biomass production is highlighted.
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SUMMARY1  INTRODUCTION1.1  General structure of grains1.2 Wheat1.3 Rice1.4 Maize1.5 Barley1.6 Oats1.7 Rye1.8 Millet1.9 Sorghum1.10 Triticale1.11 Other grains1.12 Key points2TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF CEREALS2.1 Cereal production2.2 Storage2.3 Processing2.4 Cereals and food safety2.5 Key points3THE ROLE OF CEREALS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE3.1 History of cereals in diet3.2 Nutritional value of cereals3.3 Contribution of cereals and cereal products in the diet3.4 Cereals in health and disease3.5 Labelling and health claims3.6 Consumer understanding3.7 Key points4FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS4.1 Fortification4.2 Genetic modification4.3 Gene–nutrient interactions4.4 Key points5CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSREFERENCES GLOSSARYSummaryCereals are the edible seeds or grains of the grass family, Gramineae. A number of cereals are grown in different countries, including rye, oats, barley, maize, triticale, millet and sorghum. On a worldwide basis, wheat and rice are the most important crops, accounting for over 50% of the world's cereal production. All of the cereals share some structural similarities and consist of an embryo (or germ), which contains the genetic material for a new plant, and an endosperm, which is packed with starch grains.After harvest, correct storage of the grain is important to prevent mould spoilage, pest infestation and grain germination. If dry grains are held for only a few months, minimum nutritional changes will take place, but if the grains are held with a higher amount of moisture, the grain quality can deteriorate because of starch degradation by grain and microbial amylases (enzymes). Milling is the main process associated with cereals, although a range of other techniques are also used to produce a variety of products. Slightly different milling processes are used for the various grains, but the process can generally be described as grinding, sifting, separation and regrinding. The final nutrient content of a cereal after milling will depend on the extent to which the outer bran and aleurone layers are removed, as this is where the fibre, vitamins and minerals tend to be concentrated. There is potential for contamination of cereals and cereal products by pests, mycotoxins, rusts and smuts. Recently, acrylamide (described as a probable carcinogen) has been found in starchy baked foods. No link between acrylamide levels in food and cancer risk has been established and based on the evidence to date, the UK Food Standards Agency has advised the public not to change their diet or cooking methods. However, the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Union (EU) has endorsed recommendations made by Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organization which include researching the possibility of reducing levels of acrylamide in food by changes in formulation and processing.Cereals have a long history of use by humans. Cereals are staple foods, and are important sources of nutrients in both developed and developing countries. Cereals and cereal products are an important source of energy, carbohydrate, protein and fibre, as well as containing a range of micronutrients such as vitamin E, some of the B vitamins, magnesium and zinc. In the UK, because of the mandatory fortification of some cereal products (e.g. white flour and therefore white bread) and the voluntary fortification of others (e.g. breakfast cereals), cereals also contribute significant amounts of calcium and iron. Cereals and cereal products may also contain a range of bioactive substances and there is growing interest in the potential health benefits these substances may provide. Further research is required in this area, including identification of other substances within cereals and their bioavailability.There is evidence to suggest that regular consumption of cereals, specifically wholegrains, may have a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and colorectal cancer. The exact mechanisms by which cereals convey beneficial effects on health are not clear. It is likely that a number of factors may be involved, e.g. their micronutrient content, their fibre content and/or their glycaemic index. As there may be a number of positive health effects associated with eating wholegrain cereals, encouraging their consumption seems a prudent public health approach. To increase consumption of wholegrain foods, it may be useful to have a quantitative recommendation. Additionally, a wider range of wholegrain foods that are quick and easy to prepare would help people increase their consumption of these foods. As cereal products currently contribute a considerable proportion of the sodium intake of the UK population, manufacturers need to continue to reduce the sodium content of foods such as breakfast cereals and breads where possible.Nutrition labelling is currently not mandatory in the UK, although many manufacturers provide information voluntarily. The fibre content of most UK foods is still measured using the Englyst method rather than the American Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method used by other EU countries and the USA. However, UK recommendations for fibre intake currently relate to fibre measured by the Englyst method and not the AOAC method, and hence need revisions. EU changes to labelling regulations will see the labelling of common foods and ingredients causing allergic reactions, including cereals containing gluten and products derived from these foods. The introduction of EU legislation covering health claims may help consumers identify foods with proven health benefits.Several misconceptions exist among the public with regard to cereals and cereal products. Firstly, many more people believe they have a food intolerance or allergy to these foods than evidence would suggest and, secondly, cereals are seen by some as ‘fattening’. The public should not be encouraged to cut out whole food groups unnecessarily and, as cereals and cereal products provide a range of macro- and micronutrients and fibre, eliminating these foods without appropriate support and advice from a registered dietitian or other health professional could lead to problems in the long term.In the future it is possible that white flour in the UK may be fortified with folic acid (the synthetic form of the B vitamin folate) to decrease the incidence of neural tube defects during pregnancy. Such a move could also be of benefit for heart health, as poor folate status is associated with high homocysteine levels, an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, high intakes of folic acid can mask vitamin B12 deficiency, a condition that occurs more frequently with age and has serious neurological symptoms affecting the peripheral nervous system.Manipulating the expression of native genes can increase the disease resistance of cereal crops. Novel genes may also be used for this purpose, as well as for developing cereals with resistance to herbicides, and cereals with improved nutritional properties (e.g. increased levels of iron in cereals and of beta-carotene in rice). The long-term consequences and consumer acceptability of such advances must be considered and consumer choice maintained. There is a continual growth in the knowledge of the interactions between human genes and nutrients, and in the future it may be possible to target specific nutrition messages to people with specific genetic profiles.
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 An RFLP-based map consisting of 160 loci was constructed in an intervarietal cross of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], Longgu 25×Pagoda Flower Green. The map comprises nine linkage groups, which were aligned with the nine foxtail millet chromosomes using trisomic lines, and spans 964 cM. The intraspecific map was compared to an interspecific map, constructed in a S. italica×S. viridis cross. Both the order of the markers and the genetic distances between the loci were highly conserved. Deviations from the expected 1 : 2 : 1 Mendelian segregation ratios were observed in both the intra- and inter-specific populations. The segregation data indicate that chromosome VIII in the Longgu 25×Pagoda Flower Green cross carries a gene that strongly affects gamete fertility.
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To clarify the genetic mechanism which controls the variation in amylose content among nonwaxy landraces of foxtail millet, the inheritance of different starch types in endosperm was examined by I2-KI staining. The level of starch granule bound protein in foxtail millet endosperm was also analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The segregation for starch types in F2 and F3 seeds determined by I2-KI staining showed that there are three different alleles at the waxy (wx) locus. A major protein bound to starch granules was detected in nonwaxy endosperm but it was absent in most of the waxy endosperm, suggesting that the protein is the Wx gene product which is responsible for the synthesis of amylose in endosperm. The level of Wx protein proportionally corresponded to the amylose content among nonwaxy landraces. This implies that two different Wx alleles regulate quantitative levels of Wx protein. Landraces with the allele for low amylose content are from Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand.
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Lodging results in serious yield and quality reductions in foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Among summer crops, foxtail millet is a high density and soft stalked crop that is prone to lodging. Field selection for lodging resistance is difficult because the occurrence of lodging depends on the environmental conditions. A practical method for the evaluation of lodging is not available for foxtail millet, so an understanding of lodging-associated traits and identifying a suitable method to assess lodging are essential to select for lodging resistance and to predict the risk of lodging in a cultivar. In the present study, six stem and root traits associated with lodging was measured in the field and lodging coefficients were determined to evaluate lodging resistance in landrace and improved cultivars. Based on the results of correlation analysis, lodging coefficient is a suitable indicator for field selection for lodging resistance in both classes of cultivars tested for breeding purpose. Statistical analyses demonstrated that lodging was associated with stem quality rather than plant height and internode length at the stem base. The most important trait that directly impacted on lodging coefficient was mechanical strength of the stem and plant height in the landraces, while the weights of the above- and under-ground tissues, in combination with mechanical strength of the stem, were the most important contributors to lodging coefficient in the improved cultivars. KeywordsFoxtail millet-Lodging-Lodging coefficient-Landrace-Improved cultivar
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The biochemical methane potential (BMP)) assay was evaluated in terms of inoculum (rumen versus primary sludge digester), inoculum-to-feed ratio, and particle size for analysis of extent and rate of conversion of biomass and waste feedstocks to methane. The rumen and sludge inocula exhibited similar solubilization of particulate matter. An inoculum-to-feed ratio of 2:1 was shown to give maximum conversion rates. Particle size did not influence rate in the range of 1–8 mm. An extensive data base on the biochemical methane potential of several biomass and waste feedstocks is presented, including freshwater, marine, herbaceous, and woody feedstocks and municipal wastes; data for plant parts are also included. In addition, the influence of several parameters on the BMP of feedstocks are presented, including growth and harvest conditions, and ensiling.
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Grain mould on sorghum is an important disease worldwide, which causes considerable qualitative and quantitative damage. Success in breeding for grain mould resistance has been limited because of many mechanisms governing resistance, complex genetics and environmental influence. Objectives of this study were to characterize 200 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between ‘296 B’ (susceptible elite parent) and ‘B 58586’ (resistant parent) for grain mould reaction (GMR) at physiological maturity (PM) and at harvest maturity (HM), and to identify sources of resistance. The RILs were characterized in six environments (3 years � 2 locations) for GMR. Five RILs were identified with GMR on par with the resistant parent across various environments. The results of stability analysis for GMR at PM and HM stages showed difference. At PM, there was a significant genotype (G) x environment (E) (linear) interaction plus significant environmental effects for GMR. However, at HM, there was not a significant G x E (linear) interaction but environment effects were significant for GMR. These indicated that part of variation was predictable at PM while the variation was not predictable at HM as it was entirely influenced by environment. It is concluded that grain mould occurring before PM is influenced by genetics and to some extent by environment while that occurring after PM is influenced by environment. Therefore, host plant resistance would be better assessed at PM than at HM, and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) which show consistency in expression across environments, even in diverse environments, would be desirable for marker-assisted selection programs.
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Retention of green leaf area at maturity (GLAM), known as stay-green, is used as an indicator of postanthesis drought resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs in the USA and Australia. The critical issue is whether maintaining green leaves under postanthesis drought increases grain yield in stay-green compared with senescent hybrids. Field studies were undertaken in northeastern Australia on a cracking and self-mulching gay clay. Nine closely related hybrids varying in rate of leaf senescence were grown under two water-limiting regimes, post-flowering water deficit and terminal (pre- and postflowering) water deficit, and a fully irrigated control. Under terminal water deficit, grain yield tvas correlated positively with GLAM (r = 0.75**) and negatively with rate of leaf senescence (r = -0.74**). Grain yield also increased by approximate to 0.35 Mg ha(-1) for every day that onset of leaf senescence was delayed beyond 76 DAE in the water-limited treatments. Stay-green hybrids produced 47% more postanthesis biomass than their senescent counterparts (920 vs. 624 g m(-2)) under the terminal water deficit regime. No differences in grain yield were found among eight of the nine hybrids under fully irrigated conditions, suggesting that the stay-green trait did not constrain yield in the well-watered control. The results indicate that sorghum hybrids possessing the stay-green trait have a significant yield advantage under postanthesis drought compared with hybrids not possessing this trait.
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Experimental studies on CO2 assimilation of mesophytic C3 plants in relation to relative water content (RWC) are discussed. Decreasing RWC slows the actual rate of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) and decreases the potential rate (Apot). Generally, as RWC falls from c. 100 to c. 75%, the stomatal conductance (gs) decreases, and with it A. However, there are two general types of relation of Apot to RWC, which are called Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 has two main phases. As RWC decreases from 100 to c. 75%, Apot is unaffected, but decreasing stomatal conductance (gs) results in smaller A, and lower CO2 concentration inside the leaf (Ci) and in the chloroplast (Cc), the latter falling possibly to the compensation point. Down-regulation of electron transport occurs by energy quenching mechanisms, and changes in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism are considered acclimatory, caused by low Ci and reversible by elevated CO2. Below 75% RWC, there is metabolic inhibition of Apot, inhibition of A then being partly (but progressively less) reversible by elevated CO2; gs regulates A progressively less, and Ci and CO2 compensation point, Gamma rise. It is suggested that this is the true stress phase, where the decrease in Apot is caused by decreased ATP synthesis and a consequent decreased synthesis of RuBP. In the Type 2 response, Apot decreases progressively at RWC 100 to 75%, with A being progressively less restored to the unstressed value by elevated CO2. Decreased gs leads to a lower Ci and Cc but they probably do not reach compensation point: gs becomes progressively less important and metabolic limitations more important as RWC falls. The primary effect of low RWC on Apot is most probably caused by limited RuBP synthesis, as a result of decreased ATP synthesis, either through inhibition of Coupling Factor activity or amount due to increased ion concentration. Carbohydrate synthesis and accumulation decrease. Type 2 response is considered equivalent to Type 1 at RWC below c. 75%, with Apot inhibited by limited ATP and RuBP synthesis, respiratory metabolism dominates and Ci and Gamma rise. The importance of inhibited ATP synthesis as a primary cause of decreasing Apot is discussed. Factors determining the Type 1 and Type 2 responses are unknown. Electron transport is maintained (but down-regulated) in Types 1 and 2 over a wide range of RWC, and a large reduced/oxidized adenylate ratio results. Metabolic imbalance results in amino acid accumulation and decreased and altered protein synthesis. These conditions profoundly affect cell functions and ultimately cause cell death. Type 1 and 2 responses may reflect differences in gs and in sensitivity of metabolism to decreasing RWC.
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Transgenic sorghum plants expressing a synthetic cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of a wound-inducible promoter from the maize protease inhibitor gene (mpiC1) were produced via particle bombardment of shoot apices. Plants were regenerated from the transformed shoot apices via direct somatic embryogenesis with an intermittent three-step selection strategy using the herbicide Basta. Molecular characterisation based on polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed multiple insertions of the cry1Ac gene in five plants from three independent transformation events. Inheritance and expression of the Bt gene was confirmed in T(1) plants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay indicated that Cry1Ac protein accumulated at levels of 1-8 ng per gram of fresh tissue in leaves that were mechanically wounded. Transgenic sorghum plants were evaluated for resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) in insect bioassays, which indicated partial resistance to damage by the neonate larvae of the spotted stem borer. Reduction in leaf damage 5 days after infestation was up to 60%; larval mortality was 40%, with the surviving larvae showing a 36% reduction in weight over those fed on control plants. Despite the low levels of expression of Bt delta-endotoxin under the control of the wound-inducible promoter, the transgenic plants showed partial tolerance against first instar larvae of the spotted stem borer.
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Sorghum is an important source of food, feed, and biofuel, especially in the semi-arid tropics because this cereal is well adapted to harsh, drought-prone environments. Post-flowering drought adaptation in sorghum is associated with the stay-green phenotype. Alleles that contribute to this complex trait have been mapped to four major QTL, Stg1–Stg4, using a population derived from BT×642 and RT×7000. Near-isogenic RT×7000 lines containing BT×642 DNA spanning one or more of the four stay-green QTL were constructed. The size and location of BT×642 DNA regions in each RT×7000 NIL were analysed using 62 DNA markers spanning the four stay-green QTL. RT×7000 NILs were identified that contained BT×642 DNA completely or partially spanning Stg1, Stg2, Stg3, or Stg4. NILs were also identified that contained sub-portions of each QTL and various combinations of the four major stay-green QTL. Physiological analysis of four RT×7000 NILs containing only Stg1, Stg2, Stg3, or Stg4 showed that BT×642 alleles in each of these loci could contribute to the stay-green phenotype. RT×7000 NILs containing BT×642 DNA corresponding to Stg2 retained more green leaf area at maturity under terminal drought conditions than RT×7000 or the other RT×7000 NILs. Under post-anthesis water deficit, a trend for delayed onset of leaf senescence compared with RT×7000 was also exhibited by the Stg2, Stg3, and Stg4 NILs, while significantly lower rates of leaf senescence in relation to RT×7000 were displayed by all of the Stg NILs to varying degrees, but particularly by the Stg2 NIL. Greener leaves at anthesis relative to RT×7000, indicated by higher SPAD values, were exhibited by the Stg1 and Stg4 NILs. The RT×7000 NILs created in this study provide the starting point for in-depth analysis of stay-green physiology, interaction among stay-green QTL and map-based cloning of the genes that underlie this trait.
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The authors studied an extension of the sources of plant products for the diet in coeliac disease. This disease is induced by the components of glutenin proteins. In a collection of crops, they examined the contents of the total and protein nitrogen, the composition of protein fractions, the electrophoretic composition of reserve gluten and prolamine proteins, and the immunological determination of the gliadin amount using ELISA test. By immunological tests, gliadin content below 10 mg per 100 g of sample was found in the following species: amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus and A. cruentus) followed by quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), sorghum species – grain sorghum and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and S. saccharatum), millet (Panicum miliaceum), foxtail millet (Setaria italica ssp. maxima), broadrood (Digitaria sanguinalis) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). These species can be considered as suitable for the diet in coeliac disease. Below-limit values were found in triticale (Triticosecale) and some oats varieties; this, however, will need some other tests. The analysed samples differred by the contents of crude protein and fraction structures of the protein complex. In pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat, the proportion of the soluble fractions of albumin and globulin was 50–65%. In grain sorghum, their proportion was 20.5%, in sweet sorghum 7.8%. In millet, foxtail millet, and broadrood, their proportion amounted to 12–13%. The proportion of prolamines was higher in sweet sorghum than in grain sorghum. Pseudocereals and millet contained 3–6% of prolamines, Italian millet 38.7%, and broadrood 23.1%, respectively. The two latter species had, however, lower contents of glutenins. In the other species studied, the contents of glutenins ranged from 12 to 22%. Electrophoretic analysis PAGE of prolamine proteins or SDS-PAGE ISTA, developed for gluten proteins, confirmed the results of immunological tests on the suitability of quinoa, grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, buckwheat, amaranth, broadrood, millet and foxtail millet for the diet in coeliac disease. These species did not contain prolamins or the content of -prolamins was negligible in the given samples. The tested species of wheat, triticale, and oats species were manifested as substandard or unhealthy for the diet.
Article
Sorghum is regarded a promising bioenergy crop and may be an alternative to maize for biogas use in temperate Europe in the near future. Presently, the principal shortcoming compared to maize besides chilling sensitivity during juvenile development is that current sorghum varieties fail to combine a high dry matter yield with adequate dry matter content for silage and satisfying methane yield. Our major goal was to evaluate whether early-maturing silage type Sorghum bicolor hybrids with a higher contribution of panicles and grains to total dry matter may allow an improvement of methane yield, representing a novel, alternative variety type for biogas use in temperate Europe. Our results indicate that under adequate conditions, they reach higher dry matter contents. Due to enhanced methane yields per dry matter unit which offset slightly lower dry matter yields, their methane yield per area unit is similar or superior to existing biomass type varieties. Since panicles account for up to 50% of total dry matter yield, seed set and maturity in cool environments represent critical factors for yield stability. Breeding efforts focus on chilling tolerance during flowering to avoid male sterility and on the development of appropriate parental lines combining earliness and adequate height. While selection for maturity can be reliably conducted on per se performance of parental lines, hybrid yield is predominantly determined by general combining ability.
Article
Millets have the potential to contribute to food security and nutrition, but still these are underutilized crops. The present study was undertaken with a view to analyse the physico-chemical, functional and nutritional composition of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice and to compare the sensory quality and nutritive value of food products from foxtail and barnyard millet with rice. Analysis of physico- chemical and functional characteristics revealed that the thousand kernel weight of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 2.5, 3.0 and 18.3 g, respectively and thousand kernel volume was 1.6, 13 2.0 and 7.1 ml, respectively. The water absorption capacity of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 1.90, 1.96 and 1.98 ml/g, respectively and water solubility index was 2.8, 1.2 and 1.0 %, respectively. Viscosity was measured for foxtail millet (1650.6 cps), barnyard millet (1581 cps) and rice (1668.3 cps). Analysis of nutritional composition showed that the moisture content of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 9.35, 11.93 and 11.91 %, respectively. The total ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate of foxtail millet were 3.10, 10.29, 3.06, 4.25 and 69.95 %, respectively, for barnyard millet were 4.27, 6.93, 2.02, 2.98 and 71.87 %, respectively and the corresponding values for rice were 0.59, 6.19, 0.53, 0.21 and 80.58 %, respectively. The energy value for foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 349, 407 and 352 Kcal, respectively. The foxtail millet contained 30.10 mg/100 g calcium and 3.73 mg/100 g iron whereas barnyard millet contained 23.16 mg/100 g calcium and 6.91 mg/100 g iron. Values of 10 mg/100 g calcium and 0.10 mg/100 g iron were observed for rice. The formulated products viz. laddu, halwa and biryani from foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice (control) were analysed for their sensory qualities. Among the products prepared, there was non significant difference with regard to the colour, flavor, texture, appearance and overall acceptability of foxtail and barnyard millet laddu and halwa when compared to control. Foxtail millet biryani was most acceptable compared to barnyard millet and control biryani. Nutritive value of formulated products was calculated and it was compared with the rice. The protein, fat and fibre content of the formulated products from foxtail and barnyard millet were higher than the rice products. Thus from the present study it was concluded that the foxtail millet and barnyard millet are superior in nutritive value to rice and have potential for use in traditional food products.
Article
Crude fat and fatty acid profile of 35 foxtail millets including seven varieties planted in five different regions of China were studied. The fat content ranged from 3.38 to 6.49% (averaging 4.51%). The major fatty acid in foxtail millets was linoleic acid (averaging 66.68%), followed by oleic acid (averaging 16.11%), palmitic acid (averaging 7.42%), stearic acid (averaging 6.84%), and linolenic acid (averaging 2.48%). Two-way ANOVA showed that fat content was significantly affected by millet variety and cultivation area (P < 0.05). Fatty acids including linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and linolenic acid varied significantly in different foxtail millet varieties (P < 0.05), except oleic acid (P > 0.05). Fatty acids including linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid did not change significantly in foxtail millets from different regions (P > 0.05), except linolenic acid (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that oleic acid was negatively correlated with palmitic acid and linoleic acid (P < 0.05), and linolenic acid was positively correlated with palmitic acid and linoleic acid but negatively correlated with stearic acid (P < 0.05). The research showed that millets with good fat composition can be obtained through breeding techniques or cultivation management.
Article
Commonly consumed foxtail millet varieties Jingu28 and Jingu34 were compared in terms of phytochemical composition, antioxidant property, and antiproliferative activity. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) was evaluated based on HepG2 cell cultivation. Antiproliferative properties against HepG2 and MDA cell were assayed by methylene blue assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was 78.79 and 114.22mg gallic acid equiv/100g DW in Jingu28 and Jingu34. Both varieties contained ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, syringic acid. Xanthophylls and zeaxanthin were also detected. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of the foxtail millet were 228.13 (Jingu28) and 355.03 (Jingu34) μmol of vitamin C equiv/100g, respectively. CAA values of the foxtail millet varieties ranged from 1.52 to 8.97μmol quercetin equiv/100g DW. The proliferation of MDA and HepG2 cancer cells were significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to Jingu28 and Jingu34 extractions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Article
There has been increased interest in millet utilization due to the various “rediscovered” health benefits and also critical role in food security in semiarid areas of Africa and Asia. The major component of millets is starch, which may amount up to 70% of the seed and determines the quality of millet products. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the isolation, chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, enzyme susceptibility, modifications, and uses of millet starch. Lack of systematic knowledge of millet starch seriously hinders further development of millets as sustainable crops. Needed research to diversify the variations in the quality and to improve the utilization of this starch is suggested.
Article
In the 21st century, climate changes, water scarcity, increasing world population, rising food prices, and other socioeconomic impacts are expected to generate a great threat to agriculture and food security worldwide, especially for the poorest people who live in arid and subarid regions. These impacts present a challenge to scientists and nutritionists to investigate the possibilities of producing, processing, and utilizing other potential food sources to end hunger and poverty. Cereal grains are the most important source of the world's food and have a significant role in the human diet throughout the world. As one of the most important drought-resistant crops, millet is widely grown in the semiarid tropics of Africa and Asia and constitutes a major source of carbohydrates and proteins for people living in these areas. In addition, because of their important contribution to national food security and potential health benefits, millet grain is now receiving increasing interest from food scientists, technologists, and nutritionists. The aim of this work was to review the recent advances in research carried out to date for purposes of evaluation of nutritional quality and potential health benefits of millet grains. Processing technologies used for improving the edible and nutritional characteristics of millet as well as challenges, limitations, and future perspectives to promote millet utilization as food for a large and growing population are also discussed.
Article
Sorghum and millets are vitally important cereals for the maintenance of food security in Africa. They represent about half the total cereal production on the continent and as such are a major source of protein for the population. They are still under researched compared to other cereals. This paper reports on a conference recently held in Africa to explore the current state of knowledge on the proteins of these cereals and to suggest routes to the better exploitation for enhanced nutritional and functional properties
Article
Parasitic flowering weeds of the genus Striga (Scrophulariaceae) cause substantial losses in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production in sub-Saharan Africa. Striga-resistant sorghum cultivars could be a major component of integrated striga management, if resistance was available in adapted, productive germplasm. In this paper we review methodologies for breeding striga-resistant sorghums. The agar-gel assay is an excellent tool to screen host genotypes in the laboratory for low production of the striga seed germination stimulant. Further laboratory assays are needed which allow the non-destructive, rapid and inexpensive evaluation of individual plants for additional resistance mechanisms. Field screening for striga resistance is hampered by high microvariability in African soils, heterogeneity of natural infestations, and concomitant large environmental effects on striga emergence. An improved field testing methodology should include one or several of the following practices: field inoculation with striga seeds; appropriate experimental design including elevated replication number; specific plot layout; use of appropriate susceptible and resistant checks; evaluation in adjacent infested and uninfested plots; and the use of selection indices derived from emerged striga counts, striga vigor, and grain yield or a host plant damage score. Due to the extreme variability of the parasite and significant genotype×environment interaction effects, multi-locational screening is recommended to obtain materials with stable performance. Additional strategies include: careful definition of the target environments; determination of the most important selection traits in each target environment; characterization of crop germplasm and improvement of available sources of resistance for better agronomic performance; transfer and pyramiding of resistance genes into adapted, farmer-selected cultivars; development of striga-resistant parent lines for hybrid or synthetic cultivars; and development of random-mating populations with multiple sources of resistance. The development of marker-assisted selection techniques for broad-based, polygenic striga resistance is underway. This approach is particularly promising because striga resistance tests are difficult, expensive, and sometimes unreliable; the parasite is quarantined; and some resistance genes are recessive. Transgenic, herbicide-tolerant sorghums could contribute to an immediate, cost-effective control of striga by herbicides, but such cultivars are not yet available. The selection of sorghum cultivars with specific adaptation to integrated striga management approaches could contribute to sustainable sorghum production in striga-infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
Article
Cereal Chem. 65(4):271-277 Sorghum grains (12 samples from seven different lines or hybrids) with phenylalanine, and glutamine plus glutamic acid, remained constant for total nitrogen, N, content ranging from 1.5 to 3 g/ 100 g grain dry matter serine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and asparagine plus aspartic acid, and were accurately analyzed for their amino acid composition from six decreased for the other amino acids. The nonprotein-to-total nitrogen ratio different hydrolysates per sample. Amino acid levels in grain increased as remained practically constant and close to 5%, and the nitrogen-to-protein linear functions of N, with correlation coefficients close to one for most conversion factor (kA) was close to 5.81 within the N range investigated. amino acids regardless of sorghum genotype or phenotype. As a result, the The results also showed that the composition of storage proteins amino acid composition of any grain sample of normal sorghum can be accumulated in sorghum grain remained constant, with the rate of predicted from its N. Amino acids in grain protein changed as hyperbolic deposition of kafirins roughly 1.5 times that of glutelins. functions of N, which increased for alanine, leucine, isoleucine,
Article
Starch grains from 31 modern samples of millets derived from the seeds of 7 species within the genus Setaria and 2 species within the genus Panicum were analyzed to determine diagnostic morphological characteristics. Ancient starch grains recovered from a sample of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) excavated from the Cishan site (10.0–7.6 cal yr BP) in the North China Plain were then subjected to the same analyses to determine the differences in morphologies, if any, between modern and ancient samples. The data indicate that morphological features, and particularly surface and fissure features, will allow for solid identifications of ancient millet starches, while size classes will be helpful, but will not be dependable taxonomic indicators.
Article
5 yellow foxtail, Setaria pumila (Poir) Roem. & Schult. 5 Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. SETLU; giant foxtail, Setaria faberi Herrm. SETFA; bristly foxtail, Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv. SETVE; knotroot foxtail, Setaria geniculata (Lam.) Beauv. SETGE.
Article
Finger millet is a promising source of micronutrients and protein besides energy and can contribute to the alleviation of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and protein malnutrition affecting women and preschool children in African and south-east Asian countries. The most cost effective approach for mitigating micronutrient and protein malnutrition is to introduce staple crop cultivars selected and/or bred for Fe, Zn and protein dense grain. Breeding finger millet for enhanced grain nutrients is still in its infancy. Analysis, detection and exploitation of the existing variability among the germplasm accessions are the initial steps in breeding micronutrient and protein-dense finger millet cultivars. Evaluation of finger millet core collection for grain nutrients and agronomic traits revealed a substantial genetic variability for grain Fe, Zn, calcium (Ca) and protein contents. The accessions rich in nutrient contents were identified and their agronomic diversity assessed. The accessions rich in Zn content have significantly higher grain yield potential than those rich in Fe and protein content. Grain nutrient-specific accessions and those contrasting for nutrient contents were identified for use in the strategic research and cultivar development in finger millet.Research highlights▶ Ample variability for Fe, Zn, Ca, protein contents and agronomic traits. ▶ Identified promising accessions for high Fe, Zn, Ca and protein and grain yield. ▶ Identified diverse grain nutrient-specific accessions to study inheritance. ▶ Contrasting accessions to map nutrient traits. ▶ Diverse accessions to breed broad based nutrient-rich high yielding cultivars.
Article
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. P. Beauv.) has been one of the most important cereals in northern China. A large number of landraces have formed under natural and man-made selection since domestication. Farmers in China have developed various traditional methods of maintenance and multiplication of foxtail millet seeds for next generation. Panicle selection was often done in fields. The selected seeds were generally stored at dry places. Archaeological and historical evidence of the origin of foxtail millet in China and the geographical distribution of landraces is also presented.
Article
Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. A proteome study based on 2-D gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometric identification was performed in order to analyze the salt-stress response of Sorghum bicolor. Overall changes in the protein complement of leaves after 96 h exposure to 200mM NaCl in hydroponic culture were studied. Twenty one spots with more than 1.5-fold altered expression on 2-DE gel were excised and identified after tryptic digestion using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometer. Majority of the differentially expressed proteins belonged to the functional category of signal transduction mechanisms and inorganic ion transport and metabolism. Over-expression of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes e.g. glutathione-Stransferases and l-ascorbate peroxidase was in agreement with previous reports in the context of stress responses in other plants. However, with respect to the physiological functions of other identified proteins such as putative sialin, putative inorganic pyrophosphatase, RNA binding protein, and serine/threonineprotein kinase; there appears to be a distinct mechanism of salt-stress adaptation in sorghum plant. Four differentially expressed proteins could not be assigned any function using Pfam and COGnitor search and warrant detailed investigation to elucidate their exact role in salinity tolerance. This is the first proteomic description of salt stress response in sorghum and a further validation of data reported herewith would likely provide, deeper insight pertaining to the stress physiology of this important crop plant.
Article
Effective greenhouse- and field-screening techniques were developed to identify resistance to anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). In greenhouse screening, sorghum plants were spray-inoculated at the 6–8 leaf stage with a conidial suspension (4 × 105 conidial ml−1) of C. graminicola. Inoculated plants were incubated in a high humidity chamber (⩾ 90% RH) for 24 h at 25–28°C and relocated to a greenhouse at 25 ± 2°C. Anthracnose development was scored 7–8 days after inoculation. In the field-screening technique, in every fifth row, a highly anthracnose-susceptible sorghum line was sown as an infector row. Ten days later, test lines were sown between infector row plants were inoculated at the 6–8 leaf stage with either spore suspension or by dropping infected sorghum grains into the leaf whorl. High humidity was provided by frequent overhead sprinkler or furrow irrigation. Test lines were scored for anthracnose development at the hard-dough stage. Significant positive correlation (r = 0.88, P < 0.001) was found for anthracnose severity between seedling screening in greenhouse and adult plant screening in the field. The field-screening technique was successfully transferred to several locations in Africa and India. Thirty lines were selected from more than 13 000 sorghum germplasm accessions and advanced breeding lines screened for anthracnose resistance, using the field-screening technique at Pantnagar (North India) between 1982 and 1991. They were evaluated in multilocational tests at hot spots in Burkina Faso, India, Nigeria, Zambia, and Zimbabwe for 1–10 years. Eleven lines (A 2267-2, IS 3547, IS 8283, IS 9146, IS 9249, IS 18758, SPV 386, PB 8892-2, PS 18601-3, PM 20873-1, and M 35610) showed stable resistance across these locations over the years. Some of the resistant lines are being converted into male-sterile lines through backcrossing with different sources of cytoplasmic male sterility.
Article
There is an increasing world wide demand for energy crops and animal manures for biogas production. To meet these demands, this research project aimed at optimising anaerobic digestion of maize and dairy cattle manures. Methane production was measured for 60 days in 1 l eudiometer batch digesters at 38 °C. Manure received from dairy cows with medium milk yield that were fed a well balanced diet produced the highest specific methane yield of 166.3 Nl CH4 kg VS−1. Thirteen early to late ripening maize varieties were grown on several locations in Austria. Late ripening varieties produced more biomass than medium or early ripening varieties. On fertile locations in Austria more than 30 Mg VS ha−1 can be produced. The methane yield declined as the crop approaches full ripeness. With late ripening maize varieties, yields ranged between 312 and 365 Nl CH4 kg VS−1 (milk ripeness) and 268–286 Nl CH4 kg VS−1 (full ripeness). Silaging increased the methane yield by about 25% compared to green, non-conserved maize. Maize (Zea mays L.) is optimally harvested, when the product from specific methane yield and VS yield per hectare reaches a maximum. With early to medium ripening varieties (FAO 240–390), the optimum harvesting time is at the “end of wax ripeness”. Late ripening varieties (FAO ca. 600) may be harvested later, towards “full ripeness”. Maximum methane yield per hectare from late ripening maize varieties ranged between 7100 and 9000 Nm3 CH4 ha−1. Early and medium ripening varieties yielded 5300–8500 Nm3 CH4 ha−1 when grown in favourable regions. The highest methane yield per hectare was achieved from digestion of whole maize crops. Digestion of corns only or of corn cob mix resulted in a reduction in methane yield per hectare of 70 and 43%, respectively. From the digestion experiments a multiple linear regression equation, the Methane Energy Value Model, was derived that estimates methane production from the composition of maize. It is a helpful tool to optimise biogas production from energy crops. The Methane Energy Value Model requires further validation and refinement.
Article
Sorghum and millets have considerable potential in foods and beverages. As they are gluten-free they are suitable for coeliacs. Sorghum is also a potentially important source of nutraceuticals such antioxidant phenolics and cholesterol-lowering waxes. Cakes, cookies, pasta, a parboiled rice-like product and snack foods have been successfully produced from sorghum and, in some cases, millets. Wheat-free sorghum or millet bread remains the main challenge. Additives such as native and pre-gelatinised starches, hydrocolloids, fat, egg and rye pentosans improve bread quality. However, specific volumes are lower than those for wheat bread or gluten-free breads based on pure starches, and in many cases, breads tend to stale faster. Lager and stout beers with sorghum are brewed commercially. Sorghum's high-starch gelatinisation temperature and low beta-amylase activity remain problems with regard to complete substitution of barley malt with sorghum malt . The role of the sorghum endosperm matrix protein and cell wall components in limiting extract is a research focus. Brewing with millets is still at an experimental stage. Sorghum could be important for bioethanol and other bio-industrial products. Bioethanol research has focused on improving the economics of the process through cultivar selection, method development for low-quality grain and pre-processing to recover valuable by-products. Potential by-products such as the kafirin prolamin proteins and the pericarp wax have potential as bioplastic films and coatings for foods, primarily due to their hydrophobicity.
Article
Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the salinity stress responses at molecular level in dry land small millet crop, foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis. Foxtail millet seeds were surface sterilized and germinated in Petri plates lined with filter paper. Salt stress was imposed by serving the Hoagland half strength nutrient solution with 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl (saline treatment) or without (control) and maintained in dark for 7 days. Salt treatment resulted in reduced seedling growth and dry mass. The temporal changes in total protein profile of foxtail millet seedlings under different salt stress regimes were studied using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Among ∼175 protein spots reproducibly detected on each gel, some were up-regulated and few others were down-regulated at least at one time point. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 29 differentially expressed proteins including well-known salt responsive proteins. Several proteins showed up- and down-regulation during salt stress. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and database searching of some of the identified proteins indicated that the proteins are known to be involved in several processes, i.e., of signal transduction, photosynthesis, cell wall biogenesis, stress related and several metabolisms like energy, lipid, nitrogen, carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolisms, where others are of unknown function. In conclusion, our study provides new insights into salt stress responses in foxtail millet and demonstrates the advantages of proteomic analysis.
Article
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Article
We sequenced ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer subrepeats and their flanking regions of foxtail millet landraces from various regions in Europe and Asia and its wild ancestor to elucidate phylogenetic differentiation within each of types I-III found in our previous work and to elucidate relationships among these three types. Type I was classified into seven subtypes designated as Ia-Ig based on subrepeat sequences; C repeats downstream of those subrepeats are also polymorphic. Of these, subtypes Ia-Id and Ig were found in foxtail millet landraces. Subtypes Ia and Ib were distributed broadly throughout Asia and Europe. Subtype Ic was distributed in China, Korea and Japan. Subtype Id has a 20-bp deletion in subrepeat 3 and has a unique C repeat sequence. This subtype was found in a morphologically primitive landrace group from Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan and differed greatly from other type I subtypes, implying that these landraces were domesticated independently. Subtypes Ig was found in a landrace from Pakistan and Ia and Ie-Ig were in six wild ancestor accessions. Type II was also highly polymorphic and four subtypes were found and designated as subtypes IIa-IId, but sequence analyses indicated type III as monomorphic. The present work indicates that type III should be classified as a subtype of type II (subtype IIe). Sequence polymorphism of subrepeats of types I-III indicated that subrepeats of subtype IIa are greatly divergent from others. Relationships among types I-III are much more complicated than anticipated based on previous RFLP work.
Article
Plant growth and productivity are affected by various abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, cold, salinity, etc. The mechanism of salt tolerance is one of the most important subjects in plant science as salt stress decreases worldwide agricultural production. In our present study we used cDNA-AFLP technique to compare gene expression profiles of a salt tolerant and a salt-sensitive cultivar of foxtail millet (Seteria italica) in response to salt stress to identify early responsive differentially expressed transcripts accumulated upon salt stress and validate the obtained result through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profile was compared between a salt tolerant (Prasad) and susceptible variety (Lepakshi) of foxtail millet in both control condition (L0 and P0) and after 1 h (L1 and P1) of salt stress. We identified 90 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) that are differentially expressed, out of which 86 TDFs were classified on the basis of their either complete presence or absence (qualitative variants) and 4 on differential expression pattern levels (quantitative variants) in the two varieties. Finally, we identified 27 non-redundant differentially expressed cDNAs that are unique to salt tolerant variety which represent different groups of genes involved in metabolism, cellular transport, cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, mRNA splicing, seed development and storage, etc. The expression patterns of seven out of nine such genes showed a significant increase of differential expression in tolerant variety after 1 h of salt stress in comparison to salt-sensitive variety as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The direct and indirect relationship of identified TDFs with salinity tolerance mechanism is discussed.
Economic assessment of amino acid responses in growing poultry
  • M Pack
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  • A Lemme
Pack, M.; Hoeler, D.; Lemme, A. Economic assessment of amino acid responses in growing poultry. In: D'Mello, editor. Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International; 2003.
Structure and chemistry of sorghum and millets
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Serna-Saldiva, R. S.; Rooney, L. W. Structure and chemistry of sorghum and millets. In: Dendy, D. A. V., editor. Sorghum and Millets. Chemistry and Technology. St. Paul, Minnesota: Am. Assoc. of Cereal Chemists; 1995. p. 69-124.
Please provide English translation of text instead of other language in Ref. [61].Hermuth, J. Čirok znovu vzkříšená plodina v ČR
AU: Please provide English translation of text instead of other language in Ref. [61].Hermuth, J. Čirok znovu vzkříšená plodina v ČR. Agromanuál. 2010;5:62–65 (in Czech).
Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 10
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  • J L Tippayaruk
Stenhouse, J. W.; Tippayaruk, J. L. Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench. In: Grubben, G. J. H.; Partohardjono, S., editors. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 10. Cereals. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers; 1996. p. 130-136.