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Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Importance and its High Quality Seed Oil: A Review

  • Vasantrao Naik College of Agricultural Biotechnolgy, Yavatmal
  • Late .R.G.Deshmukh College of Agriculture Tiwasa


Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.; Pedaliaceae) is a diploid (2n = 26) dicotyledonous and one of the oldest oil seed crop which grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas for its edible oil, proteins, vitamins, and amino acids. Sesame as a valuable cover crop grown for food (dry seeds), feed (seed, leaves and young branches) beside these the other parts of plant are also useful like flowers useful in treatment of cancer, alopecia, and constipation, roots are having antifungal activity and leaves are used in infant cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, and for urinary infections. Beside of large land covered for cultivation of sesame there is a wide demand–supply gap as its production is constrained by various biotic and abiotic stresses which leads to less productivity in terms of seed yield. So attempts to be made for spreading awareness about sesame its oil and other uses. Sesame oil has natural antioxidants such as sesamin, sesamolin, and sesamol known as the most stable vegetable oils having long shelf life. Sesame seed oil, is rich in Omega 6 fatty acids, but lacks Omega 3 fatty acids. So there is need to produce more Omega 3 fatty acids like alpha linolenic acids with the help of various desaturase enzyme pathways for improvement of quality of sesame oil as healthy oil.
3900 Trends in Biosciences 8 (15), 2015
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Importance and its High Quality Seed
Oil: A Review
Department of Plant Biotechnology,
Centre for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology,
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003,
Tamilnadu, India.
Trends in Biosciences 8(15), Print : ISSN 0974-8, 3900-3906, 2015
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.; Pedaliaceae) is a
diploid (2n = 26) dicotyledonous and one of the oldest
oil seed crop which grown widely in tropical and
subtropical areas for its edible oil, proteins, vitamins,
and amino acids. Sesame as a valuable cover crop
grown for food (dry seeds), feed (seed, leaves and young
branches) beside these the other parts of plant are
also useful like flowers useful in treatment of cancer,
alopecia, and constipation, roots are having antifungal
activity and leaves are used in infant cholera,
diarrhoea, dysentery, and for urinary infections.
Beside of large land covered for cultivation of sesame
there is a wide demand–supply gap as its production
is constrained by various biotic and abiotic stresses
which leads to less productivity in terms of seed yield.
So attempts to be made for spreading awareness about
sesame its oil and other uses. Sesame oil has natural
antioxidants such as sesamin, sesamolin, and sesamol
known as the most stable vegetable oils having long
shelf life. Sesame seed oil, is rich in Omega 6 fatty
acids, but lacks Omega 3 fatty acids. So there is need
to produce more Omega 3 fatty acids like alpha
linolenic acids with the help of various desaturase
enzyme pathways for improvement of quality of sesame
oil as healthy oil.
Key words Sesame, feed, antifungal activity, Omega
3 fatty acids, desaturase, quality.
Sesame (SesamumindicumL.) is an ancient oil
yielding crop and popularly known as “Queen of
Oilseeds”. Sesame belongs to Tubiflorae order and
Pedaliaceae family (Nayar, 1984). The genus
Sesamum has 37 species, of which Sesamum
indicum L. is the dominant cultivated species.
Distribution of most of the species occurs in three
regions viz., Africa, India and the Far East
(Kobayashi et al., 1991). It is one of the ancient oil
seed crop originated in Africa. In production of
Sesame seeds Myanmar ranks first in producing
8, 61,573 T that of India ranks second in production
having 7, 69,000 T. In terms of area India ranks
first harvesting about 17, 80,000 Ha as that of
Myanmar having 15, 84,000 Ha. India enjoys the
paramount position for export of white seeded type
seeds which are in great demand. India is one of
the largest exporters of Sesame seeds exporting
between 3 to 4 MT of seeds annually. India is the
largest producer of Sesame covering 42 % of
world’s Sesame area and 27 per cent of the
production and nearly 7.4 % of the total area under
oilseeds in India. Sesame ranks third among the
oilseed crops in production. The top ten Sesame
growing countries by production of Sesame seeds
are Myanmar, India, China, Ethiopia, Nigeria,
Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Niger,
Burkina Faso and Somania. (FAOSTAT, 2011). The
composition of sesame possesses lipid contents
48gms, carbohydrates 25.7gms, proteins 17gms,
fiber 14gms and ash 6gms approximately with
respect to 100gm of seeds. Sesame seeds are rich
in minerals such as Calcium, Phosphorous,
Magnesium, and Potassium in large amounts and
also it is having vitamins such as Niacin, Thiamin,
Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 (USDA Nutrient
Database, 2015).
Sesame is also known as Gingelly and Sesame
in English, Tila and Snehphala in Ayurveda, Til and
Kunjad in Unani. Sesame is typically an erect branch
annual (occasionally perennial) 0.5-2 m in height
with a well-developedroot system. It is multi-
flowered, and its fruit is a capsule containing a
number of small oleaginous (oily) seeds. Sesame
seeds are very small in size and are 4mm long 2mm
wide and 1mm thick. They are pearl shaped, ovate,
small, slightly flattened and somewhat thinner at
PUSADKAR et al., Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Importance and its High Quality Seed Oil: A Review 3901
the hilum. The varieties and strains differ
considerably in size,form,growth,flower colour,
seed size,colourand composition.
The productivity of Sesame in India is very
low of about 432 Kg/ha against the yield potential
of 2000 Kg/ha. Despite the potential for increasing
the production and productivity of Sesame there
are a number of challenges inhibiting Sesame
production and productivity. Among the many
production constraints, most important include lack
of improved cultivars and a poor seed supply
system, is very much restricted to poor soil due to
several constraints such as low and unreliable yield,
shattering, high production cost and lower return
to the farmers (Murthy et. al., 1985). It is also
having nutritional disorders such as Manganese
deficiency in which Leaves develop interveinal
chlorosis, chlorotic tissue, later developlight brown
or husk coloured necrotic lesions also having Zinc
deficiency in which middle leaves develop chlorosis
in the interveinal areas and necrosis along the apical
leaf margins. There is increasing evidence that the
uses of poor management practices (especially the
practice of low seed rate) as well as traditional
cultivars are the main yield limiting factors in
Sesame farms of sandy dunes in North Kordofan
of Sudan. The increasing seed rate significantly
decreased the number of capsules per plant and
seed yield per plant. Seed rates of 1.5 and 2.0 kg
ha-1 were optimum to maximizing seed yield per
unit area (Ahmed et al., 2012). The yield potential
of Sesame is very low when compared with major
oil seed crops due to early senescence and extreme
susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress factors
including photosensitivity (Raoet al.,
2002).Introgression of useful genes from wild
species into cultivars via conventional breeding has
not been successful due to post fertilization barriers.
An interdisciplinary concerted effort with the
participation of both conventional breeding
technique and biotechnology is urgently required
for genetic improvement of Sesame. Wild species
of Sesame possess genes for resistance to biotic
and abiotic stresses (Joshi, 1961; Weiss, 1971; Brar
and Ahuja, 1979; Kolte, 1985). The only option left
for improvement of Sesame is to transfer genes
from other sources through genetic transformation
Sesame importance: About 70 % of the World’s
Sesame seed is processed into oil and meal. Total
annual consumption is about 65 % for oil extraction
and 35 % for food. The meal left after oil extraction
contains 35-50 % proteins which make a rich feed
for poultry and livestock. Several industrial uses
have been identified in Sesame. African people have
used Sesame to prepare perfumes and cologne that
has been made from Sesame flowers. Sesamin has
bactericide and insecticide activities and it also acts
as an antioxidant which can inhibit the absorption
of cholesterol and the production of cholesterol in
the liver. Sesamolin also has insecticidal properties
and is used as a synergist for pyrethrum insecticides
(Simon et al., 1984).
The Sesame oil which has been traditionally
used for cooking and as a flavour additive in food
products of Asian and Western countries (Pastorello
et al., 2001). Oil is used for both dietary and
therapeutic applications. Sesame seeds are
described as the “seeds of immortality” perhaps
for its resistance to oxidation and rancidity even
when stored at ambient air temperature (Bedigian
and Harlan, 1986). Antioxidant and anticancer
properties have been studied in Sesame seeds
(Osawaet al., 1990). Sesamin and sesamolin, two
unique phytoconstituents isolated from seeds,
possess excellent cholesterol-lowering effect in
humans and prevents high blood pressure. They
serve as a good source of copper, manganese and
calcium which are effective in reducing pain, in
osteoporosis and in reduction of swelling in
rheumatoid arthritis (Chakraborthy et al.,
2008).The defatted Sesame meal contains nearly
50 % protein and the seed hull contains large
quantities of oxalic acid and fibre (Abou-gharbiaet
al., 2000). Sesame oil contains Sesamin and
Sesamolin lignans in its non-glycerol fraction which
are known to play an important role in the oxidative
stability and antioxidative activity (Wu, 2007).
Sesame oil is used as a solvent, oleaginous
vehicle for drugs, skin softener and used in the
manufacture of margarine and soap. The oil is
mainly used in cooking, salad preparation and for
making margarine. It is also used in cosmetics
preparations, pharmaceutical products, paints and
insecticides (Ashri, 1989). Chlorosesamone
3902 Trends in Biosciences 8 (15), 2015
obtained from roots of Sesame has antifungal
activity (Begum et al., 2000). Sesamin and
sesamolin were reported to increase both the hepatic
mitochondrial and the peroxisomal fatty acid
oxidation rate. Sesame seed consumption appears
to increase plasma gamma-tocopherol and enhanced
vitamin-E activity which are believed to prevent
cancer and heart disease (Cooney et al., 2001).
Sesame oil is a pharmaceutic aid used as a solvent
for intramuscular injections and has nutritive,
demulcent and emollient properties (Tyler et al.,
1976) and it is used as a laxative. Sesame oil is
used as an antibacterial mouthwash.Sesame seed
is used on bread, buns, cookies, health snacks and
as an additive to breakfast cereal mixers. The seed
may be eaten whole either raw and roasted and
salted, or mixed with lemon and honey but are often
ground into paste which may often be sweetened
with sugar.
Oil content and Fatty acid composition in
Sesame seeds:It was a highly priced oilseed in
the ancient world because of its resistance to
drought, the ease to extract oil from seeds and the
high stability of oil (Langham and Wiemers, 2002).
Sesame is one of the world’s most important oil
seed crops due to its relative superior oil quantity,
having oil content generally over 50 per cent
(Yermanoset al., 1972). Vegetable oils and fats
constitute an important component of human diet,
ranking third after cereals and animal products. Oil
forms the basic cooking medium for majority of
dishes, especially of Indian cuisine and enhances
the taste of these preparations also seeds have long
been considered a very popular health food in Asian
countries. The per capita recommended oils and
fats is 30 g per day but their availability in India is
despairingly below this level. Sesame oil
consumption meet demand of adequate amount of
essential fatty acids that is important for normal
growth and development. This underlines the need
for a concerted effort to enhance the oil production.
Sesame seed oil has excellent stability due to natural
antioxidants such as sesamolin, sesamin and
sesamol (Brar and Ahuja, 1979; Ashri, 1987).
Sesame has relatively superior oil quantity as well
as quality in comparison to many major oil crops.
The oil content ranges from 34.4 % to 59.8 % but
is mostly about 50 % of seed weight (Ashri, 1989,
1998). Values of up to 63.2 % have been reported
in some varieties (Bayder et al., 1999). Both
genetic and environmental factors influence the oil
content in Sesame. Late maturing cultivars are
reported to have high oil contents ones than early.
Variations also occurs between capsules at different
position on the same plant, such that the seeds from
the basal capsules on the main stem contains more
oil than those located towards the apex and on side
branches (Mosjidis and Yermanos, 1985) black
seeded cultivars often have lower oil content than
brown and white ones, indicating a possible linkage
between oil content and seed coat colour. Black
seed coats are usually thicker than lighter coloured
ones. Sesame seed has high amount of methionine.
Seed is an important source of protein also rich in
thiamine and niacin is used for industrial purposes
(Ashri, 1998). Sesame oil is a pale yellow odourless
oily liquid with a bland taste and it is a good source
of edible gourmet oil (Namiki, 1995).
The Sesame genus has limited variability in
the seed fatty acid proportions (Kamal-Eldinet al.,
1994). The seed fatty acid composition varies
considerably among the different cultivars of
Sesame worldwide (Yermanoset al., 1972; Brar,
1982; Baydar, Turget and Turget, 1999). The oil
contain four major fatty acids namely palmitic,
stearic, oleic and linoleic acid along with small
quantities of vaccenic, linoleic, arachidic, behenic
and eicosenoic acids (Weiss, 1983; Kamal-Eldin et
al., 1992; Ashri, 1998; Were et al., 2001). Oleic
and linoleic acids are nearly in equal amount,
constituting about 85 % of the total fatty
acids.Cultivars with exceptionally high (e”60 %)
oleic or linoleic acid are rare (Bayder et al., 1999).
It is found that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids
content differs between determinate and
indeterminate cultivars. Determinate cultivars
generally have higher stearic and oleic acids, and
lower linoleic acid compared to indeterminate ones.
Capsule position on the plant also affects the relative
quantities of the fatty acids palmitic, stearic and
oleic acids tend to increase up the stem while linoleic
acid decreases (Brar, 1977). The fatty acid
composition is strongly influenced by environmental
factors. Linoleic acids content has been reported
to increase under cool growing conditions (Uzun
et al., 2002). The peroxide Value and Free Acidity
increased during storage for five weeks. The iodine
value of the Sesame seeds oil decreases as it was
PUSADKAR et al., Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Importance and its High Quality Seed Oil: A Review 3903
roasted over a period of storage. This suggests the
loss of unsaturation in the fatty acids of the
triacylglycerol. The antioxidant factors responsible
for the stability of roasted Sesame seeds is highly
affected by the conditions of the roasting process
(Hassan, 2013). The extraction of Sesame oil is
done by using three extraction techniques
supercritical fluid extraction, Soxhlet and sequential
extraction (Carvalhoet al., 2012). The Sesame seed
extracts possess high antioxidant activity and that
the white varieties elicit better antioxidant activity
than the black one (Vishwanathet al., 2012).
Sesame seeds had an average of 0.63 % lignans,
making them a rich source of dietary lignans
(Moazzami, 2006).
Modification of fatty acid composition in plant
storage oils:Plant tissue culture plays a significant
role for the enrichment of genetic variability giving
rise to variations/mutations at an unexpectedly high
rate and may be a novel source of genetic variability
in many plant species (Scowcroft et al., 1987).
They have multiple physiological functions such
as decreasing arachidonic acid levels (Shimizu et
al., 1991) and blood lipids (Hirata et al., 1996).
Sesame oil contains a class of unusual compounds
known as lignans, comprised of sesamin,
sesamolin, a small amount of sesamol (Namiki,
1995), á-tocopherol bioavailability (Lemcke-
Norojarvi et al., 2001), increasing anti-oxidative
ability (Hemalatha, 2004), providing anti-
inflammatory function (Hsu et al., 2005;
Utsunomiya et al., 2000) and estrogenic activity
(Coulman et al., 2005; Penalvo et al., 2005; Wu et
al., 2006) also known to have a cholesterol
lowering effect in humans and to prevent high blood
The major edible oils contain predominantly
unsaturated 18 carbon fatty acids and palmitic acid
a 16 carbon fatty acid. Key target for modification
of these oils both for edible and industrial uses have
been identified (Murphy, 1999). One goal for
modification of these oils for edible use is to
increase the amount of palmitic and stearic acids
in order to minimise the need of hydrogenation in
the production of dietary fats. Another important
target is to increase stability of oils, achieved by
reducing their levels of unsaturated fatty acids
especially linolenic acids. However linoleic and
linolenic acids are essential to man and needs to be
kept at essentially high levels in dietary fats. The
effect of boiling improved the crude fat (49.23 to
56.78 %) and calcium content (757.13 to 975.54
mg/100 g). However, boiling caused a significant
reduction in levels of protein (18.87 to 14.12 %),
fiber (6.17 to 4.45 %) and potassium (831.47 to
727.42 mg/100 g) while iron levels were
unchanged. The total phenolics levels of the raw
Sesame seeds (0.15 mg/g) showed a remarkable
increase as the boiling time was increased to 30
min with a level of 0.35 mg/g. In addition, boiling
caused a significant increase in the total flavonoid
levels from 0.22 mg/g to 0.55 mg/g while a
decrease in the vitamin C content of raw Sesame
seeds was observed within the period of boiling.
Furthermore, the aqueous extracts of boiled Sesame
seeds exhibited greater antioxidant properties than
that of the raw seeds (Adeniyanet al., 2013).
In case of plant industrial oil, there is a wide
range of fatty acids of interest including many from
wild species that remain a target for commercial
production in transgenic crops. Examples of such
fatty acids include lauric, petroselinic, ricinoleic,
vernolic and ã-linolenic acids. There has been some
success with a few of these in oilseed Rape and
Soybean but there remain needs to increase quantity
of the specific fatty acid for crop effective use of
the modified crops. With a better understanding of
the biosynthetic pathway for uncommon fatty acid
it will be possible to achieve this in the major oil
crops. Considering that conventional Sesame oil is
beneficial to human health, it seems appropriate that
further improvement of quality should focus on
producing oils with new dietary, cosmetic,
pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses.
An important requirement for genetic
modification of oil composition is the availability
of a strongly expressed seed specific promoter.
Besides, the promoter should display correct
temporal expression of the introduced genes since
the synthesis of various storage products is
developmentally regulated. In Sesame fatty acid
synthesis begins early (9 days after fertilisation)
during seed development (Chung et al., 1995) and
therefore a late expressing promoter would be
unsuitable. Promoters seed expressed Ä 9 and Ä
12-desaturase genes have been cloned and their
expression pattern characterized (Yukawa et al.,
1996). These promoters are strong and turn on at
3904 Trends in Biosciences 8 (15), 2015
the onset of lipid biosynthesis, making them ideal
candidates for future use in the engineering of
Sesame oil composition.
For metabolic engineering of oil quality
improvement, fatty acid composition and enzymes
involved are very important so we can reduce
expression of endogenous enzymes by adding new
enzyme, overexpressing existing enzyme and by
using antisense RNA. It is proved that genes for
membrane-bound fatty acid-modifying enzymes not
only from plants but also from bacterial, animal,
yeast have been shown to function in transgenic
plants. The enzymes such as Fatty acid synthase,
Thioesterases, Elongases, Desaturases, Stearoyl-
ACPDesaturase, Ä12-Desaturase, Ä15-Desaturase,
Acyl transferases and Hydroxylases are important
in fatty acid manipulation. Suppression of the
oleateÄ12-desaturase gene (which normally
converts 18:1 to 18:2) in Soybean, Sunflower,
Cotton and Canola has resulted in the production
of oils with a high oleic acid content, which have
greater oxidative stability and improved
performance in high-temperature cooking
applications. (Metzger and Bornscheuer 2006).
In response to ever increasing world demand
of sesame seeds and its oil it is imperative that
sesame seeds should be increased production in
India. The enough scope exists for increasing area
as well as productivity of sesame. Sesame being a
number one oilseed in the world due to high
nutritional oil through Sesame area in India is more
as that of other countries the productivity is far
less as sesame can be grown in marginal wastelands
due to its ability to adapt to adverseagro climatic
conditions.VLC-PUFAs are found in many food
applications, including infant formulas, adult dietary
supplements, animal feed and food additives, and
are used as precursors for the production of
pharmaceuticals. The increase in percentage of
Omega 3 fatty acids instead of Omega 6 fatty acids
might be possible by using enzymes such as
desaturase which can be further helps to improve
quality of oil.
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Received on 16-07-2015 Accepted on 20-07-2015
... Roghan-e-Kunjad (sesame oil) absorbs quickly and penetrates through the tissues to the very marrow of the bone. It enters into the bloodstream through the capillaries and circulates [33]. It is mildly laxative, emollient, and demulcent and is used to treat wounds and burns [33]. ...
... It enters into the bloodstream through the capillaries and circulates [33]. It is mildly laxative, emollient, and demulcent and is used to treat wounds and burns [33]. It has natural antibacterial properties against common skin pathogens like Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. ...
... It has natural antibacterial properties against common skin pathogens like Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. It contains a class of unusual compounds known as lignans, comprised of sesamin, sesamolin, a small amount of sesamol, and á-tocopherol bioavailability, increasing anti-oxidative ability, providing antiinflammatory function [33]. Gul-e-Surkh (Rosa damascene flower) is laxative, expectorant, and cardiotonic [34]. ...
... It enters into the blood stream through the capillaries and circulates. 20 It is mildly laxative, emollient and demulcent and used to treat wounds and burns. 20 It is naturally antibacterial for common skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. ...
... 20 It is mildly laxative, emollient and demulcent and used to treat wounds and burns. 20 It is naturally antibacterial for common skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. It contains a class of unusual compounds known as lignans, comprised of sesamin, sesamolin, a small amount of sesamol, a-tocopherol bioavailability, increasing anti-oxidative ability, providing antiinflammatory function. ...
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This article reports a case in which a 65 years old female patient of frostbite induced gangrene, was treated with unani drugs; Sharbat Banafsha and Arq Murakkab Musaffi Khoon as oral administration, and Marham Safed Kafoori as topical application, with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of drugs and to avoid Surgery. Patient has shown excellent and admirable result within 60 days of treatment. Finally frost bitten and gangrenous part completely healed and repaired without any surgical intervention
... This dicotyledonous oil seed crop is mainly grown in tropical and subtropical parts of the world for its oils and proteins. Sesame crop is grown for dry seeds for food; leaves and young branches for feed and diversified parts of the plant for the treatment of several diseases (Pusadkar et al., 2015). Main form for utilization of sesame seeds is roasting seeds, which provides nutrients to diets (Makinde & Akinoso, 2014). ...
Oilseed crop sesame is mainly grown in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Plants seeds contain 42-54% quality oil, 22-25% protein and 20-25% carbohydrates. Sesame seeds with high amounts of nutritional components are consumed as a traditional health food for its specific antioxidative activity. This crop is frequently cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. A research was carried out at in South Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey in Siirt where continental climate prevails, with the aim to select the best genotypes from a total of 23 different sesame genotypes showing high performance in terms of germination date, vegetation period, the first flowering time, the last flowering time, plant height, first branch height, number of branches, number of capsules per plant and yield. As a result of the study, significant variations were determined between genotypes for the observed parameters in the study. Plant height, first branch height, branches number, capsules number per plant, seed number per capsule were between 80,8-115,9 cm; 5,9-18,3 cm; 3,1-8,5 pieces; 65,6-154,2 pieces; 62,8-135,2 pieces, respectively. The seed yield values were lowest (38,2 kg/da) and highest (97,4 kg/da) at SUS10 and SUS1 genotypes, respectively. The differences between the genotypes might be due to the inherent genetic potential differences of the genotypes and appeared phenotype in tested environments. As a conclusion, SUS1 genotype fit well to Siirt conditions. Branch number was negatively effected the seed yield where highest yield was obtained under lowest branch number and vice versa. As a result, it was determined that sesame species can be cropped under Siirt ecological conditions with good seed yield levels.
... Sesame seed oil is rich in Omega 6 fatty acids but lacks Omega 3 fatty acids. So there is a need to produce more Omega 3 fatty acids like alpha-linolenic acids with the help of various desaturase enzyme pathways for improvement of the quality of sesame oil as healthy oil (Pusadkar et al., 2015). Besides these metabolites, the white sesame showed the presence of phlorotannins, coumarins, leucoanthocyanins, whereas black sesame showed anthraquinones and emodins (Neeta et al., 2015). ...
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In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of white and black sesame seed oil against a range of fungal pathogens including that responsible for animal and plant infection. Sensitivity testing against some pathogenic fungi were studied with white and black sesame seed oils in the laboratory pouring aqueous extract of the sesame seeds into the culture media. Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Aspergillus spp. were the microorganisms used and they were identified, confirmed and obtained from the Biology laboratory of the University of Zalingei, Sudan. The result showed that sesame oil has strong antifungal activity against opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Aspergillus spp. The oil extracted from white sesame seed was found to give better than black sesame seed oil on the studied fungi. This article focuses on natural products used as antifungal properties, their effects on the minimum inhibitory concentration value, as well as their environmental value. The study suggested that both white and black sesame seeds are potential sources of functional food to prevent chronic diseases.
... Sesame crop is grown for dry seeds as food; leaves and young branches as feed and diversified parts of the plant for the treatment of several diseases (Pusadkar et al., 2015). Main form for utilization of sesame seeds is roasting seeds, which provides nutrients to diets (Makinde & Akinoso, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Verbascum L. (Scrophulariaceae) cinsi, dünya çapında yaklaşık 360 tür içerir. Türkiye'de 130 melez ilavesi ile cins, kısmen yapay 13 gruba ayrılan 246 tür ile temsil edilmektedir. Türkçe “Sığırkuyruğu” olarak adlandırılan bu cinsin endemizm oranı, 196 endemik tür (%80) ile oldukça yüksektir. Bu cins 9 takson ile (V. orientale (L.) All., V. agrimoniifolium subsp. agrimoniifolium (K.Koch) Hub.-Mor., V. laetum Boiss. & Hausskn ex Boiss., V. racemiferum Boiss. & Hausskn ex Boiss., V. sinuatum subsp. sinuatum var. adenosepalum Murb., V. geminiflorum Hochst., V. andrusii Post, V. kotschyi Boiss. & Hohen., V. lasianthum Boiss. ex Benth.) Mardin ilinde doğal olarak yayılış göstermektedir. Taksonlar tek, iki ve çok yıllıktırlar. Çiçeklenme Mayıs-Temmuz zaman aralığındadır. Habitatları kireçtaşı yamaçları, Quercus çalılığı, bağlar, nadas tarlaları, taşlı yamaçlar ve tahıl tarlalarıdır. Yayılış gösterdikleri yükseklik 0-1050 m arasındadır. Akdeniz ve İran-Turan elementidirler. Taksonların Türkiye dağılımları Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesidir. Sığırkuyruğu, geleneksel veya bitkisel tıpta uzun yıllardan beri kullanılan bitkilerdendir. Özellikle astım, solunum, hemoroit, saç dökülmeleri, mantar enfeksiyonları, cilt yaraları, romatizmal ağrılar, ishal, lenfosittik lösemi ve grip gibi hastalıkların tedavisinde kullanıldığı belirtilmiştir. Bunun yanında yapılan araştırmalarda antiinflamatuar aktiviteye sahip olduğu ve çiçeğinin antiviral özellikler taşıdığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu derlemede, Verbascum üyelerinin Mardin’de yayılış gösteren taksonlarının taksonomik özellikleri ve tıbbi açıdan da kullanımları derlenmiştir
... Sesame is one of the oldest oilseed crops and it is grown widely in subtropical and tropical areas for its edible oil, proteins, vitamins, and amino acids [1]. It is traditionally categorized as a health food in Asian countries [2]. ...
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The objective of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of boron (B) to obtain the highest growth, yield, and oil content of black sesame. A field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments and five replications. Treatments included foliar application of B at five rates: control, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg L−1 at 25 and 35 days after sowing. Results showed that spraying B on leaves increased sesame growth in terms of plant height, number of leaves, and chlorophyll content. Moreover, spraying B increased yield components including the number of pods; the highest pods per plant was 46.2 in the B application treatment with 150 mg L−1 compared to the control with 27.2 pods per plant. The grain yield of the B spray treatment produced 1.10–1.32 t ha−1, with the highest yield at the dose of 150 mg L−1 and the lowest yield at no B spray treatment. Spraying B on leaves at optimal concentration also increased the oil content in seeds up to 5.3% compared to the control treatment. The findings of the study suggest that foliar B application with 150 mg L−1 increases the growth, fruit set, seed yield, and oil content in sesame.
... Black sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is well known as an important oilseed plant, and it belongs to the genus Sesamum and the family Pedaliceae. Black sesame yields important material for edible oil production (Bedigian, 2011;Warra, 2011;Pusadkar et al., 2015). The sesame seed comprises nutritional compositions, including basic nutrients, which are lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and dietary fibre (Bedigian, 2011;Shomeina et al., 2015). ...
... Fats in sesame oil are relatively stable and resist oxidative rancidity as compared to other oils. Sesame contains a high percentage of antioxidants such as sesamol, sesamin, sesamolin, and sesaminol; fatty acids like palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic, and rich in minerals like vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus (Pusadkar et al., 2015;Myint et al., 2020). The sesame oil aids in reducing blood cholesterol, high blood pressure and prevents atherosclerosis, heart diseases, and cancers (Kumar & Singh, 2015). ...
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The present study envisaged the effects of two mutagens, gamma rays and EMS on the phenotypes of two sesame varieties viz., TMV7 and SVPR1. A known quantity of dry, uniform, and healthy seeds of TMV7 and SVPR 1 were irradiated using Co60 (Cobalt 60) with different doses (250, 300, 350, 400, 450 Gy) of gamma rays. For chemical mutagenesis, different concentrations of EMS @ 0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% was used and treated for 8 h. The dose-response curve of the probit analysis showed that the optimal lethal dose for SVPR1was lower than TMV7. The expected LD50 values of gamma radiation for TMV 7 and SVPR1 were 403.91Gy and 343.84Gy, respectively. For EMS, the expected LD50 values are 0.525 % and 0.276% for TMV7 and SVPR1 respectively. Germination and pollen fertility declined linearly with an increase in dose or concentration of the mutagens. Three classes of chlorophyll mutants viz., xantha, chlorine, and viridis in M2 generation reveals a dose dependent relationship between mutagens and frequency of chlorophyll mutants. Mutagenic effectiveness was higher at lower doses whereas mutagenic efficiency was observed higher at extremity doses in both the varieties. The overall considerations on M1 generation effects showed that SVPR1was highly sensitive to gamma rays and TMV7 produced more viable mutationsthan SVPR1. The current studies suggest gamma rays as an efficient mutagen to induce essential mutations in TMV7 for the further crop improvement program.
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Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an oilseed crop and rich in various bioactive compounds including phenolics, phytosterols and vitamins. In this study, phenolic compounds were extracted from three varieties of sesame seeds (black, brown, and white) to determine the antioxidant activities and bioaccessibility of selected phenolic compounds during in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation. The SCFAs production was also estimated. Black sesame seeds performed the highest TPC (2.69 mg GAE/g) and antioxidant capacities during gastrointestinal digestion. During colonic fermentation, black and brown sesame seeds exhibited relatively higher TPC (4.13 mg GAE/g) and antioxidant activities (DPPH: 8.6 mg TE/g; FRAP: 4.1 mg TE/g). Kaempferol was the lowest bioaccessible phenolic compound presented in all three sesame seeds, which relied more on the action of gut microbiota. White sesame seeds displayed higher production of individual and total SCFAs followed by black sesame seeds, which could be beneficial to gut health.
Sesame seed is mostly utilised for its oil but also the waste of the oil processing; the seed meal has also significant potential to be used as an alternative protein source. In this study, the goal is to produce sesame seed protein by using three different techniques; alkaline, salt, and enzyme‐assisted extraction. A comprehensive physicochemical characterisation of the extracts was performed. Total and soluble protein contents, emulsification activity & emulsion stability, FTIR spectroscopy, hydration behavior, and gelling ability experiments by TD‐NMR were conducted for all extracted proteins. Also, SDS‐PAGE experiments were performed to observe the effect of extraction conditions on protein folding. Overall, the aqueous phase of enzyme‐assisted extracted proteins (E‐ACP) had the highest protein content and solubility, which resulted in other improved physicochemical properties. Salt extracted samples were ‘salted‐out’, therefore; since had poor physic‐ochemical properties. TD‐NMR experiments further confirmed the solubility and gelling ability results by measuring the change in the T2 spin relaxation times. Additionally, FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the most critical peaks for the proteins; Amide I (C=O stretching) and Amide II (N‐H bending). In summary, depending on the physicochemical property of interest, different extraction methods yielded proteins with different properties.
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The goal of this study was to determine the variation of certain characters in the 72 local sesame populations, which were collected from different sites of Turkey, and develope superior lines with high seed yield, high oil, high oleic and high linoleic acid content via pure line selection. A great deal of variation for the characters examined was found among the populations. 8 out of 72 sesame populations were determined as superior for the characters of seed yield, oil, oleic acid and linoleic acid contents in 1993. 800 single plants for the characters mentioned above were sampled within the superior populations in 1994. 160 lines selected from the 800 single plants were grown in 1995. Total of 16 superior lines selected from the 160 lines were planted along with the control varietyMuganly- 57' in randomized complate block design with 4 replication in 1996. `TR 3821560' andTR 3821593' lines which had 16.9% and 15.9% higher seed yield than the control variety were developed as superior for high yield andTSP 933749' line with 63.25% oil content was developed as superior for high oil content. `TSP 933229' andTR 3821512' lines which had oleic acid over 45% andTSP 932410' andTSP 932403' lines which had linoleic acid over 45% were determined as high oleic and linoleic acid type lines, respectively.
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This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaustion of the oil contained in the seeds. The sequential extraction used ethyl ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The Soxhlet extraction was the most effective (58.93%), while the SFE technique obtained 26.47% as the best result. The antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with good oxidation inhibition percentages (29.32-83.49%) for all the extracts. The main fatty acids (FA) in sesame oil were oleic and linoleic acids.
Determinate growth habit in sesame is not available in nature originally. The character was a mutant induced by gamma rays and has the potential to make possible mechanised harvesting in sesame by enabling synchronous flowering. Though no detailed study on fatty acids of determinate types has been recently performed, much material is available on the genotypes of indeterminates. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare determinate and indeterminate types of sesame with regard to oil content and fatty acid composition. A total of 10 genotypes, six determinate and four indeterminate types, were grown in a randomised complete blocks design with three replications at Antalya in the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. The seeds from each plot in the two years were subjected to oil extraction and subsequent fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography. The oil contents of the determinate genotypes were found to be close to their wild types and sibs. However, the low seed yield of these genotypes resulted in lower oil yields compared to indeterminate types. In addition, it was seen that the determinate genotypes were found to be of higher oleic acid content and lower linoleic acid content. In conclusion, the fatty acid composition of determinate types was found to be satisfactory. However, the oil yield of these genotypes has to be improved by increasing their seed yield.
The white and black varieties of Sesamum indicum were extracted in ethanol and the extracts were assayed for their antioxidant activities. The study revealed that both the extracts showed antioxidant activity. Respect to its abilility in inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The hydroxyl radical scavenging by the white sesame extract was found to be more than that of black sesame. The white sesame seed extract was markedly a more potent scavenger of superoxide anion than the black one. The reducing power of the seed extracts was in substantiation with the antioxidant property. Fe ++ chelation by the extracts was found to be high. It is concluded that the sesame seed extracts possess high antioxidant activity and that the white variety elicit better antioxidant activity than the black one.
Sesamum (Sesamum indicum) is an ancient oil seed crop and grown in India from antiquity. The primary aim of sesame breeding is to improve yield as well as oil content. But, both biotic and abiotic stress factors are hampering the realization of the full yield potential of sesame. While plant breeding programmes produce genetic variation, selection and mating leading to population improvement, molecular breeding techniques ranging from cell and tissue culture, vegetative propagation, genetic mapping and gene trasfer help to enhance the crop yields and sustainable productivity. Molecular techniques though unlikely to replace totally classical breeding, they can immensely increase the capabilities of breeders to solve some of the practical problems. Micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis has been achieved in sesame. But, there is an urgent need to develop molecular markers for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in this important crop plant.
Some historical facts on and botanical descriptions of sesame are given. Some flavor studies of raw and roasted sesame seeds and oils are described. Composition and some usages are also briefly reported. Sesame has long been regarded in the Orient as a health food which increases energy and prevents aging. Sesame oil has been known empirically as a cooking oil which is highly resistant to oxidative deterioration in comparison with other edible oils. Until recently there were no scientific studies to elucidate these interesting aspects of sesame seed and oil, but the author and members of his group initiated studies on the chemical elucidation of antioxidative principles of sesame seed and oil, and extensively investigated the antiaging effect of sesame. Presence of various new antioxidative lignan phenol compounds in sesame seed and oil is described. Sesaminol has been identified as a new antioxidative principle in raw sesame salad oil. The mechanism of the superior antioxidative activity of roasted sesame oil is being elucidated and is consistent with the synergistic effect of the browning products with tocopherol, sesamol, and sesamin. Noticeable results concerning the antiaging effect of sesame have been shown in a series of animal experiments. The suppressive effect on senescence in mice by long‐term feeding of sesame was demonstrated. Sesame lignans had a synergistic effect on vitamin E activities when added to tocopherols. The addition of sesame lignans, especially that of antioxidative lignan sesaminol in the diets of rats, markedly enhanced vitamin E activity of γ‐tocopherol to the same level of α‐tocopherol, and also significantly enhanced the vitamin E activity of α‐tocopherol. These effects were accompanied by a marked increase in the concentrations of these tocopherols in blood and liver. The enhancement of vitamin E activity by lignans is very important from the viewpoint of evaluating vitamin E activity as well as the antiaging effect of various foods. Various interesting physiological activities of sesame lignans in animal and human tests were shown, such as hypocholesterolemic activity, suppressive activity of chemically induced cancer, and enhancing effect on various liver activities involving detoxification of carbon tetrachloride and ethanol. These recent developments in chemical and physiological studies on sesame seed and oil seem to partially unveil the mystery surrounding sesame though there remain many interesting physiological activities in various aspects of advanced nutritional and phsyiological sciences which need to be clarified. These recent studies demonstrate that sesame, though a minor constituent of daily diets, plays an important role in developing the potential powers of other food constituents as well as markedly raising food quality, not just in the aroma and taste, but also in nutritional and physiological aspects. Because much attention has been focused on the effect of the daily diet on health, especially on circulatory disorders, carcinogenesis, and senility, it seems that sesame seed and oil should be considered as one of the more valuable foods for good health and for good quality of life in general.