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Isolation, Identification and Screening of Manganese Solubilizing Fungi From Low-Grade Manganese Ore Deposits

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Abstract

The present investigation reports the isolation, molecular identification and screening of Mn solubilizing fungal strains from low grade Mn mine tailings. Six morphologically distinct Mn solubilizing fungal strains were isolated on MnO2 supplemented agar plates with Mn concentration of 0.1 % (w/v).The biochemical characterization of the isolated fungal strains was carried out. The molecular identification by Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequencing identified the strains as Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium species, Penicillium species, Penicillium dalea, and Penicillium species with GenBank accession numbers KP309809, KP309810, KP309811, KP309812, KP309813 and KP309814 respectively. The ability of the isolated fungal strains to tolerate and solubilize Mn was investigated by sub-culturing them on Mn supplemented plates with concentration ranging from 0.1-0.5% (w/v). Mn solubilizing ability of the fungal isolates is possibly due to the mycelia production of bio generated organic acids such as oxalic acid, citric acid, maleic acid and gluconic acid as revealed by ion chromatography. Our investigation signifies the role of fungi in biotransformation of insoluble Mn oxide.

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... Heavy metal pollution is evolved as one of the important ecological problems. Heavy metals have been used for various industrial applications due to their vital role in industries (Mohanty et al. 2017;Sanket et al. 2017). Heavy metals have caused numerous toxic effects to humans and environment due to their contamination in ecological system. ...
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... Isolat cendawan ditumbuhkan permukaan media dan diinkubasi pada suhu ruang selama 48 jam. Isolat cendawan mampu melarutkan fosfat terlihat dengan adanya zona bening di sekitar koloni cendawan Pengujian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan cendawan dalam melarutkan fosfat (Mohanty et al. 2017). ...
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... Microbe assisted bioremediation is a very commonly accepted approach for soil treatment as it's thought to operate via natural phenomena Mohanty et al. 2017). However, heavy metal bioremediation is distinct since biological mechanisms are unable to eliminate it naturally (Edwards and Kjellerup 2013). ...
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... The newly formed manganese containing biomineral was identified by XRD ( Figure 3) as oxalate monohydrate -lindbergite [Mn(C2O4).H2O)]. This unique fungal ability of rapid manganese biotransformation indicates the possible role of filamentous fungi as geoactive agent in manganese transformation (Mohanty et al., 2017) which also possesses capability to Complimentary Contributor Copy affect environmental fate of some nutrients and pollutants via sorption processes. Such newly formed biogenic mineral phase may serve both as a sink of heavy metals and natural barrier preventing entering cell interior (Fomina et al., 2005). ...
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This is the post-print version of the following article: "Characterizing Alterations in the Secondary Structure of Typical Proteins under Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields", which has been published in final form at https://novapublishers.com/shop/advances-in-chemistry-research-volume-42/
... Ghosh et al. (2016) also identified Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus sp., and Lysinibacillus sp., as manganese solubilizing bacteria isolated from manganese mining deposits. Mohanty et al. (2017) reported Aspergillus terreus KP309809, Aspergillus oryzae KP309810, Penicillium sp. KP309811, Penicillium sp., KP309812, Penicillium daleae KP309813, and Penicillium sp. ...
Chapter
Plant microbiomes have profound effects on seed germination, seedling vigor, growth of the plants and development, nutrition, diseases, crop productivity and soil fertility. The microbial communities associated with plant as epiphytic, endophytic and rhizospheric influences their composition and activities in plat surrounding systems. The rhizospheric region is defined as the narrow zone in top soil which encompasses the root system and it has been known to be the hot spot for several microorganisms and is among one of the most complex ecosystems on the earth. Rhizospheric microbes that have been well studied for their beneficial effects on the plant growth as well as health includes nitrogen fixers, phosphorus solubilizers and mobilizers, phytohormones producers, biocontrol microorganisms. These mostly include the species of genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cellulomonas, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Flavobacterium, Gluconacetobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Rhizobia, Serratia, Streptomyces and Xanthomonas. Sustainable agricultural systems utilize the natural processes so as to attain adequate degree of output as well as the quality of food concurrently reducing the adverse ecological effects. There are numerous soil fertility factors which impart to the sustainable agriculture by acting as the biocontrol agent of the soil borne disease, along with enlarged activity of microbes in the soil lead to the enhanced competition and parasitism within the rhizosphere. The use of the plant growth promoting microbes in agronomy can support a decline in utilization of chemical fertilizers and can boost the crops productivity in an eco-friendly manner
... Wei et al. (2012) demonstrated the capability of Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides to solubilize all the insoluble oxides when incorporated into solid medium: MnO 2 and Mn 2 O 3 , mycogenic manganese oxide, and birnessite. Mohanty et al. (2017) isolated Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium dalea, and Penicillium sp. as solubilizers of manganese from low-grade manganese mine tailings. ...
Chapter
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With the expanding population, environment is changing greatly and agriculture is one of the most exposed sectors to these changes and faces a number of challenges like pollution, pathogenic attack, salinity, drought, high temperature, low temperature and so on. All these challenges ultimately affect the productivity. To overcome such issues, eco-friendly approaches are very vital. The use of fungi as biofertilizers is one emerging area which is getting a greater attention as it has is proving its importance by enhancing the plant growth and productivity by diverse plant growth promoting traits including the production of the phytohormones, siderophores, hydrolytic enzymes, making the availability of different nutrients and protecting plants against the pathogens. Further, fungi is also becoming a centre of focus for the industrial sector as fungal enzymes play a chief role in industries and their requirement is at the top position and in fact their influence will be felt more in coming years. Thus, keeping in view the importance of fungi especially for the agriculture as well as industrial sector, the following chapter has been designed which will take into consideration the plant growth promoting traits of fungi, role of fungi in abiotic stress tolerance, value added products from fungi, use of fungal enzymes in diverse industries, fungi as a source of various secondary metabolites
... The generated metabolic products gener- ally have the consequence of dissolving insoluble metal complexes from minerals by increasing disso- lution of metal by reducing the level of pH and rising concentration of soluble metals with metallic com- pounds by complexing ( Banh et al. 2013). However various groups of fungi are being involved in boosting oxidation of manganese which is probably due to enzymatic and non-enzymatic interaction with the metabolic product formed by fungi ( Mohanty et al. 2016). Thus, the existence of manganese ions accel- erates the activation of enzymatic action over eleva- tion of oxalate compound. ...
... This technology has been widely investigated for toxic metals removal from soils (Diaz et al., 2015;Huang et al., 2015;Nareshkumar et al., 2008), sediments (Akinci and Guven, 2011;Chen and Lin, 2009a;Hoque and Philip, 2011), and mine tailings (Lee et al., 2015;Liu et al., 2008;Seh-Bardan et al., 2012). Bioleaching was widely applied for removal and recovery of Mn from mining waste residues (Ghosh et al., 2018(Ghosh et al., , 2016Ghosh and Das, 2017;Mohanty et al., 2017;Sanket et al., 2017). Especially, bioleaching was also effective with mine tailings highly contaminated with As (Lee et al., 2015;Park et al., 2014) and As-containing minerals (Zhang et al., 2015. ...
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Manufacturing of manganese (Mn) compounds, their industrial applications as well as mining overburden, has generated a potential environmental pollutant. Occupational exposure to elevated levels of Mn occurs during mining, welding, smelting and other industrial anthropogenic sources. Chronic and acute exposure of this metal pollutant leads to adverse consequences and is clinically categorized by various symptoms of neurotoxicity including cognitive, psychiatric symptoms, Parkinson's disease, extra pyramidal signs, manganism, dystonia, and motor system dysfunction. The aim of this review is to summarize the possible mechanism underlying Mn compounds-mediated neurotoxicity leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Our review endeavours to examine recent advances in research on Mn-related environmental pollution, Mn-induced poisoning, molecular mechanisms underlying Mn-induced neurotoxicity with case studies as well as current approaches employed for treatment and prevention of Mn exposure.
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Very few studies have addressed the diversity of culturable fungi from deep-sea sediments. We are reporting here the diversity of culturable fungi in deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin obtained from a depth of ∼5,000m. A total of 16 filamentous fungi and 12 yeasts isolated from 20 sediment cores of ∼35cm length were identified by 18S and ITS sequencing of SSU rDNA. Most of the filamentous fungi were Ascomycota, while two were Basidiomycota. Microscopic identification of sporulating cultures mostly matched either with 18S or ITS sequences but seldom with both the sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of ascomycetes using 18S sequence data grouped them into 7 clusters belonging to Aspergillus sp., Sagenomella sp., Exophiala sp., Capronia sp., Cladosporium sp., Acremonium sp. and Tritirachium sp. ITS sequence data grouped isolates into 6 clusters belonging to Aspergillus sp., uncultured member of Hypocreaceae, Exophiala sp., uncultured soil fungus, Hypocreales and Trichothecium sp. The two basidiomycete isolates were a Tilletiopsis sp. evident from 18S as well as ITS sequence data. In contrast, most of the yeast isolates belonged to Basidiomycota and only one isolate belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Sequences of 18S as well as ITS gave matching identification of most of the yeasts. Filamentous fungi as well as the yeasts grew at 200bar/5°C indicating their adaptations to deep-sea conditions. This is the first report on isolation of Sagenomella, Exophiala, Capronia and Tilletiopsis spp. from deep-sea sediments. This study reports on the presence of terrestrial fungi as a component of culturable fungi in deep-sea sediments. KeywordsDeep-sea sediments-Fungi-18S-ITS sequences-Hydrostatic pressure-Central Indian Basin
Article
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Manganese is an essential trace metal that is not as readily oxidizable like iron. Several bacterial groups posses the ability to oxidize Mn effectively competing with chemical oxidation. The oxides of Mn are the strongest of the oxidants, next to oxygen in the aquatic environment and therefore control the fate of several elements. Mn oxidizing bacteria have a suit of enzymes that not only help to scavenge Mn but also other associated elements, thus playing a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles. This article reviews the importance of manganese and its interaction with microorganisms in the oxidative Mn cycle in aquatic realms.
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In this study we demonstrate that the demosponge Suberites domuncula harbors a Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium, a Bacillus strain, termed BAC-SubDo-03. Our studies showed that Mn(II) stimulates bacterial growth and induces sporulation. Moreover, we show that these bacteria immobilize manganese on their cell surface. Comparison of the 16S rDNA sequence allowed the grouping of BAC-SubDo-03 to the Mn-precipitating bacteria. Analysis of the spore cell wall revealed that it contains an Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme. Co-incubation studies of BAC-SubDo-03 with 100 μM MnCl(2) and >1 μM of CuCl(2) showed an increase in their Mn(II)-oxidizing capacity. In order to prove that a multicopper oxidase-like enzyme(s) (MCO) exists in the cell wall of the S. domuncula-associated BAC-SubDo-03 Bacillus strain, the gene encoding this enzyme was cloned (mnxG-SubDo-03). Sequence alignment of the deduced MCO protein (MnxG-SubDo-03) revealed that the sponge bacterium clusters together with known Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria. The expression of the mnxG-SubDo-03 gene is under strong control of extracellular Mn(II). Based on these findings, we assume that BAC-SubDo-03 might serve as a Mn reserve in the sponge providing the animal with the capacity to detoxify Mn in the environment. Applying the in vitro primmorph cell culture system we could demonstrate that sponge cells, that were co-incubated with BAC-SubDo-03 in the presence of Mn(II), show an increased proliferation potential.
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Aerobic fixed bed bioreactors were used to study and compare biostimulation and bioaugmentation for remediation of soil contaminated with spent motor oil. Bioaugmentation using consortium of bacteria and biostimulation using inorganic fertilizer and potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate were investigated. The bioremediation indicators used were the oil and grease content removals, total heterotrophic bacteria counts and carbon dioxide respiration rates. Results showed that biodegradations were very effective with 50, 66 and 75 % oil and grease content removal efficiencies for control, bioaugmentation and biostimulation respectively after ten weeks. Carbon dioxide respiration followed similar pattern as the oil and grease content removals. Biostimulation option has the highest carbon dioxide generation (6 249 mg/kg) and the control with the least (4 276 mg/kg). Therefore, the biostimulation option can be used to develop a realistic treatment technology for soils contaminated with spent motor oil.
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Biologically active, passive treatment systems are commonly employed for removing high concentrations of dissolved Mn(II) from coal mine drainage (CMD). Studies of microbial communities contributing to Mn attenuation through the oxidation of Mn(II) to sparingly soluble Mn(III/IV) oxide minerals, however, have been sparse to date. This study reveals a diverse community of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi and bacteria existing in several CMD treatment systems.
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Inter- and intraspecific variation among 26 isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 8 genera and 19 species were evaluated by analysis of the internal transcribed sequence (ITS) of the rDNA region using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The ITS region was first amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers and then cleaved with different restriction enzymes. Amplification products, which ranged between 560 and 750 base pairs (bp), were obtained for all the isolates analyzed. The degree of polymorphism observed did not allow proper identification of most of the isolates. Cleavage of amplified fragments with the restriction enzymes Alu I, Hae III, Hinf I, and Hpa II revealed extensive polymorphism. All eight genera and most species presented specific restriction patterns. Species not identifiable by a specific pattern belonged to two genera: Rhizopogon (R. nigrescens, R. reaii, R. roseolus, R. rubescens and Rhizopogon sp.), and Laccaria (L. bicolor and L. amethystea). Our data confirm the potential of ITS region PCR-RFLP for the molecular characterization of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their identification and monitoring in artificial inoculation programs.
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A deep-sea manganese-oxidizing bacterium, Brachybacterium sp. strain Mn32, showed high Mn(II) resistance (MIC 55 mM) and Mn(II)-oxidizing/removing abilities. Strain Mn32 removed Mn(II) by two pathways: (1) oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to insoluble biogenic Mn oxides - birnessite (delta-MnO(2) group) and manganite (gamma-MnOOH); (2) the biogenic Mn oxides further adsorb more Mn(II) from the culture. The generated biogenic Mn oxides surround the cell surfaces of strain Mn32 and provide a high capacity to adsorb Zn(II) and Ni(II). Mn(II) oxidation by strain Mn32 was inhibited by both sodium azide and o-phenanthroline, suggesting the involvement of a metalloenzyme which was induced by Mn(II). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the crystal structures of the biogenic Mn oxides were different from those of commercial pyrolusite (beta-MnO(2) group) and fresh chemically synthesized vernadite (delta-MnO(2) group). The biogenic Mn oxides generated by strain Mn32 showed two to three times higher Zn(II) and Ni(II) adsorption abilities than commercial and fresh synthetic MnO(2). The crystal structure and the biogenic MnO(2) types may be important factors for the high heavy metal adsorption ability of strain Mn32. This study provides potential applications of a new marine Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium in heavy metal bioremediation and increases our basic knowledge of microbial manganese oxidation mechanisms.
Book
Abiotic stress cause changes in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum and is responsible for reduced yield in several major crops. Therefore, the subject of abiotic stress response in plants - metabolism, productivity and sustainability - is gaining considerable significance in the contemporary world. Abiotic stress is an integral part of “climate change,” a complex phenomenon with a wide range of unpredictable impacts on the environment. Prolonged exposure to these abiotic stresses results in altered metabolism and damage to biomolecules. Plants evolve defense mechanisms to tolerate these stresses by upregulation of osmolytes, osmoprotectants, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, etc. This volume deals with abiotic stress-induced morphological and anatomical changes, abberations in metabolism, strategies and approaches to increase salt tolerance, managing the drought stress, sustainable fruit production and postharvest stress treatments, role of glutathione reductase, flavonoids as antioxidants in plants, the role of salicylic acid and trehalose in plants, stress-induced flowering. The role of soil organic matter in mineral nutrition and fatty acid profile in response to heavy metal stress are also dealt with. Proteomic markers for oxidative stress as a new tools for reactive oxygen species and photosynthesis research, abscisic acid signaling in plants are covered with chosen examples. Stress responsive genes and gene products including expressed proteins that are implicated in conferring tolerance to the plant are presented. Thus, this volume would provides the reader with a wide spectrum of information including key references and with a large number of illustrations and tables. Dr. Parvaiz is Assistant Professor in Botany at A.S. College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. He has completed his post-graduation in Botany in 2000 from Jamia Hamdard New Delhi India. After his Ph.D from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, India in 2007 he joined the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi. He has published more than 20 research papers in peer reviewed journals and 4 book chapters. He has also edited a volume which is in press with Studium Press Pvt. India Ltd., New Delhi, India. Dr. Parvaiz is actively engaged in studying the molecular and physio-biochemical responses of different plants (mulberry, pea, Indian mustard) under environmental stress. Prof. M.N.V. Prasad is a Professor in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Hyderabad, India. He received B.Sc. (1973) and M.Sc. (1975) degrees from Andhra University, India, and the Ph.D. degree (1979) in botany from the University of Lucknow, India. Prasad has published 216 articles in peer reviewed journals and 82 book chapters and conference proceedings in the broad area of environmental botany and heavy metal stress in plants. He is the author, co-author, editor, or co-editor for eight books. He is the recipient of Pitamber Pant National Environment Fellowship of 2007 awarded by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Book
Abiotic stress cause changes in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum and is responsible for reduced yield in several major crops. Therefore, the subject of abiotic stress response in plants - metabolism, productivity and sustainability - is gaining considerable significance in the contemporary world. Abiotic stress is an integral part of “climate change,” a complex phenomenon with a wide range of unpredictable impacts on the environment. Prolonged exposure to these abiotic stresses results in altered metabolism and damage to biomolecules. Plants evolve defense mechanisms to tolerate these stresses by upregulation of osmolytes, osmoprotectants, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, etc. This volume deals with abiotic stress-induced morphological and anatomical changes, abberations in metabolism, strategies and approaches to increase salt tolerance, managing the drought stress, sustainable fruit production and postharvest stress treatments, role of glutathione reductase, flavonoids as antioxidants in plants, the role of salicylic acid and trehalose in plants, stress-induced flowering. The role of soil organic matter in mineral nutrition and fatty acid profile in response to heavy metal stress are also dealt with. Proteomic markers for oxidative stress as a new tools for reactive oxygen species and photosynthesis research, abscisic acid signaling in plants are covered with chosen examples. Stress responsive genes and gene products including expressed proteins that are implicated in conferring tolerance to the plant are presented. Thus, this volume would provides the reader with a wide spectrum of information including key references and with a large number of illustrations and tables. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. All rights reserved.
Article
Manganese (Mn) ranks twelfth among the most exuberant metal present in the earth's crust and finds its imperative application in the manufacturing steel, chemical, tannery, glass, and battery industries. Solubilisation of Mn can be performed by several bacterial strains which are useful in developing environmental friendly solutions for mining activities. The present investigation aims to isolate and characterize Mn solubilising bacteria from low grade ores from Sanindipur Manganese mine of Sundargh district in Odisha state of India. Four morphologically distinct bacterial strains showing visible growth on Mn supplemented plates were isolated. Mn solubilising ability of the bacterial strains was assessed by visualizing the lightening of the medium appearing around the growing colonies. Three isolates were gram negative and rod shaped while the remaining one was gram positive, coccobacilli. Molecular identification of the isolates was carried out by 16S rRNA sequencing and the bacterial isolates were taxonomically classified as Bacillus anthrasis MSB 2, Acinetobacter sp. MSB 5, Lysinibacillus sp. MSB 11, and Bacillus sp. MMR-1 using BLAST algorithm. The sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank with the accession number KP635223, KP635224, KP635225 and JQ936966, respectively. Manganese solubilisation efficiency of 40, 96, 97.5 and 48.5% were achieved by MMR-1, MSB 2, MSB 5 and MSB 11 respectively. The efficiency of Mn solubilisation is suggested with the help of a pH variation study. The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms involved in Manganese solubilisation efficiency of bacterial isolates.
Chapter
DefinitionGeomycology. The scientific study of the roles of fungi in processes of fundamental importance to geologyIntroductionFungi are chemoorganotrophic (heterotrophic) organisms relying on organic carbon sources for energy and metabolism, and ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial environments. They are important as decomposers, animal and plant mutualistic symbionts and pathogens, and spoilage organisms of natural and manufactured materials (Gadd, 1993a, 1999, 2006; Burford et al., 2003a). They also have a role in the maintenance of soil structure due to their predominantly filamentous branching growth habit (each filament is called a hypha; plural = hyphae; all the hyphae constitute the mycelium) and frequent exopolymer production. Fungi have important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of the elements (e.g., C, N, P, S, metals), and this is linked with their ability to adopt a variety of growth, metabolic, and morphological strategies, their adaptive capabi ...
Article
A study of rock phosphate (RP) mines, rich in R2O3 (Fe2O3 and Al2O3) contents, was done to explore the possibilities of isolating and characterizing thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) having the ability to solubilize ferric phosphate (Fe-P) and aluminium phosphate (Al-P) efficiently. Hundred and ten thermo-tolerant PSB were isolated employing Pikovskaya (PVK) broth amended with RP, and six of these isolates were selected for further study. The phosphate solubilizing efficiency (PSE) was determined in PVK broth containing tri-calcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (Hy-P), Fe-P, Al-P or RP. These isolates showed solubilization of all the phosphorus (P) sources used in this study, particularly Fe-P, Al-P and RP. The main mechanism of P-solubilization seemed to be mediated by the production of organic acids leading to medium acidification. HPLC analysis revealed production of multiple organic acids (oxalic, citric, malic, succinic, formic, acetic and gluconic acids) in the culture supernatant along with some unknown acids. Based on the partial sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, these thermo-tolerant isolates were found to belong to two bacterial genera, Brevibacillus and Bacillus.
Article
A brief outline of the development of bioremediation technologies is presented. The major features and limitations are discussed, and an overview of the current state of the art in field applications is sketched.
Article
Aquilaria malaccensis is a fast-growing, tropical tree belonging to the family Thymelaeaceae and is locally known as Agar. Agarwood formation takes place in the stem or main branches of the tree where an injury has occurred. It is believed that the tree is first attacked by a pathogenic fungus, which causes it to weaken. Most fungal diversity studies have previously been based on morphological examination and cultivation methods. In this study, we used both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (metagenomic) to study the endophytic fungi on wood chips of A. malaccensis. The culture-based approach revealed Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Phaeoacremonium and Trichoderma as members of the agarwood community. Also analysis of ITS sequencing of these culture isolates provided further verification of the identity of the cultured groups. Analysis of community DNA (metagenome) extracted from both infected and healthy wood samples revealed that the majority of fungi present had highest sequence similarity to members of Dothideomycetes, followed by Sordariomycetes and Saccharomycetes. Thus, morphological and genetic characteristics showed that most isolates from agarwood belong to phylum Ascomycota. A neighbour-joining tree showed the relationships between the isolates sequence data and the closest identified relatives from GenBank.
Article
Geomycology can be simply defined as 'the scientific study of the roles of fungi in processes of fundamental importance to geology' and the biogeochemical importance of fungi is significant in several key areas. These include nutrient and element cycling, rock and mineral transformations, bioweathering, mycogenic biomineral formation and interactions of fungi with clay minerals and metals. Such processes can occur in aquatic and terrestrial habitats, but it is in the terrestrial environment where fungi probably have the greatest geochemical influence. Of special significance are the mutualistic relationships with phototrophic organisms, lichens (algae, cyanobacteria) and mycorrhizas (plants). Central to many geomycological processes are transformations of metals and minerals, and fungi possess a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Some fungal transformations have beneficial applications in environmental biotechnology, e.g. in metal and radionuclide leaching, recovery, detoxification and bioremediation, and in the production or deposition of biominerals or metallic elements with catalytic or other properties. Metal and mineral transformations may also result in adverse effects when these processes result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment. The ubiquity and importance of fungi in biosphere processes underlines the importance of geomycology as an interdisciplinary subject area within microbiology and mycology.
Article
A new isolate of Salmonella, strain MR4, reduced Mn(IV)O2 at 2.3 mM under aerobic conditions by about 83% over 24 h. Direct contact of cells to MnO2 was not necessary as the cell-free spent medium produced a similar amount of Mn(II). Pyruvate (1.6 mM) and oxalate (0.8 mM) were identified in the culture medium and presumed to have a role in Mn(II) production in this microorganism.
Article
The ability of the soil fungi Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides to tolerate and solubilize manganese oxides, including a fungal-produced manganese oxide and birnessite, was investigated. Aspergillus niger and S. himantioides were capable of solubilizing all the insoluble oxides when incorporated into solid medium: MnO(2) and Mn(2) O(3) , mycogenic manganese oxide (MnO(x) ) and birnessite [(Na(0.3) Ca(0.1) K(0.1) )(Mn(4+) ,Mn(3+) )(2) O(4) ·1.5H(2) O]. Manganese oxides were of low toxicity and A. niger and S. himantioides were able to grow on 0.5% (w/v) of all the test compounds, with accompanying acidification of the media. Precipitation of insoluble manganese and calcium oxalate occurred under colonies growing on agar amended with all the test manganese oxides after growth of A. niger and S. himantioides at 25°C. The formation of manganese oxalate trihydrate was detected after growth of S. himantioides with birnessite which subsequently was transformed to manganese oxalate dihydrate. Our results represent a novel addition to our knowledge of the biogeochemical cycle of manganese, and the roles of fungi in effecting transformations of insoluble metal-containing compounds in the environment.
Article
Measurements of manganese(II) removal from solution and oxidation were made in the suboxic zone of the Black Sea during Leg 3 of the U.S.-Turkey Black Sea Expedition in June 1988. Two types of rate measurements were conducted. First, Mn(II) removal rate measurements were made under air saturation conditions and in the presence and absence of a biological poison to determine the potential (maximal) rates of Mn(II) binding and oxidation as a result of microbial activity. Second, rates of Mn(II) removal from solution were measured under pH, O2 and temperature conditions simulating those found in situ. By subtracting results from experiments conducted in the absence of oxygen from the oxygen-containing experiments, estimates of Mn(II) oxidation rates could be derived. Both the potential Mn(ll) removal rates and the Mn(II) oxidation rates were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher at the nearshore station (BS3-3) than at a station in the central Black Sea (BS3-6). Residence times of dissolved Mn(II) with respect to oxidation were about 0.6 days at BS3-3 and greater than 9 days at BS3-6. The absolute rates of Mn(II) oxidation in the Black Sea were 1–4 orders of magnitude faster than observed in any other marine environment. The average calculated rate constant for Mn(II) oxidation (kMn) was 1.4 × 1024 M−4 day−1, 5–6 orders of magnitude faster than that calculated for autocatalytic Mn(II) oxidation on the surface of colloidal MnO2. This extremely high rate constant coupled with the inhibition of Mn(II) removal by azide, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde indicate that Mn(II) oxidation is biologically catalysed. Measurements conducted at BS3-3 1 week apart also demonstrated significant temporal variability in Mn(II) removal rates. Because the removal and oxidation of Mn(II) is so pronounced along the coastal margins it is possible that horizontal advective processes involving Mn(II) oxidation may have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of other redox sensitive elements within the suboxic zone of the Black Sea and may help explain the depth distribution of particulate Mn observed in the central basin.
Article
The aim of the present study was to compare the bioleaching efficiency of Cu, Zn and Cr from anaerobically digested sewage sludge using iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Bioleaching was performed on sewage sludge collected from the Yuen Long wastewater treatment plant. A 15% (v/v) inoculation of either iron- or sulfur-oxidizing bacteria with 4 g FeSO4 l−1 and 0.75% elemental sulfur, respectively, was added to sewage sludge with or without autoclaving in the bioleaching experiment. The mixtures were shaken continuously in an incubator at 30 °C for 16 days and samples were tested at 2-day intervals for pH, ORP and metal determination. The results showed that the iron-oxidizing system required only 2 days as compared to 4 days for the sulfur-oxidizing system to reduce the sludge pH from 7 to 2. Both systems achieved a maximum Cr removal of 52–58% after 12 days of bioleaching, but for iron-oxidizing bacteria with iron-sulfate as an energy source it was 20% higher at the beginning of leaching process. Although it took only 2 days to solubilize Cu by iron-oxidizing bacteria as compared to 8 days for sulfur oxidizing bacteria, the iron-oxidizing system removed only 80% of the total Cu, which was 20% lower than that of the sulfur-oxidizing system. Both iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria achieved 95% Zn removals after 4 days of bioleaching. The results demonstrated that the iron-oxidizing system had a faster removal rate than the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Nevertheless, further work should be done to improve the bioleaching efficiency of iron-oxidizing bacteria, especially for Cu and Cr.
Article
Occupational exposure to welding fumes (WF) is thought to cause Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological dysfunction. An apprehension that WF may accelerate the onset of PD also exists. Identifying reliable biomarkers of exposure and neurotoxicity are therefore critical for biomonitoring and neurological risk characterization of WF exposure. Manganese (Mn) in welding consumables is considered the causative factor for the neurological deficits seen in welders. Hence, we sought to determine if Mn accumulation in blood or nail clippings can be a marker for adverse exposure and neurotoxicity. To model this, rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to dissolved or suspended fume components collected from gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) or manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) welding. Trace element analysis revealed selective Mn accumulation in dopaminergic brain areas, striatum (STR) and midbrain (MB), following exposure to the two fumes. This caused dopaminergic abnormality as evidenced by loss of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (Th; 25-32% decrease) and Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7; 25-46% decrease) proteins. While blood Mn was not detectable, Mn levels in nails strongly correlated with the pattern of Mn accumulation in the striatum (R(2)=0.9386) and midbrain (R(2)=0.9332). Exposure to manganese chloride (MnCl(2)) caused similar Mn accumulation in STR, MB and nail. Our findings suggest that nail Mn has the potential to be a sensitive and reliable biomarker for long-term Mn exposure and associated neurotoxicity. The non-invasive means by which nail clippings can be collected, stored, and transported with relative ease, make it an attractive surrogate for biomonitoring WF exposures in occupational settings.
Article
Biomining comprises of processing and extraction of metal from their ores and concentrates using microbial techniques. Currently this is used by the mining industry to extract copper, uranium and gold from low grade ores but not for low grade manganese ore in industrial scale. The study of microbial genomes, metabolites and regulatory pathways provide novel insights to the metabolism of bioleaching microorganisms and their synergistic action during bioleaching operations. This will promote understanding of the universal regulatory responses that the biomining microbial community uses to adapt to their changing environment leading to high metal recovery. Possibility exists of findings ways to imitate the entire process during industrial manganese biomining endeavor. This paper reviews the current status of manganese biomining research operations around the world, identifies factors that drive the selection of biomining as a processing technology, describes challenges in exploiting these innovations, and concludes with a discussion of Mn biomining's future.
Article
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is regularly introduced into the environment through diverse anthropogenic activities, including electroplating, leather tanning, and pigment manufacturing. Human exposure to this toxic metal ion not only causes potential human health hazards but also affects other life forms. The World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency have determined that Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens. The Sukinda valley in Jajpur District, Orissa, is known for its deposit of chromite ore, producing nearly 98% of the chromite ore in India and one of the prime open cast chromite ore mines in the world (CES, Orissa Newsletter). Our investigation involved microbial remediation of Cr(VI) without producing any byproduct. Bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of Cr were isolated from the soil sample collected from the chromite-contaminated sites of Sukinda, and their bioaccumulation properties were investigated. Strains capable of growing at 250 mg/L Cr(VI) were considered as Cr resistant. The experimental investigation showed the maximum specific Cr uptake at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. At about 50 mg/L initial Cr(VI) concentrations, uptake of the selected potential strain exceeded 98% within 12 h of incubation. The bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevebacterium casei. Results indicated promising approach for microbial remediation of effluents containing elevated levels of Cr(VI).
Article
Mn(II)-oxidizing microbes have an integral role in the biogeochemical cycling of manganese, iron, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and several nutrients and trace metals. There is great interest in mechanistically understanding these cycles and defining the importance of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria in modern and ancient geochemical environments. Linking Mn(II) oxidation to cellular function, although still enigmatic, continues to drive efforts to characterize manganese biomineralization. Recently, complexed-Mn(III) has been shown to be a transient intermediate in Mn(II) oxidation to Mn(IV), suggesting that the reaction might involve a unique multicopper oxidase system capable of a two-electron oxidation of the substrate. In biogenic and abiotic synthesis experiments, the application of synchrotron-based X-ray scattering and spectroscopic techniques has significantly increased our understanding of the oxidation state and relatively amorphous structure (i.e. delta-MnO(2)-like) of biogenic oxides, providing a new blueprint for the structural signature of biogenic Mn oxides.
Article
Superoxide dismutases (SODs), which provide protection against oxidative stress, exhibit an essential role for fungal cell survival, especially during host invasion. Here, 20 partial SOD sequences from 19 pathogenic fungi were determined and aligned with 43 homologous fungal sequences from databases. All sequences encoded tetrameric manganese (Mn)-containing SODs showing predicted cytosolic or mitochondrial subcellular localization. Numerous fungi possessed both cytosolic and mitochondrial MnSODs in addition to the mainly cytosolic copper/zinc isozyme. Moreover, MnSOD sequence variability was higher than SSU rRNA and similar to ITS rRNA, suggesting MnSOD could be used to identify closely related fungal species. MnSOD- and SSU rRNA-based phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared. Despite a more complex topology of the MnSOD tree, due to several gene duplication events, all the classic fungal classes and orders were recovered. A salient point was the existence of two paralogous cytosolic and mitochondrial MnSODs in some Ascomycota. A hypothetical evolutionary scenario with an early gene duplication of the "mitochondrial" gene is proposed.
Article
Heavy metal analysis of agricultural field soil receiving long-term (>20 years) application of municipal and industrial wastewater showed two- to five-fold accumulation of certain heavy metals as compared to untreated soil. Metal-resistant fungi isolated from wastewater-treated soil belonged to genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Monilia and Trichoderma. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Co were determined. The MIC ranged from 0.2 to 5 mg ml(-1) for Cd, followed by Ni (0.1-4 mg ml(-1)), Cr (0.3-7 mg ml(-1)), Cu (0.6-9 mg ml(-1)) and for Co (0.1-5 mg ml(-1)) depending on the isolate. Aspergillus and Rhizopus isolates were tested for their metal biosorption potential for Cr and Cd in vitro. Biosorption experiments were conducted with initial metal concentrations of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mM with a contact time of 4 h and wet fungal biomass (1-5 g) at 25 degrees C. Maximum biosorption of Cr and Cd ions was found at 6 mM initial metal concentration. Aspergillus sp.1 accumulated 1.20 mg of Cr and 2.72 mg of Cd per gram of biomass. Accumulation of these two metals by very tolerant Aspergillus sp.2 isolate was at par with relatively less tolerant Aspergillus sp.1 isolate. Rhizopus sp. accumulated 4.33 mg of Cr and 2.72 mg of Cd per g of biomass. The findings indicated promising biosorption of cadmium and chromium by the Rhizopus and Aspergillus spp. from aqueous solution. There is little, if any, correlation between metal tolerance and biosorption properties of the test fungi.
  • C Acharya
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Acharya C, Kar RN, Sukla LB, Mishra VN. 2004. Fungal leaching of manganese ore. Vol.57, No. 5, pp. 501-508.
Biorecovery of manganese from pyrolusite ore using Asperigillus niger PCSIR-6
  • M U Rahman
  • S A Kayani
  • Mzu Haq
  • S Gul
Rahman MU, Kayani SA, Haq MZU, Gul S. 2008. Biorecovery of manganese from pyrolusite ore using Asperigillus niger PCSIR-6. J ChemSoc Pak Vol 30, No 2.
Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 3 rd ed. Cold spring Harbour
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Sambrook J, Russell DW. 2001. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 3 rd ed. Cold spring Harbour, NY: Cold spring Harbour Laboratory.
Manganese accumulation in nail clippings as a biomarker of welding fume exposure and neurotoxicity
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Sriram K, Lina, GX, Jeffersona AM. (2012). Manganese accumulation in nail clippings as a biomarker of welding fume exposure and neurotoxicity. Toxicology 291:73-82.
Metal tolerance and biosorption potential of filamentous fungiisolated from metal contaminated agricultural soil
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Xiuxia Z, S, Aqil F, Ahmad I. 2007. Metal tolerance and biosorption potential of filamentous fungiisolated from metal contaminated agricultural soil. BioresourTechnol98, 2557-2561.
Bioleaching: A Microbial Process of Metal Recovery
  • D Mishra
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