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Language Development: Influence of Socio-Economic Status

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Abstract

Family socioeconomic status (SES) is related to language development in multiple domains, throughout childhood, and in adulthood as well. Children from lower SES homes show lower levels of language and communicative skill than children from higher SES homes beginning in infancy. The gap between lower and higher SES children persists and sometimes widens with age. Substantial evidence locates the source of these differences in children’s language experience. Children from lower SES homes are talked to less, and the speech they hear is less supportive of language development. The evidence that SES-related differences in parents’ speech cause SES-related differences in children’s language development is consistent with theoretical approaches that give experience an important role in the language acquisition process.

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... Lack of cultural capital, in the form of the parents' level of education, can be manifested as shortcomings in language competence, for example. Parental SES is related to language development in multiple domains throughout both childhood and adulthood [44]. Children from lower SES homes show on average lower sustained levels of language and communicative skill than children from higher SES homes, differences beginning in infancy [44]. ...
... Parental SES is related to language development in multiple domains throughout both childhood and adulthood [44]. Children from lower SES homes show on average lower sustained levels of language and communicative skill than children from higher SES homes, differences beginning in infancy [44]. Low maternal education in general, single parenthood, and social welfare support Table 1 Results of the Mendelian randomization sensitivity analyses associating the liability for one standard deviation increase in attained educational level, household income, Townsend deprivation index, and intelligence with the odds of ADHD are thought collectively to account for more than half of all ADHD medication prescriptions in Sweden [45], a country with a tax-supported health care system. ...
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... Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to an individual's or household's relative position in a social hierarchy (Hoff and Ribot 2015). Researchers usually measure SES by using indicators of parents' level of education, household income, and the prestige of occupation, or a composite index based on multiple indicators (Hoff, Laursen, and Bridges 2012;McLoyd 1998). ...
... Researchers usually measure SES by using indicators of parents' level of education, household income, and the prestige of occupation, or a composite index based on multiple indicators (Hoff, Laursen, and Bridges 2012;McLoyd 1998). Generally, throughout childhood, children from higher SES families have more advanced language skills than those of the same age from lower SES (Hoff and Ribot 2015). SES related differences in children's communicative behaviour have been found in different stages of human development from infancy to preschool, school-age years, as well as to adulthood. ...
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... Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to an individual's or household's relative position in a social hierarchy (Hoff and Ribot 2015). Researchers usually measure SES by using indicators of parents' level of education, household income, and the prestige of occupation, or a composite index based on multiple indicators (Hoff, Laursen, and Bridges 2012;McLoyd 1998). ...
... Researchers usually measure SES by using indicators of parents' level of education, household income, and the prestige of occupation, or a composite index based on multiple indicators (Hoff, Laursen, and Bridges 2012;McLoyd 1998). Generally, throughout childhood, children from higher SES families have more advanced language skills than those of the same age from lower SES (Hoff and Ribot 2015). SES related differences in children's communicative behaviour have been found in different stages of human development from infancy to preschool, school-age years, as well as to adulthood. ...
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This paper reports a study that used a quantitative method to explore literacy planning in Chinese kindergartener families as well as the influences of socioeconomic status (SES) on it. The conceptual framework of family language policy (FLP), which consists of three components–language ideology, language management, and language practice, was adopted to examine literacy planning. The SES factors investigated included mother’s education, mother’s occupation, father’s education, father’s occupation, and household income. Data were collected via a questionnaire survey of 664 kindergartener families from 10 kindergartens in a Chinese city. Descriptive statistics revealed reasonable language ideology and practice but relatively weak language management in Chinese kindergartener families. Structural equation modelling corroborated the relationships between language ideology, language management, and language practice hypothesised in the FLP theory. It also indicated that only mother’s education significantly predicted the literacy planning of a family. Implications for early intervention for children’s language development were discussed.
... In this school, the students were generally from well-off families. Given the relationship between family socioeconomic status (SES) and children's language development (Hoff & Ribot, 2015), we can argue that the more active interaction styles which the children from higher SES backgrounds at the private school were used to constituted an outer layer of this community and resonated with the affordance created within the inner community which encouraged them to talk independently and therefore to freely conduct self-repairs in their English speech. ...
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... This leads to lower levels of language acquisition and skills which can persist, and gaps become even wider as the child ages. Several mechanisms behind this defi ciency have been explored, including children being spoken to less in lower SES homes, or not being exposed to the kind of speech that supports language growth ( Ribot & Ho , 2015 ) Educational enrichment experiences outside of the classroom to which families can expose their children are another form of informal education. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) investigated how kindergartners spent their summer. ...
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... As opposed to findings from other languages (Fernald & Marchman, 2012;Hoff & Ribot, 2015), in the present study, no differences emerged in the lexical abilities of toddlers whose parents reported different education or income levels. This finding supports the proposal that SES is not the only predictor of child-rearing behaviors and interactions among Israeli parents. ...
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... Precise and practical measures of cognition in early life coupled with understanding how early measures relate to later outcomes are required to enable this. Socioeconomic deprivation is also known to impact language and interactional abilities in childhood, including for infants born preterm (Arriaga, Fenson, Cronan, & Pethick, 1998;Ene et al., 2019;Hoff & Ribot, 2015;Landry, Denson, & Swank, 1997;Landry, Smith, Miller-Loncar, & Swank, 1997;Pungello, Iruka, Dotterer, Mills-Koonce, & Reznick, 2009). ...
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