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Cluster Analysis Approach to Understanding the Philippine Sustainable Consumer: An Initial Empirical Study

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Abstract

The pressing climate change issue is difficult to ignore today as more and more of its effects are felt and experienced by many people and countries across the globe. Although cross-cutting policies have been enacted by various governments, the complexity of the consumer as thinking, feeling and socially interactive individuals call for more targeted interventions to become an effective reinforcement to consumption-related legislations and programs as embedded in the Four E‟s framework developed by the UK Sustainable Development Research Network. Recognizing the unfeasibility of personalized campaigns towards sustainable consumption, this paper aims to provide an initial empirical analysis of the Philippine consumer market having the propensity to buy environment-friendly products by exploring its various segments. Cluster analyses reveal that there are five groups of consumers inclined to buy environment-friendly products in the Philippines, each bound together by their normative susceptibility, belief that environment-friendly products are difficult to identify and find in the market, frequency of buying and amount spent for these products, age, education, civil status and income. These identified segments serve as a guide in crafting programs and campaigns promoting and supporting sustainable consumption behavior that are more tailored to each of their attributes. The paper concludes with a discussion on the practical implications for implementation of interventions and directions for future research.
Asian Journal of Social Sciences
and Management Studies
ISSN: 2313-7401
Vol. 2, No. 2, 70-76, 2015
http://www.asianonlinejournals.com/index.php/AJSSMS
70
Cluster Analysis Approach to Understanding the Philippine
Sustainable Consumer: An Initial Empirical Study
Pamela F. Resurreccion1
1Faculty, Department of Marketing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology Iligan City, Philippines
Abstract
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Asian Online Journal Publishing Group
Contents
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................... 71
2. Review of Related Literature ................................................................................................................................................... 71
3. Research Methods ..................................................................................................................................................................... 72
4. Results and Discussion .............................................................................................................................................................. 74
5. Conclusion and Recommendation ........................................................................................................................................... 75
References ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 75
The pressing climate change issue is difficult to ignore today as more and more of its effects are felt
and experienced by many people and countries across the globe. Although cross-cutting policies
have been enacted by various governments, the complexity of the consumer as thinking, feeling and
socially interactive individuals call for more targeted interventions to become an effective
reinforcement to consumption-related legislations and programs as embedded in the Four E‟s
framework developed by the UK Sustainable Development Research Network. Recognizing the
unfeasibility of personalized campaigns towards sustainable consumption, this paper aims to provide
an initial empirical analysis of the Philippine consumer market having the propensity to buy
environment-friendly products by exploring its various segments. Cluster analyses reveal that there
are five groups of consumers inclined to buy environment-friendly products in the Philippines, each
bound together by their normative susceptibility, belief that environment-friendly products are
difficult to identify and find in the market, frequency of buying and amount spent for these products,
age, education, civil status and income. These identified segments serve as a guide in crafting
programs and campaigns promoting and supporting sustainable consumption behavior that are more
tailored to each of their attributes. The paper concludes with a discussion on the practical
implications for implementation of interventions and directions for future research.
Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable consumption, Consumer behavior, Sustainable consumer, Consumerism, Market
segmentation, Cluster analysis, Philippines.
JEL Classification: M30.
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies, 2015, 2(2): 70-76
71
1. Introduction
The pressing climate change issue is difficult to ignore today as more and more of its effects are felt and
experienced by many people across the globe. As such, many governments have recognized the need to address
these issues and take action. This concern has been manifested as early as 1972 in the United Nations (UN)
conference on the human environment along with the release of the significant publication, Limits to Growth, by the
Club of Rome; followed by the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992; the World Summit in Johannesburg
where the delegates called upon the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to formulate a 10-year
framework to foster sustainable consumption; the enhancement of the Guidelines for Consumer Protection by the UN
General Assembly in 1999 (UNEP, 2012a) and the most recent Rio+20 The Future We Want Summit in 2012.
Somehow, these efforts and initiatives become futile when the individual consumer continues to engage in
purchase behaviors that are not at all good for the environment in both short and long run. These purchase behaviors
include, but are not limited to, buying products coming from non-environment friendly raw materials and processes,
tolerating excessive packaging, and improper disposal of post-consumption product components.
On the policy perspective, UNEP has adopted developments in social science research which lends support to the
possibility of transforming consumption patterns to positive behaviours through relevant legislation. However, even
UNEP recognizes the limited evidence of the applicability of the concept as for instance, little is known on the
appropriate behaviour modification approaches to be used (UNEP, 2012b). Furthermore, while firms are slowly
showing support to sustainable business through first mover strategies in pursuing competitive advantage as well as
in building up goodwill with their stakeholders through their respective corporate social responsibility initiatives,
“sustainable consumption (particularly in Asia) is constrained by a daunting lack of information on the impacts of
consumption and availability of sustainable choices, the unmet aspirations for a „western‟ lifestyle, and a „grow now,
clean up later‟ attitude despite great efforts by some regional policy makers and practitioners” (King et al., 2010).
As a research theme, sustainable consumption has received considerable attention. One track focuses on
identifying the antecedents of sustainable consumption behaviors such that of Witkowski and Reddy (2010), Black
and Cherrier (2010), and Luchs and Mooradian (2012) who explored the influence of motivation, values, culture,
gender. It is worthy to note that despite the growing enlightenment on the drivers of pro-environment consumption
patterns, there appears to be a slow transition toward desired behavioural outcomes. Vermeir and Verbeke (2006),
Dunlap et al. (2000), Kaplan (2000) and several other social scientists and scholars observe a dissonance between
intentions and actual behaviors. Another research track revolves around determining the attributes of certain
segments of consumers in terms of pro-environment consumption patterns.
In Portugal, certain environmental and demographic variables are significant for differentiating between the
“greener” segment and the other segments (Paco and Raposo, 2009). In the U.S., green product buyers differ
significantly in terms of cognitive attitude, affective attitude, social norm, personal norm, and recycling intention
compared to non-green product buyers (Park et al., 2012). There appears, however, limited literature on the sub-
segments within the sustainable consumer market.
As concerned stakeholders are selling the idea of sustainability to a market with deeply rooted materialist
orientation, the basic marketing management process prompts that the market be first segmented (Kotler and Keller,
2009) so that the appropriate messages can be communicated and thus achieve higher chances of reception and a
positive long-term response is reinforced. The question is: Does the “green” consumer market exhibit distinction
between segments as well?
Given these circumstances, this purpose of this study is to further our understanding of sustainable consumption
by identifying various segments of the sustainable consumer market with the pro-environmentally inclined consumer
as the unit of analysis. More specifically, this study aims to achieve the following research objectives: (1) to
determine how the sustainable consumer market can be further segmented; and (2) to identify the attributes of the
sub-segments of the sustainable consumer market.
Indubitably, there had been earlier studies that had focused on the antecedents of consumers buying
environment-friendly products. In fact, a major part of this study adopts the indicators focused on by Chan (2001).
To the author‟s knowledge, this is the first study investigating the sustainable consumer market segments in an Asian
context. This study will hopefully offer better directions for policy formulation and implementation improvements
pertaining to transforming consumption patterns to a more sustainable one.
Henceforth, the paper shall proceed as follows: first, it reviews the extant literature on sustainable consumer
market segmentation and the criteria used for segmentation; second, it describes the methods and data analysis
techniques employed in the study; third, the results of the study are discussed; and finally, the paper concludes with
recommendations on marketing communications and an agenda for future research.
2. Review of Related Literature
2.1. Market Segmentation and the Sustainable Consumer Market
Market segmentation is defined by Kotler et al. (2009) as the process by which marketers “identify and profile
distinct group of buyers who might prefer or require varying product and services mixes by examining demographic,
psychographic and behavioral differences among buyers” (p. 13). The rationale behind this process is anchored on
the premise that “a single product item can seldom meet the needs and wants of all consumers” (Peter and Donnelly,
2008). This makes identifying the aspects by which the segments shall be evaluated and described become crucial.
There have been several attempts to segment the market in environment-related criteria. The initial research
works centered more on the consumers‟ concern for the environment such as that of Kassarjain (1971), Fisk (1973)
and Kinnear et al. (1974). Straughan and Roberts argue that using demographic criteria is insufficient in market
segmentation (Straughan and Roberts, 1999). In the succeeding discussion, segmentation bases shall be examined to
achieve a grounded perspective on the sustainable consumer market segments.
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies, 2015, 2(2): 70-76
72
2.2. Psychographic and Behavioral Criteria
Several studies such that of Chan and Yam (1995) have found that environmental behavior are greatly influenced
by “ecological knowledge, affect, and intention.” For instance, in a comparison between green product non-
purchasers and those who are, green product purchasers exhibited significantly higher levels of cognitive attitude,
affective attitude, social norm, personal norm, and recycling intention (Park et al., 2012). On a similar note,
Meneses and Palacio (2006) found that the major difference between sustainers and non-sustainers is the degree of
ecological concern. This is further corroborated by a meta-analysis of 16 studies on sustainable food consumption
based on the Theory of Planned Behavior framework which further confirm that personal norm, attitude and
subjective norm are strong predictors of intention and behaviour (Han and Hansen, 2012).[23] These findings reiterate
the relevance of psychographic and behavioral criteria in market segmentation.
Burns and Neisner (2006) and Hunter (2006) emphasized that in anticipating specific behaviors , it is important
that a person‟s “feeling-based evaluation of an attitude object (i.e. affective attitude)” must be considered. Chan
refers to this as environmental affect and defines it as the degree of emotionality that an individual displays in
relation to environmental issues (1999).
Meanwhile, Ohtomo and Hirose (2007) and Stern (2000) have placed emphasis on the significant role of norms
in determining pro-environmental behaviors tendencies. Social norm “concerns how significant others think one
should behave in relation to a certain behavior” (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977). According to Bamberg et al. (2007)
consumers are inclined to adhere to social norms because of either social pressure or “their referents provide them
with guidance about an appropriate or beneficial behavior in their society. Citing Bandura (1986), Cheah and Phan
(2011) explained that “the social influences of peers, family groups and influential bodies can convey information
and activate emotional reactions through factors such as modeling, instruction and social persuasion; social
environments such as family, friends and peer networks (normative susceptibility) strongly influence buying
decisions that involve environmentally friendly products; interpersonal processes and relationships between opinion
leaders and professionals are likely to have a substantial impact on similar attitudes towards buying decisions
(informational susceptibility).”
Another of the factors that is recognized as preceding pro-environmental behavior is ecological consciousness
(Mustafa, 2007). Individuals who have a positive attitude towards the environment are more involved in the purchase
and consumption of environment-friendly products (Balderjahn, 1988).
The concept of marketing introduces the premise that people‟s buying decision is triggered by a stimulus paving
the way to the 4Ps framework product, price, place and promotion. These stimuli largely constitute the direct
personal experiences, by the experiences of other individuals and by the communication produced by the media. It
results in environmentally friendly behavior based on a number of conditions such as price, the performance of the
product (Paco and Raposo, 2009). Employing regression analysis, Tanner and Kast (2003) found that green
purchases are favorably influenced by positive attitudes of buyers toward environmental protection and availability
of action-related knowledge while unfavorable linked with perceived time barriers and frequency of shopping in
supermarkets.
A core marketing concept is defined as wants for specific products backed by a willingness and ability to buy
(Kotler et al., 2009). There has been anecdotal evidence suggesting that environmentally-sound products and
services are perceived to be expensive. In a study of highly educated people in India, consumers are willing to buy
eco-friendly products but not many are willing to pay a higher price for such products (Ishaswini and Datta, 2011).
2.3. Demographic Criteria
Despite some contradicting perspectives on demographics as a behavior predictor, this paper adheres to
McDonald and Oates (2006) position that the main segmentation tools that have been used include demographics
with a view to aligning consumers‟ characteristics with their propensity to purchase green products. Several studies
such as those of D'Souza et al. (2007) and Jain and Kaur (2006) have investigated the role of age in environment-
related marketing phenomenon. It is noteworthy to observe that the influence of age on attitudes and behavior are
inconsistent as was found in the studies of Zimmer et al. (1994) versus (Roberts, 1996).Several research endeavors
revolving around the determinants of sustainable consumer behavior have found a “robust gender effect” that is,
women are more likely to express concern about consumption‟s broader impacts and to act upon those concerns than
men (Luchs and Mooradian, 2012). There are research however that showed significant differences between gender
(Witkowski and Reddy, 2010). In the study of Paco and Raposo (2009), individuals with greater training and higher
educational levels, and consequently enjoying access to more information, are expected to display greater concern,
acting more frequently in favor of the environment. Meanwhile, it is generally believed that income is positively
correlated with environmental sensitivity. The most common justification for this situation, according to Paco and
Raposo (2009), is based on the fact that individuals with a higher income level can more easily bear the marginal
increase in the costs associated with supporting “green causes” and buying green products.
Against this backdrop, the study identifies the following specific criteria to serve as bases for segmenting the
sustainable consumer market: normative susceptibility, informational susceptibility, ecological affect, man-nature
orientation, perceptions of product attributes, frequency of shopping for environment-friendly products, amount
spent on environment-friendly products, age, gender, civil status, education and income.
3. Research Methods
3.1. Sampling
The study aimed to investigate and determine the various segments of the sustainable consumer market in the
Philippines. A convenience sampling method was used, employing the snowball technique. With the individual
sustainable consumer as the unit of analysis, those who responded to the survey were filtered, including only those
respondents who is either considering buying products because they are less polluting, considering switching to other
brands for environmental reasons, or planning to switch to an environment-friendly version of a product over the
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies, 2015, 2(2): 70-76
73
next month. Of the total 215 individuals who completed the survey, the screen excluded 24 respondents. Hence,
only 191 questionnaires were determined useful. This particular sampling method was used as this was the only
feasible option given the unique circumstances of the study. It must be noted, therefore, that results of the study
should be interpreted with caution due to the manner by which the respondents were chosen. The descriptive
statistics of sample i presented in Table 1.
Table-1. Descriptive statistics of sample
Frequency
Percentage of valid cases
Gender
Male
63
32.98%
Female
128
67.02%
Total
100.00%
Age
20 years old and below
28
14.81%
21 30
91
48.15%
31 40
44
23.28%
41 50
19
10.05%
51 60
5
2.65%
Above 60 years old
2
1.06%
Missing data
(2)
Total
100.00%
Civil Status
Single
130
68.06%
Married
59
30.89%
Widow/widower
2
1.05%
Total
100.00%
Educational attainment
High School
5
2.62%
College
155
81.15%
Masters level
28
14.66%
Doctorate level
3
1.57%
Total
100.00%
Gross household monthly income
Below Php 10,000
44
23.04%
Php 10,000 19,999
65
34.03%
Php 20,000 29,999
27
14.14%
Php 30,000 39,999
15
7.85%
Php 40,000 49,999
10
5.24%
Php 50,000 59,999
4
2.09%
Php 60,000 69,999
2
1.05%
Php 70,000 and above
24
12.56%
Total
100.00%
3.2. Data Collection
Data for the study was collected during the 3rd week of November 2012 using an online survey form and
disseminated through the referral or snowball technique as well as through posting in various e-groups in a popular
social networking site. This data collection method is particularly chosen to minimize the use of paper and
consequently contribute to the efforts of sustainable practices.
3.3. Scale Development and Data Analysis
The survey questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part contained variables for five psychographic
criteria while the second part contained the demographic criteria. The instrument was pretested with a convenience
sample of 30 individuals distributed through a popular social networking site. The reliability of the scales was
determined using Cronbach‟s α. The number of 7-point Likert scale items for the first part is presented in Table 2.
All values of Cronbach‟s α are well above 0.60 signifying relatively high reliability and internal consistency.
Composite scores for every criterion were computed by getting the average of the respondents‟ answers across the
items and were used in the analysis.
In order to determine the various underlying segments in the sample, the criteria were subjected to cluster
analysis. ANOVA was utilized to ascertain each criterion‟s ability to significantly characterize the clusters derived.
Table-2. Measures for each criteria and its corresponding Cronbach‟s α
Scales
Cronbach’s α
A. Social influence
a. Normative susceptibility
Eight measures of Cheah and Phan (2011) normative susceptibility
0.954
b. Informational susceptibility
Two measures of Cheah and Phan (2011) informational
susceptibility
One researcher-made item on internet-based social networks
0.724
B. Ecological affect
Adapted five measures from Chan (2001)
0.778
C. Man-nature orientation
Two measures from Chan (2001)
0.788
D. Perceptions of product attributes
Three researcher-made measures based on the 4Ps of marketing
framework
0.622
E. Frequency of shopping for
environment-friendly products within
the previous month
From the work of Chan (2001)
F. Amount spent on environment-
friendly products with the previous
month
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies, 2015, 2(2): 70-76
74
4. Results and Discussion
Using hierarchical partitioning procedure, specifically the complete linkage agglomerative algorithm in
cluster analysis, the dendogram illustrating the euclidean distances of the cases is shown in Figure 1.
Fig-1. Tree diagram of 191 cases using complete linkage
Two groups can be clearly deciphered from the dendogram. This is deemed a reasonable number of groupings as
increasing it would produce clusters that contain elements insufficient for statistical analysis.
Results of the analysis of variance presented in Table 3 show that the two groups are not significantly different in
terms of ecological affect, man-nature orientation, gender composition. Furthermore, one cluster is not significantly
different from the other in their view that environment-friendly products are more expensive than non-green
products; that environment-friendly products are difficult to identify; and that man should master instead of adapt to
the environment.
One criteria that significantly distinguishes the two clusters is normative susceptibility (α=0.0102) where Cluster
1 exhibits lower normative susceptibility than Cluster 2. The two groups are also significantly different in terms of
information susceptibility (α=0.0186). In terms of this criterion, Cluster 1 has lower information susceptibility than
Cluster 2.
Green buying behaviour is another significant criterion that distinctly characterizes the two clusters. It appears
that Cluster 1 is more pro-environmental compared to Cluster 2 in terms of frequency of shopping for environment-
friendly products and amount spent on environment-friendly products. However, Cluster 1 tends to be more willing
to pay more than Cluster 2. This may have some connection on the gross household monthly income of Cluster 2
which is lower than those of Cluster 1.
Results of the analysis of variance further indicate that the two clusters are significantly differentiated by age
(α=0.0000), educational attainment (α=0.0000) and civil status (α=0.0000). A closer scrutiny of the mean values
reveals that Cluster 1 is relatively older, generally married and is comprised of college graduates with some either
taking masters or doctorate degrees.
Table-3. Descriptive Statistics for each of the clusters
*Significant at α=0.05 **Significant at α=0.01
Given these findings the clusters are hereby labelled and described as follows:
4.1. Cluster 1 “The Mature and Product Cautious
This group are older individuals, in between their early 30‟s to late 40‟s or older, and are generally married. Most
of them are college graduates with some pursuing graduate studies. They have relatively high household income per
month ranging from Php30,000 to Php50,000 or higher. Though they are willing to pay more for environment-
friendly products, they tend to be cautious spenders, spending only moderate and reasonable amounts. They also
frequently shop for environment-friendly products and when they do, they have moderately high tendency to ask
Tree Diagram fo r 191 Cases
Complete Linkage
Eucl idean distances
C_151
C_150
C_129
C_178
C_147
C_113
C_161
C_172
C_157
C_173
C_146
C_176
C_163
C_166
C_145
C_52
C_81
C_95
C_24
C_14
C_180
C_168
C_156
C_155
C_152
C_142
C_154
C_141
C_136
C_115
C_137
C_44
C_57
C_4
C_45
C_153
C_124
C_114
C_49
C_3
C_175
C_162
C_191
C_169
C_179
C_177
C_171
C_170
C_174
C_167
C_158
C_139
C_144
C_134
C_118
C_112
C_165
C_111
C_143
C_140
C_117
C_47
C_138
C_86
C_56
C_107
C_28
C_39
C_55
C_48
C_2
C_190
C_189
C_187
C_186
C_182
C_127
C_104
C_148
C_91
C_83
C_122
C_119
C_133
C_79
C_132
C_93
C_60
C_101
C_41
C_13
C_11
C_125
C_82
C_68
C_20
C_54
C_19
C_73
C_27
C_16
C_97
C_80
C_77
C_32
C_29
C_31
C_15
C_9
C_106
C_100
C_98
C_53
C_88
C_76
C_75
C_63
C_99
C_36
C_66
C_102
C_96
C_131
C_37
C_120
C_89
C_40
C_25
C_30
C_103
C_38
C_85
C_22
C_12
C_74
C_17
C_43
C_21
C_18
C_123
C_69
C_10
C_8
C_92
C_72
C_108
C_135
C_121
C_70
C_42
C_35
C_6
C_7
C_59
C_5
C_185
C_184
C_188
C_183
C_181
C_110
C_160
C_87
C_159
C_84
C_90
C_71
C_109
C_65
C_164
C_149
C_130
C_126
C_67
C_51
C_94
C_128
C_33
C_26
C_105
C_62
C_64
C_34
C_23
C_116
C_50
C_78
C_46
C_58
C_61
C_1
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
(Dlink/Dmax)*100
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies, 2015, 2(2): 70-76
75
their friends about a product if they have little experience with it; gather information from friends or family about a
product before they buy; and, if uncertain about a product‟s features and quality, they search for more information in
the internet through social networking sites. They are not so much concerned with what people around them will say
or how their peers react about their product choices.
4.2. Cluster 2 The Young and Socially Pressured”
This is a relatively younger group about 30 years old and below. They are single and are in the early stages of
their careers if not still in their college studies. They have lower household income of about Php20,000 and below
per month. They are willing to pay more for environment-friendly products but their willingness is not as much as
that of Cluster 1. They only purchase pro-environment products sometimes and spend moderately on such items but
not as much as those from Cluster 1. They have higher information and normative susceptibility than Cluster 1 that
is, they have higher tendency to seek for information before buying products and are more concerned with social
acceptance when it comes to the products they buy.
5. Conclusion and Recommendation
With the pressure from the government and environmentally concerned groups, businesses are compelled to
align their marketing strategies with these growing concern for the environment, not only in their corporate social
responsibility initiatives, but in their market offerings. To aid in the formulation of relevant strategies and initiatives
to achieve this end, the study was undertaken to determine the sub-segments within the sustainable consumption
inclined market. To the researcher‟s knowledge, it is the first study to focus on the sustainable consumer market
rather on the “green” and “not green” consumer groups. It is likewise the first study to focus on the Philippine
context.
The cluster analysis reveal that the sustainable consumer market in the Philippines diverged into two distinct
groups. The “matured and product cautious” group is composed of relatively older individuals who have higher
incomes and tend to seek for information before buying. The “young and socially pressured” group, on the other
hand, are younger individuals who have lower incomes and are concerned with social acceptance in their product
purchases.
The limitations of this study are related to the self-reporting questionnaire, to its cross-sectional design, and to
issues of generalizability in the light of the convenience sampling used.
Given these insights, it is recommended that marketing communications be tailored to the demographic and
psychographic attributes of each sub-segment of the sustainable consumer market considering that the sample was
chosen based only on intention. More purposive and targeted messages could likely lessen the gap between the
intention behavior gap. On the other hand, the ability of the demographic and psychographic criteria to
discriminate between the two groups may be a worthwhile dimension to explore using discriminant analysis.
Additionally, further understanding of the sustainable consuumer market may be achieved when the causal
relationships between the segmentation criteria and actual purchase behaviors. Finally, considering that environment-
friendly products were not specified, respondents may have varying perceptions and understanding of the concept.
Hence, future research may address this issue through, for instance, utilizing other research approaches such as direct
observation.
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... Sustainable consumption and the role of the consumer were analyzed by different scholars [52][53][54][55]. Vecchio and Annunziata [52] concluded that there are three types of consumers according to their perception of sustainable food grouped into three clusters: (i) responsible food consumer, the largest of all, gathers mature consumers aged between 29 and 35 years, who pay a lot of attention to the food they eat, have a special care for the environment, and prefer local food; (ii) inattentive food consumer reunites younger students coming from rural areas, with medium incomes, not interested about the food or the environment; and (iii) potentially sustainable food comprises individuals who consider it difficult to find and purchase sustainable food, although they express concerns regarding environmental issues. ...
... Their findings suggest that the concept of sustainability covers a wide range of topics, highlighting that food consumption is the most important. Fuentes [55] identified two clusters named: (i) the mature and product cautious comprising mature people, with high incomes, usually willing to purchase eco-friendly products but only after good market research; and (ii) the young and socially pressured, a group of young people, with lower incomes, not so willing to pay extra for environmentally friendly items, even if they have knowledge about them. ...
... Kadic-Maglajlic et al. [10] observed that for the youngest segment, pro-environmental engagement represents a strong predictor of a pro-environmental behavior. The presence of children within the household is another factor of influence of sustainable consumption [40][41][42][43][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57]. ...
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