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Gender roles are based on the different expectations that individuals, groups, and societies have of individuals based on their sex and based on each society's values and beliefs about gender. Gender roles are the product of the interactions between individuals and their environments, and they give individuals cues about what sort of behavior is believed to be appropriate for what sex. Appropriate gender roles are defined according to a society's beliefs about differences between the sexes.
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Sociology School Faculty Scholarship Sociology
Gender Roles and Society
Amy M. Blackstone
University of Maine - Main,
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Repository Citation
Blackstone, Amy. 2003. "Gender Roles and Society." Pp 335-338 in Human Ecology: An Encyclopedia of Children, Families,
Communities, and Environments, edited by Julia R. Miller, Richard M. Lerner, and Lawrence B. Schiamberg. Santa Barbara, CA:
ABC-CLIO. ISBN I-57607-852-3
Additional structural conditions such as women
with high levels of education and high income-
earning potential might be necessary prerequisites
for such families to exist (Risman 1998,101). Gay
and lesbian couples also are less likely to organize
their lives in gendered ways because they do not
have the ease of creating gendered patterns of be-
havior on the basis of a person's sex category. Re-
search has found that lesbian couples are more
likely to share housework since obviously one per-
son is not delegated to the housekeeper role on the
basis of her sex (Baber and Allen 1992,207).
Gender is constructed in individual, interac-
tional, and structural ways to create environmen-
tal constraints and opportunities that usually ben-
efit men more than women. Gender does not,
however, affect families' lives in isolation. More re-
search is beginning to explore how gender inter-
acts with other characteristics such as race, ethnic-
ity, sexual orientation, and social class to affect
diverse family experiences (Coltrane 1998,8). For
example, unlike European American middle-class
women, working-class women and women of color
historically have had much stronger ties to the
workforce because of the necessity of their in-
comes to their families' economic well-being.
Thus, their experiences as wives and partners may
be different from their European American mid-
dle-class counterparts. Current research also finds
that factors such as race and social class affect
women's experiences of mothering (Walker 1999,
448). Since gender is constructed, these findings
are what one would expect, and they serve to make
more complete our understanding of all the factors
that create gender.
See also:
Contemporary Men's Movement; Gay and
Lesbian Studies; Gender Roles and Society;
Stereotypes; Work and Families
References and Further Reading
Baber, Kristine M., and Katherine R. Allen. 1992.
and Families: Feminist Reconstructions.
New York:
Blaisure, Karen R., and Katherine R.AlIen.1995.
"Feminists and the Practice of Marital Equality"
Journal of Marriage and the Family
57: 5-19.
Coltrane, Scott. 1998.
Gender and Families.
Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Komter, Aatke. 1989. "Hidden Power in Marriage."
3: 187-216.
Lorber, Judith. 1998.
Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories
and Politics.
Los Angeles: Roxbury.
Gender Roles and Society 335
Risman, Barbara J. 1998.
Gender Vertigo: American
Families in Transition.
London: Yale University
Thompson, Linda. 1993. "Conceptualizing Gender in
Marriage: The Case of Marital Care:'
Journal of
Marriage and the Family
55: 557-569.
Walker,Alexis J.1999. "Gender and Family
Relationships:' Pp. 439-474 in
Handbook of
and the Family
2d ed. Edited by Marvin B. Sussman,
Suzanne K. Steinmetz, and Gary W. Peterson. New
York: Plenum.
West, Candace, and Don H. Zimmerman. 1991. "Doing
Gender:' Pp. 13- 3 7 in
The Social Construction of
Edited by Judith Lorber and Susan A.
Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Gender Roles and Society
Gender roles are based on the different expecta-
tions that individuals, groups, and societies have of
individuals based on their sex and based on each
society's values and beliefs about gender. Gender
roles are the product of the interactions between
individuals and their environments, and they give
individuals cues about what sort of behavior is be-
lieved to be appropriate for what sex. Appropriate
gender roles are defined according to a society's
beliefs about differences between the sexes.
Understanding the term "gender roles" requires
an understanding of the term "gender't''Gender" is
a social term that is often confused with the term
"sex:' Sex and gender are different concepts. Sex is
a biological concept, determined on the basis of
individuals' primary sex characteristics. Gender,
on the other hand, refers to the meanings, values,
and characteristics that people ascribe to different
sexes. Ann Oakley (1972) was one the first social
scientists to distinguish the concept of gender
from the concept of sex. According to Oakley, gen-
der parallels the biological division of sex into
male and female, but it involves the division and
social valuation of masculinity and femininity. In
other words, gender is a concept that humans cre-
ate socially, through their interactions with one
another and their environments, yet it relies heav-
ily upon biological differences between males and
females. Because humans create the concept of
gender socially, gender is referred to as a social
construction. The social construction of gender is
demonstrated by the fact that individuals, groups,
and societies ascribe particular traits, statuses, or
values to individuals purely because of their sex,
yet these ascriptions differ across societies and
cultures, and over time within the same society.
Gender roles are the roles that men and women
are expected to occupy based on their sex. Tradi-
tionally, many Western societies have believed that
women are more nurturing than men. Therefore,
the traditional view of the feminine gender role
prescribes that women should behave in ways that
are nurturing. One way that a woman might engage
in the traditional feminine gender role would be to
nurture her family by working full-time within the
horne rather than taking employment outside of
the home. Men, on the other hand, are presumed by
traditional views of gender roles to be leaders. The
traditional view of the masculine gender role,
therefore, suggests that men should be the heads of
their households by providing financially for the
family and making important family decisions.
While these views remain dominant in many
spheres of society, alternative perspectives on tra-
ditional beliefs about gender roles have gained in-
creasing support in the twenty-first century.
Different disciplines offer a range of perspec-
tives on gender roles. An ecological perspective on
gender roles suggests that gender roles are created
by the interactions between individuals, commu-
nities, and their environments. That is, while indi-
vidual people play a role in constructing gender
roles, so too do the physical and social environ-
ments within which people operate. A biological
perspective on gender roles suggests that women
have a natural affinity toward the feminine gender
role and that men have a natural affinity toward
the masculine gender role. The biological perspec-
tive does not, however, suggest that one role holds
any inherently greater value than another role. A
sociological perspective toward gender roles sug-
gests that masculine and feminine roles are
learned and that masculine and feminine gender
roles are not necessarily connected to males' and
females' biological traits. Sociologists study the
different meanings and values that masculine and
feminine gender roles hold in society. Related to
the sociological perspective, a feminist perspective
on gender roles might assert that because gender
roles are learned, they can also be unlearned, and
that new and different roles can be created.
The feminist perspective points out that gender
roles are not simply ideas about appropriate be-
havior for males and females but are also linked to
the different levels of power that males and fe-
males hold in society. For example, maintaining
economic control over themselves and their fami-
Gender Roles and Society 337
lies is one way that men experience greater power
in society than women. Because men are expected
to be the primary breadwinners for their families,
women often find themselves to be in poverty if
their marriages dissolve. In this example, a femi-
nist perspective would assert that men tend to
hold more power in their marriages than women
since men are less likely to lose power or social sta-
tus if their marriages dissolve.
Gender roles can be linked to expectations of
males and females in realms outside of the family
as well, such as work (Williams 1995).In the work-
place, men and women are often expected to per-
form different tasks and occupy different roles
based on their sex (Kanter 1977). Even in the early
twenty-first century, many corporations operate
from a perspective that favors traditional beliefs
about gender roles by, for example, offering
parental leave benefits only to mothers and deny-
ing such benefits to fathers. In addition, because
the traditional perspective toward gender roles re-
mains predominant in many corporations, the po-
sitions that women and men hold within corpora-
tions are often segregated by sex. Women are more
likely to be expected to work as secretaries, and
men are more likely to be expected to work as
managers and executives. Also, men are presumed
to be more ambitious and task-oriented in their
work, while women are presumed to be more in-
terested in and concerned about their relation-
ships with others at work.
As these examples demonstrate, gender roles
are sometimes created on the basis of stereotypes
about gender. Gender stereotypes are oversimpli-
fied understandings of males and females and the
differences between them. Individuals sometimes
base their perceptions about appropriate gender
roles upon gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes
tend to include exaggerated or erroneous asser-
tions about the nature of males and females. For
example, a common gender stereotype about
males is that they are not emotional. Females, on
the other hand, are commonly stereotyped as
being irrational or overly emotional. Political
movements such as the feminist movement con-
tinue to work to deconstruct gender stereotypes
and offer alternative visions of gender roles that
emphasize equality between women and men.
Finally, gender roles are often discussed in
terms of an individual's gender role orientation,
which is typically described as either traditional or
338 Gesell, Arnold Lucius
nontraditional. A traditional gender role orienta-
tion emphasizes differences between men and
women and assumes that each sex has a natural
affinity to particular behaviors. Those who main-
tain a traditional gender role orientation are likely
to be influenced by the rules and rituals of the gen-
erations that came before them, by their parents
and grandparents. Individuals with nontraditional
gender role orientations are more likely to believe
that an individual's behavior is not or should not be
determined solely by her sex. Individuals with non-
traditional gender role orientations are more likely
to believe in the value of egalitarian relationships
between men and women and in the power of indi-
vidual human beings to determine what roles they
wish to occupy and the extent to which those roles
are or should be associated with their sex.
See also:
Contemporary Men's Movement; Gay and
Lesbian Studies; Gender and Families; Sex-Role
Stereotypes; Sexual Identity Development; Work
References and Further Reading
Goldstein, Joshua S. 200 I.
War and Gender: How Gender
Shapes the War System and Vice Versa.
Cambridge University Press.
Hays, Sharon. 1996.
The Cultural Contradictions of
New Haven: Yale University
Kimmel, Michael S. 1996.
America: A
Cultural History.
New York: Free Press.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1977.
Men and Women of the
New York: Basic Books.
Lippa, Richard A. 2002.
Gender, Nature, and Nurture.
Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum.
Oakley, Ann. 1972.
Sex, Gender, and Society.
New York:
Harper and Row.
Thorne, Barrie. 1993.
Gender Play: Girls and Boys
New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University
Williams, Christine. 1995.
Still a Man's World: Men Who
Do "Womens Work."
Berkeley: University of
Williams, Joan. 1999.
Unbending Gender: Why Family and
Work Conf/ict and What To Do About It.
Oxford University Press.
Gesell, Arnold Lucius
Arnold Lucius Gesell, a noted American psycholo-
gist and pediatrician, was born on June 21, 1880, in
Alama, Wisconsin, and died on May 29, 1961, in
New Haven, Connecticut Gesell studied, through
the use of observation and innovative recording on
film, the physical and mental development of chil-
dren from birth to adolescence. His books in flu-
enced child rearing enormously in the United
States, particularly in the 1940s and 1950s. He was
the director of the Clinic of Child Development at
Yale University (1911-1948), where he and his
team collected a vast quantity of information and
data on child development. The information he
published had a huge influence on both parents
and educators around the globe.
Gesell first studied psychology at Clark Univer-
sity, and was influenced by one of the earliest
American psychologists, G. Stanley Hall (1844-
1924). He received his Ph.D. in 1911, was ap-
pointed an assistant professor at Yale University,
where he established the Clinic of Child Develop-
ment, and served as the clinic's director between
1911 and 1948. He became convinced that medical
training was essential in his studies of child devel-
opment, therefore studied medicine and received
his M.D. from Yale in 1915. Gesell's team studied
large numbers of children (about 12,000), which
led them to several conclusions, known collectively
as Gesell's maturational theory. The findings of the
research demonstrated that all development in ba-
bies, children, and adolescents was similar and
consisted of orderly processes. Children must
reach quite specific maturational stages in their
development before their learning will influence
their behavior. Both physical and psychological de-
velopment of children occurs in a predictable and
patterned manner, which was termed maturation.
Maturation follows specific sequences (not neces-
sarily linear). All children will go through these
stages at their own pace, but the sequences remain
the same. Behavior was regarded as a function of
structure, whereas the role of the environment was
viewed as a secondary influence.
Gesell was also very interested in retarded de-
velopment, as he believed an understanding of
normal child development was absolutely essential
to understanding developmental abnormality. The
results of the research were published as
and Human Growth
(1928) and contained devel-
opmental schedules, using 195 items of behavior
in the areas of motor skills, adaptive behavior, lan-
guage development, and self-help and social skills.
Ten years later, the schedules were revised and
were used widely to evaluate children as early as
four weeks of age. The schedules and tests were
widely used to determine school readiness. There
was criticism of the schedules by some experts,
but Gesell's influence had become substantial. His
... Stereotypes started after the gender of baby has been identified, usually boy with blue, and girl with pink. Gender stereotypes are rooted in society, particularly in family perception, where girls are expected to do more of the home tasks and to care for the children, whilst boys are supposed to work and to provide for their family (Blackstone, 2003). In terms of personality, boys are expected to show fewer emotions compared to girls (Löckenhoff et al., 2014). ...
... This study also aims to collect their perceptions only, and their responds might not be considered as a real fact since demographic background of the respondents are different. However, religion should not be considered as a factor to divide gender role and simultaneously to produce stereotyped sentiment based on gender, because gender is a social construct which involves the division and social valuation of masculinity and femininity which has been developed socially (Blackstone, 2003). Total Religion Islam 54 114 204 148 118 638 Buddhism 1 1 3 3 1 9 Hinduism 0 1 0 0 2 3 Christianity 0 1 6 2 3 12 Other 0 0 0 1 2 3 Total 55 117 213 154 126 665 ...
... Sinuri ang iba't ibang klase ng kuwentong pambata na posibleng nagpapalakas o nagpapahina ng mga gender pattern gamit ang mga gender role na nakapaloob sa mga kuwento. Ayon kay Blackstone (2003), ang mga gender role ay nakabatay sa kung ano ang inaasahang kilos o pagkatao ng isang indibiduwal batay sa kasarian at paniniwala ng iba, grupo, o lipunan. Makikita sa talahanayan 2 ang apat na gender pattern na natukoy at ilang mga siping patunay mula sa ilang mga akdang natukoy at nasuri para sa isinagawang pag-aaral. ...
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At a young age, the development of gender concepts begins to form in children's minds, influenced by various internal and external factors. Therefore, it is important to examine and analyze the factors that can affect a child's psychological state and readiness. Many readings have moved away from typical themes in literary genres. One of the areas that has evolved is the topics in children's short stories. Because of this, the study aimed to compile some prominent contemporary children's short stories. A qualitative approach was used to analyze the identified works. The analysis of these works was based on Bem's gender schema theory (1981). Based on the study's results, there have been reforms in literature regarding gender issues, but stereotypes still prevail despite these reforms. Gender patterns were identified, such as women's roles being associated with household chores, men's responsibility being to provide for the family, portraying women as emotional and sensitive, and depicting teachers as female. Some gender stereotypes were also discovered, including dictating gender based on physical appearance, dictating gender based on behavior and expression, and dictating gender based on colors. Social issues that people continue to face, such as discrimination within households and schools and negative perceptions of same-sex couples, also emerged.
... Gender roles are based on different expectations that individuals, groups and societies have of men and women based on their sex and each society's values and beliefs about gender. Gender roles are the product of the interactions between individuals and their environment and they give individuals cues about what sort of behaviour is believed to be appropriate for what sex (Blackstone, 2017). Appropriate gender roles are defined according to a society's beliefs about differences between sexes. ...
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Social values are moral beliefs and principles accepted by the majority in order to ensure the continuity of a society. The need to sustain social values becomes pertinent since the rate at which they are eroding is alarming. This study investigated gender roles in sustaining social values among rural households in Oyo State. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 166 respondents for the study with the use of structured interview schedule to elicit information from respondents. Data were analysed using frequencies, percentages, Chi-square, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and T-test. Female had higher (66.7%) knowledge on sustaining social values while male showed a favourable (x =59.80) perception on sustaining social values. Constraints to sustaining social values were peer influence (x =1.90), negative influence of social media (x =1.80) and time (x =1.53). Significant relationship existed between religion (r= 0.155, p=0.004) and extent of sustaining social values. Also, there was a significant difference in the extent of sustaining social values across gender (t= 3.509, p= 0.001). The study concluded that women play their roles better in ensuring sustenance of social values than their male counterpart. The study recommends that parents should ensure that children are well monitored and guided through the use of social media as they create more time for them.
... Nowadays, the issue of equality between men and women or more popularly known as gender equality. This issue, if examined more deeply, will narrow down to the problem of inequality of circumstances and positions between men and women (Blackstone, 2003). This problem arises when women have limited opportunities when compared to men who have broad opportunities related to programs and activities in the community. ...
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Gender equality is a manifestation of the equal condition of men and women in obtaining their rights as human beings in order to be able to play a role and participate in political, economic, socio-cultural activities and equality in enjoying the results of development. The environment is very important for human life because a clean environment makes it comfortable to live in, free from various kinds of diseases and air pollution so that the air becomes clean and fresh. The environment becomes unhealthy and can interfere with daily activities and cause diseases that disrupt people's lives. Therefore, there is a need for an active role of men and women (gender) without discrimination in maintaining and preserving a clean and healthy living environment. The purpose of this writing is to find out gender issues in environmental health. The method used is systematic literaure review. Of the 50 selected International articles obtained from Goolge Scholar, PubMed, Emerald Insight, DOAJ, 32 articles discussing Gender and the environment, 5 that meet the Eligibility criteria, were analyzed and came to conclusions. To solve gender problems more effectively, gender socialization or training activities and other forms of activities among officials and communities need to involve both parties, women and men together. By improving gender equality and justice, it is hoped that it will improve and keep the environment clean and healthy. So to encourage the implementation of gender-responsive environmental development not only through policies, programs, and activities but real steps are needed through a massive change movement and a change in mindset and paradigm from all segments of society and if efforts to save the environment and achieve a healthy community life must also be supported by integrating gender equality values
... While "sex" and "gender" are often used synonymously, these two terms are rather disparate. Sex is a basic individual biological characteristic, while gender, on the contrary, pertains to the values and characteristics that people assign to different sexes (Blackstone, 2003). Therefore, gender is not inherited but rather constructed, instilled, and grasped throughout life. ...
... Because the concept of gender not only affects the duties and responsibilities of individuals in society, but also determines the degree to which they benefit from the opportunities offered to them (Kardaş, 2021). Gender roles are based on the different expectations of individuals, groups and societies from individuals based on their values and beliefs about gender (Blackstone, 2003). Researchers with a social interactionist perspective see the concept of gender as a system of meanings operating at individual, interactional, social and structural levels (Crawford, 2003). ...
... Depending on the context, gender identity can refer to the individual level as "me girl" or "me boy", or as "we girls" and "we boys" when children think of themselves as members of a gender group [56]. In this context, traditionally women and men have been given different roles inside and outside the family [57]. ...
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This work presents an exploration of individual and collective identity orientations in an English as a Lingua Franca context. Subjects of the study were forty-two non-native English speakers studying in different American universities. A mixed approach was implemented using a questionnaire and an interview. The exploration consisted mainly in identifying the effect of English proficiency, ethnic origin, and gender on the participants" individual and collective identities orientations. To this end, the subjects were stratified based on their English proficiency, their ethnic origin, and their gender. Descriptive results indicated a tendency of the whole sample towards associating with individual identity. Data from the interview revealed a dynamic, hybrid identity orientation of the participants. With regards to the impact of English proficiency on the participants" identity, although the participants felt part of a global community speaking English, it did not seem to have any effect. In fact, a boundary seemed to be adopted between English use and identity. However, some significant dissimilarities with regards to some dimensions relating to individual and collective identity orientation were revealed among the Hispanic and non-Hispanic participants as well as among males and females. Though not generalizable, these findings are worth considering when extending the research to a larger population. Other variables can also be considered for future research.
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Background: Sexually polymorphic cognition (SPC) results from the interaction between biological (birth-assigned sex (BAS), sex hormones) and sociocultural (gender identity, gender roles, sexual orientation) factors. The literature remains quite mixed regarding the magnitude of the effects of these variables. This project used a battery of classic cognitive tests designed to assess the influence of sex hormones on cognitive performance. At the same time, we aimed to assess the inter-related and respective effects that BAS, sex hormones, and gender-related factors have on SPC. Methods: We recruited 222 adults who completed eight cognitive tasks that assessed a variety of cognitive domains during a 150-minute session. Subgroups were recruited as follows: cisgender heterosexual men (n = 46), cisgender non-heterosexual men (n = 36), cisgender heterosexual women (n = 36), cisgender non-heterosexual women (n = 38), gender diverse (n = 66). Saliva samples were collected before, during, and after the test to assess testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone. Psychosocial variables were derived from self-report questionnaires. Results: Cognitive performance reflects sex and gender differences that are partially consistent with the literature. Interestingly, biological factors seem to better explain differences in male-typed cognitive tasks (e.g., spatial), while psychosocial factors seem to better explain differences in female-typed cognitive tasks (e.g., verbal). Conclusion: Our results provide a solid foundation for better understanding SPC by going beyond BAS as a binary. We highlight the importance of treating sex as a biological factor and gender as a sociocultural factor together since they collectively influence SPC.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı üniversite öğrencilerinin yakın partner ilişkilerinde psikolojik şiddete yönelik tutum ve deneyimlerinin bağlanma stilleri, toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri ve parasosyal etkileşimleri bağlamında incelenmesidir. Bu doğrultuda karma yöntem araştırma yöntemi desenlerinden biri olarak açıklayıcı sıralı desen yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın nicel aşamasında yordayıcı korelasyon araştırma modeli, nitel aşamasında ise fenomenolojik araştırma yaklaşımlarından yorumlayıcı fenomenolojik analizden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırmanın nicel aşamasında 18-25 yaş arasında toplam 508 üniversite öğrencisine ulaşılmıştır. Araştırmada veri toplama araçları olarak Kişilerarası İlişkilerde Bağlanma Stilleri Ölçeği, Parasosyal Etkileşim Ölçeği, Toplumsal Cinsiyet Oluşumu Ölçeği ve Flörtte Uygulanan Psikolojik Şiddete Yönelik Tutum Ölçekleri ve araştırmacı tarafından oluşturulan kişisel bilgi formu kullanılmıştır. Nitel aşamada ilişkisinde psikolojik şiddeti deneyimleyen 19-24 yaş arasında toplam 14 üniversite öğrencisi ile görüşmeler gerçekleştirilmiş, görüşmede araştırmacı tarafından oluşturulan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırma grubu uygun örnekleme yoluyla belirlenmiştir. Araştırmada; betimsel analizler, bağımsız grup t testi, Pearson çarpım moment korelasyon analizi, çoklu regresyon analizi ve yapısal eşitlik modeli (YEM) uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler bilgisayarda "SPSS for Windows 26.0" ve MPLUS6 programında çözümlenmiş, manidarlıklar minimum p<,05 düzeyinde sınanmış, diğer manidarlık düzeyleri ayrıca belirtilmiş ve ulaşılan bulgular araştırmanın amaçlarına uygun olarak tablolar halinde sunulmuştur. Nitel aşamada veriler MAXQDA2020 bilgisayar programından faydalanılarak çözümlenmiş, yorumlayıcı fenomenolojik analiz basamakları doğrultusunda analizler gerçekleştirilmiş ve bulgular tablolar halinde sunulmuştur. Araştırmanın nicel aşamasında gerçekleştirilen analizler sonucunda; üniversite öğrencilerinin erkeğin flörtte uyguladığı psikolojik şiddete yönelik tutum puanlarında kaygılı bağlanma, kaçıngan bağlanma, parasosyal empati ve geleneksel ve eşitlikçi toplumsal cinsiyet rollerinin yordayıcı olduğu saptanmıştır. Kadının flörtte uyguladığı psikolojik şiddete yönelik tutum puanlarında güvenli, kaygılı ve kaçıngan bağlanma stilleri, parasosyal arkadaşlık düzeyleri ve geleneksel ve eşitlikçi cinsiyet rollerinin anlamlı bir yordayıcı etkisinin olduğu saptanmıştır. Gerçekleştirilen yapısal eşitlik modeline göre kaygılı bağlanma ve kaçıngan bağlanma kadının flörtte uyguladığı psikolojik şiddete yönelik tutumu; kaygılı bağlanma ise erkeğin flörtte uyguladığı psikolojik şiddete yönelik tutumu yordamaktadır. Dolaylı ve doğrudan etkiler incelendiğinde bağlanma stilleri ve flörtte psikolojik şiddete yönelik tutum değişkenleri arasında geleneksel ve eşitlikçi cinsiyet rolleri ve parasosyal empati değişkenlerinin aracı etkilerinin bulunduğu saptanmıştır. Nitel aşamada ilişkisinde psikolojik şiddeti deneyimleyen üniversite öğrencilerinin bağlanma stillleri, medya etkileşimleri, toplumsal cinsiyet ve romantik ilişki yaşantılarına yönelik algıları romantik ilişkiler bağlamında yorumlayıcı fenomenolojik analiz gerçekleştirilerek incelenmiştir. Katılımcıların bağlanma stillerine yönelik deneyim ve görüşlerine ilişkin yapılan yorumlayıcı fenomenolojik analiz sonucunda benlik, ilişkilerde tutum, ilişkileri değerlendirme eğilimleri ve ilişki sürdürme biçimleri olarak dört ana tema etrafında şekillendiği; toplumsal cinsiyete ilişkin algılarının kadın erkek eşitliği, ilişki rolleri olarak iki ana tema etrafında toplandığı; medya etkileşimlerinin, etkileşim kurma, sosyal öğrenme etkisi, medyanın ilişkideki konumu olarak üç ana tema etrafında şekillendiği ve son olarak romantik ilişki yaşantılarının ilişki deneyimleri, ilişki beklentileri, ilişkideki problemler ve flört şiddeti olmak üzere dört ana tema etrafında şekillendiği tespit edilmiştir.
Conference Paper
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ආබාධ සහිත විශ්වවිද්‍යාල සිසුන්ගේ අධ්‍යාපන අවශ්‍යතා සපුරාගැනීම සඳහා ස්ත්‍රී පුරුෂ සමාජභාවය බලපෑම් කරන ආකාරය: සමාජ විද්‍යාත්මක අධ්‍යයනයක්.
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