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Heritability of Displacement Speed in a 30-m Sprint


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Alonso L, Borges M.V.O, Sousa E.C, Souza, M.M., Paulucio D, Ribeiro P, Velasques B, Pompeu F.A.M.S, Santos, C.G.M, Dantas P.M.S. Heritability of Displacement Speed in a 30-m Sprint. JEPonline 2016;19(3):1-14. This study evaluated the relative power of environmental, genetic, and gender contributions on variations in displacement speeds in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Subjects consisted of 41 pairs of twins (25 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic), who exhibited similar healthy living habits. The 30-m sprint was assessed using two photocells, and heritability was estimated using the median of variances in monozygotic and dizygotic twin intrapairs. No significant differences in the intrapair medians of monozygotic and dizygotic twins were observed for all study variables. Only dizygotic female twins exhibited no high partial correlation between 30-m sprint results (r = 0.36, P>0.05). A higher heritability of 30-m sprint ability was observed in females (85%) and males (67%), and the heritability of 30-m sprint abilities in both sexes exhibited an intermediate value of 73%. These results demonstrated that 30-m sprint abilities are highly heritable trait, especially in females.
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Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline
June 2016
Volume 19 Number 3
Tommy Boone, PhD, MBA
Review Board
Todd Astorino, PhD
Julien Baker, PhD
Steve Brock, PhD
Lance Dalleck, PhD
Eric Goulet, PhD
Robert Gotshall, PhD
Alexander Hutchison, PhD
M. Knight-Maloney, PhD
Len Kravitz, PhD
James Laskin, PhD
Yit Aun Lim, PhD
Lonnie Lowery, PhD
Derek Marks, PhD
Cristine Mermier, PhD
Robert Robergs, PhD
Chantal Vella, PhD
Dale Wagner, PhD
Frank Wyatt, PhD
Ben Zhou, PhD
Official Research Journal
of the American Society of
Exercise Physiologists
ISSN 1097-9751
Official Research Journal of
the American Society of
Exercise Physiologists
ISSN 1097-9751
Heritability of Displacement Speed in a 30-m Sprint
Luciano Alonso ¹, Michelle Vasconcelos de Oliveira Borges5,
Elys Costa de Sousa5, Marina Morena de Souza5, Dailson
Paulucio1,2,3, Pedro Ribeiro2,3, Bruna Velasques2,3, Fernando
A.M.S. Pompeu1,2, Caleb Guedes Santos1,4, Paulo Moreira Silva
1Affiliation Lab / Program/Company, City, Country, 2Affiliation Lab /
Program / Company, City, Country, 3Affiliation Lab / Program /
Company, City, Country1 - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -
School of Physical Education and Sports Biometrics Lab, Brazil,
2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - School of Physical Education
and Sports Postgraduate in Physical Education, Brazil, 3Federal
University of Rio de Janeiro Institute of Psychiatry Brain Mapping
and Sensory Motor Integration, Brazil, 4Army Biology Institute, Brazil,
5Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte - School of Physical
Education and Sports, Brazil
Alonso L, Borges M.V.O, Sousa E.C, Souza, M.M., Paulucio D,
Ribeiro P, Velasques B, Pompeu F.A.M.S, Santos, C.G.M,
Dantas P.M.S. Heritability of Displacement Speed in a 30-m Sprint.
JEPonline 2016;19(3):1-14. This study evaluated the relative power
of environmental, genetic, and gender contributions on variations in
displacement speeds in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Subjects
consisted of 41 pairs of twins (25 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic),
who exhibited similar healthy living habits. The 30-m sprint was
assessed using two photocells, and heritability was estimated using
the median of variances in monozygotic and dizygotic twin intrapairs.
No significant differences in the intrapair medians of monozygotic
and dizygotic twins were observed for all study variables. Only
dizygotic female twins exhibited no high partial correlation between
30-m sprint results (r = 0.36, P>0.05). A higher heritability of 30-m
sprint ability was observed in females (85%) and males (67%), and
the heritability of 30-m sprint abilities in both sexes exhibited an
intermediate value of 73%. These results demonstrated that 30-m
sprint abilities are highly heritable trait, especially in females.
Keywords: Twins, Sex Factors, Genetic Variation, Short Sprint
Displacement speed is a primary required motor skill for success in several sports. Therefore,
an understanding of the magnitude of the influence of genetic factors and environmental
variables that act on displacement performance may partially explain the differences between
athletes who perform the same type of training but achieve completely different results (1,29).
Displacement speeds in performance were previously addressed in studies of twin pairs to
further the knowledge of individual variations. The speeds were measured because they are
an economically viable and practical alternative for identifying the contribution of genetic and
environmental influence on the physical performance of individuals (17,30).
Previous studies have reported wide variations in the genetic and environmental influences
on displacement speed (14). The primary reason for this outcome is that few references have
included admixed populations such as the Brazilian population. Many of the surveys were
conducted in countries where climatic conditions and the racial distribution of the population
are distinct from the Brazilian population, and many factors can cause wide variations in
results and hinder potential comparisons, such as differences between tests, age of twin
pairs, errors in the determination of zygosity, gender differences, and maturational intrapairs
Investigating the genetic and environmental influences on displacement speeds is important
from a theoretical point of view and in its practical application, which will aid exercise
physiologists in their understanding of the potential of displacement speed training in
selection processes for activities or high-performance sports (29). Thus, this study evaluated
the relative power of genetic, environmental, and gender contributions on displacement
velocity in monozygotic (MZ, identical) twins and dizygotic (DZ, not-identical) twins.
The subjects consisted of volunteer MZ and DZ twins from cities near Natal (Natal and o
Gonçalo do Amarante cities), Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The sample included 41 pairs of
twins (82 individuals) who were divided by their zygosity into 25 pairs of MZ twins (50
individuals: 28 females and 22 males) and 16 pairs of DZ twins (32 individuals: 18 females
and 14 males), aged 8 to 26 yrs old; all of these twin pairs resided in the same households.
Zygosity was determined through telephone interviews with the mothers of the assessed
twins (20). The similarity between each pair of twins was assessed by checking hair color,
eye color, facial features, height, and body mass index. Cases in which the twin pair zygosity
was doubted following the performed assessments were excluded from the analyses.
The evaluated twins were interviewed after zygosity determinations using a questionnaire
that was developed specifically for this study. The questionnaire included five questions
related to personal data, medical history, and habits. Subjects under the age of 14 were
interviewed in the presence of their mothers. All answers were yes or no. If the answer
was affirmative, the subject or his/her guardian was asked about the nature of the problem.
The questionnaire included the following questions: Do you have a chronic illness (such as
high blood pressure, diabetes, or dyslipidemia)? Do you smoke or drink alcohol frequently?
Do you engage in some physical activity? Do you have any orthopaedic problems? Have you
undergone any medical treatments? In cases of disagreement in the responses of twin pairs
that indicated differences in clinical history and habits, the twins were not included in the
The subjects were interviewed using the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q),
which evaluates the readiness for physical exercise (27). Cases of disagreement in
differences of readiness for physical activity in the MZ and DZ twin intrapair responses were
removed from analyses. The DZ twin pairs who indicated that physical activity or any
suspected health problem prevented the practice of regular physical activity were advised to
seek medical attention, and their results were removed from the analyses.
Self-assessments of sexual maturation were performed in all individuals under 19 yrs of age
following the interviews of the readiness for physical activity. Evaluations were conducted
individually in a common room. The subjects were initially presented with photographs of
different gender-specific development stages of secondary sexual characteristics, with two
picture boards for each gender. This procedure was performed with each picture board under
a blank sheet to avoid curiosity and facilitate understanding. The child was instructed to
carefully observe each photo and mark the assessment sheet with the number of the photo
that most resembled her/his development at that moment (1,19).
The literature describes great difficulties in medical evaluations that measure sexual
maturation. However, self-evaluation using the projective technique is a practical, simple, and
unsophisticated method that may be used in both sexes from 6 yrs of age and any socio-
economic level. This technique is an increasingly used as an alternative practice in national
and international studies (9,26).
Two measures were performed in the present study to increase confidence in the self-
assessment of the sexual maturation results. One measurement was performed after the
preliminary interviews, and the other measurement was performed at the end of the physical
assessments. This procedure permitted the calculation of a weighted kappa index among the
repeated measurements of self-assessments of sexual maturation in MZ and DZ subjects.
The observed values were greater than 0.890 (P<0.001). Intrapair twins who exhibited
differences in sexual maturation outcomes were removed from the analysis.
The following groups were excluded from the study: (a) disabled subjects; (b) pregnant
women; (c) individuals in drug treatment; (d) patients with endogenous or secondary obesity;
and (e) patients with endocrine and genetic disorders. The following twin pairs were also
excluded: (a) twin pairs who contained individuals in different genres (intrapair); (b) pairs who
did not share the same physical activity habits; and (c) same-sex twin pairs who presented
with different stages of sexual maturation.
All subjects were healthy individuals. The subjects or their parents or guardians of the
children signed an informed consent form to participate in the research. The Research Ethics
Committee of the Onofre Lopes Hospital approved this study, which was duly recognised by
the National Research Ethics Committee under protocol - HUOL: 484/10 - CAAE: 0042.0.2
.294.000-10 in 18/02/2011 day.
A trained evaluator assessed the body composition of the twins using anthropometric
measurements. Body mass index was measured using a high-precision Filizola-110
electronic scale with a 150-kg capacity and a unit of measurement of 0.1 kg; body mass was
measured only once. Height was measured twice using a Sanny stadiometer with a 0.1-cm
unit of measurement, and a 0.5-cm gap between the measurements was permitted. The final
results were averaged and utilized for analyses. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)
between repeated measurements of height was calculated separately for MZ and DZ
subjects to increase confidence in the results. Values were greater than 0.996 (P<0.001),
which indicates that less than 1% of the variance can be explained by variations in the
measuring instrument or standardization. These evaluations were performed in subjects with
minimal clothing and no shoes. The location of the evaluation was a quiet room with a
temperature between 22 to 24ºC. The anthropometric assessments were standardized in
accordance with the procedures described by Marfell-Jones et al. (15).
The subjects’ displacement speed (30 m) was conducted in a closed and covered
gymnasium to minimize the influence of wind on the results. The floor was rubberized. Each
subject wore light clothing and rubber-soled shoes. The room temperature was measured
using a digital thermometer. The temperature ranged between 24ºC26ºC. The twins were
tested at a maximum interval of 60 min to avoid the possible effects of time of day on the test
results. The subjects were instructed to avoid participation in any vigorous activity and the
drinking of alcohol and caffeine for 24 hrs prior to testing. All subjects were informed about
the importance of obtaining at least 8 hrs of sleep on the night before the procedure. All
subjects were familiar with the research.
Two CEFISE photocells with millisecond precision recorded the travel times. These
photoelectric cells timed the route of the 30 m. Each photocell was positioned to focus the
light beam on the iliac crest. The output for the race was a standing position just behind the
first photocell. The subjects were instructed to cover the 30-m distance and not slow down
prior to reaching the 30-m mark. A false arrival was placed 5 m after the final mark, and all
subjects were instructed to run as fast as possible until they reached the 35-m false mark.
These instructions ensured that all subjects passed the photocell at the 30-m mark at
maximum displacement speed (4). The test was performed three times in each subject with a
1-min interval between attempts. The average displacement speed was used in the statistical
analyses. The ICC was calculated between repeated measurements of the separate
displacement speeds of MZ and DZ subjects. Values above 0.995 (P<0.001) were observed,
which indicates that less than 1% of the variance was explained by variations in the
measuring instruments in both groups. These photoelectric cells have been used previously
because these cells provide greater precision and reliability in time measurements of
displacement speeds (5,8).
Statistical Analyses
Analyses were based on the results of individual MZ and DZ twins and the variance of
intrapair twins. Potential confounders (such as sex, age, and biological maturation) were
controlled for. Statistical analyses were performed following classical criteria for the initial
investigation of sample normality: the behaviour of asymmetry (two times less than the
standard error of asymmetry), kurtosis (two times less than the standard error of kurtosis),
and the minimum value and maximum average (must be within three times the value of the
mean). Overall, the results of this study were characterized as non-parametric. Therefore, the
medians of central tendency and their respective confidence intervals (percentiles 2575
(p25p75)) were used. Partial correlations (r) with age control were observed between the
medians of the MZ and DZ twin groups separately to investigate the degree of relationship
between MZ and DZ brothers. Furthermore, the ICC of repeated measurements of heights
and displacement speeds and weighted kappa values were calculated between the repeated
measures of sexual maturation in MZ and DZ twin groups separately to increase the
confidence in our results.
The differences between the median age, weight, height, and forward speed were calculated
using a Wilcoxon test to examine significant differences between MZ and DZ twins. A linear
regression was performed to observe the behaviour of the mean displacement speeds (30 m)
between pairs of MZ and DZ twins for males, females, and both sexes. The following
equation estimated the heritability (h²): h² = (S² DZ - S² MZ) / S² DZ) x 100, where S²
represents the median of intrapair variances in each different series (18,25).
This study analyzed the heritability of displacement speeds based on intrapair variances in
MZ and DZ twins and the possible influence of gender on these speeds. Table 1(a) presents
the medians and confidence intervals (p25p75) in both sexes. The intrapair r, controlled by
sex and age, revealed results greater than 0.81 (P<0.001) for all study variables in MZ and
DZ pairs. This high intrapair correlation demonstrated the similarities between these subjects
and the possible influences of sex and age, which did not affect the behaviour of the results.
Furthermore, no significant differences between the medians (Wilcoxon test) of MZ and DZ
twin pairs for height, age, body mass, and displacement speeds were observed. The
estimation of heritability (h2) in the group with both sexes was 73%.
Table 1(b) presents the medians and confidence intervals (p25p75) in the female subjects.
The intrapair r controlled for age revealed similar results as Table I(a), and values greater
than 0.82 (P<0.001) were observed for MZ and DZ twins. Furthermore, no significant
differences between the medians (Wilcoxon test) of MZ and DZ twin pairs were observed for
height, age, body mass, and displacement speeds. The only observed difference was the low
and non-significant r (r = 0.36, P>0.05) for the displacement speed of the DZ group. The
estimation of heritability (h2) in the group with females was 85%.
Table 1(c) presents the results in males as medians and confidence intervals (p25p75). The
intrapair r, controlled by sex and age, revealed similar results as Table I(a), and values
greater than 0.71 (P<0.05) were observed for all MZ and DZ pairs. No significant differences
between the medians (Wilcoxon test) of MZ and DZ twin pairs were observed for height, age,
body mass, and displacement speeds. The estimation of heritability (h2) in the group with
males was 67%.
Table 1. Median, Confidence Interval (CI), Intrapair Variance of Displacement Speed (VDS) and
Partial Correlations Controlling for Age (r), Height, Body Mass, Displacement Speed (DS) and
the Heritability of: (a) Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins of Both Sexes; (b) Female
Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins; and (c) and Male Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins.
(Both Sexes)
Monozygotic (n = 50)
Dizygotic (n = 32)
Twin 1
(n = 25)
Twin 2
(n = 25)
Twin 1
(n = 16)
Twin 2
(n = 16)
CI (2575)
CI (2575)
CI (2575)
CI (2575)
Age (yrs)
Height (cm)
Mass (kg)
DS (sec)
(5.11 6.66)
VDS (Twin1-Twin2)
h2=73% (39.00-83.00)**
(Female Twins)
Monozygotic (n = 28)
Dizygotic (n = 18)
Twin 1
(n = 14)
Twin 2
(n = 14)
Twin 1
(n = 9)
Twin 2
(n = 9)
CI (2575)
CI (2575)
CI (2575)
CI (2575)
Age (yrs)
(11.75 20.00)
(11.75 20.00)
(11.50 21.00)
(11.50 21.00)
Height (cm)
(148.00 161.00)
(146.00 164.20)
Mass (kg)
(41.35 57.16)
(39.50 54.50)
(44.20 57.07)
(34.40 55.15)
DS (sec)
VDS (Twin1-Twin2)
h2=85% (43.90-90.70)***
(Male Twins)
Monozygotic (n = 22)
Dizygotic (n = 14)
Twin 1
(n = 11)
Twin 2
(n = 11)
Twin 1
(n = 7)
Twin 2
(n = 7)
CI (2575)
CI (2575)
CI (2575)
CI (2575)
Age (yrs)
Height (cm)
Mass (kg)
DS (sec)
VDS (Twin1-Twin2)
*Significant difference P<0.01, **No significant difference, ***h² = (S² DZ S² MZ) / S² DZ) x 100
The average result of the three attempts of the displacement speed test was used for each
MZ and DZ subject in both sexes to investigate the detachment of the individual results of
each twin pair (Figure 1). An adjusted R2 of 0.78 was observed, which indicates that the
explained variance of the results was 78%. The average results of the three displacement
speed tests for each female MZ and DZ subject were used to investigate the detachment of
the individual results of each twin pairs (Figure 2). An adjusted R2 of 0.54 was observed,
which indicates that the explained variance of the results was 54%.
The results of three displacement speed tests for each of the male MZ and DZ subjects were
used to investigate the detachment of the individual results of each twin pair (Figure 3). An
adjusted R2 of 0.899 was observed, which indicates that the explained variance of the results
was 89.9%. The graphs demonstrate a clear decrease in the variance that was explained by
gender. The group of female MZ and DZ twins exhibited the lowest variation (54%). The
greatest variations were observed between DZ twins, which supports our hypothesis that the
trait of “displacement speed” possesses a high heritability in admixed populations in
accordance with the fact that MZ twins have a rate of 100% similarity in the DNA sequence
while the DZ twins present approximately 50% similarity in their DNA sequences.
Figure 1. Relationship among the Average Displacement Speed between Monozygotic and
Dizygotic Twin Pairs of both Sexes. The values used were the average of three attempts in
seconds held by each monozygotic and dizygotic individual.
Figure 2. Relationship among the Average Speed between Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twin
Pairs in Females. The values used were the average of three attempts in seconds held by each
monozygotic and dizygotic individual.
Figure 3. Relationship between the Average Speed between Pairs of Monozygotic and
Dizygotic Twins in Males. The values used were the average of three attempts in seconds held by
each monozygotic and dizygotic individual.
This study provides evidence of individual differences in displacement speeds between twins
that may be largely attributed to genetic differences in both genres. Little data on the
influence of heritability on displacement speeds exist in the Brazilian population, but several
relevant international studies have reported this influence in same-sex samples of similar
age. While international studies have often contained results based on populations which are
highly homogenized such as Caucasians, Africans, and Asians, studies in populations highly
admixed represent a great challenge when trying to genetically understand between
ethnicities. This is because a genetic characteristic is present in one ethnic group, making it
difficult to discover if investigating using comparisons with only homogenous groups. This
characteristic can however be found in admixed populations (24).
Despite the high estimates of heritability, previous homogenous studies (3,6) have
demonstrated a wide range of 48% and 92% variation. Our findings are consistent with these
results and confirmed the high hereditary dependence of displacement speeds with an
estimated heritability of 73% in both sexes, 67% in the males, and 85% in the females.
Interestingly, recent research by Rodrigues de Moura and colleagues (23) indicates that
European (62%) ancestry is the major contributor to the genetic background of Brazilians,
followed by African (21%) and Amerindian (17%) ancestries. The North East region where
the present study was conducted had a larger presence of African ancestry with a general
population 58% European, 27% African, and 15% Amerindian (23).
Thus, the present study confirms the results of the international studies despite the
differences in racial, environmental, and climate influences on individuals who were born in
northeastern Brazil (18,25). We observed a high heritability of displacement speed in both
sexes and a greater influence in women. These results demonstrate that estimates of
heritability vary considerably, which may be attributed to differences between tests,
measuring equipment and genre. Several factors, such as mental concentration,
proprioception, rhythm, motor learning, accuracy, training time, and economy interact with
these types of tests and these factors are integrated with displacement speed development
In fact, estimates of the heritability of a given variable have yielded different results in the
same sample in a two-year longitudinal study (2,22). Similarly, studies of these same
variables in different cross-sectional ages have demonstrated variations in the values of
heritability estimates (16). These findings suggest that age, gender, and developmental
factors, such as sexual maturation, affect estimations of heritability. Therefore, genetic
influences are not equally expressed in samples of different ages and genres (16,19).
This study was particularly concerned with controlling the bias of age, gender, and sexual
maturation. That is why the medians of the intrapair variance results of MZ and DZ twins
were used to calculate heritability. Twin pairs who exhibited different intrapair maturational
stages and lifestyles were excluded from the present study. These actions enforced rigorous
evaluation criteria on the tests that were used to measure displacement speeds and the use
of twins to minimize the impact of factors that may decrease the robustness of the results
A recent review of the research literature on the genetic influence and performance refuted
the assertion for the need of a minimum of 10,000 hrs of training time to achieve effective
results in displacement speeds. This assertion was based on the premise that elite athletes
achieve very similar results, but they rarely undergo the same training times. This observation
suggests the fundamental importance of the integration of genetic and environmental factors
in the development of high performance levels. Some sports may require more complex
training times compared to simpler procedures (28). The need to observe training quality and
the possible differences between twins should be emphasized because the women
demonstrated a greater genetic influence than the men.
Another important factor that may underlie the possible differences in results and trainability
between men and women is the distribution of type-II muscle fibers, especially in the lower
limbs. This difference may not be related to the type of exercise, but rather an innate
difference between the sexes (29). However, no conclusive answer on possible differences in
the numbers of type-II fibers in men and women in the lower limbs has been identified
(10,21). Several studies have suggested a better use of ATP resynthesis in the greater
amounts of muscle mass in the lower limbs and the lower amount of body fat in men as the
primary justification for the performance differences in displacement speed between men and
women (10).
Given that the present study generated evidence on the heritability of displacement speed
using the method of twins, special attention should be paid to the selection process of
athletes who need to produce high rates of speed in their sports practice (given that the
influence of the environment is small especially in women). This study reinforces the
importance of reflection on the development of possible objectives to be achieved and the
correct sporting orientation that enables the actual development of young athletes.
The results indicate that displacement speeds were a highly heritable trait in both sexes in a
northeastern Brazilian population in age groups of 8 to 26 yrs. The findings should be of
interest to a broad readership, including coaches, physical educators, athletes, and sports
physicians. Exercise physiologists should pay increased attention to the need for high quality
training programs, especially in females, to improve the displacement speed because of the
low potential impact on training. This may be done by correcting gender gaps and leveraging
the possible pre-disposition in displacement speed by considering the large influence of
heritability within admixed populations.
This article was supported by the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific
Development (CNPq), Brazil. The authors would like to thank the Thomas Anthony Huggins
for his help in the review of the manuscript.
Address for correspondence: Michelle Vasconcelos de Oliveira Borges, Alameda dos
Eucaliptos Street No 12, Parnamirim, Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil Zip Code: 59151-770
Telephone: 011 55 84 98809-4057, Email:
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.
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Summary Objective: To analyze the heritability of anthropometric indicators related to obesity in women and men of diff erent age groups, using monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Methods: Sample consists of 130 twins, separated Female 42 monozygotic and 32 dizygotic: pre-pubescent n = 14 (11.33± 1.52), n = 11 (10.33 ± 2.08), pubertal n = 14 (14.67 ± 0.6) n = 11 (14.00 ± 1.55); post pubescent n = 14 (21.67 ± 2.30), n =10 (22.67 ± 4.2). Male 28 monozygotic and 28 dizygotic: pre-pubescent n = 10 (8.67 ± 06), n = 10 (9.67 ± 2.89), pubertal n =08 (12.5 ± 0.71), n = 08 (17.0 ± 1.4); post-pubescent n = 10 (21.67 ± 2.08), n = 10 (24.0 ± 2.8). Residents in the city of Natal/RN - Brazil. We assessed height, body mass, waist® and skinfolds, according to the standardization of ISAK, and calculated BMI, Σ PC, Σ 3PC and Σ 2PC, %GC and IC, with the data separated by sex and pubertal stage. Was also applied heritability index (h2) = ((S 2 DZ - S 2 MZ) / S 2 DZ) x 100. Results: For the overall sample, the heritability of anthropometric indicators presented moderately high to high (64% to 97%) genotypic infl uence. When separated by gender and pubertal stage, women are predominantly high heritability in most variables. However, in the pubertal stage, the heritability was low at low to moderate BMI,% GC, IC, body mass and waist®. The men were greater environmental infl uence on Σ PC and the waist®, and other indicators of heritability was moderately high to high. Conclusion: Anthropometric indicators related to obesity received hereditary and environmental infl uence in determining their values on individual diff erences. The heritability value is variable between age and gender, and is from the level of environmental infl uence that may occur interventions for changes in the physical characteristics associated with obesity. Key words: Twins. Body composition. Heritage. Phenotype. Genotype. Anthropometry.
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The aims of this study were to assess levels and patterns of physical activity (PA) in relation to age and regular sport activity, and to examine its relationship to physical fitness in trained and untrained boys. One hundred forty-seven 11-to 15-year-old boys (73 trained and 74 untrained) participated in this study. Trained boys, comprised of 26 soccer, 25 handball and 22 volleyball players, had been training regularly for at least one year. The intensity, duration and frequency of PA were assessed from four complete days of heart rate monitoring with 15-seconds sampling intervals. Aerobic fitness was assessed by determining peakVO2 with a portable breath-by-breath gas analyzer (Cosmed K4b2) and the running speeds at fixed lactate concentrations during an incremental running test. Anaerobic fitness was evaluated with the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Skin fold thicknesses from eight sites and Tanner stages of pubic hair were also obtained. Based on 15-s heart rate data, instead of continuous activity, multiple short bouts of moderate and vigorous PA, lasting up to one minute, were characteristic of daily PA patterns of both trained and untrained boys. PA levels of trained boys were higher than untrained boys (p < 0.01) and the levels of PA decreased with age and maturation in both groups (p < 0.05). Daily PA variables were related to body fatness in both groups (p < 0.05), but the relationships were not consistent in the trained group. Daily PA variables were also related to aerobic fitness in the untrained group (p < 0.05) and these relationships were somewhat better with vigorous PA, whereas in the trained group, none of the PA variables were related to any of the aerobic fitness indices (p > 0.05). No relationship was observed between PA variables and anaerobic fitness in either group (p> 0.05). It seems that such relationships may somewhat depend on the fitness level of the subjects.
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The aims of this study were to examine familiarization and reliability associated with a 40-m maximal shuttle run test (40-m MST), and to compare performance measures from the test with those of a typical unidirectional multiple sprint running test (UMSRT). 12 men and 4 women completed four trials of the 40-m MST (8 × 40-m; 20 s rest periods) followed by one trial of a UMSRT (12 × 30-m; repeated every 35 s); with seven days between trials. All trials were conducted indoors and performance times were recorded via twin-beam photocells. Significant between-trial differences in mean 40-m MST times were indicative of learning effects between trials 1 and 2. Test-retest reliability across the remaining trials as determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) revealed: a) very good reliability for measures of fastest and mean shuttle time (CV = 1.1 - 1.3%; ICC = 0.91 - 0.92); b) good reliability for measures of blood lactate (CV = 10.1 - 23.9%; ICC = 0.74 - 0.82) and ratings of perceived exertion (CV = 5.3 - 7.6%; ICC = 0.79 - 0.84); and c) poor reliability for measures of fatigue (CV = 38.7%; ICC = 0.59). Comparisons between performance indices of the 40-m MST and the UMSRT revealed significant correlations between all measures, except pre-test blood lactate concentration (r = 0.47). Whilst the 40-m MST does not appear to provide more information than can be gleaned from a typical UMSRT, following the completion of a familiarization trial, the 40-m MST provides an alternative and, except for fatigue measures, reliable means of evaluating repeated sprint ability.
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Elite sporting performance results from the combination of innumerable factors, which interact with one another in a poorly understood but complex manner to mould a talented athlete into a champion. Within the field of sports science, elite performance is understood to be the result of both training and genetic factors. However, the extent to which champions are born or made is a question that remains one of considerable interest, since it has implications for talent identification and management, as well as for how sporting federations allocate scarce resources towards the optimisation of high-performance programmes. The present review describes the contributions made by deliberate practice and genetic factors to the attainment of a high level of sporting performance. The authors conclude that although deliberate training and other environmental factors are critical for elite performance, they cannot by themselves produce an elite athlete. Rather, individual performance thresholds are determined by our genetic make-up, and training can be defined as the process by which genetic potential is realised. Although the specific details are currently unknown, the current scientific literature clearly indicates that both nurture and nature are involved in determining elite athletic performance. In conclusion, elite sporting performance is the result of the interaction between genetic and training factors, with the result that both talent identification and management systems to facilitate optimal training are crucial to sporting success.
Human physical performance is a complex multifactorial trait. Historically, environmental factors (e.g., diet, training) alone have been unable to explain the basis of all prominent phenotypes for physical performance. Therefore, there has been an interest in the study of the contribution of genetic factors to the development of these phenotypes. Support for a genetic component is found with studies that shown that monozygotic twins were more similar than were dizygotic twins for many physiological traits. The evolution of molecular techniques and the ability to scan the entire human genome enabled association of several genetic polymorphisms with performance. However, some biases related to the selection of cohorts and inadequate definition of the study variables have complicated the already difficult task of studying such a large and polymorphic genome, often resulting in inconsistent results about the influence of candidate genes. This review aims to provide a critical overview of heritable genetic aspects. Novel molecular technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, are discussed and how they can contribute to improving understanding of the molecular basis for athletic performance. It is important to ensure that the large amount of data that can be generated using these tools will be used effectively by ensuring well-designed studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This study aims at performing a systematic review and meta-analysis with the studies of genetic admixture inference of Brazilian population and to compare these results with the genetic admixture levels in other Latin American countries. We searched for articles regarding the estimation of Brazilian genetic admixture published between 1980 and 2014 that used autosomal markers. Then, conducted meta-analyses at the whole-country and regional level. Finally, we compared the results of Brazil with other estimates from other South, Central and North American countries. We analyzed data from 25 studies in 38 different Brazilian populations. European (EUR) ancestry is the major contributor to the genetic background of Brazilians, followed by African (AFR), and Amerindian (AMR) ancestries. The pooled ancestry contributions were 0.62 EUR, 0.21 AFR, and 0.17AMR. The Southern region had a greater EUR contribution (0.77) than other regions. Individuals from the Northeast (NE) region had the highest AFR contribution (0.27) whereas individuals from the North regions had more AMR contribution (0.32). In the Latin America context, Brazil has the 5th high EUR contribution, the 12th for the AFR component and the 10th for the AMR ancestry. Admixture proportions vary greatly among Brazilian populations and also through Latin America. More studies in the Center-West, North and NE regions are needed to capture a more complete picture of the genomic ancestry of Brazil. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This study focuses on the quantification of genetic and environmental sources of variation in physical fitness components in 105 10-yr-old twin pairs and their parents. Nine motor tests and six skinfold measures were administered. Motor tests can be divided into those that are performance-related: static strength, explosive strength, running speed, speed of limb movement, and balance; and those that are health-related: trunk strength, functional strength, maximum oxygen uptake, and flexibility. The significance and contribution of genetic and environmental factors to variation in physical fitness were tested with model fitting. Performance-related fitness characteristics were moderately to highly heritable. The heritability estimates were slightly higher for health-related fitness characteristics. For most variables a simple model including genetic and specific environmental factors fitted the observed phenotypic variance well. Common environmental factors explained a significant part of the variation in speed components and flexibility. Assortative mating was significant and positive for speed components, balance, trunk strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness, but negative for adiposity. Static strength, explosive strength, functional strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness showed evidence for reduced genetic transmission or dominance. The hypothesis that performance-related fitness characteristics are more determined by genetic factors than health-related fitness was not supported. At this prepubertal age, genetic factors have the predominant effect on fitness.